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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211202/role-of-modular-polyketide-synthases-in-the-production-of-polyether-ladder-compounds-in-ciguatoxin-producing-gambierdiscus-polynesiensis-and-g-excentricus-dinophyceae
#1
Gurjeet S Kohli, Katrina Campbell, Uwe John, Kirsty F Smith, Santiago Fraga, Lesley L Rhodes, Shauna A Murray
Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of G. excentricus and G. polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211199/description-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-a-novel-hypotrich-ciliate-from-the-soil-of-marche-region-italy-including-notes-on-the-mosyss-project
#2
Daizy Bharti, Santosh Kumar, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis during cell division of a new stylonychine hypotrich, Rigidocortex quadrinucleatus n. sp., were investigated using live observation and protargol staining. The new species was isolated from soil samples collected from an organic farm in the Marche Region, Italy, in framework of the MOSYSS project. Rigidocortex quadrinucleatus is characterized as follows: cell size about 180 × 80 μm in vivo; four ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules; 44 adoral membranelles: 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri consisting of three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, three ventral, two pretransverse and five transverse cirri; dorsal kinety 3 with multiple fragmentation; resting cyst with hyaline ridges...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207967/the-synonymy-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellates-prorocentrum-mexicanum-and-p-rhathymum-and-the-description-of-p-steidingerae-sp-nov-prorocentrales-dinophyceae
#3
Fernando Gómez, Dajun Qiu, Senjie Lin
Prorocentrum mexicanum and P. rhathymum are toxicologically important dinoflagellates, but their relationship is not well defined. We investigated strains from Puerto Rico and Brazil by light and scanning electron microscopies. We provide molecular data from a strain isolated near the type locality of P. rhathymum, and the first morphological and molecular data from the South Atlantic Ocean. The rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences of the Puerto Rican and Brazilian strains were identical, and their morphologies fit the description of P...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199765/survey-for-zoonotic-microsporidian-pathogens-in-wild-living-urban-rooks-corvus-frugilegus
#4
Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, Maria Wesołowska, Kinga Leśniańska, Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Joanna Hildebrand, Marta Kicia
Microsporidia are opportunistic pathogens in nature infecting all animal phyla. There is a potential risk of microsporidian spores transmission from urban rooks inhabiting some metropolitan cities to people through casual interactions. The aim of this study was to identify microsporidia species in the droppings of rooks in Wroclaw, Poland. A total of 15 collective sets of droppings were examined using nested-PCR method. Amplification of ITS rRNA gene revealed the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi D, Peru 6 and Encephalitozoon hellem 1A genotypes...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187245/molecular-phylogeny-and-ultrastructure-of-aphelidium-desmodesmi-a-new-species-in-aphelida-opisthosporidia
#5
Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell, Philip A Lee, Salvador Lopez, Micheal Burnett
Aphelids are a diverse group of intracellular parasitoids of algae and diatoms, and are sister to true fungi. Included in four genera, the 14 described species utilize phagocytosis as their mode of nutrition, and the life cycles of these taxa are remarkably similar. However, their putative specificity of host, morphological and ultrastructural features, and genetic divergence have been considered in taxon delineation. Here we examine the host specificity, morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular 18S gene sequence of a new species in Aphelida, Aphelidium desmodesmi sp...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171698/differential-gene-expression-in-five-isolates-of-the-clam-pathogen-quahog-parasite-unknown-qpx
#6
Ewelina Rubin, Arnaud Tanguy, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a thraustochytrid protist that infects the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, causing significant economic losses along the northeastern coasts of North America. Previous investigations noted differences in growth dynamics and virulence in QPX cells from different geographic locations. In order to probe the molecular determinants for these variations, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of five geographically-distinct QPX isolates using custom 15K 60-mer oligonucleotide arrays...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166378/occurrence-and-genetic-characteristics-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-cryptosporidium-andersoni-in-horses-from-southwestern-china
#7
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Chao Gong, Xuefeng Cao, Yuan Song, Wuyou Wang, Xiangming Huang, Xuehan Liu, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Min He, Ya Wang, Yue Zhang, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
A total of 333 fecal specimens from horses in southwestern China were genotyped based on analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium andersoni were identified in 2 and 4 stool specimens, respectively. The identification of C. hominis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) and oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. Subtyping analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene sequence of C. hominis revealed a new rare subtype Id, named IdA15; only three Id isolates have been reported in humans to date...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166376/morphology-and-morphogenesis-of-a-novel-saline-soil-hypotrichous-ciliate-gonostomum-sinicum-nov-spec-ciliophora-hypotrichia-gonostomatidae-including-a-report-on-the-small-subunit-rdna-sequence
#8
Xiaoteng Lu, Jie Huang, Chen Shao, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Shan Gao
Morphology, cirral pattern, and morphogenesis of the new saline soil hypotrich, Gonostomum sinicum nov. spec. collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied, using detailed live observations and protargol-stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: (i) a size in vivo of 100-125 × 30-40 μm, (ii) colorless cortical granules, 0.5 μm across, arranged in short rows, (iii) an adoral zone composed of 28-33 membranelles, (iv) three or four frontoventral rows, one of which extends onto the postoral area, (v) left and right marginal rows composed of 18-27 and 21-35, cirri, respectively, and (vi) usually two transverse cirri...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166371/lineage-specific-and-highly-derived-gene-sequences-among-amoebozoa-revealed-by-the-comparative-analysis-of-transcriptomes-from-twelve-amoebozoan-species
#9
Natalya I Bondarenko, Anton S Bondarenko, Alexey V Smirnov
Amoebozoa represent a difficult group for traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Molecular approaches, such as gene sequencing and DNA barcoding have greatly enhanced our knowledge on the diversity of these organisms. However, metagenomic studies of Amoebozoa still did not provide as impressive results as they did among some other groups of protists. In environmental DNA surveys done on fragments of SSU rDNA gene and other traditional DNA barcodes, Amoebozoa genes normally constitute a minor part of the total gene diversity and represent only the most abundant lineages...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150358/diversity-and-evolution-of-paramoeba-spp-and-their-kinetoplastid-endosymbionts
#10
Shannon J Sibbald, Ugo Cenci, Morgan Colp, Yana Eglit, Charles J O'Kelly, John M Archibald
Members of the genus Paramoeba (including Neoparamoeba) (Amoebozoa) are single-celled eukaryotes of economic and ecological importance due to their association with disease in a variety of marine animals including fish, sea urchins, and lobster. Interestingly, they harbor a eukaryotic endosymbiont of kinetoplastid ancestry, Perkinsela sp. To investigate the complex relationship between Paramoeba spp. and Perkinsela sp., as well as the relationships between different Paramoeba species, molecular data was obtained for four novel isolates...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150355/evaluation-of-systematic-position-of-helicoprorodontids-and-chaeneids-ciliophora-litostomatea-an-attempt-to-break-long-branches-in-18s-rrna-gene-phylogenies
#11
Peter Vďačný, Matej Rataj
Phylogenetic position of some free-living litostomatean taxa has not been correctly determined because of long-branch artifacts in 18S rRNA gene trees. The main aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various masking algorithms, tree-building techniques, binarization of DNA data as well as combining morphological and molecular data to eliminate long-branch attraction of two problematic groups, helicoprorodontids and chaeneids. Guidance and SlowFaster masking in a combination with PhyloBayesian tree construction erased the artifactual positions of helicoprorodontids and chaeneids...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120360/expanding-the-symbiodinium-dinophyceae-suessiales-toolkit-through-protoplast-technology
#12
Rachel A Levin, David J Suggett, Matthew R Nitschke, Madeleine J H van Oppen, Peter D Steinberg
Dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium are photosymbionts of many tropical reef invertebrates, including corals, making them central to the health of coral reefs. Symbiodinium have therefore gained significant research attention, though studies have been constrained by technical limitations. In particular, the generation of viable cells with their cell walls removed (termed protoplasts) has enabled a wide range of experimental techniques for bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae such as ultrastructure studies, virus infection studies, patch clamping, genetic transformation, and protoplast fusion...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072495/pelagostrobilidium-liui-n-sp-ciliophora-choreotrichida-from-the-coastal-waters-of-northeastern-taiwan-and-an-improved-description-of-pelagostrobilidium-minutum-liu-et%C3%A2-al-2012
#13
Po-Cheng Chen, Kuo-Ping Chiang, Sheng-Fang Tsai
The number of somatic kineties in Pelagostrobilidium ranges from 4 to 6 according to the present state of knowledge. This study investigates Pelagostrobilidium liui n. sp. using live observation, protargol stain, and small subunit rDNA data sequencing. Pelagostrobilidium liui n. sp. is characterized by having a spherical-shaped body, 4 somatic kineties, with kinety 2 spiraled around the left side of body, about six elongated external membranelles, and invariably no buccal membranelle. It differs from its most similar congener, P...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061024/beyond-the-code-a-guide-to-the-description-and-documentation-of-biodiversity-in-ciliated-protists-alveolata-ciliophora
#14
Alan Warren, David J Patterson, Micah Dunthorn, John C Clamp, Undine E M Achilles-Day, Erna Aescht, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Khaled Al-Rasheid, Martin Carr, John G Day, Marc Dellinger, Hamed A El-Serehy, Yangbo Fan, Feng Gao, Shan Gao, Jun Gong, Renu Gupta, Xiaozhong Hu, Komal Kamra, Gaytha Langlois, Xiaofeng Lin, Diana Lipscomb, Christopher S Lobban, Pierangelo Luporini, Denis H Lynn, Honggang Ma, Miroslav Macek, Jacqueline Mackenzie-Dodds, Seema Makhija, Robert I Mansergh, Mercedes Martín-Cereceda, Nettie McMiller, David J S Montagnes, Nikolaeva Svetlana, Geoffrey Odhiambo Ong'ondo, Blanca Pérez-Uz, Jasmine Purushothaman, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Johana Rotterová, Luciana Santoferrara, Chen Shao, Zhuo Shen, Xinlu Shi, Weibo Song, Thorsten Stoeck, Antonietta La Terza, Adriana Vallesi, Mei Wang, Thomas Weisse, Krzysztof Wiackowski, Lei Wu, Kuidong Xu, Zhenzhen Yi, Rebecca Zufall, Sabine Agatha
Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigation of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004878/the-first-isolation-and-characterisation-of-the-protist-labyrinthula-sp-in-southeastern-australia
#15
Brooke K Sullivan, Katie L Robinson, Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett, Erna Lilje, Frank H Gleason, Osu Lilje
As a result of anthropogenic influences and global climate change, emerging infectious marine diseases are thought to be increasingly more common and more severe than in the past. The aim of our investigation was to confirm the presence of Labyrinthula, the etiological agent of the seagrass wasting disease, in Southeastern Australia and provide the first isolation and characterisation of this protist, in Australia. Colonies and individual cells were positively identified as Labyrinthula using published descriptions, diagrams and photographs...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995672/biofilms-for-monitoring-presence-of-microsporidia-in-environmental-water
#16
Joseph A Moss, Richard A Snyder
The development of molecular methodologies for targeting pathogens such as the Microsporidia has greatly improved our monitoring capabilities and initiatives. This study analyzed samples collected from 5 locations in Pensacola, Florida, USA for the presence of Microsporidian pathogens. To circumvent various impediments associated with water collection and filtration, we utilized biofilms as sentinels for detection of Microsporidia. We implemented membrane-dissolution and sample purification in a single confined step followed by real-time PCR to confirm pathogen presence...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987526/molecular-phylogeny-of-paraphelidium-letcheri-sp-nov-aphelida-opisthosporidia
#17
Sergey A Karpov, Guifré Torruella, David Moreira, Maria A Mamkaeva, Purificación López-García
Aphelids remain poorly known parasitoids of algae and have recently raised considerable interest due to their phylogenetic position at the base of Holomycota. Together with Cryptomycota (Rozellosporidia) and Microsporidia, they have been recently re-classified as the Opisthosporidia, which constitutes the sister group to the fungi within the Holomycota. Molecular environmental studies have revealed a huge diversity of aphelids, but only four genera have been described: Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, Paraphelidium, and Pseudaphelidium...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973742/haptophyte-diversity-and-vertical-distribution-explored-by-18s-and-28s-ribosomal-rna-gene-metabarcoding-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#18
Sandra Gran-Stadniczeñko, Luka Šupraha, Elianne D Egge, Bente Edvardsen
Haptophyta encompasses more than 300 species of mostly marine pico- and nanoplanktonic flagellates. Our aims were to investigate the Oslofjorden haptophyte diversity and vertical distribution by metabarcoding, and to improve the approach to study haptophyte community composition, richness and proportional abundance by comparing two rRNA markers and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were collected in August 2013 at the Outer Oslofjorden, Norway. Total RNA/cDNA was amplified by haptophyte-specific primers targeting the V4 region of the 18S, and the D1-D2 region of the 28S rRNA...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805743/in-memoriam-david-l-nanney-1925-2016
#19
F Paul Doerder, Joseph Frankel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339640/localization-of-a-trypanosome-peroxin-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#20
Sarah T Bauer, Kelley E McQueeney, Terral Patel, Meredith T Morris
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of diseases that affect 30,000-50,000 people annually. Trypanosoma brucei harbors unique organelles named glycosomes that are essential to parasite survival, which requires growth under fluctuating environmental conditions. The mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of these organelles are poorly understood. Glycosomes are evolutionarily related to peroxisomes, which can proliferate de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum or through the growth and division of existing organelles depending on the organism and environmental conditions...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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