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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Pedro H Campello-Nunes, Noemi M Fernandes, Franziska Szokoli, Giulio Petroni, Inácio D da Silva-Neto
Ciliates of the genus Gruberia are poorly studied. Consequently, most species lack detailed morphological descriptions, and all gene sequences in GenBank are not classified at the species level. In this study, a detailed morphological description of a population of G. lanceolata from Brazil is presented, based on live and protargol-stained organisms. We also present the 18S rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenetic position of this species. The primary characteristics of G. lanceolata from the Maricá Lagoon are as follows: an elongate fusiform body 280-870 × 40-160 μm in size; rosy cortical granules; a peristome occupying approximately 1/3-1/2 of body length; an adoral zone comprising 115-330 membranelles; a paroral membrane in 35-50 fragments; and a moniliform macronucleus with 11-16 nodules...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dovilė Barcytė, Ladislav Hodač, Linda Nedbalová, Josef Elster
The traditional green algal genus Chloromonas accommodates mesophilic, cold-tolerant and cold-adapted microorganisms. In this paper we studied a new strain isolated from a wet hummock meadow in the High Arctic. We used morphological, ultrastructural and molecular data to assess the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the new isolate. The observed morphological features generally corresponded to the cold-tolerant Chloromonas characteristics. However, ellipsoidal or wide ellipsoidal vegetative cells, a massive parietal cup-shaped chloroplast with a number of continuously connected lobes, a thick cell wall, a prominent hemispherical papilla and the anterior position of an oblong or round eyespot distinguished the alga from all previously described Chloromonas species...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are zoosporic fungi that play an important, but yet understudied, ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. Many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on phytoplankton. However, the majority of them have rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data. In this study we isolated and cultivated three parasitic chytrids, infecting a common volvocacean host species, Yamagishiella unicocca. In order to identify the chytrids, we characterized morphology and life cycle, and analyzed phylogenetic relationships based on 18S and 28S rDNA genes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Haiyan Wang, Yiqi Zhang, Yayun Wu, Junqiang Li, Meng Qi, Tingwen Li, Jianling Wang, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal pathogens in humans and animals. Little is known about them and the range of species/assemblages/genotypes occurring in domestic pigs in China. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens detected in the faeces from farms in Henan, central China. Of 897 fecal samples tested, 28 (3.1%), 15 (1.7%) and 408 (45.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Melanie T Cushion, Andrew H Limper, Aleksey Porollo, Vivian Saper, Anthony P Sinai, Louis M Weiss
The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10 to 12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); e.g. free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. Highlights of Pneumocystis research included reports of primary homothallism for mating; a potential requirement for sexual replication in its life cycle; a new antigen on the surface of small asci; and roles for CLRs, Dectin-1 and Mincle in host responses; and identification of MSG families and mechanisms used for surface variation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xinchao Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Qiangqiang Wang, Xiaoni Sun, Mingmin Lu, Muhammad Ehsan, Lixin Xu, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, XiangRui Li
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect almost all nucleated cells. Histone proteins and DNA form the nucleosomes, which are the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin. Histone 4 is an essential component of a histone octamer. In the present study, T. gondii histone 4 (TgH4) was cloned and the regulatory effect of TgH4 on murine macrophages was characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TgH4 was highly conserved in structure. Recombinant TgH4 (rTgH4) protein was identified by sera from rats experimentally infected with T...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xiangqian Zhang, Meng Qi, Bo Jing, Fuchang Yu, Yayun Wu, Yankai Chang, Aiyun Zhao, Zilin Wei, Haiju Dong, Longxian Zhang
A total of 321 rabbit fecal samples were collected from 10 farms in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the samples was 3.4% (11/321), 1.9% (6/321), and 2.8% (9/321), respectively. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence analysis identified all 11 Cryptosporidium-positive samples as C. cuniculus. Further subtyping based on the 60-kDaglycoprotein locus (gp60) identified five of the C. cuniculus isolates as subtype VbA24...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Gabriel Kigundu, Jennifer L Cooper, Susan M E Smith
Bioluminescence in dinoflagellates is controlled by HV 1 proton channels. Database searches of dinoflagellate transcriptomes and genomes yielded hits with sequence features diagnostic of all confirmed HV 1, and show that HV 1 is widely distributed in the dinoflagellate phylogeny including the basal species Oxyrrhis marina. Multiple sequence alignments followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed three major subfamilies of HV 1 that do not correlate with presence of theca, autotrophy, geographic location, or bioluminescence...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Miryam A Hortua Triana, Karla M Márquez-Nogueras, Le Chang, Andrew J Stasic, Catherine Li, Kevin A Spiegel, Amrita Sharma, Zhu-Hong Li, Silvia N J Moreno
Calcium ions regulate a diversity of cellular functions in all eukaryotes. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is tightly regulated at the physiological cytosolic concentration of 50-100 nM. The Toxoplasma gondii genome predicts the presence of several genes encoding potential Ca2+ channels, pumps and transporters. Many of these genes are weakly expressed and likely tightly regulated due to their potential impact to the physiology of the cell. Endogenous tagging has been widely used to localize proteins in T. gondii but low level of expression of many of them makes visualization of tags difficult and sometimes impossible...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ning Jiang, Shengchao Yu, Na Yang, Ying Feng, Xiaoyu Sang, Yao Wang, Mats Wahlgren, Qijun Chen
The eukaryotic ribonucleic acid (RNA) exosome is a versatile multi-ribonuclease complex that mediates the processing, surveillance and degradation of virtually all classes of RNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The complex, composed of ten to eleven subunits, has been widely described in many organisms. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that there may be also an exosome-like complex in Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite of great importance in public health, with eight predicted subunits having high sequence similarity to their counterparts in yeast and human...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
David Bass, D V Tikhonenkov, R Foster, P Dyal, J Janouskovec, P J Keeling, M Gardner, S Neuhauser, H Hartikainen, A P Mylnikov, C Berney
Rhizarian 'Novel Clade 10' (NC10) is frequently detected by 18S rRNA gene sequencing studies in freshwater planktonic samples. We describe a new genus and two species of eukaryovorous biflagellate protists, Aquavolon hoantrani n. gen. n. sp., and A. dientrani n. gen. n. sp., which represent the first morphologically characterized members of NC10, here named Aquavolonida ord. nov.. The slightly metabolic cells possess naked heterodynamic flagella, whose kinetosomes lie at a right angle to each other and are connected by at least one fibril...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Natalya I Bondarenko, Elena S Nassonova, Olja Mijanovic, Anna A Glotova, Oksana G Kamyshatskaya, Alexander A Kudryavtsev, Alexey E Masharsky, Dmitrii E Polev, Alexey V Smirnov
Mitochondrial genome sequence of Vannella croatica (Amoebozoa, Discosea, Vannellida) was obtained using pulse-field gel electrophoretic isolation of the circular mitochondrial DNA, followed by the next-generation sequencing. The mitochondrial DNA of this species has the length of 28,933 bp and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 16 transfer RNAs. Vannella croatica mitochondrial genome is relatively short compared to other known amoebozoan mitochondrial genomes but is rather gene-rich and contains significant number of open reading frames...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Daniel Coronado-Velázquez, Abigail Betanzos, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri causes a fatal disease known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This condition is characterized by an acute inflammation that originates from the free passage of peripheral blood cells to the central nervous system through the alteration of the blood-brain barrier. In this work, we established models of the infection in rats and in a primary culture of endothelial cells from rat brains with the aim of evaluating the activation and the alterations of these cells by N. fowleri. We proved that the rat develops the infection similar to the mouse model...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yun-Chi Lin, Lee-Kuo Kang, Chi-Yu Shih, Gwo-Ching Gong, Jeng Chang
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been regarded as a proxy for metabolic activity and population growth in microbes, but the limitations and assumptions of this approach should be better defined, particularly in eukaryotic microalgae. In the present study, the 18S rRNA/rDNA ratio of a marine diatom, Skeletonema tropicum, was examined in batch and semi-continuous cultures subjected to low nitrogen and phosphorus treatments at a temperature of 20 °C. In the semi-continuous cultures, the measured 18S rRNA/rDNA ratio ranged from 4...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ming Li, Ponce-Gordo Francisco, J Norman Grim, Can Li, Hong Zou, Wen-Xiang Li, Shan-Gong Wu, Gui-Tang Wang
The redescription of Opalina undulata Nie 1932, collected from the rectum of the frog Fejervarya limnocharis, is presented in this paper based on detailed morphological information and molecular data. Our results revealed that specimens collected from Diaocha Lake in late August were larger and had more nuclei than those collected from the same site in early May. We sequenced their SSU rDNA- ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2-LSU rDNA (5' end) and found that they were completely identical, which means that the two populations belonged to the same species...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
David Bass, Lucas Czech, Bryony Williams, Cédric Berney, Micah Dunthorn, Frederic Mahé, Guifré Torruella, Grant D Stentiford, Tom A Williams
Some protists with microsporidian-like cell biological characters, including Mitosporidium, Paramicrosporidium, and Nucleophaga, have SSU rRNA gene sequences that are much less divergent than canonical Microsporidia. We analysed the phylogenetic placement and environmental diversity of microsporidian-like lineages that group near the base of the fungal radiation and showed that they group in a clade with metchnikovellids and canonical microsporidians to the exclusion of the clade including Rozella, in line with what is currently known of their morphology and cell biology...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Éric Potvin, Kim So-Young, Eun Jin Yang, Martin J Head, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Seung-Il Nam, Joung Han Yim, Sung-Ho Kang
A study of modern sediment from the Western Arctic has revealed the presence of a distinctive brown coloured cyst with a spherical central body bearing unbranched processes that are usually solid with a small basal pericoel. Distinctive barbs project from some processes, and process tips are usually minutely expanded into conjoined barbs. The archeopyle is apical and saphopylic. This cyst corresponds to Islandinium? cezare morphotype 2 of Head et al. (2001). Phylogenetic analyses based on the small and large subunit rRNA genes infer close relationship with Islandinium minutum, the type of which is that of the genus...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Silvia N J Moreno, Roberto Docampo
Membrane proteins in trypanosomatids are, in general, weakly expressed and confirmation of their subcellular localization frequently requires their overexpression with epitope tags. However, overexpression can lead to mislocalization of the probes. Viswanathan et al. (Nat. Methods, 2015) described high performance tags for localization of weakly expressed proteins. We report here the use of these protein tags, named "spaghetti monster", for CRISPR /Cas9-mediated C-terminal endogenous tagging of Trypanosoma cruzi to localize two weakly expressed transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to acidic compartments...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Daode Ji, Yunfeng Wang
Protargol staining is a crucial method to reveal the infraciliature of ciliates, which is the most important morphological character for species identification. In the present study, Wilbert's protocol of protargol staining was emended mainly toward the highly happened improper bleaching. Through reciprocal treatments, both insufficient and excessive bleachings were much eliminated from the protargol protocol and the tests performed with four different species of ciliates established that the stainings were considerably improved and more reliable with optimized bleaching...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yasuhide Nakamura, Rei Somiya, Masaru Kanda, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Akihiro Tuji, Rie S Hori
A phaeodarian morphotype, characterized by the feet surrounded with forked pedal spines with anchor-like structures, was collected in the subtropical North Pacific. Considering the morphological and phylogenetic uniqueness, this morphotype is described as Gazelletta kashiwaensis sp. nov. The distribution of this new species is possibly affected by the Kuroshio Current. The feeding behavior of living phaeodarians was first filmed: the present new species floated in the water column stretching "protoplasmic webs" and collected diatoms by repeating the expansion and retraction of "pseudopodium-like tentacles"...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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