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Journal of Toxicologic Pathology

Munetaka Iwata, Wataru Yamamoto, Takasumi Shimomoto, Yuki Okada, Satomi Oosawa, Daishiro Miura, Yasushi Hara
Growth plates at each end of vertebral bodies play a pivotal role in longitudinal spinal growth. Epiphyseal closures are formed in adult humans. Although monkeys are frequently employed in bone and disc research, the age of epiphyseal closure has not been well documented. In this study, histological analyses of lumbar vertebral end plates and the surrounding tissue were performed in 11 normal cynomolgus monkeys aged approximately 9 to 15 years, and unclosed growth plate cartilage was detected in all the end plates...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Norimitsu Shirai, Mark G Evans
The present article describes an occurrence of testicular microlithiasis in a cynomolgus monkey from a routine regulatory toxicology study. The monkey was from a negative control group. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by multiple extracellular mineralized calculi within seminiferous tubular epithelia of both testes without any tissue reaction or abnormal condition such as cryptorchidism, testicular neoplasm, or hypogonadism. The present case is remarkable in that there is a paucity of reports on spontaneous testicular microlithiasis in nonhuman primates...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Tomoharu Naito, Tsuyoshi Saito, Tamami Higuchi, Akira Inomata, Takuo Hayashi, Yasuhiro Shimada, Atsuko Yamauchi-Ohguchi, Sayaka Kenmochi, Chihaya Kakinuma, Takashi Yao
Liposarcoma is a rare neoplasm in rats and is characterized by the presence of lipoblasts containing multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles. We encountered a rare type of liposarcoma in a male SD (Crj:CD(SD)IGS) rat during a long-term study to gather background data. At necropsy at 105 weeks of age, there was a large amount of fatty tissue covering the mesentery, pancreas, and retroperitoneum; a white nodule in the right kidney; and paleness of the liver. Microscopically, the tumor had a well-differentiated component and dedifferentiated high-grade component...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Yoshitaka Katoh, Tsuyoshi Ito, Yuko Shimada, Aya Ohnuma-Koyama, Naofumi Takahashi, Yoshimasa Okazaki, Atsushi Shiga, Maki Kuwahara, Toshinori Yoshida, Takanori Harada
A whitish mass approximately 30 mm in diameter was noted in the anterior mediastinum of a 67-week-old female Fischer 344 rat. Histopathologically, two types of tumor cells were identified on the basis of morphologic features: epithelial tumor cells with a tubular or cord-like growth pattern and rhabdomyosarcomatous tumor cells characterized by the presence of cross-striations. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial tumor cells reacted positively for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some reacted positively for p63, which is expressed in normal thymic epithelial cells...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Kiyokazu Ozaki, Yui Terayama, Tetsuro Matsuura, Isao Narama
Clinical and experimental research have suggested that dyslipidemia aggravates diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, whether dyslipidemia is a risk factor for DPN remains unclear. To investigate the effect of dyslipidemia on DPN, morphological features of peripheral nerves were analyzed in diabetic rats treated with a high-fat diet (HFD). Male rats were divided into four groups: nondiabetic rats (N), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (AL), diabetic rats treated with an HFD (AH), and nondiabetic rats treated with an HFD (HF)...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Yusuke Kemmochi, Takeshi Ohta, Yu Motohashi, Akihiro Kaneshige, Sohei Katsumi, Kochi Kakimoto, Yuzo Yasui, Akiko Anagawa-Nakamura, Kaoru Toyoda, Eriko Taniai-Riya, Akemi Takahashi, Toshiyuki Shoda, Takahisa Yamada
Sarcopenia is the age-related decrease of muscle mass and function. Diabetes and obesity are known to be risk factors that exacerbate sarcopenia, but the underlying mechanism of diabetes-related sarcopenia is still unknown. Obese type 2 diabetes SDT fatty rats show early onset of severe diabetes and there have been no reports on the characteristics of their skeletal muscle. Therefore, pathophysiological analyses were performed for the skeletal muscle in these rats. Diabetic male SDT fatty rats were sacrificed at 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 weeks of age...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Akihiko Yamamoto, Satomi Harano, Noriko Shinya, Ayataka Nagano, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyouko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
The redback spider ( Latrodectus hasseltii ) is nonindigenous to Japan but has now spread throughout the country. Bites to humans are rare but can be fatal. We prepared freeze-dried redback spider antivenom for therapeutic use against bites in Japan by immunization of horse plasma. This study included two nonclinical tests of the antivenom: a local irritation study involving a single intramuscular administration to rabbits (with injections of physiological saline and an existing freeze-dried diphtheria antitoxin as control and comparison substances, respectively) and a 2-week repeated intermittent intravenous-dose toxicity study in rats...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Shino Kumabe, Junko Sato, Yuki Tomonari, Miwa Takahashi, Kaoru Inoue, Midori Yoshida, Takuya Doi, Yumi Wako, Minoru Tsuchitani
To clarify the histopathological characteristics of rat endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS), we morphologically reviewed 12 malignant uterine tumors protruding into the lumen in previous rat carcinogenicity studies. The 12 cases were classified into the following 6 types based on their morphological features: spindle cell and collagen rich type, pleomorphic/spindle cell and compact type, decidual alteration type, histiocytic and multinucleated giant cell mixture type, Antoni A-type schwannoma type, and Antoni B-type schwannoma type...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Daichi Harata, Yuya Tsuchiya, Tomoyuki Miyoshi, Tokuma Yanai, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Tomoaki Murakami
In the several types of amyloidoses, participation of oxidative stresses in the pathogenesis and the effect of antioxidants on amyloidosis have been reported. Meanwhile, the relationship between oxidative stresses and pathogenesis of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is still unclear. In this study, we used an antioxidant, Brazilian propolis, to investigate the inhibitory effects on AA amyloidosis. The results showed that AA deposition was inhibited by administration of propolis. Increased expression of antioxidant markers was detected in molecular biological examinations of mice treated with propolis...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Etsuko Fujii, Masaki Yamazaki, Shigeto Kawai, Yoshimi Ohtani, Takeshi Watanabe, Atsuhiko Kato, Masami Suzuki
In vitro -cultured 3D structures called organoids have become important tools for biological research, but there is little information concerning simple and efficient methods to evaluate organoid morphology. To address this issue, we attempted to establish a simple method by applying conventional histopathology that enables observation of multiple organoids on a single cross section, maintains good morphology, and is applicable to various histopathological stains. By centrifugation in unsolidified agarose solution, we were able to accumulate the organoids onto a single plane...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Young-Man Cho, Yasuko Mizuta, Jun-Ichi Akagi, Takeshi Toyoda, Mizuki Sone, Kumiko Ogawa
In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in the acute toxicity of intraperitoneally administered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of varying sizes in BALB/c mice. Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally administered AgNPs measuring 10, 60, or 100 nm in diameter (0.2 mg/mouse) and then sacrificed 1, 3, or 6 h after treatment. In mice administered 10 nm AgNPs, reduced activity and piloerection were observed at 5 h post administration, and lowered body temperature was observed at 6 h post administration, with histopathological changes of congestion, vacuolation, single cell necrosis, and focal necrosis in the liver; congestion in the spleen; and apoptosis in the thymus cortex...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Shin-Ichi Chisada, Ayano Hirako, Akihiko Sugiyama
Ocular lesions in leptin receptor-deficient medaka were examined histopathologically at 10, 28, and 37 weeks post hatching. Leptin receptor-deficient medaka at 28 and 37 weeks old showed hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Histopathologically, vacuolation, swelling, fragmentation, and liquefaction of the lens fibers and dilatation of the retinal central veins, retinal capillaries, iridal veins and capillaries, and choroidal veins were observed in leptin receptor-deficient medaka at 28 and 37 weeks old. Thinning of the total retina, pigment epithelial layer, layer of rods and cones, outer granular layer, outer plexiform layer, inner granular layer, and inner plexiform layer was observed in leptin receptor-deficient medaka at 28 and 37 weeks compared with in control medaka...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Yuko Ono, Hiroko Sato, Toshiko Miyazaki, Katsuya Fujiki, Eisuke Kume, Masaharu Tanaka
Histopathological examination of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues that had been stored for 30 years was conducted, and reconstructivity of the results was verified. These FFPE tissues, which were from all organs of male and female rats, were re-sectioned and histopathologically examined using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In particular, the stainability and morphology of HE sections and reproducibility of microscopic findings in the liver and kidney demonstrated in the original final reports were evaluated...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Kyohei Yasuno, Kumi Honda, Shinobu Hakamata, Kiyonori Kai, Kazuhiko Mori
Minimal change disease (MCD) can be experimentally induced in rats, but spontaneous cases have not been reported. Herein, we present a case of MCD in rats that resembled the phenotypes of human MCD. A 9-week-old male Sprague Dawley rat developed continuous albuminuria for 2 weeks and was sacrificed at 11 weeks of age. Histological testing revealed no glomerular or renal tubular abnormalities on light microscopy. Immunofluorescence revealed absence of immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M deposition in the glomerulus...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Shizuka Konishi, Takashi Kotera, Masaaki Koga, Makoto Ueda
The term cardiomyopathy is used to describe heart disease resulting from an abnormality in the myocardium. It is rare in cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ). Here, we report a case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an 11-year-old male cynomolgus macaque. Macroscopically, the interventricular septum (IVS) and the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) walls of the heart were thickened. Histologically, cardiomyocytes showed hypertrophy and disarray with interstitial fibrosis, and some myocytes showed karyomegaly and vacuoles...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Riki Toita, Takahito Kawano, Satoshi Fujita, Masaharu Murata, Jeong-Hun Kang
Among five C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, one mouse showed a body weight (BW) similar to normal diet (ND)-fed mice. We compared obesity-related parameters of three groups (ND-fed mice, one HFD-fed normal-weight mouse, and HFD-fed overweight mice), including visceral fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), glucose, and aminotransferases (AST and ALT), adipocyte size, percentage of crown-like structures, severity of hepatic steatosis, and number of inflammatory foci. Compared to ND-fed mice, the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse exhibited a similar visceral fat weight, similar serum levels of glucose and aminotransferases, and a similar percentage of crown-like structures...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Hiroyuki Kuroda, Toshiko Kinomoto, Shuji Ogawa, Mayumi Kawabe, Mayuko Suguro, Hitoshi Naraoka, Kazuhiko Takamatsu, Yuji Oishi
Although acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate (acotiamide-HH) has not been reported to have genotoxic findings in any of the genotoxicity studies or treatment-related toxicological findings in reproductive and developmental studies, suspicious uterine tumorigenesis was observed in the results of a long-term rat carcinogenicity study. To clarify the uterine tumorigenesis of acotiamide-HH, we performed a 2-stage uterine carcinogenicity model in the transgenic rasH2 mouse initiated by N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). This model facilitated the short-term detection of uterine carcinogenic potential, and it appears to be a very useful testing method for assessing the safety of chemicals that may affect uterine tumorigenesis...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Osamu Ichii, Taro Horino
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs with approximately 18-25 bases, and their sequences are highly conserved among animals. miRNAs act as posttranscriptional regulators by binding mRNAs, and their main function involves the degradation of their target mRNAs. Recent studies revealed altered expression of miRNAs in the kidneys during the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and experimental rodent models by using high-throughput screening techniques including microarray and small RNA sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Chikuma Hamada
Generally, multiple statistical analysis methods can be applied for certain kind of data, and conclusion could differ, depending on the selected statistical method. Therefore, it is necessary to fully understand the performance of each statistical method and to examine which method is appropriate to use and to standardize statistical methods for toxicity studies to be carried out routinely. Several viewpoints for selecting appropriate statistical methods are discussed in this review paper. According to the distribution form, i...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Takuma Iguchi, Ken Sakurai, Satoshi Tamai, Kazuhiko Mori
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can potentially be used as sensitive and specific biomarkers for tissue injury. However, the usefulness of circulating miRNAs as safety biomarkers in nonclinical toxicological studies using nonhuman primates is debatable owing to the limited information on organ-specific miRNAs. Therefore, a systematic investigation was performed to address this point. We identified organ-specific miRNAs from cynomolgus monkeys by next-generation sequencing analysis, which revealed that miR-122 was only abundant in the liver, whereas miR-192 was abundant in the liver, stomach, intestines, and kidney...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
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