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Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625108/memory-dynamics-under-stress
#1
Conny W E M Quaedflieg, Lars Schwabe
Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity...
June 19, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625103/the-robustness-of-false-memory-for-emotional-pictures
#2
Brandy A Bessette-Symons
Emotional material is commonly reported to be more accurately recognised; however, there is substantial evidence of increased false alarm rates (FAR) for emotional material and several reports of stronger influences on response bias than accuracy. This pattern is more frequently reported for words than pictures. Research on the mechanisms underlying bias differences has mostly focused on word lists under short retention intervals. This article presents four series of experiments examining recognition memory for emotional pictures while varying arousal and the control over the content of the pictures at two retention intervals, and one study measuring the relatedness of the series picture sets...
June 17, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609208/the-effect-of-different-distractions-on-remembering-delayed-intentions
#3
Philipp Schaper, Tobias Grundgeiger
In safety-critical domains, frequently intentions need to be delayed until an ongoing task is completed. Research using the delay-execute paradigm showed that interruptions during the delay cause forgetting. However, staff members often handle an initial distraction not by interrupting the ongoing task but by acknowledging the distraction or multitasking. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we observed that, compared to a no distraction condition, multitasking significantly decreased remembering of intentions and interrupting decreased remembering even further...
June 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594272/the-future-is-now-the-impact-of-present-fluency-in-judgments-about-the-future
#4
Tomás A Palma, Ana Sofia Santos, Leonel Garcia-Marques
Recent research has emphasised the role of episodic memory in both remembering past events and in envisaging future events. On the other hand, it has been repeatedly shown that judgments about past events are affected by the fluency with which retrieval cues are processed. In this paper we investigate whether perceptual fluency also plays a role in judgments about future events. For this purpose we conducted four experiments. The first experiment replicated recent findings showing that stimuli that are processed fluently tend to be wrongly recognised as having been encountered in the past outside the laboratory walls [Brown, A...
June 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585471/the-transmission-and-stability-of-cultural-life-scripts-a-cross-cultural-study
#5
Steve M J Janssen, Shamsul Haque
Cultural life scripts are shared knowledge about the timing of important life events. In the present study, we examined whether cultural life scripts are transmitted through traditions and whether there are additional ways through which they can be attained by asking Australian and Malaysian participants which information sources they had used to generate the life script of their culture. Participants hardly reported that they had used cultural and religious traditions. They more often reported that they had used their own experiences and experiences of relatives and friends...
June 6, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585461/age-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-across-the-adult-lifespan-older-adults-report-stronger-phenomenology
#6
Martina Luchetti, Angelina R Sutin
As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory...
June 6, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566056/the-impact-of-depression-and-ptsd-symptom-severity-on-trauma-memory
#7
Andrea R Ashbaugh, Julia Marinos, Brad Bujaki
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression frequently co-occur following a traumatic event. Differences in the processing of autobiographical memory have been observed in both disorders in the form of overgeneralised memories and negative intrusive memories. The current study examined how symptoms of PTSD and depression influence the phenomenological characteristics of trauma memories. Undergraduate students who had experienced a traumatic event (n = 696) completed questionnaires online including measures of PTSD and depressive symptom severity...
May 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553746/can-false-memories-prime-alternative-solutions-to-ambiguous-problems
#8
Mark L Howe, Sarah R Garner
Research has demonstrated that false memories are capable of priming and facilitating insight-based problem-solving tasks by increasing solution rates and decreasing solution times. The present research extended this finding by investigating whether false memories could be used to bias ambiguous insight-based problem-solving tasks in a similar manner. Compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems with two possible correct answers, a dominant and a non-dominant solution, were created and normed (Experiment 1)...
May 29, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552030/shifting-visual-perspective-during-memory-retrieval-reduces-the-accuracy-of-subsequent-memories
#9
Petra Marcotti, Peggy L St Jacques
Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab...
May 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537468/reactivation-of-interference-during-sleep-does-not-impair-ongoing-memory-consolidation
#10
Mitja Seibold, Björn Rasch, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Memory consolidation during sleep is assumed to rely on the repeated reactivation of newly encoded memories particularly during slow wave sleep (SWS). It has been proposed that reactivated memories during sleep - like during wakefulness - undergo a labilisation process, enabling the strengthening and integration of new memories into pre-existing networks. Here, we tested this idea by introducing interference directly during sleep in the reactivation/consolidation phase. We predicted that cueing interfering memories during sleep would impair the consolidation of recently learned memories...
May 24, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504583/repeated-failures-to-obtain-selective-directed-forgetting-in-lab-and-online-samples-and-variations-in-stimuli
#11
Melisa Akan, Lili Sahakyan
Previous research has produced mixed findings as to whether it is possible to selectively forget a subset of items while maintaining access to the remaining items from the same episode, using a modified version of the list-method directed forgetting (LMDF) paradigm. The present study includes six attempts to obtain the selective directed forgetting (SDF) effect with the aim of exploring its underlying mechanisms. However, despite variations in the stimuli and samples, which included both lab and online participants, we failed to obtain SDF across five experiments...
May 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504562/the-animacy-advantage-for-free-recall-performance-is-not-attributable-to-greater-mental-arousal
#12
Earl Y Popp, Michael J Serra
People often demonstrate better memory for animate concepts (e.g., lion and sailor) than for inanimate concepts (e.g., hammer and mountain). Researchers have attributed this effect to an adaptive memory mechanism that favours information relevant for survival, including information about living things. In the present experiment, we examined the hypothesis that people demonstrate better free-recall performance for animate than inanimate words because animate words tend to be associated with greater mental arousal than inanimate words, a factor that was not controlled for in previous experiments on this topic...
May 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481176/do-overgeneral-memories-make-us-feel-better-an-experimental-examination
#13
Sarah L Bunnell, Andrea Follmer Greenhoot
A critical assumption of the CaR-FA-X model, that overgeneral memory is partly attributable to the "functional avoidance" of specific details about one's past experiences, has not been experimentally tested. Further, while it is assumed that the reinforcing properties of said avoidance leads to the emergence of an overgeneral recall style over time, this question has not been addressed developmentally. To explore these issues, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 41 children and adolescents (Mage = 12 years) were randomly assigned to recall overgeneral or specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test; participants later listened to their memories and provided pre- and post-tests of their emotional states at four time points: before and after memory generation and before and after memory exposure...
May 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470139/reduced-specificity-and-enhanced-subjective-experience-of-future-thinking-in-ageing-the-influence-of-avoidance-and-emotion-regulation-strategies
#14
Sabrina Jumentier, Catherine Barsics, Martial Van der Linden
Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this lack of specificity stemmed partly from the avoidance of a somewhat disturbing future and then examined the extent to which certain types of emotion-regulation strategies, namely positive reappraisal and positive refocusing, contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking. Middle-aged and older adults completed an adapted version of the AMT, in which temporal distance and cue word valence were manipulated, thus resulting in future conditions assumed to represent varying degrees of discomfort...
May 4, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462620/cross-modality-translations-improve-recognition-by-reducing-false-alarms
#15
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
Conway and Gathercole [(1990). Writing and long-term memory: Evidence for a "translation" hypothesis. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42, 513-527] proposed a translation account to explain why certain types of encoding produce benefits in memory: Switching modalities from what is presented to what is encoded enhances item distinctiveness. We investigated this hypothesis in a recognition experiment in which the presentation modality of a study list (visual vs. auditory) and the encoding activity (speaking vs...
May 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436271/divided-attention-enhances-the-recognition-of-emotional-stimuli-evidence-from-the-attentional-boost-effect
#16
Clelia Rossi-Arnaud, Pietro Spataro, Marco Costanzi, Daniele Saraulli, Vincenzo Cestari
The present study examined predictions of the early-phase-elevated-attention hypothesis of the attentional boost effect (ABE), which suggests that transient increases in attention at encoding, as instantiated in the ABE paradigm, should enhance the recognition of neutral and positive items (whose encoding is mostly based on controlled processes), while having small or null effects on the recognition of negative items (whose encoding is primarily based on automatic processes). Participants were presented a sequence of negative, neutral and positive stimuli (pictures in Experiment 1, words in Experiment 2) associated to target (red) squares, distractor (green) squares or no squares (baseline condition)...
April 23, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436249/the-weapon-focus-effect-is-weaker-with-black-versus-white-male-perpetrators
#17
Kerri L Pickel, Danielle E Sneyd
We compared the influence of a weapon's presence on eyewitnesses' memory for a White versus a Black male perpetrator. Prior data indicate that unusual objects in visual scenes attract attention and that a weapon's effect depends on how unusual it seems within the context in which it appears. Therefore, given the stereotype linking Black men and weapons, we predicted a weaker weapon focus effect with the Black perpetrator. The results of Experiment 1 supported this hypothesis using White and Black witnesses...
April 23, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417692/autobiographical-remembering-regulates-emotions-a-functional-perspective
#18
Sezin Öner, Sami Gülgöz
Emotional deviation has been considered an essential factor in emotion regulation, in that, attempts to compensate for the deviation is reflected on cognitive processes. In the present study, we focused on autobiographical remembering and tested the functional role of memory on emotion regulation. We specifically examined the congruence effect in individuals' subsequent memory reports after recalling emotional events. Individuals were randomly assigned to three groups to report either sadness or anger evoking events or emotionally unspecified events that they experienced in the last five years...
April 18, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415908/the-association-of-personal-semantic-memory-to-identity-representations-insight-into-higher-order-networks-of-autobiographical-contents
#19
Matthew D Grilli
Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task...
April 17, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413909/sticking-to-the-romantic-script-an-examination-of-love-life-scripts-stories-and%C3%A2-self-reports-of-normality
#20
William L Dunlop, Grace E Hanley, Tara P McCoy, Nicole Harake
Life scripts represent cultural expectations regarding the events in the prototypical life whereas life stories represent narrative constructions of the events occurring in individuals' own lives. In Study 1, we generated an outline of the love life script and a list of the self-definitional events individuals tend to associate with their own love lives. Participants were prompted to produce and rate seven important events in the prototypical love life and several significant moments from their own love lives...
April 16, 2017: Memory
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