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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509379/microbial-eukaryotes-that-lack-sterols
#1
Kiyotaka Takishita, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Goro Tanifuji, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Katsunori Fujikura, Andrew J Roger
It is widely held that sterols are key cyclic triterpenoid lipids in eukaryotic cell membranes and are synthesized through oxygen-dependent multi-enzyme pathways. However, there are known exceptions-ciliated protozoans, such as Tetrahymena, along with diverse low-oxygen adapted eukaryotes produce, instead of sterols, the cyclic triterpenoid lipid tetrahymanol that does not require molecular oxygen for its biosynthesis. Here, we report that a number of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes (protists) utilize neither sterols nor tetrahymanol in their membranes...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508432/exploring-cryptic-diversity-and-distribution-patterns-in-the-mallomonas-kalinae-rasilis-species-complex-with-a-description-of-a-new-taxon-mallomonas-furtiva-sp-nov
#2
Evgeniy S Gusev, Dora Čertnerová, Magda Škaloudová, Pavel Škaloud
A complex of closely related Mallomonas taxa belonging to the section Papillosae, M. kalinae Řezáčová and M. rasilis Dürrschmidt, have been studied in detail by molecular and morphometric methods. Our investigations uncovered the existence of a new species found in water bodies in Vietnam, which we describe here as Mallomonas furtiva sp. nov. This taxon is morphologically very similar to M. kalinae, from which it differs by minute, but statistically significant morphological differences on the structure of silica scales...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499076/single-cell-analysis-linking-ribosomal-r-dna-and-rrna-copy-numbers-to-cell-size-and-growth-rate-provides-insights-into-molecular-protistan-ecology
#3
Rao Fu, Jun Gong
Ribosomal (r)RNA and rDNA have been golden molecular markers in microbial ecology. However, it remains poorly understood how ribotype copy number (CN)-based characteristics are linked with diversity, abundance and activity of protist populations and communities observed at organismal levels. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to quantify ribotype CNs in two ciliate species reared at different temperatures. We found that in actively growing cells, the per-cell rDNA and rRNA CNs scaled with cell volume (CV) to 0...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493395/in-memoriam-michael-levandowsky-1935-2016
#4
Cyrus J Bacchi, Thomas Gorrell, George McManus, Nigel Yarlett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477402/tfvps32-regulates-cell-division-in-the-parasite-tritrichomonas-foetus
#5
Lucrecia S Iriarte, Victor Midlej, Lorena S Frontera, Daniel Moros Duarte, Claudio G Barbeito, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Natalia de Miguel, Veronica M Coceres
The flagellated protist Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that causes bovine trichomonosis, a major sexually transmitted disease in cattle. Cell division has been described as a key player in controlling cell survival in other cells, including parasites but there is no information on the regulation of this process in T. foetus. The regulation of cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, is mediated by members of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. VPS32 is a subunit within the ESCRTIII complex and here, we report that TfVPS32 is localized on cytoplasmic vesicles and a redistribution of the protein to the midbody is observed during the cellular division...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474836/the-ciliary-protein-ift57-in-the-macronucleus-of-paramecium
#6
Lei Shi, Koll France, Olivier Arnaiz, Jean Cohen
The intraflagellar transport IFT57 protein is essential for ciliary growth and maintenance. Also known as HIPPI, human IFT57 can be translocated to the nucleus via a molecular partner of the Huntingtin, Hip1, inducing gene expression changes. In Paramecium tetraurelia, we identified four IFT57 genes forming two subfamilies IFT57A/B and IFT57C/D arising from whole genome duplications. The depletion of proteins of the two subfamilies induced ciliary defects and IFT57A and IFT57C localized in basal bodies and cilia...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460157/wancura-et%C3%A2-al-nuclear-features-of-blepharisma-americanum-nuclear-features-of-the-heterotrich-ciliate-blepharisma-americanum-genomic-amplification-life-cycle-and-nuclear-inclusion
#7
Megan M Wancura, Ying Yan, Laura A Katz, Xyrus X Maurer-Alcalá
Blepharisma americanum, a member of the understudied ciliate class Heterotrichea, has a moniliform somatic macronucleus that resembles beads on a string. B. americanum is distinguishable by its pink coloration derived from the autofluorescent pigment blepharismin and tends to have a single somatic macronucleus with 3-6 nodes and multiple germline micronuclei. We used fluorescence confocal microscopy to explore the DNA content and amplification between the somatic and germline nuclei of B. americanum through its life cycle...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459502/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-two-new-ciliates-holostichides-heterotypicus-n-sp-and-holosticha-muuiensis-n-sp-ciliophora-urostylida
#8
Kang-San Kim, Jae-Ho Jung, Gi-Sik Min
Two new urostylid species, Holostichides heterotypicus n. sp. and Holosticha muuiensis n. sp., were discovered in South Korea. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to confirm that these species are new to science. Holostichides heterotypicus is mainly characterized by the following combination of features: 110-205 μm long in vivo; five to ten frontoterminal cirri; six to eight midventral pairs with two to three midventral cirral rows; cortical granules present; four bipolar dorsal kineties; and six to nine caudal cirri...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444795/systematics-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-ciliate-genus-pseudokeronopsis-ciliophora-hypotrichia
#9
Ju Li, Zifeng Zhan, Kuidong Xu
A still challenging study on ciliate systematics is to clarify the taxonomic and phylogenetic confusions of the fascinating pigmented Pseudokeronopsis species because of their high inter-specific similarities. We evaluated the identities and internal relationships within Pseudokeronopsis based on morphological descriptions in combination with the 18S and ITS-5.8S rDNA genetic distances, ITS2 secondary structures and phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that (1) Pseudokeronopsis pararubra, a species ever synonymized as Pseudokeronopsis carnea, is a valid species; (2) most Chinese populations identified as Pseudokeronopsis rubra represent a new species namely Pseudokeronopsis songi sp...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432811/yu-et%C3%A2-al-host-cell-mutants-resistant-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-characterization-of-host-cell-mutants-significantly-resistant-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#10
Xue Yu, Haili Zhang, Guan Zhu
Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protist and a causative agent of mild to severe diarrheal diseases in humans and animals. Despite its globally recognized importance, knowledge on the mechanism of parasite invasion and molecular interactions between host cells and the parasite is limited. Here we report the establishment of 43 mutant cell lines derived from HCT-8 cells by UV-induced mutagenesis and the characterization of three mutants with significantly reduced susceptibility to cryptosporidial infection...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397389/cyst-theca-relationship-and-phylogenetic-position-of-impagidinium-caspienense-incubated-from-caspian-sea-surface-sediments-relation-to-gonyaulax-baltica-and-evidence-for-heterospory-within-gonyaulacoid-dinoflagellates
#11
Kenneth N Mertens, Yoshihito Takano, Haifeng Gu, Siamak Bagheri, Vera Pospelova, Anna J Pieńkowski, Suzanne Leroy, Kazumi Matsuoka
We investigate the cyst-theca relationship of Impagidinium caspienense. Through an incubation experiment, we succeeded in examining the motile stage. Additional molecular analysis of single-cyst PCR (LSU and SSU rDNA) reveal that the cyst is related to the species Gonyaulax baltica Ellegaard et al. (). The ability of this species to belong to two types of cyst-based genera (spiniferate and impagidinioid) suggests that environmental (particularly salinity) and not genetic factors explain the formation of both morphotypes by G...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370779/comparison-of-recombinant-proteins-of-kinesin-39-heat-shock-protein-70-heat-shock-protein-83-and-glycoprotein-63-for-antibody-detection-of-leishmania-martiniquensis-infection
#12
Suradej Siripattanapipong, Hirotomo Kato, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Mathirut Mungthin, Saovanee Leelayoova
Leishmania martiniquensis, a zoonotic hemoflagellate, is a causative agent of cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) among humans and animals. This organism, firstly reported in Martinique Island, now has become an emerging infectious agent in Thailand. Symptomatic cases of L. martiniquensis infection among humans have continuously increased. In the meantime, asymptomatic infection of this novel species has seriously created national public health awareness and concern to prevent and control disease transmission...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337822/unieuk-time-to-speak-a-common-language-in-protistology
#13
REVIEW
Cédric Berney, Andreea Ciuprina, Sara Bender, Juliet Brodie, Virginia Edgcomb, Eunsoo Kim, Jeena Rajan, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Sina Adl, Stéphane Audic, David Bass, David A Caron, Guy Cochrane, Lucas Czech, Micah Dunthorn, Stefan Geisen, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Frédéric Mahé, Christian Quast, Jonathan Z Kaye, Alastair G B Simpson, Alexandros Stamatakis, Javier Del Campo, Pelin Yilmaz, Colomban de Vargas
Universal taxonomic frameworks have been critical tools to structure the fields of botany, zoology, mycology, and bacteriology as well as their large research communities. Animals, plants, and fungi have relatively solid, stable morpho-taxonomies built over the last three centuries, while bacteria have been classified for the last three decades under a coherent molecular taxonomic framework. By contrast, no such common language exists for microbial eukaryotes, even though environmental '-omics' surveys suggest that protists make up most of the organismal and genetic complexity of our planet's ecosystems! With the current deluge of eukaryotic meta-omics data, we urgently need to build up a universal eukaryotic taxonomy bridging the protist -omics age to the fragile, centuries-old body of classical knowledge that has effectively linked protist taxa to morphological, physiological, and ecological information...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337817/the-cytotoxic-effects-of-camptothecin-and-mastoparan-on-the-unicellular-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#14
Jürgen Voigt, Markus Morawski, Johannes Wöstemeyer
We have recently reported that protease inhibitors affecting the activity of the proteasome cause necrotic cell death in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii instead of inducing apoptosis as shown for some mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have studied other well-known inducers of apoptosis in mammalian cells for their effects on C. reinhardtii cells. Mastoparan caused rapid cell death without a prominent lag-phase under all growth conditions, whereas the cytotoxic effect of the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin exclusively occurred during the cell-division phase...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321967/comparative-analysis-of-the-proteins-with-tandem-repeats-from-8-microsporidia-and-characterization-of-a-novel-endospore-wall-protein-colocalizing-with-polar-tube-from-nosema-bombycis
#15
Ying Wang, Huixia Geng, Xiaoqun Dang, Heng Xiang, Tian Li, Guoqing Pan, Zeyang Zhou
As a common feature of eukaryotic proteins, tandem amino acid repeat has been studied extensively in both animal and plant proteins. Here, a comparative analysis focusing on the proteins having tandem repeats was conducted in eight microsporidia, including four mammal-infecting microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon bieneusi) and four insect-infecting microsporidia (Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, Vavraia culicis and Nosema bombycis). We found that the proteins with tandem repeats were abundant in these species...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303622/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-soil-ciliate-metopus-yantaiensis-n-sp-ciliophora-metopida-with-identification-of-the-intracellular-bacteria
#16
Atef Omar, Qianqian Zhang, Songbao Zou, Jun Gong
The morphology and infraciliature of a new ciliate, Metopus yantaiensis n. sp., discovered in coastal soil of northern China, were investigated. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following features: nuclear apparatus situated in the preoral dome; 18-21 somatic ciliary rows, of which three extend onto the preoral dome (dome kineties); three to five distinctly elongated caudal cilia, and 21-29 adoral polykinetids. The 18S rRNA genes of this new species and two congeners, M. contortus and M...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277606/a-novel-spore-wall-protein-from-antonospora-locustae-microsporidia-nosematidae-contributes-to-sporulation
#17
Longxin Chen, Runting Li, Yinwei You, Kun Zhang, Long Zhang
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites, existing in a wide variety of animal hosts. Here, we reported AlocSWP2, a novel protein identified from the spore wall of Antonospora locustae (formerly, Nosema locustae, and synonym, Paranosema locustae), containing four cysteines that are conserved among the homologues of several Microspodian pathogens in insects and mammals. AlocSWP2 was detected in the wall of mature spores via indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, immunocytochemistry localization experiments showed that the protein was observed in the wall of sporoblasts, sporonts, and meronts during sporulation within the host body, also in the wall of mature spores...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277604/a-new-heterolobosean-amoeboflagellate-tetramitus-dokdoensis-n-sp-isolated-from-a-freshwater-pond-on-dokdo-island-in-the-east-sea-korea
#18
Jong Soo Park
The genus Tetramitus is a representative amoeboflagellate group within the Heterolobosea, and currently contains over a dozen species. Here, a new heterolobosean amoeboflagellate was isolated from a freshwater pond on Dokdo Island, Korea. The amoebae have eruptive pseudopodia, no uroidal filament, and a nucleus with a central nucleolus. The length and width of the amoebae are 15.5-28.0 μm and 5.4-12.6 μm, respectively. The flagellates are conical, with 4 flagella of equal length (~10 μm). There is a discrete rostrum in the subapical region of the flagellate form...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258655/use-of-highly-specific-molecular-markers-reveals-positive-correlation-between-abundances-of-mesodinium-cf-major-and-its-preferred-prey-teleaulax-amphioxeia-during-red-water-blooms-in-the-columbia-river-estuary
#19
Lydie Herfort, Katie Maxey, Ian Vorhees, Holly M Simon, Kolette Grobler, Tawnya D Peterson, Peter Zuber
In a previous study, Teleaulax amphioxeia-the preferred prey of Mesodinium in the Columbia River estuary-were undetectable within intense annual blooms, suggesting blooms are prey-limited or prey are acquired outside of bloom patches. We used a novel molecular approach specifically targeting the prey (i.e., Unique Sequence Element [USE] within the ribosomal RNA 28S D2 regions of T. amphioxeia nucleus and nucleomorph) in estuarine water samples acquired autonomously with an Environmental Sample Processor integrated within a monitoring network (ESP-SATURN)...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258618/differences-in-the-detection-of-brdu-edu-incorporation-assays-alter-the-calculation-for-g1-s-and-g2-phases-of-the-cell-cycle-in-trypanosomatids
#20
Marcelo Santos da Silva, Paula Andrea Marin Muñoz, Hugo Aguirre Armelin, Maria Carolina Elias
Trypanosomatids are the etiologic agents of various infectious diseases in humans. They diverged early during eukaryotic evolution and have attracted attention as peculiar models for evolutionary and comparative studies. Here, we show a meticulous study comparing the incorporation and detection of the thymidine analogs BrdU and EdU in Leishmania amazonensis, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi to monitor their DNA replication. We used BrdU- and EdU-incorporated parasites with the respective standard detection approaches: Indirect Immunofluorescence to detect BrdU after standard denaturation (2 M HCl) and "click" chemistry to detect EdU...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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