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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Ann E Hajek, Leellen F Solter, Joseph V Maddox, Wei-Fone Huang, Alden S Estep, Grzegorz Krawczyk, Donald C Weber, Kim A Hoelmer, Neil D Sanscrainte, James J Becnel
We describe a unique microsporidian species that infects the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and the dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus. All life stages are unikaryotic, but analysis of the consensus small subunit region of the ribosomal gene places this microsporidium in the genus Nosema, which historically has been characterized by diplokaryotic life stages. It is also characterized by having the reversed arrangement of the ribosomal gene (LSU -ITS- SSU) found in species within the "true Nosema" clade...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kenneth Dumack, Michael Bonkowski, Steffen Clauß, Eckhard Völcker
The genus Diaphoropodon, Archer 1869, comprises filose amoebae with agglutinated tests made of quartz grains, diatom frustules, and other particulate materials. The key trait of the genus is a hyaline theca covered with numerous 5-10 μm long, hair-like rods. Based on SSU rDNA phylogeny, we show that Diaphoropodon groups closely to Lecythium, a testate amoeba genus with a flexible but naked theca. Electron microscopic images reveal that the rods of Diaphoropodon are not perforating the test but lie randomly distributed on the surface of the amoeba...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yuri S Tokarev, Yuliya Y Sokolova, Aleksandra A Vasilieva, Irma V Issi
Five out of one hundred adults of Niphargogammarus intermedius caught at the Azov sea shore were found to be infected with microsporidia. The infection was found in the subcuticular fat body and myocytes. Parasites developed in direct contact with host cells, displayed a disporoblastic sporogony and diplokaryotic arrangement of nuclei at all stages. Spores were oval, 4.6-5.8x2.6-3.0 μm. Exospore appendages, vesicular-tubular secretions and the anisofilar polar filament indicated a similarity to Anncaliia species...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Zhishuai Qu, Hongbo Pan, Xiaofeng Lin, Lifang Li, Abdullah Mohammad A Aleidan, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Thorsten Stoeck, Xiaozhong Hu
Three new cyrtophorian ciliates isolated from coastal areas of China were described based on morphological and genetic data. The Chlamydodon mnemosyne-like species Chlamydodon similis sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly by its number of somatic kineties. Chlamydodon oligochaetus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners mainly by having fewer somatic kineties, and/or an elongated body shape. Chlamydodon crassidens sp. n. is characterized mainly by an inverted triangular body shape, a posteriorly interrupted cross-striated band (5-6 μm wide), and a large cytostome...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Chiara Borrelli, Yubo Hou, Jan W Pawlowski, Maria Holzmann, Miriam E Katz, G Thomas Chandler, Samuel S Bowser
The Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) is a widely used tool to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among foraminiferal species. Recently, the highly variable regions of this gene have been proposed as DNA barcodes to identify foraminiferal species. However, the resolution of these barcodes has not been well established, yet. In this study, we evaluate four SSU rDNA hypervariable regions (37/f, 41/f, 43/e, and 45/e) as DNA barcodes to distinguish among species of the genus Bolivina, with particular emphasis on Bolivina quadrata for which ten new sequences (KY468817-KY468826) were obtained during this study...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Barbara Kammerlander, Barbara Tartarotti, Bettina Sonntag
Paramecium populations from a clear and a glacier-fed turbid alpine lake were exposed to solar simulated ultraviolet (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 8 °C and 15 °C. The ciliates were tested for DNA damage (comet assay), behavioral changes, and mortality after UVR + PAR exposure. High DNA damage levels (~58% tail DNA) and abnormal swimming behavior were observed, although no significant changes in cell numbers were found irrespective of the lake origin (clear, turbid), and temperatures...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Davis Iritani, Kevin Wakeman, Brian S Leander
Gregarine apicomplexans are unicellular parasites commonly found in the intestines and coeloms of invertebrate hosts. Traits associated with the conspicuous feeding stage of gregarines, known as the trophozoite, have been used in combination with molecular phylogenetic data for species delimitation and the reconstruction of evolutionary history. Trophozoite morphology alone is often inadequate for inferring phylogenetic relationships and delimiting species due to frequent cases of high intraspecific variation combined with relatively low interspecific variation...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xudong Liu, Huan Zhu, Huiyin Song, Qinghua Wang, Xiong Xiong, Chenxi Wu, Guoxiang Liu, Zhengyu Hu
The Oocystaceae family is generally considered to contain common freshwater eukaryotic microalgae, and few are reported living in semi-saline habitats. Our latest ecological survey in Qinghai Lake and Angzicuo Lake, both large, closed, high-altitude, semi-saline lakes located on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China, revealed Oocystaceae species as a dominant group among plankton. Since limited knowledge exists about semi-saline species in the Oocystaceae family, a taxonomical study was carried out using morphological and phylogenetic methods...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Duo Wu, Ke Qiao, Meng Feng, Yongfeng Fu, Junlong Cai, Yihong Deng, Hiroshi Tachibana, Xunjia Cheng
Acanthamoeba spp. can be parasitic in certain situations and are responsible for serious human infections, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis. We analyzed the fatty acid composition of A. castellanii trophozoites and tested the inhibitory activity of the main fatty acids, oleic acid and arachidonic acid, in vitro. Oleic acid markedly inhibited the growth of A. castellanii, with trophozoite viability of 57.4% at a concentration of 200 μM. Caspase-3 staining and annexin V assays showed that apoptotic death occurred in A...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, Timothy Y James, Domingos S Leite, D Rabern Simmons, Martha J Powell
Increasing numbers of sequences of basal fungi from environmental DNA studies are being deposited in public databases. Many of these sequences remain unclassified below the phylum level because sequence information from identified species is sparse. Lack of basic biological knowledge due to a dearth of identified species is extreme in Cryptomycota, a new phylum widespread in the environment and phylogenetically basal within the fungal lineage. Consequently, we are attempting to fill gaps in the knowledge of Rozella, the best-known genus in this lineage...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
David López-Escardó, Purificación López-García, David Moreira, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Guifré Torruella
The opisthokonts constitute a eukaryotic supergroup divided into two main clades: the holozoans, which include animals and their unicellular relatives, and the holomycotans, which include fungi, opisthosporidians, and nucleariids. Nucleariids are phagotrophic filose amoebae that phenotypically resemble more their distant holozoan cousins than their holomycotan phylogenetic relatives. Despite their evolutionary interest, the diversity and internal phylogenetic relationships within the nucleariids remain poorly studied...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ying Wang, Huixia Geng, Xiaoqun Dang, Heng Xiang, Tian Li, Guoqing Pan, Zeyang Zhou
As a common feature of eukaryotic proteins, tandem amino acid repeat has been studied extensively in both animal and plant proteins. Here, a comparative analysis focusing on the proteins having tandem repeats was conducted in eight microsporidia, including four mammal-infecting microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon bieneusi) and four insect-infecting microsporidia (Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, Vavraia culicis and Nosema bombycis). We found that the proteins with tandem repeats were abundant in these species...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Gurjeet S Kohli, Katrina Campbell, Uwe John, Kirsty F Smith, Santiago Fraga, Lesley L Rhodes, Shauna A Murray
Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Daizy Bharti, Santosh Kumar, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis during cell division of a new stylonychine hypotrich, Rigidocortex quadrinucleatus n. sp., were investigated using live observation and protargol staining. The new species was isolated from soil samples collected from an organic farm in the Marche Region, Italy, in framework of the MOSYSS project. Rigidocortex quadrinucleatus is characterized as follows: cell size about 180 × 80 μm in vivo; four ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules; 44 adoral membranelles: 18 fronto-ventral-transverse cirri consisting of three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, three ventral, two pretransverse, and five transverse cirri; dorsal kinety 3 with multiple fragmentation; resting cyst with hyaline ridges...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Fernando Gómez, Dajun Qiu, Senjie Lin
Prorocentrum mexicanum and P. rhathymum are toxicologically important dinoflagellates, but their relationship is not well defined. We investigated strains from Puerto Rico and Brazil by light and scanning electron microscopies. We provide molecular data from a strain isolated near the type locality of P. rhathymum, and the first morphological and molecular data from the South Atlantic Ocean. The rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences of the Puerto Rican and Brazilian strains were identical, and their morphologies fit the description of P...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, Maria Wesołowska, Kinga Leśniańska, Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Joanna Hildebrand, Marta Kicia
Microsporidia are opportunistic pathogens in nature infecting all animal phyla. There is a potential risk of microsporidian spores transmission from urban rooks inhabiting some metropolitan cities to people through casual interactions. The aim of this study was to identify microsporidia species in the droppings of rooks in Wroclaw, Poland. A total of 15 collective sets of droppings were examined using nested-PCR method. Amplification of ITS rRNA gene revealed the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi D, Peru 6, and Encephalitozoon hellem 1A genotypes...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell, Philip A Lee, Salvador Lopez, Micheal Burnett
Aphelids are a diverse group of intracellular parasitoids of algae and diatoms, and are sister to true fungi. Included in four genera, the 14 described species utilize phagocytosis as their mode of nutrition, and the life cycles of these taxa are remarkably similar. However, their putative specificity of host, morphological and ultrastructural features, and genetic divergence have been considered in taxon delineation. Here, we examine the host specificity, morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular 18S gene sequence of a new species in Aphelida, Aphelidium desmodesmi sp...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ewelina Rubin, Arnaud Tanguy, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a thraustochytrid protist that infects the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, causing significant economic losses along the northeastern coast of North America. Previous investigations noted differences in growth dynamics and virulence in QPX cells from different geographic locations. In order to probe the molecular determinants for these variations, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of five geographically distinct QPX isolates using custom 15k 60-mer oligonucleotide arrays...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Chao Gong, Xuefeng Cao, Yuan Song, Wuyou Wang, Xiangming Huang, Xuehan Liu, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Min He, Ya Wang, Yue Zhang, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
A total of 333 fecal specimens from horses in southwestern China were genotyped based on analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium andersoni were identified in 2 and 4 stool specimens, respectively. The identification of C. hominis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) and oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. Subtyping analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene sequence of C. hominis revealed a new rare subtype Id, named IdA15; only three Id isolates have been reported in humans to date...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xiaoteng Lu, Jie Huang, Chen Shao, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Shan Gao
Morphology, cirral pattern, and morphogenesis of the new saline soil hypotrich, Gonostomum sinicum nov. spec. collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied, using detailed live observations and protargol-stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: (i) a size in vivo of 100-125 × 30-40 μm, (ii) colorless cortical granules, 0.5 μm across, arranged in short rows, (iii) an adoral zone composed of 28-33 membranelles, (iv) three or four frontoventral rows, one of which extends onto the postoral area, (v) left and right marginal rows composed of 18-27 and 21-35, cirri, respectively, and (vi) usually two transverse cirri...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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