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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#1
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710891/preferential-plastid-retention-by-the-acquired-phototroph-mesodinium-chamaeleon
#2
Holly V Moeller, Matthew D Johnson
The ciliate genus Mesodinium contains species that rely to varying degrees on photosynthetic machinery stolen from cryptophyte algal prey. Prey specificity appears to scales inversely with this reliance: The predominantly phototrophic M. major/rubrum species complex exhibits high prey specificity, while the heterotrophic lineages M. pulex and pupula are generalists. Here, we test the hypothesis that the recently described mixotroph M. chamaeleon, which is phylogenetically intermediate between M. major/rubrum and M...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710832/new-species-of-spirotrichonympha-from-reticulitermes-and-the-relationships-among-genera-in-spirotrichonymphea-parabasalia
#3
Gillian H Gile, Erick R James, Vera Tai, James T Harper, Trevor L Merrell, Vittorio Boscaro, Filip Husník, Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Patrick J Keeling
Spirotrichonymphea is a class of hypermastigote parabasalids defined by their spiral rows of many flagella. They are obligate hindgut symbionts of lower termites. Despite more than 100 years of morphological and ultrastructural study, the group remains poorly characterised by molecular data and the phylogenetic positions and taxonomic validity of most genera remain in question. The genus Spirotrichonympha has been reported to inhabit several termite genera, including Reticulitermes, Coptotermes, and Hodotermopsis...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703942/low-temperature-and-phosphate-deficiency-responsive-elements-control-dgtt3-expression-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Xiaowen Fei, Ping Li, Xinghan Li, Xiaodong Deng
acyl-CoA:Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyse the final step of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Two major gene families have been shown to encode DGATs, DGAT1 and DGAT2. Abiotic factors such as low temperatures, nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency was reported to play important roles in the growth and development in green algae. Whether DGATs are induced by low temperatures or phosphorus deficiency, and the corresponding promoter elements are not reported yet. In this study, we found DGTT3 to have a significant response to low temperatures, phosphorus deficiency, and other stresses, such as high concentrations of NaCl, 20 μM GA, and 20 μM abscisic acid...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692189/diversification-of-hp1-like-chromo-domain-proteins-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#5
Emily A Wiley, Scott Horrell, Alyssa Yoshino, Cara Schornak, Claire Bagnani, Douglas Chalker
Proteins that possess a chromo domain are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and maintenance. The Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) family, with a chromo domain and carboxy-terminal chromo shadow domain, targets heterochromatin through interaction with histone H3 methylated on lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3). The structural and functional diversity of these proteins observed in both fission yeast and metazoans correlate with chromatin specialization. To expand these studies, we examined chromo domain proteins in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, which has functionally diverse and developmentally-regulated heterochromatin domains...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691191/divergence-of-a-tandem-duplication-of-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-in-nosema-bombycis
#6
Ying Wang, Ruizhi Zhang, Jonas Barandun, Huihui Du, Deming Chen, Yuping Jia, Yue Song, Bettina Vossbrinck, Chong Li, Zeyang Zhou, Charles R Vossbrinck, Heng Xiang
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a key enzyme in the protection of cells from oxidative stress. A tandem duplication of the MnSOD gene (NbMnSOD1 and NbMnSOD2) in the genome of Nosema bombycis, a parasite of the silkworm Bombyx mori, was previously identified. Here we compare the protein structures of NbMnSOD1 and NbMnSOD2 and characterize these two proteins in terms of cellular localization, timing of transcription, protein structure and enzyme activity. Despite a similarity in the primary sequence of NbMnSOD1 and NbMnSOD2, the latter shows a remarkable degree of amino acid sequence difference on the protein's surface and in the active site, where there is a substitution of a phenylalanine for a histidine in NbMnSOD2...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682523/exclusive-gut-flagellates-of-serritermitidae-suggest-a-major-transfaunation-event-in-lower-termites-description-of-heliconympha-glossotermitis-gen-nov-spec-nov
#7
Renate Radek, Katja Meuser, Jürgen F H Strassert, Oguzhan Arslan, Anika Teßmer, Jan Šobotník, David Sillam-Dussès, Ricardo A Nink, Andreas Brune
The guts of lower termites are inhabited by host-specific consortia of cellulose-digesting flagellate protists. In this first investigation of the symbionts of the family Serritermitidae, we found that Glossotermes oculatus and Serritermes serrifer each harbor similar parabasalid morphotypes: large Pseudotrichonympha-like cells, medium-sized Leptospironympha-like cells with spiraled bands of flagella, and small Hexamastix-like cells; oxymonadid flagellates were absent. Despite their morphological resemblance to Pseudotrichonympha and Leptospironympha, a SSU rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis identified the two larger, trichonymphid flagellates as deep-branching sister groups of Teranymphidae, with Leptospironympha sp...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618210/the-non-canonical-substrates-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-tyrosine-and-aspartate-aminotransferases-branched-chain-amino-acids
#8
N C Manchola, A M Silber, C Nowicki
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, lacks genes that encode canonical branched-chain aminotransferases. However, early studies showed that when epimastigotes were grown in the presence of (14) C1 -DL-leucine, the label was incorporated into various intermediates. More recently, our studies provided evidence that T. cruzi epimastigotes display a single ATP-dependent and saturable transport system that enables epimastigotes to uptake branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) from the culture media...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605078/morphology-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-three-novel-naegleria-isolated-from-freshwaters-on-jeju-island-korea-during-the-winter-period
#9
Woo Jun Khwon, Jong Soo Park
The genus Naegleria is one of the best known heterolobosean groups, and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This group is rarely studied in temperate regions during winter. Here, three novel Naegleria were isolated from freshwaters on Jeju Island, Korea, during winter. Two isolates were amoeboflagellates, and one of the three amoebae did not undergo enflagellation. All amoebae had eruptive pseudopodia, and the layer of refractile granules around a large nucleus. They formed a cyst with ~2 pores in the cyst stage...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544317/fish-parasite-dinoflagellates-haidadinium-ichthyophilum-and-piscinoodinium-share-a-recent-common-ancestor
#10
Elisabeth Hehenberger, Erick R James, Javier Del Campo, John A Buckland-Nicks, Thomas E Reimchen, Patrick J Keeling
The dinoflagellate Haidadinium ichthyophilum Buckland-Nicks, Reimchen and Garbary 1997 is an ectoparasite of the spine-deficient, three-spine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Reimchen 1984, a fish endemic to Rouge Lake, Haida Gwaii. Haidadinium ichthyophilum proved difficult to assign taxonomically, because its morphology and complex life cycle exhibited defining characteristics of both autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and was tentatively assigned to the Phytodiniales. Here, we characterized a 492bp-fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from preserved H...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544006/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-two-novel-ciliates-arcanisutura-chongmingiensis-n-gen-n-sp-and-naxella-paralucida-n-sp-from-shanghai-china
#11
Wanying Liao, Xinpeng Fan, Qianqian Zhang, Yuan Xu, Fukang Gu
The morphologies of two novel ciliates, Arcanisutura chongmingiensis n. gen., n. sp. and Naxella paralucida n. sp., collected from Shanghai, China, have been investigated using live observation and silver staining methods. Arcanisutura n. gen. can be easily distinguished from related genera by its inconspicuous, oblique anterior suture. Arcanisutura chongmingiensis n. sp. is mainly recognized by its elongated body with a tail-like posterior end, 25-33 somatic kineties, and 4-11 excretory pores. Naxella paralucida n...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544395/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-a-new-hypotrich-ciliate-pseudourostyla-guizhouensis-sp-nov-from-southern-china-with-notes-on-a-chinese-population-of-hemicycliostyla-franzi-foissner-1987-paiva-et%C3%A2-al-2012-ciliophora-hypotricha
#12
REVIEW
Yanbo Li, Zhao Lyu, Alan Warren, Kexin Zhou, Fengchao Li, Xumiao Chen
The morphology and molecular phylogeny of a soil hypotrich ciliate, Pseudourostyla guizhouensis sp. nov., collected from southern China, were investigated. Pseudourostyla guizhouensis sp. nov. has an elongate elliptical body measuring 180-310 × 65-85 μm in vivo; invariably two right and three or four left marginal rows; six or seven dorsal kineties; adoral zone consisting of 57-70 membranelles; 12-16 frontal cirri, one buccal cirrus, 13-20 midventral pairs, two frontoterminal cirri, two pre-transverse ventral cirri, and five to seven transverse cirri...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509379/microbial-eukaryotes-that-lack-sterols
#13
Kiyotaka Takishita, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Goro Tanifuji, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Katsunori Fujikura, Andrew J Roger
It is widely held that sterols are key cyclic triterpenoid lipids in eukaryotic cell membranes and are synthesized through oxygen-dependent multienzyme pathways. However, there are known exceptions-ciliated protozoans, such as Tetrahymena, along with diverse low-oxygen-adapted eukaryotes produce, instead of sterols, the cyclic triterpenoid lipid tetrahymanol that does not require molecular oxygen for its biosynthesis. Here, we report that a number of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes (protists) utilize neither sterols nor tetrahymanol in their membranes...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508432/exploring-cryptic-diversity-and-distribution-patterns-in-the-mallomonas-kalinae-rasilis-species-complex-with-a-description-of-a-new-taxon-mallomonas-furtiva-sp-nov
#14
Evgeniy S Gusev, Dora Čertnerová, Magda Škaloudová, Pavel Škaloud
A complex of closely related Mallomonas taxa belonging to the section Papillosae, M. kalinae Řezáčová and M. rasilis Dürrschmidt, have been studied in detail by molecular and morphometric methods. Our investigations uncovered the existence of a new species found in water bodies in Vietnam, which we describe here as Mallomonas furtiva sp. nov. This taxon is morphologically very similar to M. kalinae, from which it differs by minute, but statistically significant morphological differences on the structure of silica scales...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499076/single-cell-analysis-linking-ribosomal-r-dna-and-rrna-copy-numbers-to-cell-size-and-growth-rate-provides-insights-into-molecular-protistan-ecology
#15
Rao Fu, Jun Gong
Ribosomal (r)RNA and rDNA have been golden molecular markers in microbial ecology. However, it remains poorly understood how ribotype copy number (CN)-based characteristics are linked with diversity, abundance and activity of protist populations and communities observed at organismal levels. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to quantify ribotype CNs in two ciliate species reared at different temperatures. We found that in actively growing cells, the per-cell rDNA and rRNA CNs scaled with cell volume (CV) to 0...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493395/in-memoriam-michael-levandowsky-1935-2016
#16
Cyrus J Bacchi, Thomas Gorrell, George McManus, Nigel Yarlett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477402/tfvps32-regulates-cell-division-in-the-parasite-tritrichomonas-foetus
#17
Lucrecia S Iriarte, Victor Midlej, Lorena S Frontera, Daniel Moros Duarte, Claudio G Barbeito, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Natalia de Miguel, Veronica M Coceres
The flagellated protist Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that causes bovine trichomonosis, a major sexually transmitted disease in cattle. Cell division has been described as a key player in controlling cell survival in other cells, including parasites but there is no information on the regulation of this process in T. foetus. The regulation of cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, is mediated by members of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. VPS32 is a subunit within the ESCRTIII complex and here, we report that TfVPS32 is localized on cytoplasmic vesicles and a redistribution of the protein to the midbody is observed during the cellular division...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474836/the-ciliary-protein-ift57-in-the-macronucleus-of-paramecium
#18
Lei Shi, France Koll, Olivier Arnaiz, Jean Cohen
The intraflagellar transport IFT57 protein is essential for ciliary growth and maintenance. Also known as HIPPI, human IFT57 can be translocated to the nucleus via a molecular partner of the Huntingtin, Hip1, inducing gene expression changes. In Paramecium tetraurelia, we identified four IFT57 genes forming two subfamilies IFT57A/B and IFT57C/D arising from whole genome duplications. The depletion of proteins of the two subfamilies induced ciliary defects and IFT57A and IFT57C localized in basal bodies and cilia...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460157/nuclear-features-of-the-heterotrich-ciliate-blepharisma-americanum-genomic-amplification-life-cycle-and-nuclear-inclusion
#19
Megan M Wancura, Ying Yan, Laura A Katz, Xyrus X Maurer-Alcalá
Blepharisma americanum, a member of the understudied ciliate class Heterotrichea, has a moniliform somatic macronucleus that resembles beads on a string. Blepharisma americanum is distinguishable by its pink coloration derived from the autofluorescent pigment blepharismin and tends to have a single somatic macronucleus with 3-6 nodes and multiple germline micronuclei. We used fluorescence confocal microscopy to explore the DNA content and amplification between the somatic and germline nuclei of B. americanum through its life cycle...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459502/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-two-new-ciliates-holostichides-heterotypicus-n-sp-and-holosticha-muuiensis-n-sp-ciliophora-urostylida
#20
Kang-San Kim, Jae-Ho Jung, Gi-Sik Min
Two new urostylid species, Holostichides heterotypicus n. sp. and Holosticha muuiensis n. sp., were discovered in South Korea. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to confirm that these species are new to science. Holostichides heterotypicus is mainly characterized by the following combination of features: 110-205 μm long in vivo; 5-10 frontoterminal cirri; 6-8 midventral pairs with 2-3 midventral cirral rows; cortical granules present; four bipolar dorsal kineties; and 6-9 caudal cirri...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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