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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Jürgen F H Strassert, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Martin Kolisko, Thomas A Richards, Alexandra Z Worden, Alyson E Santoro, Patrick J Keeling
Spores of the dinoflagellate Chytriodinium are known to infest copepod eggs causing their lethality. Despite the potential to control the population of such an ecologically important host, knowledge about Chytriodinium parasites is limited: we know little about phylogeny, parasitism, abundance, or geographical distribution. We carried out genome sequence surveys on four manually isolated sporocytes from the same sporangium, which seemed to be attached to a copepod nauplius, to analyse the phylogenetic position of Chytriodinium based on SSU and concatenated SSU/LSU rRNA gene sequences, and also characterize two genes related to the plastidial heme pathway, hemL and hemY...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sandra Gran-Stadniczeñko, Elianne Dunthorn Egge, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Ramiro Logares, Wenche Eikrem, Bente Edvardsen
Protist community composition and seasonal dynamics are of major importance for the production of higher trophic levels, such as zooplankton and fish. Our aim was to reveal how the protist community in the Skagerrak changes through the seasons by combining high-throughput sequencing and microscopy of plankton collected monthly over two years. The V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by eukaryote universal primers from the total RNA/cDNA. We found a strong seasonal variation in protist composition and proportional abundances, and a difference between two depths within the euphotic zone...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Anastasia N Ignatieva, Aleksei V Gerus, Igor V Senderskiy, Svetlana M Malysh, Viktor I Dolzhenko, Yuri S Tokarev
Chorthippus loratus collected in Krasnodar Territory in 2017 was infected at 15% rate with a microsporidium possessing ovocylindrical binucleate spores, 2.6 × 1.2 μm in size. SSU RNA gene typing (Genbank accession # MH396491) showed its allocation to the genus Liebermannia. Degenerate primers based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase II (RPB1) sequences of closest relatives allowed amplifying the respective gene fragment of Liebermannia sp. (# MH396492). The present finding indicates world-wide distribution of the Liebermannia genus and parasitism in hosts with non-overlapping geographic ranges (representing Neotropical versus Palearctic fauna), while previous observations were restricted to Acridoidea endemic for South America...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kira More, Alastair G B Simpson, Sebastian Hess
Vampyrellids (Vampyrellida, Rhizaria) are a major group of predatory amoebae known primarily from freshwater and soil. Environmental sequence data indicates that there is also a considerable diversity of vampyrellids inhabiting marine ecosystems, but their phenotypic traits and ecology remain largely unexplored. We discovered algivorous vampyrellids of the filoflabellate morphotype in coastal habitats in Atlantic Canada, established cultures by single-cell isolation, and characterised three strains using light microscopy, SSU rRNA gene sequencing, feeding experiments, and growth experiments at various salinities...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yan Zhang, Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Shane R Haydon, Robin B Gasser
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a microsporidian found in humans and other animals around the world. Investigations in some countries, such as the USA, have indicated the importance of E. bieneusi as a zoonotic water- and food-borne pathogen. However, there is scant epidemiological information on E. bieneusi in animals in many countries including Australia. Here, we conducted the first molecular epidemiological study of E. bieneusi in farmed cattle in Victoria, Australia, to assess whether these bovids are carriers of 'zoonotic' genotypes of E...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sarah L Poynton, Lauren Ostrenga, Kenneth W Witwer
Pathogenicity, evolutionary history, and unusual cell organization of diplomonads are well known, particularly for Giardia and Spironucleus; however, behavior of these aerotolerant anaerobes is largely unknown. Addressing this deficit, we studied behavior of the piscine diplomonad Spironucleus vortens (ATCC 50386) in in vitro culture. Spironucleus vortens trophozoites from Angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, were maintained axenically in modified liver digest, yeast extract, and iron (LYI) medium, at 22 °C in the dark, and subcultured weekly...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Makoto Kazama, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Sanae Ogiwara, Takashi Makiuchi, Hiroshi Tachibana
In mitochondria, compatibility of proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA is essential for normal function of the organelle. Incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA can lead to dysfunctional respiration, mitochondrial diseases and lethal problems, which suggests that the presence of heterologous mitochondria is unfavorable. In a previous study, we established a transplant method for DNA-lacking mitochondria (mitosomes) in the anaerobic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. In this study, interspecies transplant of mitosomes from E...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Anna Maria Fiore-Donno, Alexander K Tice, Matthew W Brown
Myxogastria (also called Myxomycetes or plasmodial slime-moulds) are mostly known through their usually conspicuous fruiting bodies. Another unifying trait is the presence of a facultative flagellate stage along with the obligate amoeboid stage. Here we show with two-gene phylogenies (SSU rRNA and EF-1alpha genes) that the incertae sedis, non-flagellate Echinosteliopsis oligospora belongs to the dark-spore clade (Fuscisporidia) of the Myxogastria. In addition, we confirm that Echinostelium bisporum, firstly described as a protostelid, belongs to the Echinosteliida, which are divided into three major clades and are paraphyletic to the remaining Fuscisporidia...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Allison M Lewis, Andrea N Chan, Todd C LaJeunesse
Symbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Breviolum J.E.Parkinson & LaJeunesse (formerly Symbiodinium Clade B) dominate coral communities in shallow waters across the Greater Caribbean. While some formally described species exit, mounting genetic and ecological evidence indicate that numerous more comprise this genus, many of which are closely related. To test this, colonies of common reef-building corals were sampled across a large geographical range; upon which, phylogenetic and population genetic markers used to examine evolutionary divergence and delineate boundaries of genetic recombination...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sina M Adl, David Bass, Christopher E Lane, Julius Lukeš, Conrad L Schoch, Alexey Smirnov, Sabine Agatha, Cedric Berney, Matthew W Brown, Fabien Burki, Paco Cárdenas, Ivan Čepička, Ludmila Chistyakova, Javier Del Campo, Micah Dunthorn, Bente Edvardsen, Yana Eglit, Laure Guillou, Vladimír Hampl, Aaron A Heiss, Mona Hoppenrath, Timothy Y James, Sergey Karpov, Eunsoo Kim, Martin Kolisko, Alexander Kudryavtsev, Daniel J G Lahr, Enrique Lara, Line Le Gall, Denis H Lynn, David G Mann, Ramon Massana I Molera, Edward A D Mitchell, Christine Morrow, Jong Soo Park, Jan W Pawlowski, Martha J Powell, Daniel J Richter, Sonja Rueckert, Lora Shadwick, Satoshi Shimano, Frederick W Spiegel, Guifré Torruella I Cortes, Noha Youssef, Vasily Zlatogursky, Qianqian Zhang
This revision of the classification of eukaryotes follows that of Adl et al., 2012 [J. Euk. Microbiol. 59(5)] and retains an emphasis on protists. Changes since have improved the resolution of many nodes in phylogenetic analyses. For some clades even families are being clearly resolved. As we had predicted, environmental sampling in the intervening years has massively increased the genetic information at hand. Consequently, we have discovered novel clades, exciting new genera, and uncovered a massive species level diversity beyond the morphological species descriptions...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Rana Eltahan, Fengguang Guo, Haili Zhang, Guan Zhu
Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major species causing mild to severe cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. We have previously observed that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) could inhibit both the enzyme activity of C. parvum hexokinase (CpHK) and the parasite growth in vitro. However, the action and fate of 2DG in C. parvum was not fully investigated. In the present study, we showed that, although 2DG could be phosphorylated by CpHK to form 2DG-6-phosphate (2DG6P), the anti-cryptosporidial activity of 2DG was mainly attributed to the action of 2DG on CpHK, rather than the action of 2DG or 2DG6P on the downstream enzyme glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) nor 2DG6P on CpHK...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jiřina Marková, Tereza Machačová, Eva Bártová, Kamil Sedlák, Marie Budíková, Pasquale Silvestre, Paolo Laricchiuta, Marco Russo, Vincenzo Veneziano
Problems with parasitic infections are common in zoological gardens and circuses, and can lead in some animals to several disorders such as systemic disease, reproductive disorders (abortions and neonatal mortality), and even to death if severe illness is untreated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three parasites in 74 animals from three zoos, and four circuses in Southern Italy. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Encephalitozoon cuniculi were detected in 51%, 12 % and 20% of animals, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Shaobin Wang, Yuanjun Zhao, Yanhong Du, Fahui Tang
During a survey of trichodinids in Chongqing, China, two populations of Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann & Partsch, 1955 were isolated from gills of the freshwater fishes, Carassius auratus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus, and 11 molecular samples containing small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S rDNA were newly sequenced. Both populations fell within the range of morphometry and corresponded well with the diagnostic morphological features of Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann & Partsch, 1955...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Fuchang Yu, Meng Qi, Zifang Zhao, Chaochao Lv, Yange Wang, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi causes microsporidiosis, a condition with complex epidemiology involving both direct and indirect transmission routes. To assess the potential role of synanthropic rodents and flies in the transmission of this pathogen, a total of 277 cattle fecal samples, 199 synanthropic rodents, and 50 batches of 20 flies were collected from a cattle farm. These samples were screened for the presence of E. bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Katelyn L Donahue, Hannah J Broadley, Joseph S Elkinton, John P Burand, Wei-Fone Huang, Jeremy C Andersen
Research pertaining to the two closely-related microsporidian genera Nosema and Vairimorpha is hindered by inconsistencies in species differentiation within and between the two clades. One proposal to better delimit these genera is to restructure the Nosema around a "True Nosema" clade, consisting of species that share a characteristic reversed ribosomal DNA operon arrangement and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences similar to that of the Nosema type species, N. bombycis. Using this framework, we assess two distinct microsporidia recovered from the forest insect Bruce spanworm (Operophtera bruceata) by sequencing their SSU and internal transcribed spacer regions...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Christopher N Miller, Lyne Jossé, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan, apicomplexan, parasite that poses significant risk to humans and animals, as a common cause of potentially fatal diarrhea in immunodeficient hosts. The parasites have evolved a number of unique biological features that allow them to thrive in a highly specialized parasitic lifestyle. For example, the genome of Cryptosporidium parvum is highly reduced, encoding only 3,805 proteins, which is also reflected in its reduced cellular and organellar content and functions. As such, its remnant mitochondrion, dubbed a mitosome, is one of the smallest mitochondria yet found...
November 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Denis H Lynn, Susan Clamp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Pedro H Campello-Nunes, Noemi M Fernandes, Franziska Szokoli, Giulio Petroni, Inácio D da Silva-Neto
Ciliates of the genus Gruberia are poorly studied. Consequently, most species lack detailed morphological descriptions, and all gene sequences in GenBank are not classified at the species level. In this study, a detailed morphological description of a population of G. lanceolata from Brazil is presented, based on live and protargol-stained organisms. We also present the 18S rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenetic position of this species. The primary characteristics of G. lanceolata from the Maricá Lagoon are as follows: an elongate fusiform body 280-870 × 40-160 μm in size; rosy cortical granules; a peristome occupying approximately 1/3-1/2 of body length; an adoral zone comprising 115-330 membranelles; a paroral membrane in 35-50 fragments; and a moniliform macronucleus with 11-16 nodules...
November 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dovilė Barcytė, Ladislav Hodač, Linda Nedbalová, Josef Elster
The traditional green algal genus Chloromonas accommodates mesophilic, cold-tolerant and cold-adapted microorganisms. In this paper, we studied a new strain isolated from a wet hummock meadow in the High Arctic. We used morphological, ultrastructural and molecular data to assess the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the new isolate. The observed morphological features generally corresponded to the cold-tolerant Chloromonas characteristics. However, ellipsoidal or wide ellipsoidal vegetative cells, a massive parietal cup-shaped chloroplast with a number of continuously connected lobes, a thick cell wall, a prominent hemispherical papilla and the anterior position of an oblong or round eyespot distinguished the alga from all previously described Chloromonas species...
November 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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