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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Ziyao Liang, Zhuo Shen, Yong Zhang, Daode Ji, Jiqiu Li, Alan Warren, Xiaofeng Lin
Four new species of Vorticella, V. parachiangi sp. n., V. scapiformis sp. n., V. sphaeroidalis sp. n., and V. paralima sp. n., were isolated from coastal brackish waters of southern China. Their morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system were investigated based on observations of specimens both in vivo and following silver staining. Vorticella parachiangi sp. n. is distinguished by: a J-shaped macronucleus; a single dorsally located contractile vacuole; a two-rowed infundibular polykinetid 3, in which row 1 is shorter than row 2; 21-31 silverlines between peristome and aboral trochal band, 6-11 between aboral trochal band and scopula...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Helisa H Wippel, Juliane S Malgarin, Sharon de T Martins, Newton M Vidal, Bruna H Marcon, Hálisson T Miot, Fabricio K Marchini, Samuel Goldenberg, Lysangela R Alves
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been widely studied, reflecting both its medical importance and the particular features that make this pathogen an attractive model for basic biological studies. The repression of transcripts by messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes is an important pathway of post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, including T. cruzi. RBSR1 is a serine-arginine (SR)-rich RNA-binding protein (RBP) in T. cruzi that contains one RNA-recognition motif (RRM); this protein has a primarily nuclear localization and is developmentally regulated, not being detected in metacyclic trypomastigotes...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kenneth Dumack, Christopher Kahlich, Daniel J G Lahr, Michael Bonkowski
A major drawback in testate amoeba research is a general lack of scientific studies combining molecular approaches and classical laboratory experiments. We isolated five yet uncultured testate amoebae of the genus Phryganella Penard, 1902 from three different rivers and one pond in Germany. Based on established cultures we show their morphology, which we studied by light and electron microscopy, and present their unique feeding mode on abundant and common pennate diatoms like Nitzschia spp. and Synedra spp...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Soo Hwan Jhin, Jong Soo Park
Halophilic protozoa are independently scattered across the molecular phylogeny of eukaryotes; most of which are assigned to Heterolobosea. Here, we isolated a biflagellate from a hypersaline water of 342‰ salinity. This isolate shared several morphological features with typical halophilic heterolobosean flagellates. In addition, molecular phylogenetic trees of the 18S rRNA gene sequences clearly indicated flagellate is a heterolobosean species closely related to the halophilic Tulamoebidae. However, the flagellate was not accommodated to any described genus...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Christopher N Miller, Lyne Jossé, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan, apicomplexan, parasite that poses significant risk to humans and animals, as a common cause of potentially fatal diarrhea in immunodeficient hosts. The parasites have evolved a number of unique biological features that allow them to thrive in a highly specialized parasitic lifestyle. For example, the genome of Cryptosporidium parvum is highly reduced, encoding only 3,805 proteins, which is also reflected in its reduced cellular and organellar content and functions. As such, its remnant mitochondrion, dubbed a mitosome, is one of the smallest mitochondria yet found...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Chuanqi Jiang, Wei Wei, Guanxiong Yan, Tuanyuan Shi, Wei Miao
Resting cyst formation is a remarkable survival strategy used by ciliates in response to the adverse environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying encystment are poorly understood. Here, the genetic basis of encystment in Colpoda aspera was examined through RNA sequencing to identify transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression between vegetative and encystment stages. After de novo assembly, 49,543 transcripts were identified. Gene annotation and pathway mapping analysis revealed marked changes in biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and autophagy pathways during cyst formation...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Denis H Lynn, Susan Clamp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
F Paul Doerder
Tetrahymena mitochondrial cox1 barcodes and nuclear SSUrRNA sequences are particularly effective at distinguishing among its many cryptic species. In a project to learn more about Tetrahymena natural history, the majority of >1,000 Tetrahymena-like fresh water isolates were assigned to established Tetrahymena species with the remaining assigned to 37 new species of Tetrahymena, nine new species of Dexiostoma and 12 new species of Glaucoma. Phylogenetically, all but three Tetrahymena species belong to the well-established "australis" or "borealis" clades; the minority forms a divergent "paravorax" clade...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Peter Vďačný, Ľubomír Rajter, Thorsten Stoeck, Wilhelm Foissner
Members of the class Armophorea occur in microaerophilic and anaerobic habitats, including the digestive tract of invertebrates and vertebrates. Phylogenetic kinships of metopid and clevelandellid armophoreans conflict with traditional morphology-based classifications. To reconcile their relationships and understand their morphological evolution and diversification, we utilized the molecular clock theory as well as information contained in the estimated time trees and morphology of extant taxa. The radiation of the last common ancestor of metopids and clevelandellids very likely occurred during the Paleozoic and crown diversification of the endosymbiotic clevelandellids dates back to the Mesozoic...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Gabriel A Schuler, Matthew W Brown
The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) PRA-29 isolate has a publicly available transcriptome, which has led to its inclusion in recent phylogenomic analyses. The ATCC PRA-29 isolate was originally identified and deposited as "Pessonella sp." This taxon branches robustly within the recently discovered clade Cutosea, very distantly related to the clade in which the genus Pessonella is believed to branch based on morphological data. Using detailed light and electron microscopy, we studied the morphology and ultrastructure of ATCC PRA-29 as well as other cutosean amoebae to better elucidate the morphological affinity of ATCC PRA-29 to other amoebozoans...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Zhenchao Zhang, Yuhua Li, Qing Xie, Pengju Li, Xiaoxu Nan, Lingmin Kong, Dapeng Zeng, Zhifang Ding, Shuai Wang
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) rhoptry proteins (TgROPs) have been considered main targets and indicator molecules for immune diagnosis and prophylaxis since they initially present during the process of invasion. In this study, the effect of intramuscularly injecting the genetic vaccine pVAX-ROP22 was evaluated, made by inserting the TgROP22 sequence into the eukaryotic expression vector of pVAX I, into BALB/c mice. The levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in pVAX-ROP22 vaccinated animals were integrally increased...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Denis H Lynn, Michaela C Strüder-Kypke
The apostome family Colliniidae includes species that are adapted to the hemocoel/blood of various invertebrates, particularly crustaceans. To explore the phylogeny of these sanguicolous apostomes, Metacollinia luciensis was collected in August 2015 at Roscoff from the amphipod host, Orchestia gammarellus. Ciliates were Protargol stained and DNA was extracted. The small subunit rRNA (SSUrRNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) genes were amplified. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the SSUrRNA genes unambiguously grouped M...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Pavla Hanousková, Petr Táborský, Ivan Čepička
We report the discovery of a new genus of heterolobosean flagellates, Dactylomonas gen. nov., with two species, D. venusta sp. nov. and D. crassa sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene showed that Dactylomonas is closely related to the amoeba Selenaion, the deepest-branching lineage of Tetramitia. Dactylomonads possess two flagella, and ultrastructural studies revealed an unexpected organization of the flagellar apparatus, which resembled Pharyngomonada (the second lineage of Heterolobosea) instead of Tetramitia: basal bodies were orthogonal to each other and a putative root R1 was present in the mastigont...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Pedro H Campello-Nunes, Noemi M Fernandes, Franziska Szokoli, Giulio Petroni, Inácio D da Silva-Neto
Ciliates of the genus Gruberia are poorly studied. Consequently, most species lack detailed morphological descriptions, and all gene sequences in GenBank are not classified at the species level. In this study, a detailed morphological description of a population of G. lanceolata from Brazil is presented, based on live and protargol-stained organisms. We also present the 18S rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenetic position of this species. The primary characteristics of G. lanceolata from the Maricá Lagoon are as follows: an elongate fusiform body 280-870 × 40-160 μm in size; rosy cortical granules; a peristome occupying approximately 1/3-1/2 of body length; an adoral zone comprising 115-330 membranelles; a paroral membrane in 35-50 fragments; and a moniliform macronucleus with 11-16 nodules...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dovilė Barcytė, Ladislav Hodač, Linda Nedbalová, Josef Elster
The traditional green algal genus Chloromonas accommodates mesophilic, cold-tolerant and cold-adapted microorganisms. In this paper, we studied a new strain isolated from a wet hummock meadow in the High Arctic. We used morphological, ultrastructural and molecular data to assess the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the new isolate. The observed morphological features generally corresponded to the cold-tolerant Chloromonas characteristics. However, ellipsoidal or wide ellipsoidal vegetative cells, a massive parietal cup-shaped chloroplast with a number of continuously connected lobes, a thick cell wall, a prominent hemispherical papilla and the anterior position of an oblong or round eyespot distinguished the alga from all previously described Chloromonas species...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are zoosporic fungi that play an important, but yet understudied, ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. Many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on phytoplankton. However, the majority of them have rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data. In this study we isolated and cultivated three parasitic chytrids, infecting a common volvocacean host species, Yamagishiella unicocca. To identify the chytrids, we characterized morphology and life cycle, and analyzed phylogenetic relationships based on 18S and 28S rDNA genes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Haiyan Wang, Yiqi Zhang, Yayun Wu, Junqiang Li, Meng Qi, Tingwen Li, Jianling Wang, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal pathogens in humans and animals. Little is known about them and the range of species/assemblages/genotypes occurring in domestic pigs in China. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens detected in the feces from farms in Henan, central China. Of 897 fecal samples tested, 28 (3.1%), 15 (1.7%), and 408 (45.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis, and E...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Melanie T Cushion, Andrew H Limper, Aleksey Porollo, Vivian E Saper, Anthony P Sinai, Louis M Weiss
The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10-12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); for example, free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. The highlights of Pneumocystis spp. research included the reports of primary homothallism for mating; a potential requirement for sexual replication in its life cycle; a new antigen on the surface of small asci; roles for CLRs, Dectin-1, and Mincle in host responses; and identification of MSG families and mechanisms used for surface variation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xinchao Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Qiangqiang Wang, Xiaoni Sun, Mingmin Lu, Muhammad Ehsan, Lixin Xu, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, XiangRui Li
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect almost all nucleated cells. Histone proteins and DNA form the nucleosomes, which are the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin. Histone 4 is an essential component of a histone octamer. In the present study, T. gondii histone 4 (TgH4) was cloned and the regulatory effect of TgH4 on murine macrophages was characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TgH4 was highly conserved in structure. Recombinant TgH4 (rTgH4) protein was identified by sera from rats experimentally infected with T...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xiangqian Zhang, Meng Qi, Bo Jing, Fuchang Yu, Yayun Wu, Yankai Chang, Aiyun Zhao, Zilin Wei, Haiju Dong, Longxian Zhang
A total of 321 rabbit fecal samples were collected from 10 farms in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the samples was 3.4% (11/321), 1.9% (6/321), and 2.8% (9/321), respectively. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence analysis identified all 11 Cryptosporidium-positive samples as C. cuniculus. Further subtyping based on the 60-kDaglycoprotein locus (gp60) identified five of the C. cuniculus isolates as subtype VbA24...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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