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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Rana Eltahan, Fengguang Guo, Haili Zhang, Guan Zhu
Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major species causing mild to severe cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. We have previously observed that 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) could inhibit both the enzyme activity of C. parvum hexokinase (CpHK) and the parasite growth in vitro. However, the action and fate of 2DG in C. parvum was not fully investigated. In the present study, we showed that, although 2DG could be phosphorylated by CpHK to form 2DG-6-phosphate (2DG6P), the anti-cryptosporidial activity of 2DG was mainly attributed to the action of 2DG on CpHK, rather than the action of 2DG or 2DG6P on the downstream enzyme glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) nor 2DG6P on CpHK...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jiřina Marková, Tereza Machačová, Eva Bártová, Kamil Sedlák, Marie Budíková, Pasquale Silvestre, Paolo Laricchiuta, Marco Russo, Vincenzo Veneziano
Problems with parasitic infections are common in zoological gardens and circuses, and can lead in some animals to several disorders such as systemic disease, reproductive disorders (abortions and neonatal mortality), and even to death if severe illness is untreated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three parasites in 74 animals from three zoos, and four circuses in Southern Italy. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Encephalitozoon cuniculi were detected in 51%, 12 % and 20% of animals, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Shaobin Wang, Yuanjun Zhao, Yanhong Du, Fahui Tang
During a survey of trichodinids in Chongqing, China, two populations of Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann & Partsch, 1955 were isolated from gills of the freshwater fishes, Carassius auratus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus, and 11 molecular samples containing small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S rDNA were newly sequenced. Both populations fell within the range of morphometry and corresponded well with the diagnostic morphological features of Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann & Partsch, 1955...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Fuchang Yu, Meng Qi, Zifang Zhao, Chaochao Lv, Yange Wang, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi causes microsporidiosis, a condition with complex epidemiology involving both direct and indirect transmission routes. To assess the potential role of synanthropic rodents and flies in the transmission of this pathogen, a total of 277 cattle fecal samples, 199 synanthropic rodents, and 50 batches of 20 flies were collected from a cattle farm. These samples were screened for the presence of E. bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Katelyn L Donahue, Hannah J Broadley, Joseph S Elkinton, John P Burand, Wei-Fone Huang, Jeremy C Andersen
Research pertaining to the two closely-related microsporidian genera Nosema and Vairimorpha is hindered by inconsistencies in species differentiation within and between the two clades. One proposal to better delimit these genera is to restructure the Nosema around a "True Nosema" clade, consisting of species that share a characteristic reversed ribosomal DNA operon arrangement and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences similar to that of the Nosema type species, N. bombycis. Using this framework, we assess two distinct microsporidia recovered from the forest insect Bruce spanworm (Operophtera bruceata) by sequencing their SSU and internal transcribed spacer regions...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Hannah M Houle, Cary B Lopez, Jeffrey D Leblond
Pyrodinium bahamense is a dinoflagellate of concern in subtropical and tropical coastal environments. To date, there is only a single published study on its fatty acids, but no published data on its sterol composition. Sterols, which are membrane-reinforcing lipids in eukaryotes, display a great diversity of structures in dinoflagellates, with some serving as chemotaxonomic markers. We have examined the sterol compositions of two isolates of P. bahamense from Indian River Lagoon and Tampa Bay, Florida, and have found both to produce three sterols: cholesterol, dinosterol, and 4α-methylgorgostanol...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Larry P Lehnen, Martha J Powell, Peter M Letcher
Zoospores of the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax release adhesive material from K-bodies at the onset of attachment to substrates. To understand more fully how K-bodies function in adhesion, enzyme activity was investigated cytochemically in secondary zoospores. Presence of catalase, a marker enzyme for microbodies, was explored in the diaminobenzidine (DAB) reaction. Although pH 9.2 DAB-staining characteristic of catalase activity was detected in the granular matrix regions of K-bodies, reaction controls indicated that the reaction was due to oxidative enzyme activity other than catalase...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yunyan Deng, Zhangxi Hu, Zhaoyang Chai, Ying Zhong Tang
CSPs, cold shock domain (CSD) containing proteins, are demonstrated to be involved in low temperature responses and various cellular processes under normal growth conditions. Here, we used the cosmopolitan, toxic, and resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea as a representative harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate to investigate the expression patterns of CSP in vegetative cells in response to temperature shocks and in resting cysts, with an objective to probe the possible function of CSP in dinoflagellates...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Mengmeng Pan, Yurui Wang, Haiwei Yin, Xuyue Pan, Weijie Mu, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Xinpeng Fan, Xuming Pan
In recent years, Tetrahymena species have been used as model organisms for research in a wide range of fields, highlighting the need for a fuller understanding of the taxonomy of this group. It is in this context that this paper uses living observation and silver staining methods to investigate the morphology and infraciliature of one Tetrahymena species, T. setosa (Schewiakoff, 1892) McCoy, 1975, the senior subjective synonym of T. setifera Holz and Corliss, 1956, isolated from a freshwater pond in Harbin, north-eastern China...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kenneth Dumack, Julia Pundt, Michael Bonkowski
Thecofilosea is a class in Cercozoa comprising mainly freshwater inhabiting algivores. Since direct observation of amoeboid protists in soil is not possible, the prey spectra of their terrestrial relatives remain obscure. To test for grazing selectivity and the preferred prey of terrestrial thecofiloseans, we conducted a food choice experiment including yeasts and algae as prey. When being offered all food sources at once, the yeast cells were strongly reduced, whereas the abundance of the algae only slightly decreased...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Noriko Okamoto, Ryan M R Gawryluk, Javier Del Campo, Jürgen F H Strassert, Julius Lukeš, Thomas A Richards, Alexandra Z Worden, Alyson E Santoro, Patrick J Keeling
Recent surveys of marine microbial diversity have identified a previously unrecognized lineage of diplonemid protists as being among the most diverse heterotrophic eukaryotes in global oceans. Despite their monophyly (and assumed importance), they lack a formal taxonomic description, and are informally known as deep-sea pelagic diplonemids (DSPDs) or marine diplonemids. Recently, we documented morphology and molecular sequences from several DSPDs, one of which is particularly widespread and abundant in environmental sequence data...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Francesca Ricci, Annalisa Candelori, Anna Brandi, Claudio Alimenti, Pierangelo Luporini, Adriana Vallesi
In Euplotes raikovi, we have determined the full-length sequences of a family of macronuclear genes that are the transcriptionally active versions of codominant alleles inherited at the mating-type (mat) locus of the micronuclear genome, and encode cell type-distinctive signaling pheromones. These genes include a 225-231-bp coding region flanked by a conserved 544-bp 5'-leader region and a more variable 3'-trailer region. Two transcription initiation start sites and two polyadenylation sites associated with nonconventional signals cooperate with a splicing phenomenon of a 326-bp intron residing in the 5'-leader region in the generation of multiple transcripts from the same gene...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Christiane B de Araujo, Simone G Calderano, Maria Carolina Elias
Here, we investigated the features of replication in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes based on fork speed progression, which is influenced by distinct features such as DNA polymerase rate, susceptibility to DNA damage and repair, secondary structures, transcription and chromatin state. Although T. cruzi exhibits a mean fork speed (2.05 ± 0.10 kb/min) very similar to other trypanosomatids, we found that the majority of DNA molecules replicated more slowly, with a frequency distribution approximately 1 kb/min...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Alyssa R Borges, Daniel A Toledo, Bruno R Fermino, José Carlos de Oliveira, Ariel Mariano Silber, Maria Carolina Elias, Heloisa D'Avila, Kézia K G Scopel
Since the observation of the great pleomorphism of fish trypanosomes, in vitro culture has become an important tool to support taxonomic studies investigating the biology of cultured parasites, such as their structure, growth dynamics, and cellular cycle. Relative to their biology, ex vivo and in vitro studies have shown that these parasites, during the multiplication process, duplicate and segregate the kinetoplast before nucleus replication and division. However, the inverse sequence (the nucleus divides before the kinetoplast) has only been documented for a species of marine fish trypanosomes on a single occasion...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Le Chang, Eric J Dykes, Jianhua Li, Silvia N J Moreno, Miryam Andrea Hortua Triana
The universal role of calcium (Ca2+ ) as a second messenger in cells depends on a large number of Ca2+ -binding proteins (CBP), which are able to bind Ca2+ through specific domains. Many CBPs share a type of Ca2+ -binding domain known as the EF-hand. The EF-hand motif has been well studied and consists of a helix-loop-helix structural domain with specific amino acids in the loop region that interact with Ca2+ . In Toxoplasma gondii a large number of genes (approximately 68) are predicted to have at least one EF-hand motif...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jingyi Wang, Jingbao Li, Shuyan Qi, Alan Warren, Chen Shao
Morphogenesis of the hypotrich ciliate Uroleptoides longiseries, isolated from sandy soil beside the Yellow River, Suide, Yulin, Shaanxi Province, China, was investigated using protargol staining. The main events during binary fission are as follows: (1) the long frontoventral row is formed by a single anlage; (2) five frontoventral-transverse cirral anlagen are formed in primary mode; (3) only the posterior part of the parental adoral zone of the membranelles is renewed; and (4) the oral primordium of the opisthe is formed intrakinetally...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Avelina Espinosa, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C
Entamoeba histolytica is one of the least understood protists in terms of taxa, clone, and kin discrimination/recognition ability. However, the capacity to tell apart same or self (clone/kin) from different or nonself (nonclone/nonkin) has long been demonstrated in pathogenic eukaryotes like Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, free-living social amebas (Dictyostelium, Polysphondylium), budding yeast (Saccharomyces), and in numerous bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes). Kin discrimination/recognition is explained under inclusive fitness theory; that is, the reproductive advantage that genetically closely related organisms (kin) can gain by cooperating preferably with one another (rather than with distantly related or unrelated individuals), minimizing antagonism and competition with kin, and excluding genetic strangers (or cheaters = noncooperators that benefit from others' investments in altruistic cooperation)...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Pattarasiri Rangsrikitphoti, Dion G Durnford
Bigelowiella natans is a marine chlorarachniophyte whose plastid was acquired secondarily via endosymbiosis with a green alga. During plastid evolution, the photosynthetic endosymbiont would have integrated with the host metabolic pathways. This would require the evolution and coordination of strategies to cope with changes in light intensity that includes changes in the expression of both endosymbiont and host-derived genes. To investigate the transcriptional response to light intensity in chlorarachniophytes, we conducted an RNA-seq experiment to identify differentially expressed genes following a 4-h shift to high or very-low light...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Wendy Argáez-Correa, María E Alvarez-Sánchez, Victor E Arana-Argáez, Mario A Ramírez-Camacho, Jazmín S Novelo-Castilla, Tania I Coral-Martínez, Julio C Torres-Romero
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis. Metronidazole has high treatment success rate among trichomoniasis patients. However, metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis has been reported, contributing in an increasing number of refractory cases. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in this parasite is still unclear. In the vaginal environment, where the microaerophilic conditions prevail but the iron concentration is constantly fluctuating, the metronidazole resistance profile of T...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dominik Forster, Sabine Filker, Rebecca Kochems, Hans-Werner Breiner, Tristan Cordier, Jan Pawlowski, Thorsten Stoeck
Ciliates are powerful indicators for monitoring the impact of aquaculture and other industrial activities in the marine environment. Here, we tested the efficiency of four different genetic markers (V4 and V9 regions of the SSU rRNA gene, D1 and D2 regions of the LSU rRNA gene, obtained from environmental (e)DNA and environmental (e)RNA) of benthic ciliate communities for environmental monitoring. We obtained these genetic metabarcodes from sediment samples collected along a transect extending from below salmon cages toward the open sea...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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