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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Po-Cheng Chen, Kuo-Ping Chiang, Sheng-Fang Tsai
The number of somatic kineties in Pelagostrobilidium ranges from 4 to 6 according to the present state of knowledge. This study investigates Pelagostrobilidium liui n. sp. using live observation, protargol stain, and small subunit rDNA data sequencing. Pelagostrobilidium liui n. sp. is characterized by having a spherical-shaped body, 4 somatic kineties, with kinety 2 spiraled around the left side of body, about six elongated external membranelles, and invariably no buccal membranelle. It differs from its most similar congener, P...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Alan Warren, David J Patterson, Micah Dunthorn, John C Clamp, Undine E M Achilles-Day, Erna Aescht, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Khaled Al-Rasheid, Martin Carr, John G Day, Marc Dellinger, Hamed A El-Serehy, Yangbo Fan, Feng Gao, Shan Gao, Jun Gong, Renu Gupta, Xiaozhong Hu, Komal Kamra, Gaytha Langlois, Xiaofeng Lin, Diana Lipscomb, Christopher S Lobban, Pierangelo Luporini, Denis H Lynn, Honggang Ma, Miroslav Macek, Jacqueline Mackenzie-Dodds, Seema Makhija, Robert I Mansergh, Mercedes Martín-Cereceda, Nettie McMiller, David J S Montagnes, Nikolaeva Svetlana, Geoffrey Odhiambo Ong'ondo, Blanca Pérez-Uz, Jasmine Purushothaman, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Johana Rotterová, Luciana Santoferrara, Chen Shao, Zhuo Shen, Xinlu Shi, Weibo Song, Thorsten Stoeck, Antonietta La Terza, Adriana Vallesi, Mei Wang, Thomas Weisse, Krzysztof Wiackowski, Lei Wu, Kuidong Xu, Zhenzhen Yi, Rebecca Zufall, Sabine Agatha
Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigation of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Brooke K Sullivan, Katie L Robinson, Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett, Erna Lilje, Frank H Gleason, Osu Lilje
As a result of anthropogenic influences and global climate change, emerging infectious marine diseases are thought to be increasingly more common and more severe than in the past. The aim of our investigation was to confirm the presence of Labyrinthula, the etiological agent of the seagrass wasting disease, in Southeastern Australia and provide the first isolation and characterisation of this protist, in Australia. Colonies and individual cells were positively identified as Labyrinthula using published descriptions, diagrams and photographs...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Joseph A Moss, Richard A Snyder
The development of molecular methodologies for targeting pathogens such as the Microsporidia has greatly improved our monitoring capabilities and initiatives. This study analyzed samples collected from 5 locations in Pensacola, Florida, USA for the presence of Microsporidian pathogens. To circumvent various impediments associated with water collection and filtration, we utilized biofilms as sentinels for detection of Microsporidia. We implemented membrane-dissolution and sample purification in a single confined step followed by real-time PCR to confirm pathogen presence...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sergey A Karpov, Guifré Torruella, David Moreira, Maria A Mamkaeva, Purificación López-García
Aphelids remain poorly known parasitoids of algae and have recently raised considerable interest due to their phylogenetic position at the base of Holomycota. Together with Cryptomycota (Rozellosporidia) and Microsporidia, they have been recently re-classified as the Opisthosporidia, which constitutes the sister group to the fungi within the Holomycota. Molecular environmental studies have revealed a huge diversity of aphelids, but only four genera have been described: Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, Paraphelidium and Pseudaphelidium...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sandra Gran-Stadniczeñko, Luka Šupraha, Elianne D Egge, Bente Edvardsen
Haptophyta encompasses more than 300 species of mostly marine pico- and nanoplanktonic flagellates. Our aims were to investigate the Oslofjorden haptophyte diversity and vertical distribution by metabarcoding, and to improve the approach to study haptophyte community composition, richness and proportional abundance by comparing two rRNA markers and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were collected in August 2013 at the Outer Oslofjorden, Norway. Total RNA/cDNA was amplified by haptophyte-specific primers targeting the V4 region of the 18S, and the D1-D2 region of the 28S rRNA...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Bruno M Di Genova, Richard C da Silva, Júlia P C da Cunha, Pablo R Gargantini, Renato A Mortara, Renata R Tonelli
The unicellular protozoa Giardia lamblia is a food- and waterborne parasite that causes giardiasis. This illness is manifested as acute and self-limited diarrhea and can evolve to long-term complications. Successful establishment of infection by Giardia trophozoites requires adhesion to host cells and colonization of the small intestine, where parasites multiply by mitotic division. The tight binding of trophozoites to host cells occurs by means of the ventral adhesive disc, a spiral array of microtubules and associated proteins such as giardins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Amanda Luraschi, Ousmane H Cissé, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
The most efficient drug against the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is cotrimoxazole targeting the folate biosynthesis. However, resistance toward it is emerging and adverse effects occur in some patients. Studies in rodent models suggested that echinocandins could be useful to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Echinocandins inhibit the catalytic subunit Gsc1 of the enzymatic complex ensuring the synthesis of 1,3-β glucan, an essential constituent of cell walls of most fungi. Besides, inhibitors of the enzyme Kre6 involved in the synthesis of 1,6-β glucan, another essential component of fungal walls, were recently described...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Juri Kim, Hye-Yeon Lee, Kyu-Ho Lee, Soon-Jung Park
Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism, showing a polarity with two nuclei and cytoskeletal structures. Accurate positioning of these organelles is essential for division of G. lamblia, which is poorly understood. Giardia lamblia end-binding 1 (GlEB1) protein and G. lamblia aurora kinase (GlAK) have been shown to modulate microtubule (MT) distribution during cytokinesis. A direct association between GlEB1 and GlAK was demonstrated. Like GlEB1, GlAK was also found at nuclear envelopes and median bodies of G...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yang Gao, Wei Tao, Shu-Zhen Yan, Shuang-Lin Chen
The plasmodial slime molds is the largest group in the phylum Amoebozoa. Its life cycle includes the plasmodial trophic stage and the spore-bearing fruiting bodies. However, only a few species have their complete life cycle known in details so far. This study is the first reporting the morphogenesis of Didymium laxifilum and Physarum album. Spores, from field-collected sporangia, were incubated into hanging drop cultures for viewing germination and axenic oat agar plates for viewing plasmodial development and sporulation...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xuming Pan, Zihan Shi, Chundi Wang, William A Bourland, Ying Chen, Weibo Song
The morphology, infraciliature and SSU rDNA sequence of a new freshwater hymenostomatid ciliate, Anteglaucoma harbinensis gen. nov., spec. nov., collected from a farmland pond in Harbin, China, were investigated. The new genus Anteglaucoma is characterized as follows: small to medium-sized Glaucomidae with oral apparatus in anterior one-third of cell; paroral membrane composed of almost longitudinally arranged dikinetids; three adoral membranelles nearly equal in length and arranged almost longitudinally in parallel; silverline pattern tetrahymenid...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Daniel J G Lahr, Enrique Lara, Paulo G Hofstatter, Giulia M Ribeiro, Alfredo L Porfírio-Sousa, Samuel P Junior
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kyung-Min Park, Jae-Ho Jung, Gi-Sik Min, Sanghee Kim
A new soil ciliate, Pseudonotohymena antarctica n. g., n. sp., from King George Island, Antarctica, is described based on live observation, protargol impregnation, and its 18S rRNA gene. The new genus Pseudonotohymena is morphologically similar to the genus Notohymena Blatterer and Foissner in the following characteristics: 18 fronto-ventral-transverse cirri, a flexible body, undulating membranes, dorsomarginal kineties, and the number of cirri in the marginal rows. However, Pseudonotohymena differs from Notohymena particularly in the dorsal ciliature, that is, in possessing a nonfragmented dorsal kinety (vs...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Hirokazu Sakamoto, Shigeo Suzuki, Kisaburo Nagamune, Kiyoshi Kita, Motomichi Matsuzaki
Some organisms have retained plastids even after they have lost the ability to photosynthesize. Several studies of non-photosynthetic plastids in apicomplexan parasites have shown that the isopentenyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis pathway in the organelle is essential for their survival. A phytohormone, abscisic acid, one of several compounds biosynthesized from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, regulates the parasite cell cycle. Thus, it is possible that the phytohormone is universally crucial, even in non-photosynthetic plastids...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
F Paul Doerder, Joseph Frankel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sarah T Bauer, Kelley E McQueeney, Terral Patel, Meredith T Morris
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of diseases that affect 30,000-50,000 people annually. Trypanosoma brucei harbors unique organelles named glycosomes that are essential to parasite survival, which requires growth under fluctuating environmental conditions. The mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of these organelles are poorly understood. Glycosomes are evolutionarily related to peroxisomes, which can proliferate de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum or through the growth and division of existing organelles depending on the organism and environmental conditions...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jingwen Pan, Javier Del Campo, Patrick J Keeling
Labyrinthulomycetes are heterotrophic stramenopiles that are ubiquitous in a wide range of both marine and freshwater habitats and play important roles in decomposition of organic matter. The diversity and taxonomy of Labyrinthulomycetes has been studied for many years, but we nevertheless lack both a comprehensive reference database and up-to-date phylogeny including all known diversity, which hinders many global insights into their ecological distribution and the relative importance of various subgroups in different environments...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Tomáš Tyml, Luis F Lares-Jiménez, Martin Kostka, Iva Dyková
The study provides robust genetic evidence that a newly isolated naked ameba with morphological and ultrastructural features indicative of Heterolobosea is a new species. Neovahlkampfia nana n. sp. associates with the yet underrepresented subclade of Tetramitia I. Considerable differences found in 18S rRNA gene sequences of individual molecular clones derived from DNA of five clonal cultures, using a low fidelity DNA polymerase, raised the issue of intragenomic sequence variation, a phenomenon that has not been previously studied in Heterolobosea...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Aaron P Frenette, Matthías Eydal, Haakon Hansen, Michael D B Burt, Michael S Duffy
Microsporidia are fungal parasites that infect diverse invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Finfish aquaculture supports epizootics due to high host density and the high biotic potential of these parasites. Reliable methods for parasite detection and identification are a necessary precursor to empirical assessment of strategies to mitigate the effects of these pathogens during aquaculture. We developed an integrative approach to detect and identify Loma morhua infecting Atlantic cod. We show that the spleen is more reliable than the commonly presumed gills as best organ for parasite detection in spite of substantial morphological plasticity in xenoma complexes...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Andrei Diakin, Kevin C Wakeman, Andrea Valigurová
A novel species of aseptate eugregarine, Ganymedes yurii sp. n., is described using microscopic and molecular approaches. It inhabits the intestine of Gondogeneia sp., a benthic amphipod found along the shore of James Ross Island, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The prevalence of the infection was very low and only a few caudo-frontal syzygies were found. Morphologically, the new species is close to a previously described amphipod gregarine, Ganymedes themistos, albeit with several dissimilarities in the structure of the contact zone between syzygy partners, as well as other characteristics...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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