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Candace E Peacock, Arne D Ekstrom
Humans possess a unique ability to communicate spatially-relevant information, yet the intersection between language and navigation remains largely unexplored. One possibility is that verbal cues accentuate heuristics useful for coding spatial layouts, yet this idea remains largely untested. We test the idea that verbal cues flexibly accentuate the coding of heuristics to remember spatial layouts via spatial boundaries or landmarks. The alternative hypothesis instead conceives of encoding during navigation as a step-wise process involving binding lower-level features, and thus subsequently formed spatial representations should not be modified by verbal cues...
September 12, 2018: Memory
Marie Kirk, Katrine Willemoes Rasmussen, Susanne Bollerup Overgaard, Dorthe Berntsen
We examined the effects of a new Immersive Reminiscence Therapy (IRT) programme on cognitive function, including autobiographical memory, in a sample Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. A total of 43 AD patients with mild to moderate disease severity were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 22, MMMSE = 20.77), or a control group (n = 21, MMMSE = 19.24). The intervention group received one weekly group-based session of IRT for five weeks in an authentic 1950s style museum environment, matching the time of the participants' youth...
September 8, 2018: Memory
Jeni Fisk, Judi A Ellis, Shirley A Reynolds
People who have depression have difficulty recalling specific autobiographical information (Sumner, (2011) The mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory: An evaluative review of evidence for the Ca R-FA-X model. Clinical Psychology Review, 3231(1), 34-48). This is called overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and is associated with the development and persistence of depression. Williams, Barnhofer, Crane, Hermans, Raes, Watkins, & Dalgleish (2007 Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder...
September 5, 2018: Memory
Nuphar Rotem-Turchinski, Ayelet Ramaty, Avi Mendelsohn
Episodic memory is typically studied under conditions that treat participants as passive agents. Here we sought to explore how actively engaging in ongoing naturalistic occurrences affects long-term episodic memory. Participants viewed 40 short movie clips that depicted a protagonist that conversed with the participants. In each clip, they were either offered the chance to (supposedly) determine the clip's continuation (active condition), or let the computer decide for them (passive condition). Participants returned either two days or one week after the experience to undergo a true/false memory test for the clips' details and a two-alternative recognition test for the choices made...
September 4, 2018: Memory
Elaine Reese, Sarah-Jane Robertson
This prospective longitudinal study traced changes and individual differences in childhood amnesia over adolescence. A sample of 58 adolescents were followed from age 1-1/2 to age 16 years across 8 timepoints. At ages 12 (n = 46) and 16 (n = 51), adolescents completed an early memory interview. Early childhood measures included children's self-awareness, attachment security, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, language, theory of mind, narrative, and the early reminiscing environment (mothers' elaborative reminiscing)...
August 30, 2018: Memory
Manuel L de la Mata, Andrés Santamaría, Eva Mª Trigo, Mercedes Cubero, Samuel Arias-Sánchez, Radka Antalíková, Tia G B Hansen, Marcia L Ruiz
Cross-cultural differences in autobiographical memory (AM) are associated with cultural variations. In models of the self and parental reminiscing style, but not many studies have analysed the relationship between AM and specific cultural practices such as formal schooling. Theoreticians like [Greenfield, P. M. (2009). Linking social change and developmental change: Shifting. pathways of human development. Developmental Psychology, 45, 401-418. doi: 10.1037/a0014726 ; Kağitçibaşi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context...
August 28, 2018: Memory
Halle R Dimsdale-Zucker, Kristin E Flegal, Alexandra S Atkins, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz
Evidence for false recognition within seconds of encoding suggests that semantic-associative influences are not restricted to long-term memory, consistent with unitary memory accounts but contrary to dual store models. The present study sought further relevant evidence using a modified free recall converging associates task where participants studied 12-item lists composed of 3 semantically distinct quartets (sublists) related to a separate, non-presented theme word (i.e., words 1-4/theme1, 5-8/theme2, and 9-12/theme3)...
August 28, 2018: Memory
O Evren Guler, Simona Mackovichova
Autobiographical memories are memories for personally experienced life events. Previous research has revealed individual differences in the ability to recall specific memories that happened at a particular time and place. Some studies suggest such differences can be attributed to the varying capacity of executive function. However, little is known regarding which specific executive function skills predict autobiographical memory specificity. Participants were asked to complete multiple measures of executive function as well as an autobiographical memory task in which they were asked to recall a specific personal memory connected to concrete and abstract cue words...
August 24, 2018: Memory
Wen-Jun Gui, Peng-Yun Wang, Xu Lei, Tian Lin, Marilyn Horta, Xiao-Yi Liu, Jing Yu
Evidence has demonstrated that sleep-related memory consolidation declines in ageing. However, little is known about age-related changes to sleep-related emotional memory consolidation, especially when considering the positivity effect observed in older adults. In the present study, we sought to explore whether there is a positive emotional bias in sleep-related memory consolidation among healthy older adults. Young and older adults were randomly assigned either into a sleep or wake condition. All participants encoded positive, negative, and neutral stimuli and underwent recognition tests immediately (test 1), after a 12-hour sleep/wake interval (test 2), and 3 days after test 2 (test 3)...
August 24, 2018: Memory
Eirini Zormpa, Laurel E Brehm, Renske S Hoedemaker, Antje S Meyer
The production effect (better memory for words read aloud than words read silently) and the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures than words) both improve item memory in a picture naming task (Fawcett, J. M., Quinlan, C. K., & Taylor, T. L. (2012). Interplay of the production and picture superiority effects: A signal detection analysis. Memory (Hove, England), 20(7), 655-666. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.693510 ). Because picture naming requires coming up with an appropriate label, the generation effect (better memory for generated than read words) may contribute to the latter effect...
August 24, 2018: Memory
Joshua A Woods, Stephen A Dewhurst
False memories created by the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm are often accompanied by contextual information. Yet, research investigating the effects of context on false memories is surprisingly scarce. We used the context-dependent memory (CDM) model to construct same versus different context conditions using odours as contexts and DRM lists as to-be-remembered stimuli. Experiment 1 showed that levels of correct recall were higher in the same-context condition than in the changed-context condition, but no effects of context were observed in false recall...
August 23, 2018: Memory
Jakke Tamminen, Mariam Mebude
The sense of smell has made a recent return to the forefront of research on episodic memory. Odour context cues can reactivate recently encoded memories during sleep-dependent memory consolidation [e.g., Rasch, B., Buchel, C., Gais, S., & Born, J. (2007). Odor cues during slow-wave sleep prompt declarative memory consolidation. Science, 315, 1426-1429], and reinstating the odour experienced during encoding at test results in superior recall and recognition [e.g., Isarida, T., Sakai, T., Kubota, T., Koga, M...
August 23, 2018: Memory
Alexandra Ernst, Gaël Delrue, Sylvie Willems
While occasional déjà vu is benign in the general population, rare neuropsychological cases with persistent déjà vu have been described in the literature. We report the case of MN, a 25-year-old woman, who suffered a cerebral haemorrhage in the right thalamo-callosal region and experienced recurrent déjà vu episodes. Through clinical interviews and memory tasks related to déjà vu, we assumed that source memory errors and an inappropriate feeling of familiarity (measured by the number of false recognitions) were critically involved in MN's déjà vu...
August 23, 2018: Memory
Andrew Parker, Neil Dagnall, Ashley Abelson
Two experiments examined the effects of survival processing and delay on true and related false recognition. Experiment 1 used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm and found survival processing to increase true and related false recognition. Extending the delay from 5-mins to 1-day reduced true, but not false memory. Measures of the characteristics of true and false memories showed survival processing increased "remember" and "know" responses for related false memory, "know" responses for true memory and gist processing...
August 21, 2018: Memory
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Numerous studies have indicated that remembering specific past experiences (i.e., episodic memory) and imagining specific novel future experiences (i.e., episodic simulation) are supported by common mental processes. An open question, however, is whether and to what extent the content of specific past episodes is sampled when simulating a specific future episode. The current study aimed to answer this question. Participants recalled past episodes each comprising two episodic details, a personally familiar location and person...
August 19, 2018: Memory
Naomi Warne, Stephan Collishaw, Frances Rice
Difficulty remembering specific events from the personal past, known as overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), may be a marker of vulnerability to adolescent depression but little is known about how overgeneral AM arises in this age group. Stressful life events (SLEs) are strongly implicated in the onset of depression and are considered important in theoretical work on AM. We investigated whether exposure to lifetime and recent SLEs contributed to the development of overgeneral AM in a sample of adolescents at high familial risk of depression (n = 257) and examined the effects of gender and memory valence...
August 18, 2018: Memory
Katya T Numbers, Amanda J Barnier, Celia B Harris, Michelle L Meade
These experiments are the first to investigate the impact of confederate accuracy, age, and age stereotypes in the social contagion of memory paradigm. Across two experiments, younger participants recalled household scenes with an actual (Experiment 1) or virtual (Experiment 2), older or younger confederate who suggested different proportions (0%, 33% or 100%) of false items during collaboration. In Experiment 2, positive and negative age stereotypes were primed by providing bogus background information about our older confederate before collaboration...
August 18, 2018: Memory
Majdouline Sarhane, Agnès Daurat
Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit impaired retrieval of item-specific information, increasing their propensity to generate false recognitions. The present study investigated the effect of OSAS on false recognition, using a divided-attention paradigm to examine whether reducing the availability of attentional resources during encoding or retrieval in healthy participants mimics the effect of OSAS. We tested four groups of participants, using the Deese - Roediger - McDermott paradigm: patients with OSAS and controls, either under full attention or under divided attention at encoding or retrieval...
August 9, 2018: Memory
Ana M Capelo, Pedro B Albuquerque, Sara Cadavid
Recent research has provided evidence for memory modifications when a post-reactivation treatment (e.g., drugs, new learning) interferes with the memory re-stabilisation (reconsolidation) process. This finding contradicts the long-standing consolidation theory and has high practical and theoretical implications. With an object-learning paradigm, it was shown that episodic memory is highly susceptible to interfering material presented after its reactivation [Hupbach, A., Gomez, R., Hardt, O., & Nadel, L...
August 7, 2018: Memory
Keisuke Takano, David J Hallford, Elien Vanderveren, David W Austin, Filip Raes
The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) has been central in psychopathological studies of memory dysfunctions, as reduced memory specificity or overgeneralised autobiographical memory has been recognised as a hallmark vulnerability for depression. In the AMT, participants are asked to generate specific memories in response to emotional cue words, and their responses are scored by human experts. Because the manual coding takes some time, particularly when analysing a large dataset, recent studies have proposed computerised scoring algorithms...
August 6, 2018: Memory
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