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Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504583/repeated-failures-to-obtain-selective-directed-forgetting-in-lab-and-online-samples-and-variations-in-stimuli
#1
Melisa Akan, Lili Sahakyan
Previous research has produced mixed findings as to whether it is possible to selectively forget a subset of items while maintaining access to the remaining items from the same episode, using a modified version of the list-method directed forgetting (LMDF) paradigm. The present study includes six attempts to obtain the selective directed forgetting (SDF) effect with the aim of exploring its underlying mechanisms. However, despite variations in the stimuli and samples, which included both lab and online participants, we failed to obtain SDF across five experiments...
May 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504562/the-animacy-advantage-for-free-recall-performance-is-not-attributable-to-greater-mental-arousal
#2
Earl Y Popp, Michael J Serra
People often demonstrate better memory for animate concepts (e.g., lion and sailor) than for inanimate concepts (e.g., hammer and mountain). Researchers have attributed this effect to an adaptive memory mechanism that favours information relevant for survival, including information about living things. In the present experiment, we examined the hypothesis that people demonstrate better free-recall performance for animate than inanimate words because animate words tend to be associated with greater mental arousal than inanimate words, a factor that was not controlled for in previous experiments on this topic...
May 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481176/do-overgeneral-memories-make-us-feel-better-an-experimental-examination
#3
Sarah L Bunnell, Andrea Follmer Greenhoot
A critical assumption of the CaR-FA-X model, that overgeneral memory is partly attributable to the "functional avoidance" of specific details about one's past experiences, has not been experimentally tested. Further, while it is assumed that the reinforcing properties of said avoidance leads to the emergence of an overgeneral recall style over time, this question has not been addressed developmentally. To explore these issues, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 41 children and adolescents (Mage = 12 years) were randomly assigned to recall overgeneral or specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test; participants later listened to their memories and provided pre- and post-tests of their emotional states at four time points: before and after memory generation and before and after memory exposure...
May 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470139/reduced-specificity-and-enhanced-subjective-experience-of-future-thinking-in-ageing-the-influence-of-avoidance-and-emotion-regulation-strategies
#4
Sabrina Jumentier, Catherine Barsics, Martial Van der Linden
Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this lack of specificity stemmed partly from the avoidance of a somewhat disturbing future and then examined the extent to which certain types of emotion-regulation strategies, namely positive reappraisal and positive refocusing, contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking. Middle-aged and older adults completed an adapted version of the AMT, in which temporal distance and cue word valence were manipulated, thus resulting in future conditions assumed to represent varying degrees of discomfort...
May 4, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462620/cross-modality-translations-improve-recognition-by-reducing-false-alarms
#5
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
Conway and Gathercole [(1990). Writing and long-term memory: Evidence for a "translation" hypothesis. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42, 513-527] proposed a translation account to explain why certain types of encoding produce benefits in memory: Switching modalities from what is presented to what is encoded enhances item distinctiveness. We investigated this hypothesis in a recognition experiment in which the presentation modality of a study list (visual vs. auditory) and the encoding activity (speaking vs...
May 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436271/divided-attention-enhances-the-recognition-of-emotional-stimuli-evidence-from-the-attentional-boost-effect
#6
Clelia Rossi-Arnaud, Pietro Spataro, Marco Costanzi, Daniele Saraulli, Vincenzo Cestari
The present study examined predictions of the early-phase-elevated-attention hypothesis of the attentional boost effect (ABE), which suggests that transient increases in attention at encoding, as instantiated in the ABE paradigm, should enhance the recognition of neutral and positive items (whose encoding is mostly based on controlled processes), while having small or null effects on the recognition of negative items (whose encoding is primarily based on automatic processes). Participants were presented a sequence of negative, neutral and positive stimuli (pictures in Experiment 1, words in Experiment 2) associated to target (red) squares, distractor (green) squares or no squares (baseline condition)...
April 23, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436249/the-weapon-focus-effect-is-weaker-with-black-versus-white-male-perpetrators
#7
Kerri L Pickel, Danielle E Sneyd
We compared the influence of a weapon's presence on eyewitnesses' memory for a White versus a Black male perpetrator. Prior data indicate that unusual objects in visual scenes attract attention and that a weapon's effect depends on how unusual it seems within the context in which it appears. Therefore, given the stereotype linking Black men and weapons, we predicted a weaker weapon focus effect with the Black perpetrator. The results of Experiment 1 supported this hypothesis using White and Black witnesses...
April 23, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417692/autobiographical-remembering-regulates-emotions-a-functional-perspective
#8
Sezin Öner, Sami Gülgöz
Emotional deviation has been considered an essential factor in emotion regulation, in that, attempts to compensate for the deviation is reflected on cognitive processes. In the present study, we focused on autobiographical remembering and tested the functional role of memory on emotion regulation. We specifically examined the congruence effect in individuals' subsequent memory reports after recalling emotional events. Individuals were randomly assigned to three groups to report either sadness or anger evoking events or emotionally unspecified events that they experienced in the last five years...
April 18, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415908/the-association-of-personal-semantic-memory-to-identity-representations-insight-into-higher-order-networks-of-autobiographical-contents
#9
Matthew D Grilli
Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task...
April 17, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413909/sticking-to-the-romantic-script-an-examination-of-love-life-scripts-stories-and%C3%A2-self-reports-of-normality
#10
William L Dunlop, Grace E Hanley, Tara P McCoy, Nicole Harake
Life scripts represent cultural expectations regarding the events in the prototypical life whereas life stories represent narrative constructions of the events occurring in individuals' own lives. In Study 1, we generated an outline of the love life script and a list of the self-definitional events individuals tend to associate with their own love lives. Participants were prompted to produce and rate seven important events in the prototypical love life and several significant moments from their own love lives...
April 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398120/usage-of-semantic-representations-in-recognition-memory
#11
Ryoji Nishiyama, Tetsuji Hirano, Jun Ukita
Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this...
April 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398117/reconstructing-the-times-of-past-and-future-personal-events
#12
Hédi Ben Malek, Fabrice Berna, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Humans have the remarkable ability to mentally travel through past and future times. However, while memory for the times of past events has been much investigated, little is known about how imagined future events are temporally located. Using a think-aloud protocol, we found that the temporal location of past and future events is rarely directly accessed, but instead mostly relies on reconstructive and inferential strategies. References to lifetime periods and factual knowledge (about the self, others, and the world) were most frequently used to determine the temporal location of both past and future events...
April 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395590/sharing-specific-we-autobiographical-memories-in-close-relationships-the-role-of-contact-frequency
#13
Denise R Beike, Holly E Cole, Carmen R Merrick
Sharing memories in conversations with close others is posited to be part of the social function of autobiographical memory. The present research focused on the sharing of a particular type of memory: Specific memories about one-time co-experienced events, which we termed Specific We memories. Two studies with 595 total participants examined the factors that lead to and/or are influenced by the sharing of Specific We memories. In Study 1, participants reported on their most recent conversation. Specific We memories were reportedly discussed most often in conversations with others who were close and with whom the participant had frequent communication...
April 10, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361618/erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361617/optimal-testing-time-for-suppression-of-competitors-during-interference-resolution
#15
K W Joan Ngo, Lynn Hasher
Interference between competing memory traces is a common cause of memory failure. Recent research has demonstrated a suppression mechanism that operates at retrieval to resolve interference. Using an adaptation of the suppression paradigm in Healey, Ngo, and Hasher [(2014). Below-baseline suppression of competitors during interference resolution by younger but not older adults. Psychological Science, 25(1), 145-151. doi: 10.1177/0956797613501169 ], we tested whether the ability to suppress competing memory traces varies with the synchrony between optimal arousal period and time of testing...
March 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361564/superior-episodic-memory-in-inconsistent-handers-a-replication-and-extension-using-fnirs
#16
Ruth E Propper, Neil Patel, Stephen D Christman, Christophe Carlei
A large body of evidence supports the existence of a robust handedness difference in episodic memory retrieval, with inconsistent-handedness being associated with superior memory across a wide variety of paradigms, including superior retrieval of lab-based and real world memories. Despite superior episidoc memory in inconsistent-handers, and despite neuroanatomical and neurophysiological differences in cortical regions between inconsistent- and consistent-handers, we are aware of no studies to date that have examined physiological activity in the brains of inconsistent- versus consistent-handers while engaged in memory tasks...
March 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361561/positive-events-protect-children-from-causal-false-memories-for-scripted-events
#17
Annika Melinder, Enrico Toffalini, Eleonora Geccherle, Cesare Cornoldi
Adults produce fewer inferential false memories for scripted events when their conclusions are emotionally charged than when they are neutral, but it is not clear whether the same effect is also found in children. In the present study, we examined this issue in a sample of 132 children aged 6-12 years (mean 9 years, 3 months). Participants encoded photographs depicting six script-like events that had a positively, negatively, or a neutral valenced ending. Subsequently, true and false recognition memory of photographs related to the observed scripts was tested as a function of emotionality...
March 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357895/two-routes-toward-optimism-how-agentic-and-communal-themes-in-autobiographical-memories-guide-optimism-for-the-future
#18
Adrienne Austin, Kristi Costabile
Autobiographical memories are particularly adaptive because they function not only to preserve the past, but also to direct our future thoughts and behaviours. Two studies were conducted to examine how communal and agentic themes of positive autobiographical memories differentially predicted the route from autobiographical memories to optimism for the future. Across two studies, results revealed that the degree to which participants focused on communal themes in their autobiographical memories predicted their experience of nostalgia...
March 30, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357891/earliest-memories-in-israeli-kibbutz-upbringing-it-is-parental-engagement-that-makes-a-difference
#19
Ora Aviezer, Efrat Sher-Censor, Tahel Stein-Lahad
Culture and parenting shape the ability to recall early childhood experiences. This research focused on the unique context of upbringing in the Israeli kibbutz and examined how cultural orientation and experiences of parental engagement in Kibbutz and non-Kibbutz settings shaped adults' earliest memories. Participants were 108 women (study 1) and 75 women and men (study 2) who were raised in traditional kibbutz upbringing or in a non-kibbutz family setting. In addition to reporting their earliest memory and age at earliest memory, participants estimated retrospectively the amount of daily time spent in interaction with parents, caregivers, and other children during the time of earliest memory...
March 30, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332408/trauma-and-autobiographical-memory-contents-and-determinants-of-earliest-memories-among-war-affected-palestinian-children
#20
Kirsi Peltonen, Samuli Kangaslampi, Samir Qouta, Raija-Leena Punamäki
The contents of earliest memories (EM), as part of autobiographical memory, continue to fascinate scientists and therapists. However, research is scarce on the determinants of EM, especially among children. This study aims, first, to identify contents of EM of children living in war conditions, and, second, to analyse child gender, traumatic events and mental health as determinants of the contents of EM. The participants were 240 Palestinian schoolchildren from the Gaza Strip (10-12 years, M = 11.35, SD = 0...
March 23, 2017: Memory
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