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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Vasily V Zlatogursky, Elena A Gerasimova, Andrey O Plotnikov
A new species of centrohelid heliozoan Acanthocystis amura from the Amur River, the Far East of Russia was studied with light- and electron microscopy. Acanthocystis amura has simple oval plate scales (1.2-2.6 x 1.0-1.8 μm) with an axial thickening and a thin border as well as two types of spine scales. The spine scales of type 1 were 1.3-4.8 μm long and had four small hooks on their tips. The spine scales of type 2 were shorter, 1.0-3.6 μm long and had four teeth at the distal end. The morphology of Acanthocystis amura resembles that of Acanthocystis quadrifurca...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Naoji Yubuki, Eliška Zadrobílková, Ivan Čepička
Fornicata (Metamonada) is a group of Excavata living in low oxygen environments and lacking conventional mitochondria. It includes free-living Carpediemonas-like organisms from marine habitats and predominantly parasitic/commensal retortamonads and diplomonads. Current modest knowledge of biodiversity of Fornicata limits our ability to draw a complete picture of the evolutionary history in this group. Here, we report the discovery of a novel fornicate, Iotanema spirale gen. nov. et sp. nov., obtained from fresh feces of the gecko Phelsuma madagascariensis...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Zhe Wang, Tong Zhou, Qingxiang Guo, Zemao Gu
Two populations of Epistylis wuhanensis n. sp., a new freshwater peritrich ciliate, were isolated from different freshwater ponds located in Hubei, China. Their morphological characteristics were investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens from the two populations showed identical arrangement of the infraciliature, and identical small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. The zooids present bell-shaped, and 90-175 × 27-54 μm in vivo...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Yousuke Degawa
Chytrids are true fungi that reproduce with posteriorly uniflagellate zoospores. In the last decade, environmental DNA surveys revealed a large number of uncultured chytrids as well as undescribed order-level novel clades in Chytridiomycota. Although many species have been morphologically described, only some DNA sequence data of parasitic chytrids are available from the database. We herein discuss five cultures of parasitic chytrids on diatoms Aulacoseira spp. and Asterionella formosa. In order to identify the chytrids examined, thallus morphologies were observed using light microscopy...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dapeng Xu, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Ren, Alan Warren
Little is known about the biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes in the South China Sea, especially in waters at bathyal depths. Here, we employed SSU rDNA gene sequencing to reveal the diversity and community structure across depth and distance gradients in the South China Sea. Vertically, the highest alpha diversity was found at 75-m depth. The communities of microbial eukaryotes were clustered into shallow-, middle-, and deep-water groups according to the depth from which they were collected, indicating a depth-related diversity and distribution pattern...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Štěpánka Hrdá, Miluše Hroudová, Čestmír Vlček, Vladimír Hampl
Prasinophytes are a paraphyletic assemblage of nine heterogeneous lineages in the Chlorophyta clade of Archaeplastida. Until now, seven complete mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced from four prasinophyte lineages. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of Pyramimonas parkeae, the first respresentative of the prasinophyte clade I. The circular-mapping molecule is 43,294 bp long, AT rich (68.8%), very compact and it comprises two 6,671 bp long inverted repeat regions. The gene content is slightly smaller than the gene-richest prasinophyte mitochondrial genomes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yun-Chi Lin, Chih-Ching Chung, Liang-Yin Chen, Gwo-Ching Gong, Chin-Yi Huang, Kuo-Ping Chiang
Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are important constituents in picoplankton communities in many marine ecosystems. However, little is known about their community composition in the subtropical coastal waters of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. In order to study their taxonomic composition, this study constructed 18S rRNA gene libraries using flow cytometric sorting during the warm season. The results show that, after diatoms, prasinophyte clones are numerically dominant. Within prasinophytes, Micromonas produced the most common sequences, and included clades II, III, IV, and VI...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Gianna Pitsch, Lubomír Adamec, Sebastian Dirren, Frank Nitsche, Karel Šimek, Dagmara Sirová, Thomas Posch
The genus Tetrahymena (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) probably represents the best studied ciliate genus. At present, more than forty species have been described. All are colorless, i.e. they do not harbor symbiotic algae, and as aerobes they need at least microaerobic habitats. Here we present the morphological and molecular description of the first green representative, Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp., living in symbiosis with endosymbiotic algae identified as Micractinium sp. (Chlorophyta). The full life cycle of the ciliate species is documented, including trophonts and theronts, conjugating cells, resting cysts and dividers...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Karel Šimek, Gianna Pitsch, Michaela M Salcher, Dagmara Sirová, Tanja Shabarová, Lubomir Adamec, Thomas Posch
Trap fluid of aquatic carnivorous plants of the genus Utricularia hosts specific microbiomes consisting of commensal pro- and eukaryotes of largely unknown ecology. We examined the characteristics and dynamics of bacteria and the three dominant eukaryotes, i.e., the algae-bearing ciliate Tetrahymena utriculariae (Ciliophora), a green flagellate Euglena agilis (Euglenophyta), and the alga Scenedesmus alternans (Chlorophyta), associated with the traps of Utricularia reflexa. Our study focused on ecological traits and life strategies of the highly abundant ciliate whose biomass by far exceeds that of other eukaryotes and bacteria independent of the trap age...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Alejandra C Schoijet, Tamara Sternlieb, Guillermo D Alonso
Autophagy is a degradative process by which eukaryotic cells digest their own components to provide aminoacids that may function as energy source under nutritional stress conditions. There is experimental evidence for autophagy in parasitic protists belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. However, few proteins implicated in this process have been characterized so far in these parasites. Moreover, it has been shown that autophagy is involved in Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation and thus might have a role in pathogenicity...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yasuharu Kushida, Masak Takaine, Kentaro Nakano, Toshiro Sugai, Krishna Kumar Vasudevan, Mayukh Guha, Yu-Yang Jiang, Jacek Gaertig, Osamu Numata
Ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila have two distinct nuclei within one cell: the micronucleus that undergoes mitosis and meiosis and the macronucleus that undergoes amitosis, a type of nuclear division that does not involve a bipolar spindle, but still relies on intranuclear microtubules. Ciliates provide an opportunity for the discovery of factors that specifically contribute to chromosome segregation based on a bipolar spindle, by identification of factors that affect the micronuclear but not the macronuclear division...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Niran Patel, Alison Colyer, Steve Harris, Lucy Holcombe, Peter Andrew
Periodontal disease is one of the most important health concerns for companion animals. Research into canine forms of periodontitis has focused on the identification and characterisation of the bacterial communities present. However, other microorganisms are known to inhabit the oral cavity and could also influence the disease process. A novel, broad spectrum 18S PCR was developed and used, in conjunction with next generation sequencing analyses to target the identification of protists. Trichomonas sp. and Entamoeba sp...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Zhuo Shen, Daode Ji, Zhenzhen Yi, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Xiaofeng Lin
The morphology, infraciliature and silverline system of three peritrichous ciliates, Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., Z. florens sp. n. and Z. zhanjiangense sp. n., were investigated based on both living and silver-stained specimens. Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., collected from coastal waters (salinity 30‰) off Zhanjiang, southern China, can be distinguished by the following characters: dichotomously branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, contractile vacuole apically positioned, 32-49 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band, 15-26 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula; two kineties in peniculus 3, not parallel to each other...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Quentin Blandenier, Christophe V W Seppey, David Singer, Michèle Vlimant, Anaële Simon, Clément Duckert, Enrique Lara
Since the first environmental DNA surveys, entire groups of sequences called "environmental clades" did not have any cultured representative. LKM74 is an amoebozoan clade affiliated to Dermamoebidae, whose presence is pervasively reported in soil and freshwater. We obtained an isolate from soil that we assigned to LKM74 by molecular phylogeny, close related to freshwater clones. We described Mycamoeba gemmipara based on observations made with light- and transmission electron microscopy. It is an extremely small amoeba with typical lingulate shape...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Anna Tammilehto, Phillip C Watts, Nina Lundholm
The arctic phytoplankton spring bloom, which is often diatom-dominated, is a key event that provides the high latitude communities with a fundamental flux of organic carbon. During a bloom, phytoplankton may increase its biomass by orders of magnitude within days. Yet, very little is known about phytoplankton bloom dynamics, including for example how blooming affects genetic composition and diversity of a population. Here, we quantified the genetic composition and temporal changes of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, which is one of the most important primary producers in the Arctic, during the spring bloom in western Greenland, using 13 novel microsatellite markers developed for this study...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Franciane Cedrola, Marcus Vinicius Xavier Senra, Marta D'Agosto, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias
The validity of the genus Eodinium has been historically disputed due to morphological similarities with Diplodinium (absence of skeletal plates as well as adoral and dorsal ciliary zones at the same body level). To address this issue, the 18S rDNA of four Eodinium posterovesiculatum morphotypes and four Diplodinium anisacanthum morphotypes were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The different inference methods suggest the existence of a last common ancestor of Eodinium and Ostracodinium that is not shared with Diplodinium, strongly supporting the validity of the genus Eodinium...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Qianqian Zhang, Sabine Agatha, Wuchang Zhang, Jun Dong, Ying Yu, Nianzhi Jiao, Jun Gong
To improve understanding of diversity, phylogeny and evolution in tintinnid ciliates, it is essential to link multiple molecular markers with properly identified and documented morphospecies. Accordingly, 54 tintinnid morphospecies/isolates mainly from the Yellow and East China Seas were collected and analysed. Using single-cell approaches, sequences were obtained for three rDNA loci (18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, D1-D5 region of 28S). Twenty-six tintinnid morphospecies (29 isolates) are documented by micrographs, measurements, morphologically described, and compared with the original species description...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sean R Anderson, Susanne Menden-Deuer
To assess the effects of fluctuating prey availability on predator population dynamics and grazing impact on phytoplankton, we measured growth and grazing rates of three heterotrophic dinoflagellate species - Oxyrrhis marina, Gyrodinium dominans and G. spirale - before and after depriving them of phytoplankton prey. All three dinoflagellate species survived long periods (> 10 days) without algal prey coincident with decreases in predator abundance and cell size. After 1 to 3 weeks, starvation led to a 17-57% decrease in predator cell volume and some cells became deformed and transparent...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sergey A Karpov, Victoria S Tcvetkova, Maria A Mamkaeva, Guifré Torruella, Hélène Timpano, David Moreira, Karomat S Mamanazarova, Purificación López-García
Aphelids are a poorly known group of parasitoids of algae that have raised considerable interest due to their pivotal phylogenetic position. Together with Cryptomycota and the highly derived Microsporidia, they have been recently re-classified as the Opisthosporidia, which constitute the sister group to the fungi within the Holomycota. Despite their huge diversity, as revealed by molecular environmental studies, and their phylogenetic interest, only three genera have been described (Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, and Pseudaphelidium), from which 18S rRNA gene sequences exist only for Amoeboaphelidium and Aphelidium species...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Roxanne Conradie, Courtney A Cook, Louis H du Preez, Anine Jordaan, Edward C Netherlands
To date, only two haemogregarine parasite species have been described from South African anurans: Hepatozoon ixoxo, infecting toads of the genus Sclerophrys (syn. Amietophrynus); and Hepatozoon theileri, parasitising the common river frog, Amietia quecketti. Both species have been characterised using limited morphology, and molecular data from PCR amplified fragments of the 18S rDNA gene. However, no ultrastructural work has been performed thus far. The aim of this study was to add descriptive information on the two species by studying their ultrastructural morphology...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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