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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Bruno M Di Genova, Richard C da Silva, Júlia P C da Cunha, Pablo R Gargantini, Renato A Mortara, Renata R Tonelli
The unicellular protozoa Giardia lamblia is a food- and waterborne parasite that causes giardiasis. This illness is manifested as acute and self-limited diarrhea and can evolve to long-term complications. Successful establishment of infection by Giardia trophozoites requires adhesion to host cells and colonization of the small intestine, where parasites multiply by mitotic division. The tight binding of trophozoites to host cells occurs by means of the ventral adhesive disc, a spiral array of microtubules and associated proteins such as giardins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Amanda Luraschi, Ousmane H Cissé, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
The most efficient drug against the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is cotrimoxazole targeting the folate biosynthesis. However, resistance towards it is emerging and adverse effects occur in some patients. Studies in rodent models suggested that echinocandins could be useful to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Echinocandins inhibit the catalytic subunit Gsc1 of the enzymatic complex ensuring the synthesis of 1,3-β glucan, an essential constituent of cell walls of most fungi. Besides, inhibitors of the enzyme Kre6 involved in the synthesis of 1,6-β glucan, another essential component of fungal walls, were recently described...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Juri Kim, Hye Yeon Lee, Kyu-Ho Lee, Soon-Jung Park
Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism, showing a polarity with two nuclei and cytoskeletal structures. Accurate positioning of these organelles is essential for division of G. lamblia, which is poorly understood. G. lamblia end-binding 1 (GlEB1) protein and G. lamblia aurora kinase (GlAK) have been shown to modulate microtubule (MT) distribution during cytokinesis. A direct association between GlEB1 and GlAK was demonstrated. Like GlEB1, GlAK was also found at nuclear envelopes and median bodies of G. lamblia...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yang Gao, Wei Tao, Shu-Zhen Yan, Shuang-Lin Chen
The plasmodial slime molds is the largest group in the phylum Amoebozoa. Its life cycle includes the plasmodial trophic stage and the spore-bearing fruiting bodies. However, only a few species have their complete life cycle known in details so far. This study is the first reporting the morphogenesis of Didymium laxifilum and Physarum album. Spores, from field-collected sporangia, were incubated into hanging drop cultures for viewing germination and axenic oat agar plates for viewing plasmodial development and sporulation...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xuming Pan, Zihan Shi, Chundi Wang, William A Bourland, Ying Chen, Weibo Song
The morphology, infraciliature and SSU rDNA sequence of a new freshwater hymenostomatid ciliate, Anteglaucoma harbinensis gen. nov., spec. nov., collected from a farmland pond in Harbin, China, were investigated. The new genus Anteglaucoma is characterized as follows: small to medium-sized Glaucomidae with oral apparatus in anterior one-third of cell; paroral membrane composed of almost longitudinally arranged dikinetids; three adoral membranelles nearly equal in length and arranged almost longitudinally in parallel; silverline pattern tetrahymenid...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Daniel J G Lahr, Enrique Lara, Paulo G Hofstatter, Giulia M Ribeiro, Alfredo L Porfírio-Sousa, Samuel P Junior
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kyung-Min Park, Jae-Ho Jung, Gi-Sik Min, Sanghee Kim
A new soil ciliate, Pseudonotohymena antarctica n. g., n. sp., from King George Island, Antarctica, is described based on live observation, protargol impregnation, and its 18S rRNA gene. The new genus Pseudonotohymena is morphologically similar to the genus Notohymena Blatterer and Foissner in the following characteristics: 18 fronto-ventral-transverse cirri, a flexible body, undulating membranes, dorsomarginal kineties, and the number of cirri in the marginal rows. However, Pseudonotohymena differs from Notohymena particularly in the dorsal ciliature, that is, in possessing a nonfragmented dorsal kinety (vs...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Hirokazu Sakamoto, Shigeo Suzuki, Kisaburo Nagamune, Kiyoshi Kita, Motomichi Matsuzaki
Some organisms have retained plastids even after they have lost the ability to photosynthesize. Several studies of non-photosynthetic plastids in apicomplexan parasites have shown that the isopentenyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis pathway in the organelle is essential for their survival. A phytohormone, abscisic acid, one of several compounds biosynthesized from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, regulates the parasite cell cycle. Thus, it is possible that the phytohormone is universally crucial, even in non-photosynthetic plastids...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
F Paul Doerder, Joseph Frankel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Vasily V Zlatogursky, Elena A Gerasimova, Andrey O Plotnikov
A new species of centrohelid heliozoan Acanthocystis amura from the Amur River, the Far East of Russia was studied with light- and electron microscopy. Acanthocystis amura has simple oval plate scales (1.2-2.6 x 1.0-1.8 μm) with an axial thickening and a thin border as well as two types of spine scales. The spine scales of type 1 were 1.3-4.8 μm long and had four small hooks on their tips. The spine scales of type 2 were shorter, 1.0-3.6 μm long and had four teeth at the distal end. The morphology of Acanthocystis amura resembles that of Acanthocystis quadrifurca...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Naoji Yubuki, Eliška Zadrobílková, Ivan Čepička
Fornicata (Metamonada) is a group of Excavata living in low-oxygen environments and lacking conventional mitochondria. It includes free-living Carpediemonas-like organisms from marine habitats and predominantly parasitic/commensal retortamonads and diplomonads. Current modest knowledge of biodiversity of Fornicata limits our ability to draw a complete picture of the evolutionary history in this group. Here, we report the discovery of a novel fornicate, Iotanema spirale gen. nov. et sp. nov., obtained from fresh feces of the gecko Phelsuma madagascariensis...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Zhe Wang, Tong Zhou, Qingxiang Guo, Zemao Gu
Two populations of Epistylis wuhanensis n. sp., a new freshwater peritrich ciliate, were isolated from different freshwater ponds located in Hubei, China. Their morphological characteristics were investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens from the two populations showed identical arrangement of the infraciliature and identical small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. The zooids present bell-shaped and 90-175 × 27-54 μm in vivo...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Yousuke Degawa
Chytrids are true fungi that reproduce with posteriorly uniflagellate zoospores. In the last decade, environmental DNA surveys revealed a large number of uncultured chytrids as well as undescribed order-level novel clades in Chytridiomycota. Although many species have been morphologically described, only some DNA sequence data of parasitic chytrids are available from the database. We herein discuss five cultures of parasitic chytrids on diatoms Aulacoseira spp. and Asterionella formosa. In order to identify the chytrids examined, thallus morphologies were observed using light microscopy...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dapeng Xu, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Ren, Alan Warren
Little is known about the biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes in the South China Sea, especially in waters at bathyal depths. Here, we employed SSU rDNA gene sequencing to reveal the diversity and community structure across depth and distance gradients in the South China Sea. Vertically, the highest alpha diversity was found at 75-m depth. The communities of microbial eukaryotes were clustered into shallow-, middle-, and deep-water groups according to the depth from which they were collected, indicating a depth-related diversity and distribution pattern...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Štěpánka Hrdá, Miluše Hroudová, Čestmír Vlček, Vladimír Hampl
Prasinophytes are a paraphyletic assemblage of nine heterogeneous lineages in the Chlorophyta clade of Archaeplastida. Until now, seven complete mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced from four prasinophyte lineages. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of Pyramimonas parkeae, the first respresentative of the prasinophyte clade I. The circular-mapping molecule is 43,294 bp long, AT rich (68.8%), very compact and it comprises two 6,671 bp long inverted repeat regions. The gene content is slightly smaller than the gene-richest prasinophyte mitochondrial genomes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yun-Chi Lin, Chih-Ching Chung, Liang-Yin Chen, Gwo-Ching Gong, Chin-Yi Huang, Kuo-Ping Chiang
Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are important constituents in picoplankton communities in many marine ecosystems. However, little is known about their community composition in the subtropical coastal waters of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. In order to study their taxonomic composition, this study constructed 18S rRNA gene libraries using flow cytometric sorting during the warm season. The results show that, after diatoms, prasinophyte clones are numerically dominant. Within prasinophytes, Micromonas produced the most common sequences, and included clades II, III, IV, and VI...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Gianna Pitsch, Lubomír Adamec, Sebastian Dirren, Frank Nitsche, Karel Šimek, Dagmara Sirová, Thomas Posch
The genus Tetrahymena (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) probably represents the best studied ciliate genus. At present, more than forty species have been described. All are colorless, i.e. they do not harbor symbiotic algae, and as aerobes they need at least microaerobic habitats. Here, we present the morphological and molecular description of the first green representative, Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp., living in symbiosis with endosymbiotic algae identified as Micractinium sp. (Chlorophyta). The full life cycle of the ciliate species is documented, including trophonts and theronts, conjugating cells, resting cysts and dividers...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Karel Šimek, Gianna Pitsch, Michaela M Salcher, Dagmara Sirová, Tanja Shabarová, Lubomir Adamec, Thomas Posch
Trap fluid of aquatic carnivorous plants of the genus Utricularia hosts specific microbiomes consisting of commensal pro- and eukaryotes of largely unknown ecology. We examined the characteristics and dynamics of bacteria and the three dominant eukaryotes, i.e., the algae-bearing ciliate Tetrahymena utriculariae (Ciliophora), a green flagellate Euglena agilis (Euglenophyta), and the alga Scenedesmus alternans (Chlorophyta), associated with the traps of Utricularia reflexa. Our study focused on ecological traits and life strategies of the highly abundant ciliate whose biomass by far exceeds that of other eukaryotes and bacteria independent of the trap age...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Alejandra C Schoijet, Tamara Sternlieb, Guillermo D Alonso
Autophagy is a degradative process by which eukaryotic cells digest their own components to provide aminoacids that may function as energy source under nutritional stress conditions. There is experimental evidence for autophagy in parasitic protists belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. However, few proteins implicated in this process have been characterized so far in these parasites. Moreover, it has been shown that autophagy is involved in Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation and thus might have a role in pathogenicity...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yasuharu Kushida, Masak Takaine, Kentaro Nakano, Toshiro Sugai, Krishna Kumar Vasudevan, Mayukh Guha, Yu-Yang Jiang, Jacek Gaertig, Osamu Numata
Ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila have two distinct nuclei within one cell: the micronucleus that undergoes mitosis and meiosis and the macronucleus that undergoes amitosis, a type of nuclear division that does not involve a bipolar spindle, but still relies on intranuclear microtubules. Ciliates provide an opportunity for the discovery of factors that specifically contribute to chromosome segregation based on a bipolar spindle, by identification of factors that affect the micronuclear but not the macronuclear division...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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