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Amy V Smith, Denis McKeown, David Bunce
Emerging evidence suggests that age-related declines in memory may reflect a failure in pattern separation, a process that is believed to reduce the encoding overlap between similar stimulus representations during memory encoding. Indeed, behavioural pattern separation may be indexed by a visual continuous recognition task in which items are presented in sequence and observers report for each whether it is novel, previously viewed (old), or whether it shares features with a previously viewed item (similar)...
January 31, 2017: Memory
Phia S Salter, Nicholas J Kelley, Ludwin E Molina, Luyen T Thai
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them...
January 16, 2017: Memory
Lindsey Lilienthal
Proactive interference (PI) has been shown to affect working memory (WM) span as well as the predictive utility of WM span measures. However, most of the research on PI has been conducted using verbal memory items, and much less is known about the role of PI in the visuospatial domain. In order to further explore this issue, the present study used a within-subjects manipulation of PI that alternated clusters of trials with verbal and visuospatial to-be-remembered items. Although PI was shown to build and release across trials similarly in the two domains, important differences also were observed...
January 15, 2017: Memory
Celia B Harris, Amanda J Barnier, John Sutton, Paul G Keil, Roger A Dixon
Two complementary approaches to the study of collaborative remembering have produced contrasting results. In the experimental "collaborative recall" approach within cognitive psychology, collaborative remembering typically results in "collaborative inhibition": laboratory groups recall fewer items than their estimated potential. In the cognitive ageing approach, collaborative remembering with a partner or spouse may provide cueing and support to benefit older adults' performance on everyday memory tasks. To combine the value of experimental and cognitive ageing approaches, we tested the effects of collaborative remembering in older, long-married couples who recalled a non-personal word list and a personal semantic list of shared trips...
January 10, 2017: Memory
Sara N Gallant, Benjamin J Dyson, Lixia Yang
This paper explored the differential sensitivity young and older adults exhibit to the local context of items entering memory. We examined trial-to-trial performance during an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral (or baseline) words each cued as either to-be-remembered (TBR) or to-be-forgotten (TBF). This allowed us to focus on how variations in emotional valence (independent of arousal) and instruction (TBR vs. TBF) of the previous item (trial n-1) impacted memory for the current item (trial n) during encoding...
December 28, 2016: Memory
Henry Otgaar, Georgiana Moldoveanu, Jianqin Wang, Mark L Howe
In the current experiments, we attempted to elicit nonbelieved memories (NBMs) using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm. Furthermore, by using this approach, we explored the consequences of nonbelieved true and false memories. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received several DRM wordlists and were presented with a recognition task. After the recognition task, participants' statements were contradicted by giving them feedback about true and false items. In this way, we succeeded in eliciting nonbelieved true and false memories...
December 28, 2016: Memory
Patricia J Bauer, Rebekah Stewart, Ruth E Sirkin, Marina Larkina
Retention of events typically exhibits a sharp initial decrease followed by levelling off of forgetting. In an apparent exception to this general rule, college students have robust memory for their own locations in obscured versions of photographs of their entering classes taken during orientation-related activities, whether tested 2 months or 42 months after the event. Experiment 1 of the present research was a test for conceptual replication of this finding in photographs depicting more than twice the number of students (and thus potential distracters)...
December 28, 2016: Memory
Marina Larkina, Natalie A Merrill, Patricia J Bauer
Autobiographical memories contribute continuity and stability to one's self yet they also are subject to change: they can be forgotten or be inconsistently remembered and reported. In the present research, we compared the consistency of two reports of recent and distant personal events in adolescents (12- to 14-year-olds) and young adults (18- to 23-year-olds). In line with expectations of greater mnemonic consistency among young adults relative to adolescents, adolescents reported the same events 80% of the time compared with 90% consistency among young adults; the significant difference disappeared after taking into consideration narrative characteristics of individual memories...
December 7, 2016: Memory
Jeffrey C Van Ocker, Leah L Light, Darlene Olfman, Jason Rivera
The study reported here examined the effect of repetition on age differences in associative recognition using a paradigm designed to encourage recollection at test. Young and older adults studied lists of unrelated word pairs presented one, two, four, or eight times. Test lists contained old (intact) pairs, pairs consisting of old words that had been studied with other partners (rearranged lures), and pairs consisting of two unstudied words (new lures). Participants gave old/new responses and then indicated whether their responses were based on details that they could recollect or on familiarity...
March 2017: Memory
L Clarkson, S Roodenrys, L M Miller, C Hulme
There is a growing body of literature that suggests that long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) structures that were once thought to be distinct are actually co-dependent, and that LTM can aid retrieval from STM. The mechanism behind this effect is commonly argued to act on item memory but not on order memory. The aim of the current study was to examine whether LTM could exert an influence on STM for order by examining an effect attributed to LTM, the phonological neighbourhood effect, in a task that reduced the requirement to retain item information...
March 2017: Memory
Patricia J Bauer, Emily N Stark, Jennifer K Ackil, Marina Larkina, Natalie Merrill, Robyn Fivush
The recollective qualities of autobiographical memory are thought to develop over the course of the first two decades of life. We used a 9-year follow-up test of recall of a devastating tornado and of non-tornado-related events from before and after the storm, to compare the recollective qualities of adolescents' (n = 20, ages 11 years, 11 months to 20 years, 8 months) and adults' (n = 14) autobiographical memories. At the time of the tornado, half of the adolescents had been younger than age 6. Nine years after the event, all participants provided evidence that they recall the event of the tornado...
March 2017: Memory
Linda A Henkel, Alison Kris, Sarah Birney, Kaitlyn Krauss
For the many older adults living in long-term care facilities, the ability to connect with others, as well as with one's own personal past, may be of particular value. Reflecting on the past and sharing reminiscences with others serves different psychosocial functions in various settings. This study examined the functions of reminiscence for long-term care residents in the United States (Mage = 86.5) by addressing the self-reported frequency of reminiscence, the counterparties involved, the overall purpose and value of reminiscence, and the relation to residents' mental health and well-being...
March 2017: Memory
Signy Sheldon, Robert Amaral, Brian Levine
Individuals differ in how they mentally imagine past events. When reminiscing about a past experience, some individuals remember the event accompanied by rich visual images, while others will remember it with few of these images. In spite of the implications that these differences in the use of imagery have to the understanding of human memory, few studies have taken them into consideration. We examined how imagery interference affecting event memory retrieval was differently modulated by spatial and object imagery ability...
March 2017: Memory
Norm O'Rourke, David B King, Philippe Cappeliez
The current study examines the temporal stability of the tripartite model of reminiscence functions in which eight separate reminiscence functions map onto three second-order factors which contribute significantly to measurement of an overarching reminiscence latent construct. We collected online responses from 411 adults 50+ years of age. Confirmatory factor analytic models were computed at three points of data collection over 16 months. Invariance analyses were next undertaken to simultaneously compare the measurement properties to assess within-person stability of reminiscence functions over time...
March 2017: Memory
Martin Van Boekel, Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
Individuals exhibit hindsight bias when they are unable to recall their original responses to novel questions after correct answers are provided to them. Prior studies have eliminated hindsight bias by modifying the conditions under which original judgments or correct answers are encoded. Here, we explored whether hindsight bias can be eliminated by manipulating the conditions that hold at retrieval. Our retrieval-based approach predicts that if the conditions at retrieval enable sufficient discrimination of memory representations of original judgments from memory representations of correct answers, then hindsight bias will be reduced or eliminated...
March 2017: Memory
Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Talía V Román-López, Ulises Caballero-Sánchez, Cintia B Rosas-Escobar, E Ivett Ortega-Mora, Miguel A Barrera-Tlapa, Sandra Romero-Hidalgo, Karol Carrillo-Sánchez, Salvador Hernández-Morales, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Juan Antonio González-Barrios, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Oscar Prospéro-García
Individual differences in working memory ability are mainly revealed when a demanding challenge is imposed. Here, we have associated cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor genetic variation rs2180619 (AA, AG, GG), which is located in a potential CNR1 regulatory sequence, with performance in working memory. Two-hundred and nine Mexican-mestizo healthy young participants (89 women, 120 men, mean age: 23.26 years, SD = 2.85) were challenged to solve a medium (2-back) vs. a high (3-back) difficulty N-back tasks. All subjects responded as expected, performance was better with the medium than the high demand task version, but no differences were found among genotypes while performing each working memory (WM) task...
March 2017: Memory
Tobias Tempel, Veit Kubik
We investigated effects of retrieving body movements from memory on subsequent re-encoding of these movements (i.e., test-potentiated learning). In Experiment 1, participants first learned to perform 12 sequential finger movements as responses to letter stimuli. Eight of these movements then had to be recalled in response to their stimuli (initial test). Subsequently, learning trials were repeated for four of the previously to-be-retrieved movements as well as the previously not-to-be-retrieved movements. Restudy benefited from prior retrieval...
March 2017: Memory
Andreas Ihle, Paolo Ghisletta, Matthias Kliegel
To contribute to the ongoing conceptual debate of what traditional mean-level ongoing task (OT) costs tell us about the attentional processes underlying prospective memory (PM), we investigated costs to intraindividual variability (IIV) in OT response times as a potentially sensitive indicator of attentional processes. Particularly, we tested whether IIV in OT responses may reflect controlled employment of attentional processes versus lapses of controlled attention, whether these processes differ across adulthood, and whether it is moderated by cue focality...
March 2017: Memory
Randolph S Taylor, Wendy S Francis
Previous literature has demonstrated conceptual repetition priming across languages in bilinguals. This between-language priming effect is taken as evidence that translation equivalents have shared conceptual representations across languages. However, the vast majority of this research has been conducted using only concrete nouns as stimuli. The present experiment examined conceptual repetition priming within and between languages in adjectives, a part of speech not previously investigated in studies of bilingual conceptual representation...
March 2017: Memory
Kalif E Vaughn, Hannah Hausman, Nate Kornell
Attempting to retrieve information from memory is an engaging cognitive activity. We predicted that people would learn more when they had spent more time attempting to retrieve. In experiments 1a and 1b, participants were shown trivia questions for 0, 5, 10, or 30 seconds and then the answer was revealed. They took a final test immediately or after 48 hours. Retrieval enhanced learning, but the length of the retrieval attempt had no effect (i.e., final test performance was equivalent in the 5-, 10-, and 30-second conditions and worse in the 0-second condition)...
March 2017: Memory
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