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Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287902/a-narrative-synthesis-of-the-applicability-of-the-car-fa-x-model-in-child-and-adolescent-populations-a-systematic-review
#1
Tracy M Stewart, Simon C Hunter, Sinéad M Rhodes
The CaR-FA-X model [Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hermans, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., … Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ] is the most prominent and comprehensive model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and provides a framework for OGM. The model comprises of three mechanisms, capture and rumination, functional avoidance and impaired executive control...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287018/do-you-remember-where-sounds-pictures-and-words-came-from-the-role-of-the-stimulus-format-in-object-location-memory
#2
Franco Delogu, Christopher C Lilla
Contrasting results in visual and auditory spatial memory stimulate the debate over the role of sensory modality and attention in identity-to-location binding. We investigated the role of sensory modality in the incidental/deliberate encoding of the location of a sequence of items. In 4 separated blocks, 88 participants memorised sequences of environmental sounds, spoken words, pictures and written words, respectively. After memorisation, participants were asked to recognise old from new items in a new sequence of stimuli...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285570/acute-memory-deficits-in-chemotherapy-treated-adults
#3
Oana C Lindner, Andrew Mayes, Martin G McCabe, Deborah Talmi
Data from research on amnesia and epilepsy are equivocal with regards to the dissociation, shown in animal models, between rapid and slow long-term memory consolidation. Cancer treatments have lasting disruptive effects on memory and on brain structures associated with memory, but their acute effects on synaptic consolidation are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that cancer treatment selectively impairs slow synaptic consolidation. Cancer patients and their matched controls were administered a novel list-learning task modelled on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285548/memory-for-vocal-tempo-and-pitch
#4
Marilyn G Boltz
Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276973/erratum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276974/memory-skills-mediating-superior-memory-in-a-world-class-memorist
#6
K Anders Ericsson, Xiaojun Cheng, Yafeng Pan, Yixuan Ku, Yi Ge, Yi Hu
Laboratory studies have investigated how individuals with normal memory spans attained digit spans over 80 digits after hundreds of hours of practice. Experimental analyses of their memory skills suggested that their attained memory spans were constrained by the encoding time, for the time needed will increase if the length of digit sequences to be memorised becomes longer. These constraints seemed to be violated by a world-class memorist, Feng Wang (FW), who won the World Memory Championship by recalling 300 digits presented at 1 digit/s...
March 1, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276976/anchoring-effects-on-early-autobiographical-memories
#7
Daniel L Greenberg, Anthony J Bishara, Marino A Mugayar-Baldocchi
Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories...
February 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276975/hebb-repetition-effects-for-non-verbal-visual-sequences-determinants-of-sequence-acquisition
#8
Andrew J Johnson, Artur Dygacz, Christopher Miles
We report four experiments premised upon the work of Horton et al. [(2008). Hebb repetition effects in visual memory: The roles of verbal rehearsal and distinctiveness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(12), 1769-1777] and Page et al. [(2013). Repetition-spacing and item-overlap effects in the Hebb repetition task. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4), 506-526], and explore conditions under which the visual Hebb repetition effect is observed. Experiment 1 showed that repetition learning is evident when the items comprising the non-repeated (filler) sequences and the repeated (Hebb) sequences are different (no-overlap)...
February 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276977/effects-of-aging-on-the-relation-between-episodic-simulation-and-prosocial-intentions
#9
Brendan Gaesser, Haley Dodds, Daniel L Schacter
Imagining helping a person in need can facilitate prosocial intentions. Here we investigated how this effect can change with aging. We found that, similar to young adults, older adults were more willing to help a person in need when they imagined helping that person compared to a baseline condition that did not involve helping, but not compared to a conceptual helping control condition. Controlling for heightened emotional concern in older adults revealed an age-related difference in the effect of imagining on willingness to help...
February 24, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276978/successfully-controlling-intrusive-memories-is-harder-when-control-must-be-sustained
#10
Kevin van Schie, Michael C Anderson
After unpleasant events, people often experience intrusive memories that undermine their peace of mind. In response, they often suppress these unwanted memories from awareness. Such efforts may fail, however, when inhibitory control demands are high due to the need to sustain control, or when fatigue compromises inhibitory capacity. Here we examined how sustained inhibitory demand affected intrusive memories in the Think/No-Think paradigm. To isolate intrusions, participants reported, trial-by-trial, whether their preceding attempt to suppress retrieval had triggered retrieval of the memory they intended to suppress...
February 21, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276982/did-the-popsicle-melt-preschoolers-performance-in-an-episodic-like-memory-task
#11
Gema Martin-Ordas, Cristina M Atance, Julian Caza
Episodic memory has been tested in non-human animals using depletion paradigms that assess recollection for the "what", "where" and "when" (i.e., how long ago). This paradigm has not been used with human children, yet doing so would provide another means to explore their episodic memory development. Using a depletion paradigm, preschool-aged children were presented in two trials with a preferred food that was only edible after a short interval and a less-preferred food that was edible after the short and long intervals...
February 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276981/impact-of-age-relevant-goals-on-future-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults
#12
Leann K Lapp, Julia Spaniol
This study investigated how personal goals influence age differences in episodic future thinking. Research suggests that personal goals change with age and like autobiographical memory, future thinking is thought to be organised and impacted by personal goals. It was hypothesised that cueing older adults with age-relevant goals should modulate age differences in episodic details and may also influence phenomenological characteristics of imagined scenarios. Healthy younger and older adults completed the Future Thinking Interview [Addis, D...
February 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276980/caffeine-cravings-impair-memory-and-metacognition
#13
Matthew A Palmer, James D Sauer, Angus Ling, Joshua Riza
Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test...
February 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276979/the-influence-of-external-stimulation-in-missing-knowledge-retrieval
#14
Rémi Radel, Marion Fournier
We investigated the effects of sensory reduction on the retrieval of information during tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experiences. As conscious access results from severe competition in which external stimuli often have priority, we hypothesised that reducing external stimulation would allow individuals greater access to weakly activated inner knowledge. In Study 1, when participants experienced a TOT while answering a general knowledge question, they were given additional time to find the solution in a restricted (eyes closed + silence) or a non-restricted (eyes open + ambient noise) external stimulation environment...
February 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276983/priming-not-inhibition-of-related-concepts-during-future-imagining
#15
Karen L Campbell, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Remembering the past and imagining the future both involve the retrieval of details stored in episodic memory and rely on the same core network of brain regions. Given these parallels, one might expect similar component processes to be involved in remembering and imagining. While a strong case can be made for the role of inhibition in memory retrieval, few studies have examined whether inhibition is also necessary for future imagining and results to-date have been mixed. In the current study, we test whether related concepts are inhibited during future imagining using a modified priming approach...
February 14, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276984/source-memory-that-encoding-was-self-referential-the-influence-of-stimulus-characteristics
#16
Kelly A Durbin, Karen J Mitchell, Marcia K Johnson
Decades of research suggest that encoding information with respect to the self improves memory (self-reference effect, SRE) for items (item SRE). The current study focused on how processing information in reference to the self affects source memory for whether an item was self-referentially processed (a source SRE). Participants self-referentially or non-self-referentially encoded words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2) that varied in valence (positive, negative, neutral). Relative to non-self-referential processing, self-referential processing enhanced item recognition for all stimulus types (an item SRE), but it only enhanced source memory for positive words (a source SRE)...
February 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140782/time-manages-interference-in-visual-short-term-memory
#17
Amy V Smith, Denis McKeown, David Bunce
Emerging evidence suggests that age-related declines in memory may reflect a failure in pattern separation, a process that is believed to reduce the encoding overlap between similar stimulus representations during memory encoding. Indeed, behavioural pattern separation may be indexed by a visual continuous recognition task in which items are presented in sequence and observers report for each whether it is novel, previously viewed (old), or whether it shares features with a previously viewed item (similar)...
January 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093026/out-of-sight-out-of-mind-racial-retrieval-cues-increase-the-accessibility-of-social-justice-concepts
#18
Phia S Salter, Nicholas J Kelley, Ludwin E Molina, Luyen T Thai
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them...
January 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090818/individual-differences-in-proactive-interference-in-verbal-and-visuospatial-working-memory
#19
Lindsey Lilienthal
Proactive interference (PI) has been shown to affect working memory (WM) span as well as the predictive utility of WM span measures. However, most of the research on PI has been conducted using verbal memory items, and much less is known about the role of PI in the visuospatial domain. In order to further explore this issue, the present study used a within-subjects manipulation of PI that alternated clusters of trials with verbal and visuospatial to-be-remembered items. Although PI was shown to build and release across trials similarly in the two domains, important differences also were observed...
January 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071300/-going-episodic-collaborative-inhibition-and-facilitation-when-long-married-couples-remember-together
#20
Celia B Harris, Amanda J Barnier, John Sutton, Paul G Keil, Roger A Dixon
Two complementary approaches to the study of collaborative remembering have produced contrasting results. In the experimental "collaborative recall" approach within cognitive psychology, collaborative remembering typically results in "collaborative inhibition": laboratory groups recall fewer items than their estimated potential. In the cognitive ageing approach, collaborative remembering with a partner or spouse may provide cueing and support to benefit older adults' performance on everyday memory tasks. To combine the value of experimental and cognitive ageing approaches, we tested the effects of collaborative remembering in older, long-married couples who recalled a non-personal word list and a personal semantic list of shared trips...
January 10, 2017: Memory
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