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Physiological Measurement

Wahbi K El-Bouri, Dario Vignali, Konstantina Iliadi, Diederik O Bulters, Robert J Marchbanks, Anthony A Birch, David M Simpson
Although previous studies have shown associations between patient symptoms/outcomes and the spontaneous tympanic membrane displacement (spTMD) pulse amplitude, the contribution of the underlying intracranial pressure (ICP) signal to the spTMD pulse remains largely unknown. We have assessed the relative contributions of ICP and arterial blood pressure (ABP) on spTMD at different frequencies in order to determine whether spTMD contains information about the ICP above and beyond that contained in the ABP.
 Eleven patients, who all had invasive ICP and ABP measurements in-situ, were recruited from our intensive care unit...
July 12, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Linda M Eerikäinen, Alberto G Bonomi, Fons Schipper, Lukas Dekker, Rik Vullings, Helma M de Morree, Ronald M Aarts
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly experienced arrhythmia and it increases the risk of stroke and heart failure. The challenge in detecting the presence of AF is the occasional and asymptomatic manifestation of the condition. Long-term monitoring can increase the sensitivity of detecting intermittent AF episodes, however that being either cumbersome or invasive and costly with electrocardiography (ECG). Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an unobtrusive measuring modality enabling heart rate monitoring, and promising results have been presented in detecting AF...
July 11, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Stefano Finazzi, Giulia Mandelli, Elena Garbero, Matteo Mondini, Giampietro Trussardi, Michele Giardino, Mario Tavola, Guido Bertolini
MargheritaTre is an electronic health record developed by the Italian Group for the Evaluation of Interventions in Intensive Care Medicine in collaboration with clinical experts, researchers, and IT specialists. It was designed to support the clinical practice in Intensive Care Units and ensure high quality data for research purposes. MargheritaTre is currently installed in 40 intensive care units and its database contains complete records of more than 65,000 patients. To facilitate data analysis, information is mostly stored in structured or partially structured form...
July 4, 2018: Physiological Measurement
David M Burns, Nathan Eric Leung, Michael Hardisty, Cari Whyne, Patrick Henry, Stewart McLachlin
Participation in a physical therapy program is considered one of the greatest predictors of successful conservative management of common shoulder disorders. However, adherence to these protocols is often poor and typically worse for unsupervised home exercise programs. Currently, there are limited tools available for objective measurement of adherence in the home setting. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate the potential for performing home shoulder physiotherapy monitoring using a commercial smartwatch...
June 28, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Peyman Yousefian, Sungtae Shin, Azin Mousavi, Chang-Sei Kim, Ramakrishna Mukkamala, Dae-Geun Jang, Byung-Hoon Ko, Jongwook Lee, Ui Kun Kwon, Youn Ho Kim, Jin-Oh Hahn
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between a limb ballistocardiogram (BCG) and blood pressure (BP) based on data mining. APPROACH: During four BP-perturbing interventions, the BCG and reference BP were measured from 23 young healthy volunteers using a custom-manufactured wristband equipped with a MEMS accelerometer and a commercial continuous BP measurement device. Both timing and amplitude features in the wrist BCG waveform were extracted, and significant features predictive of diastolic (DP) and systolic (SP) BP were selected using stepwise linear regression analysis...
June 28, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Marianna La Rocca, Nicola Amoroso, Alfonso Monaco, Roberto Bellotti, Sabina Tangaro
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that complex networks along with Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) can be efficient and promising techniques for early detection of structural pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease. Besides, connectivity studies, specifically assessing the organization of a graph and its topology, could represent the best chance to discover how brain activity is shaped and driven. Accordingly, we propose a methodology to evaluate how Alzheimer's disease affects brain networks through a novel way to look at graph connectivity...
June 26, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Itamar Nitzan, Cathy Hammerman, Daniel Fink, Meir Nitzan, Robert Koppel, Ruben Bromiker
The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta during fetal life and generally undergoes spontaneous closure shortly after birth. In premature neonates it often fails to close (patent ductus arteriosus - PDA), which can result in diversion of a significant part of the left-ventricular cardiac output to the pulmonary circulation. This left-to-right shunt may result in significant increase of pulmonary blood flow and decrease of systemic perfusion (hemodynamically significant PDA - hsPDA), which may lead to severe neonatal morbidity...
June 26, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Steffen Schulz, Jens Haueisen, Karl-Juergen Bär, Andreas Voss

 The new interdisciplinary field of network physiology is getting more and more into the focus of interest in medicine. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is well described in schizophrenia (SZO). However, the linear and nonlinear coupling between the ANS and central nervous system (CNS) is only partly addressed until now. This coupling can be assumed as a feedback-feedforward network, reacting with flexible and adaptive responses to internal and external factors.
 For the first time, in this study, we investigated linear and nonlinear short-term central-cardiorespiratory couplings of 17 patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia (SZO) in comparison to 17 age-gender matched healthy subjects (CON) analyzing heart rate (HR), respiration (RESP) and the power of frontal EEG activity (PEEG)...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Jessica Keim-Malpass, Kyle B Enfield, James Forrest Calland, Douglas E Lake, Matthew T Clark
Predictive analytics monitoring that informs clinicians of the risk for failed extubation would help minimize both the duration of mechanical ventilation and the risk of emergency re-intubation in ICU patients. We hypothesized that dynamic monitoring of cardiorespiratory data, vital signs, and lab test results would add information to standard clinical risk factors. To develop predictive analytic models for patients who failed extubation in critical care settings in an academic medical center using standard and novel risk factors...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Ancor Sanz-Garcia, Thorsten Rings, Klaus Lehnertz
Objective and Approach: Investigating properties of evolving functional brain networks has become a valuable tool to characterize the complex dynamics of the epileptic brain. 
 Such networks are usually derived from electroencephalograms (EEG) recorded with sensors implanted chronically into deeper structures of the brain and/or placed onto the cortex.
 It is still unclear, however, whether the use of different sensors for an identification of network nodes affects properties
 of functional brain networks...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Paulo Ricardo Protachevicz, Rafael Ribaski Borges, Adriane da Silva Reis, Fernando da Silva Borges, Kelly Cristina Iarosz, Ibere Luiz Caldas, Ewandson Luiz Lameu, Elbert Einstein Nehrer Macau, Ricardo Luiz Viana, Igor M Sokolov, Fabiano A S Ferrari, Jürgen Kurths, Antonio Marcos Batista
We consider a network topology according to the cortico-cortical connec-
 tion network of the human brain, where each cortical area is composed of a random
 network of adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neurons. Depending on the
 parameters, this neuron model can exhibit spike or burst patterns. As a diagnostic
 tool to identify spike and burst patterns we utilise the coefficient of variation of the
 neuronal inter-spike interval. In our neuronal network, we verify the existence of spike
 and burst synchronisation in different cortical areas...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Chengyu Liu, Julien Oster, Erik Reinertsen, Qiao Li, Lina Zhao, Shamim Nemati, Gari D Clifford
This study focused on the comparison of single entropy measures for the ventricular response analysis-based AF detection. To enhance the performance of entropy-based AF detectors, we developed a normalized fuzzy entropy, <i>H</i><sup>θ</sup><sub>N</sub> , a novel metric that: 1) uses a fuzzy function to determine vector similarity, 2) replaces probability estimation with density estimation for entropy approximation, 3) utilizes a flexible distance threshold parameter, and 4) adjusts for heart rate by subtracting the natural log value of the mean RR interval...
June 13, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Serena de Gelidi, Nima Seifnaraghi, Andy Bardill, Andrew Tizzard, Yu Wu, Erich Sorantin, Sven Nordebo, Andreas Demosthenous, Richard H Bayford
Newborns with lung immaturity often require continuous monitoring and treatment of their lung ventilation in intensive care units, especially if born preterm. Recent studies indicate that Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is feasible in newborn
 infants and children, and can quantitatively identify changes in regional lung aeration and ventilation following alterations to respiratory conditions. Information on the patient-specic shape of the torso and its role in minimizing the artefacts in the
 reconstructed images can improve the accuracy of the clinical parameters obtained from EIT...
June 12, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Zaibaa Patel, Mohamed A Thaha, Panayiotis A Kyriacou
<i>Objective:</i> Intestinal anastomotic failure that occurs mainly due to ischaemia is a serious risk in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Surgeons continue to rely on subjective methods such as visual inspection to assess intestinal viability during surgery and there are no clinical tools to directly monitor viability postoperatively. A dual wavelength, reflectance optical sensor has been developed for continuous and dynamic monitoring of intestinal viability via the intestinal lumen...
June 12, 2018: Physiological Measurement
James L Gräfe, Fiona E McNeill
OBJECTIVE: This article briefly reviews the main measurement techniques for the non-invasive detection of residual gadolinium (Gd) in those exposed to gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCAs). Approach and Main Results: The current status of in vivo Gd measurement is discussed and is put into the context of concerns within the radiology community. The main techniques are based on applied atomic/nuclear medicine utilizing the characteristic atomic and nuclear spectroscopic signature of Gd...
June 12, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Samer Bou Jawde, Bradford J Smith, Adam Sonnenberg, Jason H T Bates, Bela Suki
OBJECTIVE: While many studies rely on flow and pressure measurements in small animal models of respiratory disease, such measurements can however be inaccurate and difficult to obtain. Thus, the goal of this study was to design and implement an easy to manufacture and accurate sensor capable of monitoring flow. APPROACH: We designed and 3-D printed a flowmeter and utilized parametric (resistance and inertance) and nonparametric (polynomial and Volterra series) system identification to characterize the device...
June 7, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Braid A MacRae, René M Rossi, Agnes Psikuta, Christina M Spengler, Simon Annaheim
OBJECTIVE: Locally increasing evaporative resistance is one mechanism by which contact skin temperature (T sk ) sensors and their attachments may disturb the temperature of the skin site being measured. We aimed to determine the extent to which an obstruction of evaporation affects local T sk during exercise-induced sweating and how this compares to the T sk measured using a conventional contact T sk sensor. APPROACH: Twelve adult males each completed one experimental session (~24 °C, ~46% relative humidity) involving seated rest and exercise (cycle ergometer)...
July 3, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Michael Michail, Om Narayan, Kim H Parker, James D Cameron
OBJECTIVES: A reservoir pressure model describing left ventricular-large artery interaction has been proposed as a useful heuristic model providing insight into the propagation of the central blood pressure as well as providing clinical prognostic information. A pressure-only approach to calculation of reservoir pressure waves has been proposed but this assumes that the resultant excess pressure is proportional to the volume flow rate out of the left ventricle; this has not been tested in humans...
June 28, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Tyler J Wellman, Jarred R Mondoñedo, Gerald S Davis, Jason H T Bates, Béla Suki
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by excessive deposition of collagen and associated stiffening of lung tissue. While it is known that inflammation and dysfunction of fibroblasts are involved in disease development, it remains poorly understood how cells and their microenvironment interact to produce a characteristic subpleural pattern of high and low tissue density variations, called honeycombing, on CT images of patients with IPF...
June 28, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Satu Rajala, Harri Lindholm, Tapio Taipalus
OBJECTIVE: The aim here was to compare photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals measured from wrist and finger and evaluate if wrist PPG signal could be used to calculate pulse arrival time (PAT), the time delay between electrocardiogram (ECG) R peak and a feature (peak, foot, 1. derivative peak) in PPG signal. Also, the correlation between pulse wave velocity (rePWV, defined as PWV from ECG R peak to extremity) and systolic blood pressure was studied. APPROACH: 30 subjects were measured at rest by a trained research nurse...
May 24, 2018: Physiological Measurement
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