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Cell Biology International

Asghar Farzi-Molan, Sadegh Babashah, Babak Bakhshinejad, Amir Atashi, Masoumeh Fakhr-Taha
The differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into specific lineages offers new opportunities to use the therapeutic efficiency of these pluripotent cells in regenerative medicine. Multiple lines of evidence have revealed that non-coding RNAs play major roles in the differentiation of BMSCs into neural cells. Here, we applied a cocktail of neural inducing factors (NIFs) to differentiate BMSCs into neural-like cells. Our data demonstrated that during neurogenic induction, BMSCs obtained a neuron-like morphology...
March 7, 2018: Cell Biology International
Hassan Akrami, Behrouz Moradi, Diba Borzabadi Farahani, Kiumars Mehdizadeh
Nowadays, most studies focused on cancer stem cells (CSCs) through their abilities to cause tumorigenicity, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. On the other side, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been taken into consideration because of cheapness and availability. For the reasons mentioned above, we have studied the effect of ibuprofen as an NSAID on CSCs derived from AGS and MKN-45 gastric cancer cell lines to perform effective cancer therapy. We evaluated cell viability, spheroid body formation, monolayer and soft agar colony formation to express the anti-cancer effect of ibuprofen on CSCs...
March 7, 2018: Cell Biology International
Sinuo Chen, Renren Li, Chun Cheng, Jing-Ying Xu, Caixia Jin, Furong Gao, Juan Wang, Jieping Zhang, Jingfa Zhang, Hong Wang, Lixia Lu, Guo-Tong Xu, Haibin Tian
Macrophages play critical roles in wound healing process. They switch from "classically activated" (M1) phenotype in the early inflammatory phase to "alternatively activated" (M2) phenotype in the later healing phase. However, the dynamic process of macrophage phenotype switching in diabetic wounds burdened with bacteria is unclear. In this report, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, frequently detected in diabetic foot ulcers, was inoculated into cutaneous wounds of db/db diabetic mice to mimic bacterium-infected diabetic wound healing...
March 7, 2018: Cell Biology International
Bin Qiu, Qing Wang, Wei Liu, Tong-Cheng Xu, Li-Na Liu, Ai-Zhen Zong, Min Jia, Jing Li, Fang-Ling Du
A large number of recent studies are focused on evaluating the mechanism of action of trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the progression of apoptosis. A strong positive association has been reported between TFA and coronary heart disease (CHD), obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and so on. The present study reviewed the biological effects of trans fatty acids (TFA) and their possible roles in lipid rafts in regulating apoptosis. The following aspects of TFA were included: the research about TFA and diseases affecting serum lipid levels, inducing system inflammation and immune response, and the correlation between TFA and apoptosis...
March 3, 2018: Cell Biology International
By Sara Woodman, Christopher Trousdale, Justin Conover, Kyoungtae Kim
Protein recycling is an essential cellular process involving endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and exocytosis. In mammalian systems membrane lipids, including cholesterol, sphingolipids, and phospholipids, play a pivotal role in protein recycling. To address this role in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we utilized GFP-Snc1, a v-SNARE protein serving as a fluorescent marker for faithfully reporting the recycling pathway. Here we demonstrate results that display moderate to significant GFP-Snc1 recycling defects upon overexpression or inactivation of phospholipid, ergosterol, and sphingolipid biosynthesis enzymes, indicating that the homeostasis of membrane lipid levels is prerequisite for proper protein recycling...
March 3, 2018: Cell Biology International
Feng Lian, Chengbin Zhao, Jing Qu, Yongyun Lian, Yong Cui, Liang Shan, Jinglong Yan
Inhibition of bone regeneration by wear debris is the main cause of peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Here, we investigated the effect of icariin on cell proliferation, apoptosis, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of osteoblasts in an in vitro model of titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis. In the present study, MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with 10-8 M icariin for 4 h and then incubated with Ti particles (0.1 mg/ml). The results showed that Ti particles inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells, whereas icariin pretreatment blocked the effect of Ti particles...
March 3, 2018: Cell Biology International
Yuhong Zhang, Yangjia Zhang
Embryonic development depends on the normal invasion of trophoblast cells. Forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) is a member of Forkhead box family, which is involved in the tumor cells invasion. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of FOXC2 on the invasion of human trophoblast cells, and further study its molecular mechanism. The mRNA and protein levels of FOXC2 in human normal trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cell lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Cell Biology International
Jing Yang, Xiaojun Shao, Jian Jiang, Yan Sun, Lingzhen Wang, Lirong Sun
Neuroblastoma is the most common tumor diagnosed in children and infants, with high recurrence and poor prognosis. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (AP) whose average molecular weight is 72900 Da possesses various bioactivities. We aimed to explore the effects of AP on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. Effects of AP on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and expressions of long noncoding RNA H19 (lncRNA-H19), microRNA (miR)-675 and CD44 were assessed...
February 21, 2018: Cell Biology International
Kelsey P Ringer, Mark G Roth, Mitchell S Garey, Ted B Piorczynski, Arminda Suli, Jason M Hansen, Jonathan K Alder
CRISPR-Cas technology has revolutionized genome engineering. While Cas9 was not the first programmable endonuclease identified, its simplicity of use has driven widespread adoption in a short period of time. While CRISPR-Cas genome editing holds enormous potential for clinical applications, its use in laboratory settings for genotype-phenotype studies and genome-wide screens has led to breakthroughs in the understanding of many molecular pathways. Numerous protocols have been described for introducing CRISPR-Cas components into cells, and here we sought to simplify and optimize a protocol for genome editing using readily available and inexpensive tools...
February 19, 2018: Cell Biology International
Zhao-Jun Wang, Hai-Bin Zhang, Cheng Chen, Hao Huang, Jian-Xia Liang
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in articular cartilage is thought to represent a major risk factor for osteoarthritis development. In this study we aimed to probe the role of AGEs in human chondrocytes and to determine the impact of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) on AGEs-induced cell autophagy. Cell viability was measured after human chondrocytes were treated with different concentrations of AGEs with or without the PPARG inhibitor, T0070907, or agonist, pioglitazone...
February 17, 2018: Cell Biology International
Gabriel G Dorighello, Natália M Inada, Bruno A Paim, Gilberto L Pardo-Andreu, Anibal E Vercesi, Helena C F Oliveira
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death worldwide. Beyond the classical cholesterol risk factor, other conditions such as oxidative stress are well documented to promote atherosclerosis. The Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang® ) was reported to present antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of Vimang treatment on risk factors of the atherosclerosis prone model of familial hypercholesterolemia, the LDL receptor knockout mice. Mice were treated with Vimang during two weeks and were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet during the second week...
February 10, 2018: Cell Biology International
Estela N B Busanello, Tiago R Figueira, Ana C Marques, Claudia D C Navarro, Helena C F Oliveira, Anibal E Vercesi
Mitochondrial redox imbalance and high Ca2+ uptake induce the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) that leads to disruption of energy-linked mitochondrial functions and triggers cell death in many disease states. In this review, we discuss the major results from our studies investigating the consequences of NAD(P)-transhydrogenase (NNT) deficiency, and of statins treatment for mitochondrial functions and susceptibility to Ca2+ -induced PTP. We highlight the aggravation of high fat diet-induced fatty liver disease in the context of NNT deficiency and the role of antioxidants in the prevention of statins toxicity to mitochondria...
February 9, 2018: Cell Biology International
Marcos Roberto Chiaratti, Bruna Martins Garcia, Karen Freire Carvalho, Thiago Simões Machado, Fernanda Karina Silva da Ribeiro, Carolina Habermann Macabelli
Mitochondria play a fundamental role during development of the female germline. They are fragmented, round and small. Despite these characteristics suggesting that they are inactive, there is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunctions are a major cause of infertility and generation of aneuploidies in humans. In addition, mitochondria and their own genomes (mitochondrial DNA - mtDNA) may become damaged with time, which might be one reason why aging leads to infertility. As a result, mitochondria have been proposed as an important target for evaluating oocyte and embryo quality, and developing treatments for female infertility...
February 8, 2018: Cell Biology International
Xiao-Xi Guo, Su An, Yang Yang, Ying Liu, Qian Hao, Tao Tang, Tian-Rui Xu
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are located downstream of Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling cascades. More than 20 years of study has shown that JNKs control cell fate and many cellular functions. JNKs and their interacting proteins form a complicated network with diverse biological functions and physiological effects. Members of the JNK interactome include Jun, amyloid precursor protein, and insulin receptor substrate. Recent studies have shown that the JNK interactome is involved in tumorigenesis, neuron development, and insulin resistance...
February 8, 2018: Cell Biology International
Raissa G Ludwig, Andréa L Rocha, Marcelo A Mori
Obesity may be counteracted by increased energy expenditure. Circulating molecules act in the adipose tissue to influence brown and beige adipocyte function, differentiation, and thermogenic capacity, which in turn affects substrate utilization and impacts energy balance at the organismal level. These molecules have been envisioned as biomarkers and potential candidates for pharmacological interventions to treat obesity. Here we summarize studies that demonstrate the roles of endogenous circulating molecules of a wide variety in regulating the thermogenic potential of brown and beige fat cells...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Caroline M Ferreira, Matheus P Oliveira, Marcia C Paes, Marcus F Oliveira
Hematophagous organisms undergo remarkable metabolic changes during the blood digestion process, increasing fermentative glucose metabolism and reducing respiratory rates, both consequence of functional mitochondrial remodeling. Here, we review the pathways involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial functionality in a comparative framework across different hematophagous species, and consider how these processes regulate redox homeostasis during blood digestion. The trend across distinct species indicate that a switch in energy metabolism might represent an important defensive mechanism to avoid the potential harmful interaction of oxidants generated from aerobic energy metabolism with products derived from blood digestion...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Lisvane Paes-Vieira, André Luiz Gomes-Vieira, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) are enzymes that belong to the GDA1/CD39 protein superfamily. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP to the monophosphate form (AMP). Biochemical characterization of the nucleotidases/NTPDases from various types of cells, including those from plants, animals and pathogenic organisms, has revealed the existence of several isoforms with different specificities with respect to divalent cations (magnesium, calcium, manganese and zinc) and substrates...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Tomokazu Fukuda, Yasushi Ishizawa, Kenichiro Donai, Eriko Sugano, Hiroshi Tomita
The introduction of four key transcriptional factors (CRX, RAX, NEURO-D, OTX2) allows the direct differentiation of fibroblasts to retinal photoreceptor cells. This reprogramming was achieved with a combination of mono-cistronic viruses. Although the combination of mono-cistronic viruses was useful, a relatively high titer of recombinant viruses was necessary because co-infections are required. To overcome this issue, we established a poly-cistronic expression system for direct reprogramming and analyzed the biological characteristics of introduced cells after the exogenous introduction...
January 29, 2018: Cell Biology International
Ali Neshasteh-Riz, Elham Zeinizade, Majid Safa, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Cabazitaxel is a second-generation semisynthetic taxane. The recognized anti-neoplastic effect of Cabazitaxel is cell cycle perturbation by inducing arrest at G2/M. Since glioblastoma tumors have a relatively high expression of P-gp, it is encouraging to find a treatment that is effective against these tumors. This study was conducted to examine the radiosensitizing potential of Cabazitaxel against U87MG cells. In order to evaluate the effect of Cabazitaxel, cells were treated with different concentrations of the drug at different time intervals and then cytotoxicity and cell cycle were assessed using MTT and flow cytometry assays, respectively...
January 25, 2018: Cell Biology International
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