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Journal of Toxicologic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097847/quantitative-analysis-of-histopathological-findings-using-image-processing-software
#1
Yasushi Horai, Tetsuhiro Kakimoto, Kana Takemoto, Masaharu Tanaka
In evaluating pathological changes in drug efficacy and toxicity studies, morphometric analysis can be quite robust. In this experiment, we examined whether morphometric changes of major pathological findings in various tissue specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin could be recognized and quantified using image processing software. Using Tissue Studio, hypertrophy of hepatocytes and adrenocortical cells could be quantified based on the method of a previous report, but the regions of red pulp, white pulp, and marginal zones in the spleen could not be recognized when using one setting condition...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097846/effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-iberian-ribbed-newt-pleurodeles-waltl-testes
#2
Ayano Hirako, Yuki Takeoka, Toshinori Hayashi, Takashi Takeuchi, Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
To characterize the histomorphologic effects of cadmium on adult newt testes, male Iberian ribbed newts (6 months post-hatching) were intraperitoneally exposed to a single dose of 50 mg/kg of cadmium, with histologic analysis of the testes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Beginning 24 h after cadmium exposure, apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was observed, and congestion was observed in the interstitial vessels of the testes. Throughout the experimental period, the rates of pyknotic cells and TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 positivity were significantly higher in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of cadmium-treated newts compared with control newts...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097845/historical-control-background-incidence-of-spontaneous-pituitary-gland-lesions-of-han-wistar-and-sprague-dawley-rats-and-cd-1-mice-used-in-104-week-carcinogenicity-studies
#3
Kaori Isobe, James Baily, Sydney Mukaratirwa, Claudio Petterino, Alys Bradley
The aim of this study was to determine the range and incidences of spontaneous microscopic lesions of the pituitary gland in control Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice from 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 1998 and 2010 at Charles River Edinburgh. In both strains of rats and in CD-1 mice, non-proliferative lesions of the pituitary gland were generally uncommon, excluding cysts/pseudocysts (6.42% in Han-Wistar rats, 5.85% in Sprague-Dawley rats, and 2.08% in CD-1 mice). Primary proliferative lesions were most frequently found in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097844/ataxia-telangiectasia-and-rad3-related-atr-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-pml-pathway-of-the-dna-damage-response-in-the-brain-of-rats-administered-arsenic-trioxide
#4
Ryo Watanabe, Kana Unuma, Kanako Noritake, Takeshi Funakoshi, Toshihiko Aki, Koichi Uemura
To examine the in vivo responses of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) to arsenic, rats (male, 6 weeks old, Sprague Dawley) were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (ATO). The protein was examined in the heart, lung, liver, and brain 6 and 48 hours after administration: a significant response of PML was observed in the brain. Oxidative DNA modification was also observed in the brain as revealed by increased immunoreactivity to anti-8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) antibody...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097843/a-case-report-of-ventricular-septal-defect-in-an-adult-sprague-dawley-rat
#5
Tetsuro Kurotaki, Yuki Tomonari, Junko Sato, Takeshi Kanno, Minoru Tsuchitani
A 20-week-old male Sprague Dawley rat noted with decreased body weight, dyspnea, and anorexia beginning 2 days before death was necropsied in the recovery period of a sub-chronic toxicity study. The heart was severely enlarged (30 × 20 × 20 mm), 3-4 times larger than normal, with an approximately 6 mm wide defect in the upper, membranous portion of the ventricular septum. Both ventricles measured 4 mm in thickness, and the right ventricle was 4 times thicker than normal. According to a microscopic examination, the myocardial fibers were severely hypertrophic in the right ventricle and mildly hypertrophic in the left ventricle and septum...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097842/a-spontaneous-basal-cell-carcinoma-with-pulmonary-metastasis-in-a-6-week-old-sd-rat
#6
Asami Urashima, Kinji Kobayashi, Yuji Sasaki, Kimiaki Hirakawa, Hiroshi Maeda
To our knowledge, this is the first report on basal cell carcinoma with lung metastasis in a rat. A 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat presented ulceration of the oral mucosa with surrounding tumor growth and white nodules in the lung. Microscopically, the mass showed solid, sheet-like growth with a partially lobular pattern and invaded the gingival mucosa, maxilla, and nasal submucosa. The nuclei of tumor cells were round to oval in shape with basophilic cytoplasm and a large number of mitotic figures. The pulmonary nodules were almost identical to the maxillary tumor in histopathological characteristics...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097841/morphological-analysis-of-patchy-thickening-and-reddish-discoloration-of-active-hair-growth-areas-in-the-skin-of-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#7
Tomoko Ishihara, Haruhiro Yamashita, Takanobu Sakurai, Junya Morita, Kouji Sakamoto, Aiko Ishii, Minoru Sasaki
Patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas of skin in rabbits are occasionally found, and this gross feature could affect precise evaluation when conducting a dermal irritation test. Since little is known about the mechanism of this phenomenon, we examined the dorsal skin of New Zealand White rabbits morphologically and immunohistochemically in order to identify the possible mechanism responsible for developing these skin changes in relation to the hair cycle. Skin samples from 4 rabbits were divided into three groups (5 samples/group) based on their macroscopic characteristics: a thickened skin, erythematous skin, and smooth skin group...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097840/sustained-renal-inflammation-following-2-weeks-of-inhalation-of-occupationally-relevant-levels-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Chu-Chun Chien, Yuan-Horng Yan, Hung-Tzu Juan, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Jia-Bin Liao, Huai-Pao Lee, Jyh-Seng Wang
Exposure to zinc oxide (ZnO) has been linked to adverse health effects, but the renal effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the renal toxicity of inhaled ZnONPs. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to occupationally relevant levels of 1.1 (low dose) and 4.9 mg/m(3) (high dose) ZnONPs or high-efficiency particulate arresting-filtered air (HEPA-FA) via inhalation for 2 weeks. Histopathological examinations of rat kidneys were performed at 24 hours, 7 days, and 1 month after exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097839/ethanol-extracts-collected-from-the-styela-clava-tunic-alleviate-hepatic-injury-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-through-inhibition-of-hepatic-apoptosis-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#9
Eun Kyoung Koh, Ji Eun Kim, Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Kil Soo Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
The Styela clava tunic (SCT) is known as a good raw material for preparing anti-inflammatory compounds, wound healing films, guided bone regeneration, and food additives. To investigate whether ethanol extracts of the SCT (EtSCT) could protect against hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in ICR mice, alterations in serum biochemical indicators, histopathology, hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were observed in ICR mice pretreated with EtSCT for 5 days before CCl4 injection. EtSCT contained 15...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097838/effects-of-methotrexate-exposure-on-medaka-oryzias-latipes-testes
#10
Ayano Hirako, Yuki Takeoka, Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
For the purpose of clarifying the histopathological effects of methotrexate (MTX) on medaka testes, wild-type and homogenic p53-deficient male medaka at 4 to 6 months post-hatching were exposed to 0.25 mg/ml of MTX for 96 h with histopathological examination of testes at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. At 72 and 96 h after the start of MTX exposure, numerous apoptotic cells were observed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and the pyknotic cell rate and the TUNEL-positive and cleaved caspase-3-positive rates in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of MTX-treated wild type medaka were higher compared with those in the control wild-type medaka...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097837/two-types-of-deposits-hyaline-droplets-and-eosinophilic-bodies-associated-with-%C3%AE-2u-globulin-accumulation-in-the-rat-kidney
#11
Masao Hamamura, Takafumi Oshikata, Koshirou Katoku, Minoru Tsuchitani, Ryoji Yamaguchi
Alpha2u-globulin is an adult male rat-specific protein that accumulates spontaneously or inductively in the renal proximal tubular epithelium and forms microscopically observable deposits, which are generally referred to as "hyaline droplets," whereas a specific type of deposits is referred to as "eosinophilic bodies" by Japanese toxicologic pathologists. We compared hyaline droplets and eosinophilic bodies using special stains including immunostaining for α2u-globulin and lysosome-associated membrane protein in spontaneously occurring and d-limonene-induced cases...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097836/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-on-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Naoya Arizuka, Tomoaki Murakami, Kazuhiko Suzuki
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not fully understood, but many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a key role. The methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) administration model can reproduce histopathological features of human NASH and is widely used for investigating NASH. C57BL/6J mice have been used in many studies, but strain differences in pathogenesis have not been sufficiently investigated. We administred MCD to two mouse strains and then compared difference between strains and investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene (BCP), which possesses an antioxidant effect, on development and progression of NASH...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798535/effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-medaka-oryzias-latipes-testes
#13
Ayano Hirako, Yuki Takeoka, Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
Adult male medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to 10 ppm of cadmium for 96 h, and the testes were examined histopathologically. Numerous apoptotic cells were found in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes at 72 and 96 h after initiation of cadmium exposure, and the pyknotic index, TUNEL-positive rate, and cleaved caspase-3-positive rate in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of the cadmium-treated group were higher compared with the control group. No significant difference between the control and cadmium-treated groups was found in the phospho-histone H3-positive rate in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798534/a-case-of-spontaneous-purulent-granulomatous-pericarditis-in-a-beagle
#14
Kyohei Kamio, Yutaka Nakanishi, Kenta Matsue, Minoru Sasaki
The present report describes a case of spontaneous purulent granulomatous pericarditis in a 16-month-old beagle. A gross necropsy revealed pericardial effusion and multiple nodules on the surface of the heart and around the aorta adjacent to the heart. The cut surface of these nodules was solid and white in color, containing partially yellowish white regions. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation characterized by central necrotic cellular debris surrounded by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed in the epicardium...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798533/a-spontaneous-myoepithelial-carcinoma-in-the-mammary-gland-of-an-aged-female-icr-cd-1-mouse
#15
Tsuyoshi Ito, Toshinori Yoshida, Katsumi Soma, Yoshitaka Katoh, Yuko Shimada, Aya Ohnuma-Koyama, Naofumi Takahashi, Yoshimasa Okazaki, Atsushi Shiga, Maki Kuwahara, Takanori Harada
We report a female Crlj:CD1(ICR) mouse with a spontaneous mammary gland tumor composed of biphasic tumor cells, i.e., epithelioid and spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells. Macroscopically, a subcutaneous mass, approximately 3 cm in diameter was found in the lumbodorsal region. Histopathologically, the epithelioid cells proliferated in an alveolar or nest-like growth pattern, occasionally forming glandular-like structures. On the other hand, the spindle-shaped cells proliferated in a sarcomatous pattern. Normal mammary gland was observed in the vicinity of the tumor...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798532/adenocarcinoma-of-barrett-s-esophagus-in-a-dog
#16
James K Chambers, Tsubasa Saito, Kenjiro Fukushima, Shigeru Kakuta, Jun Nakayama, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
An endoscopic examination revealed a mass in the distal esophagus of a 9-year-old intact male bulldog. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells and extended from the squamous epithelium of the esophageal mucosa, indicating that the tumor was derived from Barrett's esophagus. Moreover, highly atypical foci that exhibited a cribriform pattern and high mitotic indices were also observed. The epithelial cells on the surface of the lesion often produced mucus that was positive for Alcian blue and immunohistochemically positive for MUC5AC...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798531/a-choroid-plexus-cyst-in-the-fourth-ventricle-of-a-sprague-dawley-rat
#17
Atsuko Murai, Kenji Nakamura, Norifumi Takimoto, Kengo Namiki, Daisuke Hibi, Yukihiro Yanagizawa, Koji Shimouchi
Choroid plexus cysts are rare lesions in the brain and are reported in humans and dogs. Herein, we report a choroid plexus cyst found in a 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rat. Histologically, a cyst measuring approximately 600 μm in diameter was found in the fourth ventricle of the brain. The cyst was lined with a single layer of flattened cells and was present in the connective tissue of the choroid plexus. Next to the cyst, a dilated tube was found with a similar morphology to the epithelium of the choroid plexus...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798530/spontaneous-nephroblastoma-with-striated-muscle-differentiation-in-an-f344-rat
#18
Natsuki Tanaka, Takeshi Izawa, Jyoji Yamate, Mitsuru Kuwamura
An eleven-month old male F344/DuCrj (F344) rat was found dead and had right kidney mass at necropsy. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of nests of neoplastic stellate cells. At the center of the nests, neoplastic epithelial cells formed a tubular structure. In the fibrous connective tissue surrounding the nests, neoplastic cells with striations demonstrable by phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin were observed. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic stellate cells were partially positive for Wilms Tumor 1 and vimentin, and neoplastic cells with striations were partially positive for desmin...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798529/comparisons-of-l-cysteine-and-d-cysteine-toxicity-in-4-week-repeated-dose-toxicity-studies-of-rats-receiving-daily-oral-administration
#19
Yusuke Shibui, Ryosei Sakai, Yasuhiro Manabe, Takeshi Masuyama
Two 4-week repeated-dose toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the potential toxicity of l-cysteine and d-cysteine. In one study, three groups of 6 male rats were each administered l-cysteine once daily by gavage at doses of 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The control group was administered a 0.5% methylcellulose vehicle solution. The other study followed a similar protocol except that the experimental groups received d-cysteine. Toxicological observations showed that the l-cysteine-treated groups exhibited renal injuries such as basophilic tubules with eosinophilic material in the lumen, and there were increased numbers of basophilic tubules in all treated groups...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798528/dosimetry-for-lung-tumorigenesis-induced-by-urethane-4-n-methyl-n-nitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone-nnk-and-benzo-a-pyrene-b-a-p-in-a-jjmsslc-mice
#20
Saeko Onami, Chigusa Okubo, Asuka Iwanaga, Hiroaki Suzuki, Hajime Iida, Yurie Motohashi, Yuki Tomonari, Seiji Otake, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Hiroyuki Yoshimura
Some chemicals are known to be lung carcinogens in rodents. While many studies using two-stage models have administered medium or high doses to mice, few have tested lower doses. The dose dependence of urethane, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), three well-known lung carcinogens at high doses, has not been sufficiently reported in lower dose ranges. Our study evaluated the tumorigenicity of urethane, NNK, and B[a]P at 26 weeks after a single intraperitoneal administration of each compound within medium to low dose in male and/or female A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
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