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Health Economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627808/evaluation-of-a-pharmaceutical-risk-sharing-agreement-when-patients-are-screened-for-the-probability-of-success
#1
Reza Mahjoub, Fredrik Ødegaard, Gregory S Zaric
We analyze a game-theoretic model of a risk-sharing agreement between a payer and a pharmaceutical firm. The drug manufacturer chooses the price while the payer sets the rebate rate and decides which patients are eligible for treatment. The manufacturer provides the payer with a rebate for nonresponding patients. We generalize on the existing literature, by making both price and rebate rate decision variables, allowing the rebate rate to be different from 100%, and incorporating 2 types of administrative costs...
June 19, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627730/does-involvement-of-local-ngos-enhance-public-service-delivery-cautionary-evidence-from-a-malaria-prevention-program-in-india
#2
Ashis Das, Jed Friedman, Eeshani Kandpal
Partnerships between government and non-state actors that aim to enhance the quality or efficiency of service delivery are increasingly common in today's development policy landscape. We investigate the impacts of such an approach using data from an experimental supportive intervention to India's malaria control program that leveraged local non-state capacity in order to promote mosquito net usage and recommended fever care-seeking patterns. The supportive activities were conducted simultaneously by 3 NGOs, contracted out by the Indian government, in 2 endemic districts in the state of Odisha...
June 19, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620975/decision-heuristic-or-preference-attribute-non-attendance-in-discrete-choice-problems
#3
Sebastian Heidenreich, Verity Watson, Mandy Ryan, Euan Phimister
This paper investigates if respondents' choice to not consider all characteristics of a multiattribute health service may represent preferences. Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies account for attribute non-attendance (ANA) when using discrete choice experiments to elicit individuals' preferences. Most studies assume such behaviour is a heuristic and therefore uninformative. This assumption may result in misleading welfare estimates if ANA reflects preferences. This is the first paper to assess if ANA is a heuristic or genuine preference without relying on respondents' self-stated motivation and the first study to explore this question within a health context...
June 16, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620934/fairness-in-cost-benefit-analysis-a-methodology-for-health-technology-assessment
#4
Anne-Laure Samson, Erik Schokkaert, Clémence Thébaut, Brigitte Dormont, Marc Fleurbaey, Stéphane Luchini, Carine Van de Voorde
We evaluate the introduction of various forms of antihypertensive treatments in France with a distribution-sensitive cost-benefit analysis. Compared to traditional cost-benefit analysis, we implement distributional weighting based on equivalent incomes, a new concept of individual well-being that does respect individual preferences but is not subjectively welfarist. Individual preferences are estimated on the basis of a contingent valuation question, introduced into a representative survey of the French population...
June 16, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618448/out-of-sight-but-not-out-of-mind-home-countries-macroeconomic-volatilities-and-immigrants-mental-health
#5
Ha Trong Nguyen, Luke Brian Connelly
We provide the first empirical evidence that better economic performances by immigrants' countries of origin, as measured by lower consumer price index (CPI) or higher gross domestic product, improve immigrants' mental health. We use an econometrically-robust approach that exploits exogenous changes in macroeconomic conditions across immigrants' home countries over time and controls for immigrants' observable and unobservable characteristics. The CPI effect is statistically significant and sizeable. Furthermore, the CPI effect diminishes as the time since emigrating increases...
June 15, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599353/restricting-access-to-alcohol-and-public-health-evidence-from-electoral-dry-laws-in-brazil
#6
Marcos Y Nakaguma, Brandon J Restrepo
We analyze the impact of short-term alcohol bans on road traffic accidents, traffic injuries, and hospital admissions. We focus on the 2012 Municipal Elections in Brazil, during which 11 out of 27 states imposed on its 2,733 municipalities the decision to adopt alcohol bans. Using day-level data on municipalities, we find that alcohol bans caused substantial reductions in road crashes (19%), traffic injuries (43%), and traffic-related hospitalizations (17%). An analysis of traffic-related hospitalization costs allows us to estimate the lower bound of the negative externality associated with excessive alcohol consumption in this context, which reveals that electoral dry laws saved Brazil's public healthcare system $100,000 per day...
June 9, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568967/globalisation-and-national-trends-in-nutrition-and-health-a-grouped-fixed-effects-approach-to-intercountry-heterogeneity
#7
Lisa Oberlander, Anne-Célia Disdier, Fabrice Etilé
Using a panel dataset of 70 countries spanning 42 years (1970-2011), we investigate the distinct effects of social globalisation and trade openness on national trends in markers of diet quality (supplies of animal proteins, free fats and sugar, average body mass index, and diabetes prevalence). Our key methodological contribution is the application of a grouped fixed-effects estimator, which extends linear fixed-effects models. The grouped fixed-effects estimator partitions our sample into distinct groups of countries in order to control for time-varying unobserved heterogeneity that follows a group-specific pattern...
June 1, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568843/is-there-additional-value-attached-to-health-gains-at-the-end-of-life-a-revisit
#8
Dorte Gyrd-Hansen
Researchers have in recent years sought to establish whether the general public value treatment at the end of life (EOL) more highly than other treatments. Results are mixed, with social preferences most often exhibiting lack of preferences for EOL treatments. This null result may be driven by the often applied study design, where respondents are to choose between treatments targeting patients with varying fixed life expectancies. When remaining life is certain and salient, a rule-of-rescue sentiment may drive preferences across all scenarios...
June 1, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556295/robust-rankings-of-socioeconomic-health-inequality-using-a-categorical-variable
#9
Paul Makdissi, Myra Yazbeck
When assessing socioeconomic health inequalities, researchers often draw upon measures of income inequality that were developed for ratio scale variables. As a result, the use of categorical data (such as self-reported health status) produces rankings that may be arbitrary and contingent to the numerical scale adopted. In this paper, we develop a method that overcomes this issue by providing conditions for which these rankings are invariant to the numerical scale chosen by the researcher. In doing so, we draw on the insight provided by Allison and Foster (2004) and extend their method to the dimension of socioeconomic inequality by exploiting the properties of rank-dependent indices such as Wagstaff (2002) achievement and extended concentration indices...
May 29, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548247/market-for-artemether-lumefantrine-to-treat-childhood-malaria-in-a-district-of-southern-mozambique
#10
Sergi Alonso, Khátia Munguambe, Elisa Sicuri
Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are used as first-line treatment drugs, but their market is far from competitive. Market failures include limited availability, low quality, lack of information, and high costs of access. We estimated the theoretical demand for one of the most common artemisinin-based combination therapies, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), and its determinants among caregivers of children with malaria seeking care at public health facilities, thus, entitled to receive drugs for free, in southern Mozambique (year 2012)...
May 26, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544209/ordinal-response-generalized-difference-in-differences-with-varying-categories-the-health-effect-of-a-disability-program-in-korea
#11
Young-Sook Kim, Myoung-Jae Lee
We consider the use of difference in differences (DD) to evaluate the effect of an activity assistance program on the health of severely disabled Koreans. There are, however, 2 problems in the data: the number of response categories for self-assessed health changed over the waves of the repeated cross-section survey and the "parallel untreated response path" assumption for DD is suspect. We show how to overcome these problems by renormalizing parameters and applying "generalized difference in differences (GDD)...
May 24, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544104/exploring-the-predictive-power-of-interaction-terms-in-a-sophisticated-risk-equalization-model-using-regression-trees
#12
S H C M van Veen, R C van Kleef, W P M M van de Ven, R C J A van Vliet
This study explores the predictive power of interaction terms between the risk adjusters in the Dutch risk equalization (RE) model of 2014. Due to the sophistication of this RE-model and the complexity of the associations in the dataset (N = ~16.7 million), there are theoretically more than a million interaction terms. We used regression tree modelling, which has been applied rarely within the field of RE, to identify interaction terms that statistically significantly explain variation in observed expenses that is not already explained by the risk adjusters in this RE-model...
May 23, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524248/how-should-hospital-reimbursement-be-refined-to-support-concentration-of-complex-care-services
#13
Chris Bojke, Katja Grašič, Andrew Street
The English National Health Service is promoting concentration of the treatment of patients with relatively rare and complex conditions into a limited number of specialist centres. If these patients are more costly to treat, the prospective payment system based on Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs) may need refinement because these centres will be financially disadvantaged. To assess the funding implications of this concentration policy, we estimate the cost differentials associated with caring for patients that receive complex care and examine the extent to which complex care services are concentrated across hospitals and HRGs...
May 19, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512845/work-retirement-and-muscle-strength-loss-in-old-age
#14
Marco Bertoni, Stefania Maggi, Guglielmo Weber
Reduced muscle strength is an accurate predictor of functional limitations, disability, and mortality. Hence, understanding which socio-economic factors contribute to preserve muscle strength in old age is central to the design of social policies that help reducing these health risks. Using data on handgrip strength collected by the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the population of Europeans aged 50+ and the exogenous variation in pension eligibility age across countries over time, we estimate that the retirement transition has a short-term positive causal effect on muscle strength...
May 17, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512768/nursing-home-prices-and-quality-of-care-evidence-from-administrative-data
#15
Arndt R Reichert, Magdalena A Stroka
There is widespread concern about the quality of care in nursing homes. On the basis of administrative data of a large health insurance fund, we investigate whether nursing home prices are associated with relevant quality of care indicators at the resident level. Our results indicate negative associations between price and both inappropriate and psychotropic medication. In contrast, we do not find any relationship between the price and impairments of physical health.
May 17, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508558/individual-survival-curves-comparing-subjective-and-observed-mortality-risks
#16
Luc Bissonnette, Michael D Hurd, Pierre-Carl Michaud
We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity...
May 15, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508452/mental-health-cost-of-terrorism-study-of-the-charlie-hebdo-attack-in-paris
#17
Dongyoung Kim, Young-I Albert Kim
This study examines whether a terrorist attack in a developed country, which does not cause major damage to its capital stocks, affects the mental health of its residents. By exploiting variations in survey dates of the European Social Survey, we use a difference-in-differences strategy to show that the attack adversely affects subjective well-being and mental health measures of French respondents. These negative effects are stronger for immigrants and low-income individuals. The impact is less dramatic for politically extreme right-wing supporters...
May 15, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497642/estimating-lifetime-medical-costs-from-censored-claims-data
#18
Jing-Shiang Hwang, Tsuey-Hwa Hu, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn Lee, Jung-Der Wang
Claims databases consisting of routinely collected longitudinal records of medical expenditures are increasingly utilized for estimating expected medical costs of patients with a specific condition. Survival data of the patients of interest are usually highly censored, and observed expenditures are incomplete. In this study, we propose a survival-adjusted estimator for estimating mean lifetime costs, which integrates the product of the survival function and the mean cost function over the lifetime horizon. The survival function is estimated by a new algorithm of rolling extrapolation, aided by external information of age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics...
May 12, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497638/bounding-the-causal-effect-of-unemployment-on-mental-health-nonparametric-evidence-from-four-countries
#19
Kamila Cygan-Rehm, Daniel Kuehnle, Michael Oberfichtner
An important, yet unsettled, question in public health policy is the extent to which unemployment causally impacts mental health. The recent literature yields varying findings, which are likely due to differences in data, methods, samples, and institutional settings. Taking a more general approach, we provide comparable evidence for four countries with different institutional settings-Australia, Germany, the UK, and the United States-using a nonparametric bounds analysis. Relying on fairly weak and partially testable assumptions, our paper shows that unemployment has a significant negative effect on mental health in all countries...
May 12, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497510/the-effect-of-health-care-expenditure-on-patient-outcomes-evidence-from-english-neonatal-care
#20
Samuel Watson, Wiji Arulampalam, Stavros Petrou
The relationship between health care expenditure and health outcomes has been the subject of recent academic inquiry in order to inform cost-effectiveness thresholds for health technology assessment agencies. Previous studies in public health systems have relied upon data aggregated at the national or regional level; however, there remains debate about whether the supply side effect of changes to expenditure are identifiable using data at this level of aggregation. We use detailed patient data derived from electronic neonatal records across England along with routinely available cost data to estimate the effect of changes to patient expenditure on clinical health outcomes in a well-defined patient population...
May 12, 2017: Health Economics
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