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Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141512/the-impact-of-own-and-others-alcohol-consumption-on-social-contagion-following-a-collaborative-memory-task
#1
Craig Thorley, Paul Christiansen
When one person alters his or her recollection of an event to be consistent with another person's erroneous account of the same event, social contagion has occurred. In two studies, we examined whether alcohol consumption influences the degree to which people engage in social contagion. In Study 1, participants consumed alcohol, an alcohol placebo, or a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate who consumed a soft drink. In Study 2, participants consumed a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate they believed had consumed a soft drink or alcohol (but no alcohol was ever consumed)...
November 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130368/blocked-vs-interleaved-presentation-and-proactive-interference-in-episodic-memory
#2
Fabio Del Missier, Alessia Sassano, Valentina Coni, Martina Salomonsson, Timo Mäntylä
Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially...
November 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119868/the-contribution-of-disengagement-to-temporal-discriminability
#3
Zach Shipstead, Ashley Nespodzany
The present study examines the idea that time-based forgetting of outdated information can lead to better memory of currently relevant information. This was done using the visual arrays task, along with a between-subjects manipulation of both the retention interval (1 s vs. 4 s) and the time between two trials (1 s vs. 4 s). Consistent with prior work [Shipstead, Z., & Engle, R. W. (2013). Interference within the focus of attention: Working memory tasks reflect more than temporary maintenance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 277-289; Experiment 1], longer retention intervals did not lead to diminished memory of currently relevant information...
November 9, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108456/cross-task-and-cross-manipulation-stability-in-shifting-the-decision-criterion
#4
Amy Frithsen, Justin Kantner, Brian A Lopez, Michael B Miller
In recognition memory experiments participants must discriminate between old and new items, a judgment influenced by response bias. Research has shown substantial individual differences in the extent to which people will strategically adjust their response bias to diagnostic cues such as the prior probability of an old item. Despite this significant between subject variability, shifts in bias have been found to be relatively predictive within individuals across memory tests. Experiment 1 sought to determine whether this predictability extends beyond memory...
November 7, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096586/study-strategies-and-beliefs-about-learning-as-a-function-of-academic-achievement-and-achievement-goals
#5
Jason Geller, Alexander R Toftness, Patrick I Armstrong, Shana K Carpenter, Carly L Manz, Clark R Coffman, Monica H Lamm
Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies...
November 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092667/manipulating-the-reported-age-in-earliest-memories
#6
Ineke Wessel, Theresa Schweig, Rafaële J C Huntjens
Previous work suggests that the estimated age in adults' earliest autobiographical memories depends on age information implied by the experimental context [e.g., Kingo, O. S., Bohn, A., & Krøjgaard, P. (2013). Warm-up questions on early childhood memories affect the reported age of earliest memories in late adolescence. Memory, 21(2), 280-284. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.729598 ] and that the age in decontextualised snippets of memory is younger than in more complete accounts (i.e., event memories [Bruce, D...
November 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082811/functions-of-personal-and-vicarious-life-stories-identity-and-empathy
#7
Majse Lind, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: one for their personal life story and one for a close other's life story. In both questionnaires, they identified up to 10 chapters and self-rated the chapters on valence and valence of causal connections. In addition, they completed measures of identity disturbance and empathy. More positive personal life stories were related to lower identity disturbance and higher empathy...
October 29, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065777/how-do-associative-and-phonemic-overlap-interact-to-boost-illusory-recollection
#8
Keith A Hutchison, Michelle L Meade, Nikolas S Williams, Krista D Manley, Jaimie C McNabb
This project investigated the underlying mechanisms that boost false remember responses when participants receive study words that are both semantically and phonologically similar to a critical lure. Participants completed a memory task in which they were presented with a list of words all associated with a critical lure. Included within the list of semantic associates was a target that was either semantically associated (e.g., yawn) to the critical lure (e.g., sleep) or shared the initial (e.g., slam) or final (e...
October 24, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039240/repeated-study-of-items-with-and-without-repeated-context-aging-effects-on-memory-discriminability
#9
John M McCormick-Huhn, Caitlin R Bowman, Nancy A Dennis
Presenting items multiple times during encoding is a common way to enhance recognition accuracy. Under such conditions, older adults often show an increase in false recognition that counteracts benefits of repeated study. Using a false-memory paradigm with related study items and related lures, we tested whether repetition within the same encoding task or repetition across two different encoding tasks would be more beneficial to older adults' memory discriminability. Results showed that, compared to items not repeated at study, items repeated in the same context and items repeated across different contexts showed improvements in memory discriminability in both young and older adults...
October 17, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035145/reflecting-on-how-we-remember-the-personal-past-missing-components-in-the-study-of-memory-appraisal-and-theoretical-implications
#10
Mary Ann Foley
The current paper offers a selective review of the study of memory appraisal, focusing on recollections of the personal past, with the goal to bring attention to a missing component in this study. To date, memory appraisal studies have concentrated on participants' assessments of the content of their personal recollections (e.g., their perceptual detail and story-like feel), including beliefs about the accuracy of that content. Participants' assessments of reflection processes accompanying their recollections (e...
October 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027871/weak-evidence-for-increased-motivated-forgetting-of-trauma-related-words-in-dissociated-or-traumatised-individuals-in-a-directed-forgetting-experiment
#11
Lawrence Patihis, Patricia J Place
Motivated forgetting is the idea that people can block out, or forget, upsetting or traumatic memories, because there is a motivation to do so. Some researchers have cited directed forgetting studies using trauma-related words as evidence for the theory of motivated forgetting of trauma. In the current article subjects used the list method directed forgetting paradigm with both trauma-related words and positive words. After one list of words was presented subjects were directed to forget the words previously learned, and they then received another list of words...
October 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022853/destination-memory-in-social-interaction-better-memory-for-older-than-for-younger-destinations-in-normal-aging
#12
Mohamad El Haj, Stéphane Raffard, Luciano Fasotti, Philippe Allain
Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i...
October 12, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978281/cross-modal-working-memory-binding-and-word-recognition-skills-how-specific-is-the-link
#13
Shinmin Wang, Richard J Allen
Recent research has suggested that the creation of temporary bound representations of information from different sources within working memory uniquely relates to word recognition abilities in school-age children. However, it is unclear to what extent this link is attributable specifically to the binding ability for cross-modal information. This study examined the performance of Grade 3 (8-9 years old) children on binding tasks requiring either temporary association formation of two visual items (i.e., within-modal binding) or pairs of visually presented abstract shapes and auditorily presented nonwords (i...
October 4, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978279/does-mediator-use-contribute-to-the-spacing-effect-for-cued-recall-critical-tests-of-the-mediator-hypothesis
#14
Kayla Morehead, John Dunlosky, Katherine A Rawson, Melissa Bishop, Mary A Pyc
When study is spaced across sessions (versus massed within a single session), final performance is greater after spacing. This spacing effect may have multiple causes, and according to the mediator hypothesis, part of the effect can be explained by the use of mediator-based strategies. This hypothesis proposes that when study is spaced across sessions, rather than massed within a session, more mediators will be generated that are longer lasting and hence more mediators will be available to support criterion recall...
October 4, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978277/predictors-of-age-related-and-individual-variability-in-autobiographical-memory-in-childhood
#15
Patricia J Bauer, Marina Larkina
Development of autobiographical memory is as a gradual process beginning in early childhood and continuing through late adolescence. Substantial attention has been paid to early childhood when first personal memories are formed; less attention has been focused on the flourishing of memories from the late preschool years onward. We addressed this void with a three-year cohort-sequential study of age-related changes in the length, completeness, and coherence of autobiographical narratives by children 4-10 years...
October 4, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974153/image-memorability-across-longer-time-intervals
#16
Lore Goetschalckx, Pieter Moors, Johan Wagemans
You may find some images easier to remember than others. Recent studies of visual memory have found remarkable levels of consistency for this inter-item variability across observers, suggesting that memorability can be considered an intrinsic image property. The current study replicated and extended previous results, while adopting a more traditional visual long-term memory task with retention intervals of 20 min, one day, and one week, as opposed to the previously used repeat-detection task, which typically relied on short retention intervals (5 min)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974150/production-on-hold-delaying-vocal-production-enhances-the-production-effect-in-free-recall
#17
Yaniv Mama, Michal Icht
The Production Effect (PE) represents superior memory for produced (read aloud) relative to non-produced (silently read) items. Another method of improving memory is taking a test on the study material - the Testing Effect. We evaluated the combined influence of both effects on free recall memory, using delayed vocal production, in which study words were vocally produced only after their disappearance. Such procedure involves an initial instant test since participants had to vocally retrieve the words (rather than read them aloud)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969504/olfactory-cues-are-more-effective-than-visual-cues-in-experimentally-triggering-autobiographical-memories
#18
Maaike J de Bruijn, Michael Bender
Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust's sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories...
October 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969489/this-time-it-s-personal-the-memory-benefit-of-hearing-oneself
#19
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
The production effect is the memory advantage of saying words aloud over simply reading them silently. It has been hypothesised that this advantage stems from production featuring distinctive information that stands out at study relative to reading silently. MacLeod (2011) (I said, you said: The production effect gets personal. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1197-1202. doi: 10.3758/s13423-011-0168-8 ) found superior memory for reading aloud oneself vs. hearing another person read aloud, which suggests that motor information (speaking), self-referential information (i...
October 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952413/distinct-eye-movements-for-different-cognitive-processes-as-expressed-in-the-face-recognition-task
#20
Ohad Parag, Eli Vakil
Contemporary research literature indicates that eye movements during the learning and testing phases can predict and affect future recognition processes. Nevertheless, only partial information exists regarding eye movements in the various components of recognition processes: Hits, Correct rejections, Misses and False Alarms (FA). In an attempt to address this issue, participants in this study viewed human faces in a yes/no recognition memory paradigm. They were divided into two groups - one group that carried out the testing phase immediately after the learning phase (n = 30) and another group with a 15-minute delay between phases (n = 28)...
September 27, 2017: Memory
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