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Dennis Norris, Jane Hall, Sally Butterfield, Michael P A Page
We report an experiment in which we varied the nature of the articulatory suppression task being performed during a filled retention interval in serial recall. During the retention interval participants performed one of three computer-paced colour naming tasks designed to prevent subvocal rehearsal: A Stroop color-interference task with items presented at a rate of one every 750 ms, and two color-consistent control tasks at a rate of either 750 ms or 500 ms per item. Memory performance over a 12 s interval declined much more dramatically with the Stroop task and the 500 ms control task than with the 750 ms control...
July 12, 2018: Memory
Weiwei Zhang, Julien Gross, Harlene Hayne
In the present experiment, we investigated whether warnings provided at the time of retrieval would reduce emotional false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. The provision of retrieval warnings allowed us to test specific predictions based on the associative theories (e.g., Activation-Monitoring Theory; AMT) and Fuzzy-Trace Theory (FTT) that have been used to account for false memories in the DRM paradigm. Participants were randomly assigned to either a no-warning group or a retrieval-warning group...
July 12, 2018: Memory
H Lee Swanson, Milagros Fatima Kudo, M Lee Van Horn
This study examined the cross-sectional structure of working memory (WM) among elementary school English learners (ELs). A battery of WM tasks was administered in Spanish (L1) and English (L2) within five age groups (ages 6, 7, 8, 9, & 10). Confirmatory factor analysis showed a three-factor structure of WM emerged in both L1 and L2 administrations for each age group. The important findings, however, were: (1) the separation between the executive component and storage component (phonological loop) structure of WM increased as a function of age within both language systems, (2) the structure of WM supported a domain general phonological storage component and a domain general executive system across both language systems, and (3) the visual-spatial WM system shared minimal variance with the executive system...
July 11, 2018: Memory
Andrew Parker, Neil Dagnall
Research has demonstrated that merely imagining an autobiographical event can bring about false memories for that event. One explanation for this is that imagination leads to the creation and incorporation of visual-imagistic information into the event representation. This idea was tested in two experiments in which visual-imagery processing was disrupted by the use of Dynamic Visual Noise (DVN). In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories that were rated as "known" and lacking in event detail were subsequently rated as more "remembered" following imagination...
July 5, 2018: Memory
Andrew M Sherrill, Christopher A Kurby, Michelle M Lilly, Joseph P Magliano
Cognitive theories of PTSD argue that poor recall of trauma memories results from a stress-induced shift toward perceptual processing during encoding. The present study assessed the extent to which self-reported state anxiety affects event segmentation and its subsequent impact on memory performance (recall and recognition). Event segmentation is the cognitive process of condensing continuous streams of spatiotemporal information into discrete elements. In this study, undergraduates without PTSD used a computer programme to segment a stressful film and a non-stressful film and then they completed memory tasks for each film...
July 2, 2018: Memory
Margarida Pitães, Chris Blais, Paul Karoly, Morris A Okun, Gene A Brewer
Prospective memory refers to the planning, retention, retrieval, and execution of intentions for future behaviours and it is integral to the enterprise of daily living. Although prospective memory relies upon retrospective memory and executive processes often disrupted by pain, limited research has explored the influence of acute or chronic pain on the ability to complete prospective memory tasks. In the present study we investigated the influence of acute pain on prospective memory tasks that varied in their demands on executive processes (i...
July 1, 2018: Memory
Nieves Martínez-Hernández, Jorge Ricarte
Using a self-defining memory task, this work studies the exact moment in which abstinent alcoholics perceived themselves as addicted. Phenomenological variables involved in the memory were obtained asking participants to evaluate their cognitions, perceptions and emotions associated with that self-defining memory. The sample consisted of 12 female and 31 male ex-alcoholics, with abstinence ranging from 6 months to 23 years. Mean age was 52.91 years. Our findings showed that awareness of the alcoholic self emerges in the context of uncontrolled consumption or an ultimatum from family members...
June 26, 2018: Memory
Daniel J Peterson, Kathryn T Wissman
Researchers generally agree that retrieval practice of previously learned material facilitates subsequent recall of same material, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. There is debate, however, about when such benefits transfer to related (though not identical) material. The current study examines the phenomenon of transfer in the domain of analogical problem-solving. In Experiments 1 and 2, learners were presented a source text describing a problem and solution to read which was subsequently either restudied or recalled...
June 25, 2018: Memory
Nina Tupper, James D Sauer, Melanie Sauerland, Isabel Fu, Lorraine Hope
The presence of multiple faces during a crime may provide a naturally-occurring contextual cue to support eyewitness recognition for those faces later. Across two experiments, we sought to investigate mechanisms underlying previously-reported cued recognition effects, and to determine whether such effects extended to encoding conditions involving more than two faces. Participants studied sets of individual faces, pairs of faces, or groups of four faces. At test, participants in the single-face condition were tested only on those individual faces without cues...
June 22, 2018: Memory
Kyle A Pettijohn, Gabriel A Radvansky
The aim of the current study was to explore how the location updating effect is affected when people are tested using recall rather than recognition, which is what has been done in prior work. Differences in the memory processes involved with these two tasks lead to predictions for two different patterns of data. In Experiment 1, memory was tested by having participants recall the single object they were carrying or had just put down, whereas in Experiment 2, people sometimes needed to recall both objects. It was found that, unlike recognition test performance, a similar location updating effect was found for both Associated (what was currently being carried) and Dissociated (what was recently set down) objects...
June 21, 2018: Memory
Katherine Panattoni, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
In this paper, we examined relationships and differences between personal and vicarious life stories, i.e., the life stories one knows of others. Personal and vicarious life stories of both members of 51 young couples (102 participants), based on McAdams' Life Story Interview (2008), were collected. We found significant positive relationships between participants' personal and vicarious life stories on agency and communion themes and redemption sequences. We also found significant positive relationships between participants' vicarious life stories about their partners and those partners' personal life stories on agency and communion, but not redemption...
June 12, 2018: Memory
Michelle D Leichtman, Kristina L Steiner, Kaitlin A Camilleri, David B Pillemer, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
Research indicates that adults form life story chapters, representations of extended time periods that include people, places and activities. Life chapter memories are distinct from episodic memories and have implications for behaviour, self and mental health, yet little is known about their development during childhood. Two exploratory studies examined parent-child conversations about life chapters. In Study 1, mothers recorded naturalistic conversations with their 5-6 year old children about two chapters in the child's life...
June 6, 2018: Memory
Lucy V Justice, Harriet M J Smith
In legal settings, jury members, police, and legal professionals often have to make judgements about witnesses' or victims' memories of events. Without a scientific understanding of memory, (often erroneous) beliefs are used to make decisions. Evaluation of the literature identified two prevalent beliefs that could influence judgements: (1) memory operates like a video recorder therefore, accounts that are detailed are more believable than those containing vague descriptions, and (2) memories recalled with congruent emotion are more believable than those recalled with incongruent emotion...
June 6, 2018: Memory
Elżbieta Ślusarczyk, Agnieszka Niedźwieńska, Marta Białecka-Pikul
We conducted a study to examine the impact of motivation and length of delay on performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks in 2-year of children. A total of 158 children aged exactly 24 months were asked to perform a naturalistic PM task. Length of delay (10 min; 35 min) and motivation (high; very high) were between-subjects factors. Two thirds of children had to be excluded from the analysis because of poor retrospective memory for the PM task instructions which were no longer remembered at the end of the session...
June 5, 2018: Memory
Ka Wai Joan Ngo, Tarek Amer, Louisa Man, Lynn Hasher
Cultural differences in information processing affect perceptual judgment, attention, and memory. We investigated whether cultural differences in processing patterns, specifically East Asian participants' tendency to encode holistically, compared to Western tendencies to process analytically, affect performance on an implicit memory test. First, participants completed a 1-back task on pictures with superimposed distracting words. After a delay filled with a computerised Corsi block task, they performed a word fragment task in which some fragments could be completed with the distracting words from the 1-back task...
June 4, 2018: Memory
Shana K Carpenter, Cynthia L Haynes, Daniel Corral, Kam Leung Yeung
People often have erroneous knowledge about the world that is firmly entrenched in memory and endorsed with high confidence. Although strong errors in memory would seem difficult to "un-learn," evidence suggests that errors are more likely to be corrected through feedback when they are originally endorsed with high confidence compared to low confidence. This hypercorrection effect has been predominantly studied in laboratory settings with general knowledge (i.e., trivia) questions, however, and has not been systematically explored in authentic classroom contexts...
May 19, 2018: Memory
Wendy S Francis, Randolph S Taylor, Marisela Gutiérrez, Mary K Liaño, Diana G Manzanera, Renee M Penalver
Two experiments investigated how well bilinguals utilise long-standing semantic associations to encode and retrieve semantic clusters in verbal episodic memory. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 128) studied and recalled word and picture sets. Word recall was equivalent in L1 and L2, picture recall was better in L1 than in L2, and the picture superiority effect was stronger in L1 than in L2. Semantic clustering in word and picture recall was equivalent in L1 and L2. In Experiment 2, Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 128) and English-speaking monolinguals (N = 128) studied and recalled word sequences that contained semantically related pairs...
May 19, 2018: Memory
Stéphie Ratovohery, Alexia Baudouin, Aude Gachet, Juliette Palisson, Pauline Narme
Age-related differences in episodic memory have been explained by a decrement in strategic encoding implementation. It has been shown in clinical populations that music can be used during the encoding stage as a mnemonic strategy to learn verbal information. The effectiveness of this strategy remains equivocal in older adults (OA). Furthermore, the impact of the emotional valence of the music used has never been investigated in this context. Thirty OA and 24 young adults (YA) learned texts that were either set to music that was positively or negatively valenced, or spoken only...
May 17, 2018: Memory
Judit Castellà, Guillermo Campoy
It has been suggested that the concreteness effect in short-term memory (STM) is a consequence of concrete words having more distinctive and richer semantic representations. The generation and storage of visual codes in STM could also play a crucial role on the effect because concrete words are more imaginable than abstract words. If this were the case, the introduction of a visual interference task would be expected to disrupt recall of concrete words. A Dynamic Visual Noise (DVN) display, which has been proven to eliminate the concreteness effect on long-term memory (LTM), was presented along encoding of concrete and abstract words in a STM serial recall task...
May 17, 2018: Memory
Connie P Y Chiu, James W Griffith, Bert Lenaert, Filip Raes, Dirk Hermans, Tom J Barry
The CaRFAX model, proposed by Williams J. M. G. (2006. Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): Three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 548-568. doi: 10.1080/02699930500450465 ; Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Herman, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ) posits that reduced autobiographical memory specificity, a key factor associated with the emergence and maintenance of emotional disorders, may result from heightened rumination...
May 16, 2018: Memory
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