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Mine Misirlisoy, Hilal Tanyas, Nart Bedin Atalay
Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada [2007. Adaptive memory: Survival processing enhances retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 263-273] demonstrated that processing words according to their relevance to a survival scenario enhanced their subsequent retrieval in recall and recognition tasks compared to a variety of control scenarios. From an adaptive perspective, it is maintained that processing words in a survival context should also enhance memory for source; however, evidence in the literature is rather mixed regarding a survival context advantage for source memory...
January 16, 2019: Memory
Charlotte Schwedes, Dirk Wentura
Stimuli can be recognised based on information from only one or two eye fixations. With only one fixation, item recognition is typically above chance level and performance generally saturates by the second fixation. Thus, the first two eye fixations play an important role for recognition memory performance. However, little is known about the involved processes. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to investigate hypotheses regarding the role of the first two eye fixations for specific recognition memory processes, that is, familiarity and recollection...
January 15, 2019: Memory
Sebastian Poloczek, Lucy A Henry, David J Messer, Gerhard Büttner
Use of verbal rehearsal is a key issue in memory development. However, we still lack detailed and triangulated information about the early development and the circumstances in which different forms of rehearsal are used. To further understand significant factors that affect children's use of various forms of rehearsal, the present study involving 108 primary school children adopted a multi-method approach. It combined a carefully chosen word length effect method with a self-paced presentation time method to obtain behavioural indicators of verbal rehearsal...
January 4, 2019: Memory
Amy Frithsen, Shauna M Stark, Craig E L Stark
The current study focused on individuals with Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) and had two main objectives: 1) investigate whether HSAMs have increased recollection performance compared to controls, and 2) investigate whether HSAMs have a reliably different response bias than controls. While previous lab-based recognition tests have shown that HSAMs have normal memory performance, these tests were based on a mixture of both recollection and familiarity. Here, we employed recognition tests specifically designed to separate recollected responses from those based on familiarity...
December 31, 2018: Memory
Yingfang Meng, Guyang Lin, Huiru Lin
Stimuli presented with targets in a detection task are later recognised more accurately than those presented with distractors, an unusual effect labelled the attentional boost effect (ABE). This effect may reflect an enhancement triggered by target detection, the inhibition of distractor rejection, or some combination of both. To test these possibilities, the present study adopted a baseline similar to that of Swallow and Jiang ([2014b]. The attentional boost effect really is a boost: evidence from a new baseline...
December 30, 2018: Memory
Jade B Goodman, Emily E Freeman, Kerry A Chalmers
Exposure to early life stress has been linked to impairment in cognitive functioning in adulthood. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the relationship between early life stress and working memory, a central component of cognitive functioning. Database searches yielded 358 abstracts matching the search terms. Abstract screening followed by full-text review resulted in 26 publications suitable for inclusion, of which 23 were included in the meta-analysis. Results of the meta-analysis suggested exposure to early life stress was associated with poorer working memory...
December 27, 2018: Memory
Xiaowei Che, Xiaowei Ding, Xiaoli Ling, Hailing Wang, Yuanyuan Gu, Shouxin Li
Whether more attention is required for maintaining bindings than maintaining features in visual working memory (VWM) remains an open question. If maintaining bindings in VWM does not require more attention than maintaining features, is it related to the stability of binding representations? In this study, we explored whether maintaining bindings requires more attention than maintaining features for similar and dissimilar objects by inserting a feature report task into the maintenance phase of VWM in Experiments 1 and 2...
December 24, 2018: Memory
Dhawal Selarka, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Leann Lapp, Brian Levine
Traditionally, studies of spatial memory tend to utilise table-top tasks that focus on new spatial learning, however these in-lab procedures may not be reflective of real world spatial memory or navigation. This study investigated the relationship between self-rated navigation abilities and performance on a naturalistic Internet-based assessment of spatial memory for environments learned long ago. Results indicated that self-rated navigation ability was significantly associated with most of the remote spatial memory metrics...
December 20, 2018: Memory
Tiziana Lanciano, Antonietta Curci, Pierpaolo Basile
We examined the relationship between psychopathic traits and autobiographical memory (AM) for emotional life experiences in both a community (Study 1) and forensic sample (Study 2). Considering that psychopathy is traditionally linked to an impairment in the processing of emotion, we hypothesised an emotional deficit of AM in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits. Participants in both samples were asked to recall an emotionally charged event, and were then administered the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised, the Flashbulb Memory Checklist, and the Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire...
December 15, 2018: Memory
Bayley J Taple, Carmen Zabala-Baños, María V Jimeno, James W Griffith, Jorge J Ricarte
Self-defining memories (SDMs) are a type of autobiographical memory that people use as a narrative way to explain their self-identity. We sought to examine the relationships between SDMs, aggression, and criminality in a sample of men, 18-64 years of age, recruited in Spain. The sample included three groups: incarcerated criminal offenders with mental illness, incarcerated criminal offenders without mental illness, and healthy community controls. Analyses of the relationship between SDMs and criminal status demonstrated that incarcerated offenders, regardless of mental health status, endorsed phenomenological characteristics of SDMs of their transgressive self at a higher level than community controls...
December 11, 2018: Memory
Hédi Ben Malek, Nathalie Philippi, Anne Botzung, Benjamin Cretin, Fabrice Berna, Liliann Manning, Frédéric Blanc
There is a debate over the extent to which personal identity or the self is preserved in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Autobiographical memory deficits at early stages of AD could contribute to altering patients' self. However, the nature of the relationship between autobiographical memory deficits and the self in AD has not been much investigated experimentally. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the integrative meaning of self-defining memories (SDMs) in early stages of AD and to analyse its relationship with the self-concept...
December 9, 2018: Memory
Assaf Taubenfeld, Michael C Anderson, Daniel A Levy
When people suppress retrieval of episodic memories, it can induce forgetting on later direct tests of memory for those events. Recent reports indicate that suppressing retrieval affects less conscious, unintentional retrieval of unwanted memories as well, at least on perceptually-oriented indirect tests. In the current study we examined how suppressing retrieval affects conceptual implicit memory for the suppressed content, using a category verification task. Participants studied cue-target words pairs in which the targets were exemplars of 22 semantic categories, such as vegetables or occupations...
December 7, 2018: Memory
Valentine Vanootighem, Evelyne Moyse, Serge Brédart
The age distribution of nonbelieved memories (NBMs) reported by young and older adults typically reflects a large proportion of events dated to childhood. The present study aimed to further investigate the age of origin of NBMs by using instructions that include an NBM related to adulthood. Participants aged from 40 to 80 years were asked to describe an NBM, to explain why they had stopped believing their memory, and to rate its phenomenal characteristics. Participants also described and rated an age-matched believed memory (BM)...
December 5, 2018: Memory
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Christelle Duprez, Flora Enault, Orianne Seyeux, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Autobiographical memory plays a major role in the construction of identity. A particular type of memory has been described as more relevant in pursuit of personal goals: self-defining memory (SDM). In patients with opioid-use disorder (OUD), SDM recall has not yet been investigated despite deficits in the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This study aims to characterise SDM recall in OUD patients. Patients (N = 25) and non-dependent individuals (N = 25) were told to recall five SDM and to rate the emotion (valence and arousal) triggered during the retrieval...
November 29, 2018: Memory
Gabriel A Radvansky, Connie Svob
Six studies explored the preponderance of people who experience third-person perspective observer memories during autobiographical memory retrieval. The concept of first-person field versus observer memories has been extensively used in the areas of cognitive, social, and clinical psychology. An implicit assumption is the idea that most people use both of these perspectives. What varies are the circumstances that bias people to use one perspective over another for a given autobiographical memory. We challenge that assumption across six studies by showing that, while there are some people who report to regularly have observer memories, there are also those that report to rarely or never have them...
November 29, 2018: Memory
Noboru Matsumoto, Satoshi Mochizuki
The retrieval process for underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory remains unclear. In this study, we identified what leads to self-referential and categoric thoughts and examined the influence error-monitoring ability has on the reporting of categoric memories. We also examined whether cue self-relevance and/or executive control task performance are related to the number of specific memories reported. Using thought sampling, 94 college students completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, as well as a verbal fluency task and a depression scale...
November 29, 2018: Memory
Manuel Anglada-Tort, Thomas Baker, Daniel Müllensiefen
The study of false memory has had a profound impact on our understanding of how and what we remember, as shown by the misinformation paradigm [Loftus, E. F. (2005). Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory. Learning & Memory, 12(4), 361-366. doi:10.1101/lm.94705]. Though misinformation effects have been demonstrated extensively within visual tasks, they have not yet been explored in the realm of non-visual auditory stimuli. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether post-event information can create false memories of music listening episodes...
November 14, 2018: Memory
Krystle E Zuniga, Mackenzie Mueller, Andrew R Santana, William L Kelemen
The present study was designed to examine the impact of exercise intensity and aerobic fitness on free recall, judgments of learning (JOLs), and metacognitive accuracy. In Experiment 1, 30 college students engaged in either (1) no exercise, (2) light exercise (55% of predicted maximal heart rate), or (3) moderate exercise (75% of predicted maximal heart rate) on three different days. In Experiment 2, 29 high-fit students (VO2 max ≥ 70th percentile) and 28 low-fit students (VO2 max ≤ 50th percentile) completed sedentary and light exercise conditions...
November 14, 2018: Memory
Gaën Plancher, Florence Mazeres, Guillaume T Vallet
In the present study, we used a complex span task to explore how memory traces resulting from Self-Performed Task (SPT) and Verbal Task (VT) are maintained in working memory. Participants memorised series of five sentences describing an action either through SPT or VT. Between pairs of sentences, participants performed a concurrent task that varied according to its nature and its cognitive load. The concurrent task was either a verbal task, a low cognitive load motor task or a high cognitive load motor task...
November 7, 2018: Memory
Karen Rosemarie Brandt, Martin Antony Conway, Adele James, Tim J von Oertzen
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between déjà vu and the entorhinal cortex in patients with wider medial temporal lobe damage. The aim of the present research was to investigate this crucial link in a patient (MR) with a selective lesion to the left lateral entorhinal cortex to provide a more direct exploration of this relationship. Two experiments investigated the experiences of déjà vécu (using the IDEA questionnaire) and déjà vu (using an adapted DRM paradigm) in MR and a set of matched controls...
November 7, 2018: Memory
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