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Physiological Measurement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430667/investigating-point-to-point-emissivity-variation-of-wounded-tissue
#1
Ellen Keenan, Georgina Gethin, Louisa Flynn, David Watterson, Gerard O'Connor
Infrared cameras are becoming increasingly popular in clinical applications as they allow fast, non-contact temperature measurements. As abnormal heat distribution can indicate illness, infrared cameras have been applied in the prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of conditions (Lahiri, Bagavathiappan, Jayakumar, & Philip, 2012). Current practices, however, often overlook the importance of emissivity when taking thermal measurements. The consensus is that human skin has an emissivity of 0.98 (Soerensen et al...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430109/acquisition-of-electrocardiogram-signals-during-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Julien Oster, Gari Clifford
The recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) acquisition is of great interest and importance. Firstly, MRI acquisition is a relatively slow process, which therefore complicates the imaging of moving organs. Cardiac MRI requires the development of strategies for acquiring high quality images, which is mainly achieved by synchronising the image acquisition with a specific time during the cardiac cycle. The ECG is used to monitor the heart's activity, and the detection of the largest and steepest peak in the cardiac cycle (the QRS complex) triggers the acquisition of slices of the k-space...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430108/a-network-physiology-approach-to-the-assessment-of-the-link-between-sinoatrial-and-ventricular-cardiac-controls
#3
Alberto Porta, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice De Maria, Mathias Baumert
A network physiology approach to evaluate the strength of the directed interactions among cardiac controls at sinoatrial and ventricular levels and respiration (R) is proposed. The network is composed of three nodes (i.e. sinoatrial and ventricular cardiac controls and R) and their activity is exemplified by the variability of heart period (HP), the variability of the duration of the electrical activity of the heart approximated as the temporal distance between Q-wave onset and T-wave end or apex (i.e. QTe or QTa) and thoracic movements respectively...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378711/input-respiratory-impedance-in-mice-comparison-between-the-flow-based-and-the-wavetube-method-to-perform-the-forced-oscillation-technique
#4
Vitor Mori, Maria Olveira, Mauro Vargas, Aline da Cunha, Rodrigo de Souza, Paulo Pitrez, Henrique Moriya
In this study, we estimated the Constant Phase Model (CPM) parameters from the respiratory impedance of male BALB/c mice by performing the forced oscillation technique (FOT) in a control group (n=8) and in a murine model of asthma (OVA) (n=10). Then, we compared the results obtained by two different methods, using a flow-based commercial equipment (flexiVent-flexiWare 7.x; SCIREQ, Montreal, Canada) (FXV) and a Wavetube method equipment (Sly et al 2003) (WVT). We believe that the results from different methods may not be comparable...
April 5, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375851/effects-of-force-load-muscle-fatigue-and-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-stimulation-on-eeg-signals-during-side-arm-lateral-raise-task
#5
Ying Wang, Liu Cao, Dongmei Hao, Yao Rong, Lin Yang, Song Zhang, Fei Chen, Dingchang Zheng
The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on electroencephalography (EEG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. EEG signals were recorded by a BIOSEMI Active Two system with Pin-Type active-electrodes from 18 healthy subjects when they performed the right arm side lateral raise task (90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads (0kg, 1kg and 3 kg; their order was randomized among the subjects) on the forearm...
April 4, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352002/optimisation-of-current-injection-protocol-based-on-a-region-of-interest
#6
Mayo Faulkner, Markus Jehl, Kirill Aristovich, James Avery, Anna Witkowska-Wrobel, David Holder
Electrical Impedance Tomography has the potential to image fast neural activity associated with physiological or epileptic activity throughout the brain. These applications pose a particular challenge as expected voltage changes on the electrodes are less than 1% and geometrical constraints of the body under investigation mean that electrodes can not be evenly distributed around its boundary. Unlike other applications, however, information regarding the location of expected activity is typically available. An informative method for choosing current paths that maximise sensitivity to specific regions is desirable...
March 29, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339394/global-and-regional-assessment-of-sustained-inflation-pressure-volume-curves-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#7
Tobias Becher, Philipp Rostalski, Matthias Kott, Andy Adler, Dirk Schadler, Norbert Weiler, Inez Frerichs
Static or quasi-static pressure-volume (P-V) curves can be used to determine the lung mechanical properties of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). According to the traditional interpretation, lung recruitment occurs mainly below the lower point of maximum curvature (LPMC) of the inflation P-V curve. Although some studies have questioned this assumption, setting of positive end-expiratory pressure 2 cmH2O above the LPMC was part of a "lung-protective" ventilation strategy successfully applied in several clinical trials...
March 24, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333038/detecting-colorectal-cancer-using-electrical-impedance-spectroscopy-an-ex-vivo-feasibility-study
#8
Angela Pathiraja, Paul Ziprin, Arsam Shiraz, Reza Mirnezami, Andrew Tizzard, Brian Brown, Andreas Demosthenous, Richard H Bayford
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide, with a lifetime risk of around 20%. Current solutions do not allow clinicians to objectively assess tissue abnormality during endoscopy and perioperatively. A solution capable of objectively assessing samples in real time could greatly improve the treatment process. A solution that can be integrated in minimally invasive diagnostics and management strategies to provide real-time point-of-care information would be greatly transformative...
March 23, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333037/cerebral-hemodynamic-with-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-business-as-usual
#9
Juliana Caldas, Ronney B Panerai, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Juliano Almeida, Graziela Ferreira, Ligia Cunha, Ricardo Nogueira, Marcelo Oliveira, Fabio Jatene, Thompson Robinson, Ludhmila Hajjar
Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is commonly used as mechanical support after cardiac surgery or cardiac shock. Although its benefits for cardiac function have been well documented, its effects on cerebral circulation are still controversial. We hypothesized that transfer function analysis (TFA) and continuous estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) provide consistent results in the assessment of cerebral autoregulation in patients with IABP. Continuous recordings of blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial line), end-tidal CO2, heart rate and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, transcranial Doppler) were obtained i) 5 minutes with IABP ratio 1:3, ii) 5 minutes, starting 1 minute with the IABP-ON, and continuing for another 4 minutes without pump assistance (IABP-OFF)...
March 23, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319030/ischemic-small-intestine-in-vivo-versus-ex-vivo-bioimpedance-measurements
#10
Runar J Strand-Amundsen, Henrik M Reims, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy, Ørjan G Martinsen, Jan O Høgetveit, Tom E Ruud, Tor I Tønnessen
OBJECTIVE: Bioimpedance has been used to investigate changes in electrical parameters during ischemia in various tissues. The small intestine is a multi-layered structure, with several distinct tissue types, and ischemia related changes occur at different times in the different intestinal layers. When investigating how the electrical properties in the small intestine is affected by ischemia, some researchers have used ex vivo models while others have used in vivo models. In this study, we compare ischemic time development of electrical parameters in ischemic in vivo versus ex vivo small intestine...
March 20, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304283/an-introduction-into-autonomic-nervous-function
#11
John M Karemaker
Not required at this stage.
March 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301328/evaluate-muscle-tension-using-intramuscular-pressure-device-in-rabbit-tibialis-anterior-model-for-improved-tendon-transfer-surgery
#12
Loribeth Evertz, Liselotte Bulstra, Alexander Shin, Kenton R Kaufman
Quantitative evaluation of passive tension in a muscle is important in tendon transfer surgeries, however, currently appropriate intraoperative measurement techniques are lacking. Intramuscular pressure (IMP) is explored as an application to access force. The tibialis anterior (TA) in New Zealand white rabbits (n=9) was used to test the hypothesis of a strong correlation between the IMP, muscle force, and length. This study also helped to develop intraoperative techniques for future human studies evaluating various insertion techniques (parallel vs...
March 16, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301327/high-resolution-respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-in-rats-validation-in-anesthetized-conditions
#13
Timothe Flenet, Julie Fontecave-Jallon, Pierre-Yves Gumery, Charles Eynard, Francois Boucher, Pierre Baconnier, Stephane Tanguy
Respiratory monitoring is often required in experimental physiological and pharmacological studies in rodents. Currently, the mostly used techniques are direct measurement of airflow on intubated animals and whole body plethysmography. Although the reliability of these methods has been broadly demonstrated, they also have several drawbacks such as invasiveness, high cost of use or confinement of the animals. Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography (RIP) is a non-invasive technique already used in medium-sized mammals that has not yet been evaluated in small rodents...
March 16, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296647/intra-and-inter-rater-reliability-of-lower-leg-waterplethysmography-bioelectrical-impedance-and-muscle-twitch-force-for-the-use-in-standing-work-evaluation
#14
Rudolf Wall, Oliwia Lips, Robert Seibt, Monika Rieger, Benjamin Steinhilber
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged standing is associated with multiple risk factors for musculoskeletal and venous disorders. Basic understanding of prolonged standing physiology is lacking. We therefore plan to investigate the influence of multiple hours standing on lower limb oedema measured by waterplethysmography (WP) and bioelectrical impedance (BI) and lower leg musle fatigue using muscle twitch force (MTF). In order to interpret our results, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of these measurement methods was evaluated first...
March 15, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296645/extraction-of-respiratory-signals-from-the-electrocardiogram-and-photoplethysmogram-technical-and-physiological-determinants
#15
Peter H Charlton, Timothy Bonnici, Lionel Tarassenko, Jordi Alastruey, David A Clifton, Richard Beale, Peter J Watkinson
OBJECTIVE: Breathing rate (BR) can be estimated by extracting respiratory signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) or photoplethysmogram (PPG). The extracted respiratory signals may be influenced by several technical and physiological factors. In this study, our aim was to determine how technical and physiological factors influence the quality of respiratory signals. APPROACH: Using a variety of techniques 15 respiratory signals were extracted from the ECG, and 11 from PPG signals collected from 57 healthy subjects...
March 15, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294957/regional-ventilation-redistribution-measured-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-during-spontaneous-breathing-trial-with-automatic-tube-compensation
#16
Yeong-Long Hsu, Ai-Jia Tien, Mei-Yun Chang, Hao-Tai Chang, Knut Moeller, Inez Frerichs, Zhanqi Zhao
Automatic tube compensation (ATC) was developed to overcome the flow resistance of endotracheal tube and decrease the imposed work of breathing. Although ATC is used as an evidence-based strategy to predict successful weaning from assisted ventilation, the changes in regional ventilation distribution induced by this technique are not known. We hypothesized that continuous positive airway pressure plus ATC (CPAP+100%ATC) could reactivate the respiratory muscles in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) more effectively than volume assist-control mandatory ventilation (ACMV)...
March 15, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291744/consequences-of-short-interruptions-of-bouts-walking-on-estimates-of-compliance-to-physical-activity-guidelines
#17
Juliet Ann Harvey, Danny Rafferty, Sebastien François Martin Chastin
Current guidelines on physical activity suggest that 30 min of moderate intensity physical activity can be accumulated in continuous bouts of at least 10 min. It has been shown by use of activity monitoring that it is difficult to achieve 10 min of completely uninterrupted walking in the free-living urban environment where we have obstacles such as roads to cross. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of short interruptions in walking on the rate of oxygen uptake (ml · kg · min(-1)) to determine if walking with short interruptions can still be considered continuous...
March 14, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282027/feasibility-of-backprojection-method-for-reconstruction-of-low-contrast-perturbations-in-a-conducting-background-in-magnetic-induction-tomography
#18
Alexander V Korjenevsky, Sergey Sapetsky
Application of the backprojection image reconstruction algorithm in magnetic induction tomography for imaging of low contrast inclusions in conductive background is investigated. Both numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that spatial redistribution of the sensitivity of measurements related with background conductivity does not affect the projection lines and keeps possibility of backprojection image reconstruction what is important in biomedical applications of MIT. The reconstruction algorithm is explained in detail...
March 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282026/comparative-study-of-separation-between-ex-vivo-prostatic-malignant-and-benign-tissue-using-electrical-impedance-spectroscopy-and-electrical-impedance-tomography
#19
Ethan K Murphy, Aditya Mahara, Shadab Khan, Elias Hyams, Alan Schned, Jason Pettus, Ryan Halter
Currently no efficient and reliable technique exists to routinely assess surgical margins during a radical prostatectomy. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been reported as a potential technique to provide surgeons with real-time intraoperative margin assessment. In addition to providing a quantified measure of margin status, a co-registered electrical impedance tomography (EIT) image presented on a surgeon's workstation could add value to the margin assessment process. To investigate this, we conducted a comparative study between EIS and EIT to evaluate the potential these technologies might have for margin assessment...
March 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263183/complexity-of-cardiovascular-rhythms-during-head-up-tilt-test-by-entropy-of-patterns
#20
Dorota Wejer, Beata Graff, Danuta Makowiec, Szymon Budrejko, Zbiginiew Struzik
The head-up tilt (HUT) test, which provokes transient dynamical alterations in the regulation of cardiovascular system, provides insights into complex organization of this system. Based on signals with heart period intervals (RR-intervals) and/or systolic blood pressure (SBP), differences in the cardiovascular regulation between vasovagal patients (VVS) and the healthy people group (CG) are investigated. Short-term relations among signal data represented symbolically by three-beat patterns allow to qualify and quantify the complexity of the cardiovascular regulation by Shannon entropy...
March 6, 2017: Physiological Measurement
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