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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Fatma Gomaa, Maxim Gersh, Colleen Cavanaugh
Diverse species of Legionella and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) have been identified as intracellular bacteria in many amoeboid protists. There are, however, other amoeboid groups such as testate amoeba for which we know little about their potential to host such bacteria. In this study we assessed the occurrence and diversity of Legionella spp. in cultures and environmental isolates of freshwater arcellinid testate amoebae species, Arcella hemispherica, Arcella intermedia, and Arcella vulgaris, via 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Nadja Dabbagh, Angelika Preisfeld
The latest studies of chloroplast genomes of phototrophic euglenoids yielded different results according to intrageneric variability such as cluster arrangement or diversity of introns. Whereas the genera Euglena and Monomorphina in those studies show high syntenic arrangements at the intrageneric level, the two investigated Eutreptiella species comprise low synteny. Furthermore T. volvocina show low synteny to the chloroplast genomes of the sister genera Monomorphina aenigmatica, M. parapyrum, Cryptoglena skujae, Euglenaria anabaena, Strombomonas acuminata, all of which were highly syntenic...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Davis Iritani, Takeo Horiguchi, Kevin C Wakeman
Marine gregarines are unicellular parasites of invertebrates commonly found infecting the intestine and coelomic spaces of their hosts. Situated at the base of the apicomplexan tree, marine gregarines offer an opportunity to explore the earliest stages of apicomplexan evolution. Classification of marine gregarines is often based on the morphological traits of the conspicuous feeding stages (trophozoites) in combination with host affiliation and molecular phylogenetic data. Morphological characters of other life stages such as the spore are also used to inform taxonomy when such stages can be found...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Fengchao Li, Yanbo Li, Dan Luo, Miao Miao, Chen Shao
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new soil hypotrich ciliate, Sterkiella multicirrata sp. nov., was investigated using live observation and protargol staining. The new species is characterised by: body elliptical, 110-180 × 45-75 μm in vivo, an average of 35 adoral membranelles; usually 19 frontoventral-transverse cirri, consisting of three frontal, five frontoventral, one buccal, four postoral ventral, two pretransverse, and four transverse cirri; four macronuclear nodules, and two to five micronuclei...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Hae Jin Jeong, Hee Chang Kang, Ji Hyun You, Se Hyeon Jang
The mixotroph Yihiella yeosuensis is a small and fast-swimming dinoflagellate. To investigate its protistan predators, interactions between Y. yeosuensis and 11 heterotrophic protists were explored. No potential predators were able to feed on actively-swimming Y. yeosuensis cells, which escaped via rapid jumps, whereas Aduncodinium glandula, Oxyrrhis marina and Strombidinopsis sp. (approximately 150 μm in cell length) were able to feed on weakly-swimming cells that could not jump. Furthermore, Gyrodinium dominans, Luciella masanensis and Pfiesteria piscicida were able to feed on heat-killed Yihiella cells, whereas Gyrodinium moestrupii, Noctiluca scintillans, Oblea rotunda, Polykrikos kofoidii and Strombidium sp...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Lisa Siegmund, Michael Schweikert, Martin S Fischer, Johannes Wöstemeyer
Endosymbiotic interactions are frequently found in nature, especially in the group of protists. Even though many endosymbioses have been studied in detail, little is known about the mechanistic origins and physiological prerequisites of endosymbiont establishment. A logical step towards the development of endocytobiotic associations is evading digestion and escaping from the host's food vacuoles. Surface properties of bacteria are probably involved in these processes. Therefore, we chemically modified the surface of a transformant strain of Escherichia coli prior to feeding to Tetrahymena pyriformis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jiří Vávra
Two events have helped to shape protozoology/protistology as a specific scientific discipline. The first such event was the creation of the Society of Protozoologists in the US in 1947 (and of its Journal of Protozoology, first published in 1954), the second event was the the First International Conference on Protozoology, held in 1961 in Prague. The history of the Society of Protozoologists was comprehensively treated by Corliss (1998), the history of the Prague Conference is presented here as reminiscences and personal interpretation of events of the author, who was one of the conference organizers and a member of the organization committee...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sebastian Flues, Malte Blokker, Kenneth Dumack, Michael Bonkowski
Cercomonads are among the most abundant and diverse groups of heterotrophic flagellates in terrestrial systems and show an affinity to plants. However, we still lack basic knowledge of plant-associated protists. We isolated 75 Cercomonadida strains from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of plants from three functional groups: grasses (Poa sp.), legumes (Trifolium sp.) and forbs (Plantago sp.), representing 28 OTUs from the genera Cercomonas, Neocercomonas and Paracercomonas. The community composition differed clearly between phyllosphere and rhizosphere, but was not influenced by plant species identity...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Akinori Yabuki, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
Quadricilia rotundata is a heterotrophic flagellate with four flagella. However, because this species has no clear morphological characteristics or molecular data affiliating it with any known group, Q. rotundata has been treated as a protist incertae sedis, for a long time. Here, we established a clonal culture of Q. rotundata and sequenced its 18S rDNA sequence. Molecular phylogenetic analysis successfully placed Q. rotundata in an environmental clade within Cercozoa, which contributes to expand the morphological and species diversity within Cercozoa...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Georgia M Ward, Sigrid Neuhauser, René Groben, Stefan Ciaghi, Cédric Berney, Sarah Romac, David Bass
Class Ascetosporea (Rhizaria; Endomyxa) comprises many parasites of invertebrates. Within this group, recent group-specific environmental DNA (eDNA) studies have contributed to the establishment of the new order Mikrocytida, a new phylogeny and characterisation of Paramyxida, and illuminated the diversity and distribution of haplosporidians. Here we use general and lineage-specific PCR primers to investigate the phylogenetic 'gap' between haplosporidians and their closest known free-living relatives, the testate amoeba Gromia and reticulate amoeba Filoreta...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Tomáš Tyml, Iva Dyková
Two amoeboid organisms of the genera Sappinia Dangeard, 1896 and Rosculus Hawes, 1963 were identified in a sample containing king penguin guano. This sample, collected in the Subantarctic, enlarges the list of fecal habitats known for the presence of coprophilic amoebae. The two organisms were co-isolated and subcultured for over 6 months, continuous efforts being invested to separate each one from the mixed culture. In the mixed culture, Rosculus cells were fast growing, tolerated changes in culturing conditions, formed cysts, and evidently were attracted by Sappinia trophozoites...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Stefanie Wiedmer, Ulrike Buder, Sinja Bleischwitz, Michael Kurth
Eimeria species are veterinary important coccidian parasites and are transmitted between hosts via oocysts. The infectious sporozoites are protected by the oocyst and sporocyst wall. Tyrosine-rich proteins are well-known components of the Eimeria oocyst wall. Recently, cysteine motif containing proteins (COWP family), as described in Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp., have also been characterized in Eimeria. Here, we identified a novel COWP related protein, EnOWP13, and tracked it via transfection technology in Eimeria nieschulzi...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Chunyu Lian, Xiaotian Luo, Xinpeng Fan, Jie Huang, Yuhe Yu, William Bourland, Weibo Song
We documented the morphology, infraciliature, silverline system and molecular data of two euplotid species isolated from China, including two populations of the poorly known Euplotes platystoma Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986 and the previously well described Aspidisca lynceus (Müller, 1773) Ehrenberg, 1830. Based on the information available, an improved diagnosis of Euplotes platystoma is given, including: a narrow adoral zone with 44-68 membranelles, ten frontoventral, five transverse, two left marginal and two caudal cirri, 11-13 dorsal kineties with 17-25 dikinetids in the mid-dorsal row, and dorsal silverline system of the double-eurystomus type...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Lisa Fujise, Matthew R Nitschke, Jörg C Frommlet, João Serôdio, Stephen Woodcock, Peter J Ralph, David J Suggett
Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium live in symbiosis with many invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Hosts maintain this symbiosis through continuous regulation of Symbiodinium cell density via expulsion and degradation (post-mitotic) and/or constraining cell growth and division through manipulation of the symbiont cell cycle (pre-mitotic). Importance of pre-mitotic regulation is unknown since little data exists on cell cycles for the immense genetic diversity of Symbiodinium. We therefore examined cell cycle progression for several distinct Symbiodinium ITS2-types (B1, C1, D1a)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Michael S Gruber, Michaela Strüder-Kypke, Sabine Agatha
The about 1,000 species of tintinnid ciliates are identified and classified almost exclusively based on their lorica features, although the shortcomings of this structure are well-known, e.g., causing uncertain species limitations and non-monophyletic taxa. Hence, the present redescription of Tintinnopsis everta Kofoid and Campbell, 1929 considers not only the lorica characteristics, but focuses on cell and genetic features. The species is redescribed from the North Atlantic and adjacent sea areas, namely the east coast of the USA, using live observation, protargol-stained material, scanning electron microscopy, and genetic analyses...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Tommy Harding, Alastair G B Simpson
Most research on microorganisms adapted to hypersaline habitats has focused on Archaea and Bacteria, with microbial eukaryotes receiving much less attention. Over the past 15 years, our knowledge of phagotrophic microbial eukaryotes, i.e. protozoa, from hypersaline habitats has greatly improved through combinations of microscopy, molecular phylogenetics, environmental sequencing, transcriptomics and growth experiments. High salinity waters from salterns, other landlocked water masses and deep hypersaline anoxic basins contain unique and diverse halophilic protozoan assemblages...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Brandon T Hassett, R Gradinger
A culture of an unknown unicellular heterotrophic eukaryote was established from pollen-baited seawater acquired from the nearshore environment in proximity to Tromsø, Norway. Light microscopy revealed the production of ectoplasmic nets and reproduction by biflagellate zoospore release, as well as binary division. After culturing and nucleotide extraction, database queries of the isolate's 18S small ribosomal subunit revealed closest affinity to Aplanochytrium haliotidis, a pathogen of abalone. Testing of phylogenetic hypotheses consistently grouped our unknown isolate and A...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Srinivasan Ramakrishnan, Ciro D Cordeiro, Michael A Ahmed, Roberto Docampo
Generation of conditional mutants in Trypanosoma brucei can be done by the use of RNA interference (RNAi). However, RNAi frequently produces off target effects. Here we present an alternative strategy in which the glmS ribozyme is inserted in the C-terminal region of one allele of a GOI and effectively knocks it down in response to the presence of glucosamine in the culture medium. Using several endogenous genes we show that the glmS ribozyme cleaves the mRNA in vivo leading to reduction in mRNA and protein expression following glucosamine treatment in both T...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Mónica Santín, Rafael Calero-Bernal, David Carmena, Marta Mateo, Ana Balseiro, Marta Barral, José Francisco Lima Barbero, Miguel Ángel Habela
Microsporidia comprises a diverse group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of invertebrates and vertebrates. Among Microsporidia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently detected species in humans and animals worldwide bringing into question the possible role of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen. Although E. bieneusi is an emerging zoonotic pathogen able to infect many domestic and wild mammals that could act as reservoir of infection for humans and other animals, only few studies have documented its occurrence in wild carnivores...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sarah E Hamsher, Cheng Yun Tina Sung, Robert W Sanders
The influences of intensity and repeated exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB), photoreactivating repair radiation (PRR), and temperature on the scuticociliate Parauronema acutum were explored under laboratory conditions. Population growth was negatively affected after exposure to the equivalent of one sunny summer day of ambient UVB, especially in the absence of PRR. Repeated daily exposure to UVB severely compromised ciliate survival. UVB-exposed treatments without PRR recovered slower and reached lower final abundances than treatments receiving PRR...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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