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Health & Social Care in the Community

Adriana Ávila, Iván De-Rosende-Celeiro, Gabriel Torres, Mirian Vizcaíno, Manuel Peralbo, Montserrat Durán
Nonpharmacologic therapies such as occupational therapy (OT) are promising for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, more research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of home-based OT programs. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of a home-based, high-intensity and multicomponent OT intervention on the activities of daily living of people with AD in Spain. The secondary objective was to examine its impact on the cognitive functions. A multiple-baseline intrasubject design was used...
July 11, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Katherine Sievert, Paul O'Neill, Youlin Koh, Jia-Hui Lee, Anouk Dev, Suong Le
Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection and subsequent liver complications are rising in prevalence in Australia due to increased migration from endemic regions. Nearly 50% of all those living with CHB in Australia are undiagnosed, leading to missed opportunities for liver cancer and cirrhosis prevention. Health literacy around CHB among refugee communities such as Afghan, Rohingyan, and Sudanese populations (all with a high prevalence of CHB) is low, partly due to a paucity of targeted health promotion programmes; despite the release of the Victorian Hepatitis B Strategy (2016-2020)...
July 10, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Emma Howarth, Theresa Hm Moore, Nicky Stanley, Harriet L MacMillan, Gene Feder, Alison Shaw
Children who grow up in homes affected by domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are at risk of poor outcomes across the lifespan, yet there is limited evidence on the acceptability and effectiveness of interventions for them. A recent review of child-focused interventions highlighted a gap in understanding the factors influencing the willingness of parents and children to engage with these programmes. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence on the experiences of receiving and delivering interventions with the aim of identifying factors at different levels of the social-ecological context that may influence parent and child readiness to take up interventions...
July 10, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Rachael A Heckenberg, Stephen Kent, Bradley J Wright
This study aimed to explore the use of a contemporary workplace stress model, the Job Demands-Resources model, with direct-care workers using a qualitative approach. The JD-R model has successfully been used to predict health outcomes across different occupations using quantitative methods. However, the use of the generic questionnaire developed for this model may not always be appropriate. Direct-care workers (n = 19) attended two focus groups and reported on their job demands, job resources and personal resources...
July 10, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Margaret MacAndrew, Deborah Brooks, Elizabeth Beattie
Dementia-related wandering is exhibited by as many as 63% of people with dementia living in the community. There is strong evidence that people with dementia who wander are at risk of life-threatening outcomes including injury from falls, exhaustion, weight loss, and becoming lost. Furthermore, carers have reported that fear of a person with dementia becoming lost contributes to them taking extreme measures in an attempt to maintain safety at home and there are few guidelines to direct care practices. Previous literature reviews of interventions to manage wandering have been inconclusive as the quality of research resulted in most studies being excluded...
June 27, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Matthew D Kiernan, Alison Osbourne, Gill McGill, Peta Jane Greaves, Gemma Wilson, Mick Hill
Alcohol misuse in the United Kingdom's veteran community is not an isolated phenomenon. Internationally, alcohol and wider substance misuse would appear to be an historic and current global issue within veteran communities. Although research has been undertaken both in the United Kingdom and the United States into why veterans are reluctant to seek help for mental health problems, little is understood as to why veterans encounter difficulties in engaging with treatment for alcohol misuse. The aim of this study was to understand why veterans in the United Kingdom are either reluctant or have difficulty in accessing help for alcohol problems...
May 31, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Mary Larkin, Melanie Henwood, Alisoun Milne
The review discussed in this paper provides a unique synthesis of evidence and knowledge about carers. The authors adopted a scoping review methodology drawing on a wide range of material from many different sources published between 2000 and 2016. It offers key insights into what we know and how we know it; reinforces and expands evidence about carers' profile; shows knowledge is uneven, e.g. much is known about working carers, young carers and carers of people with dementia but far less is about older carers or caring for someone with multiple needs...
May 30, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Monica Jane, Jonathan Foster, Martin Hagger, Suleen Ho, Robert Kane, Sebely Pal
This study was conducted to test whether the weight outcomes in an online social networking group were mediated by changes to psychological outcome measures in overweight and obese individuals, following a weight management programme delivered via Facebook. The data analysed in this study were collected during a three-armed, randomised, controlled clinical weight management trial conducted with overweight and obese adults over 24 weeks. Two intervention groups were given the same weight management programme: one within a Facebook group, along with peer support from other group members (the Facebook Group); the other group received the same programme in a pamphlet (the Pamphlet Group)...
May 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Suzanne Rainsford, Christine B Phillips, Nicholas J Glasgow, Roderick D MacLeod, Robert B Wiles
Residential aged care (RAC) is a significant provider of end-of-life care for people aged 65 years and older. Rural residents perceive themselves as different to their urban counterparts. Most studies describing place of death (PoD) in RAC are quantitative and reflect an urban voice. Using a mixed-methods design, this paper examines the PoD of 80 RAC residents (15 short-stay residents who died in RAC during respite or during an attempted step-down transition from hospital to home, and 65 permanent residents), within the rural Snowy Monaro region, Australia, who died between 1 February 2015 and 31 May 2016...
May 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Lia Levin, Noga Sefati
Unemployment is a harsh social phenomenon with far reaching negative implications. Unemployed individuals often seek assistance from social workers working in Municipal Departments of Social Services around the world. However, little to no research exists on the factors involved in social workers' choice to engage in employment-promoting practices (EPP). The current study aimed to tackle this gap of knowledge, providing initial conclusions about the relationship between social workers' attitudes towards unemployment, their knowledge regarding EPP, the extent to which they perceive their organisations as endorsing EPP and their actual implementation...
April 23, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Gretchen E Ely, Travis W Hales, D Lynn Jackson, Jenni Kotting, Kafuli Agbemenu
The results of a study examining differences between U.S. adolescent and adult abortion fund service recipients are presented in this paper. Using existing case data from 2010 to 2015 from the National Network of Abortion Funds (N = 3,288), a secondary data analysis was conducted to determine whether or not the experiences of adolescent (n = 481) and adult abortion patients (n = 2,807) who received financial assistance to help pay for an abortion differed. Fisher's exact tests examined differences in dichotomous variables, and regression examined differences in procedural costs, patient resources and expected travel distances to obtain an abortion...
April 23, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Janina Curbach, Berit Warrelmann, Susanne Brandstetter, Verena Lindacher, Jana Rueter, Julika Loss
Main goal of this study was to analyse how empowerment processes and bottom-up activities aimed at healthier food choices and food environment could be initiated among a group of senior citizens (between 60 and 75 years old). The intervention was set up as a pilot study in a rural community (15,000 inhabitants) in the federal state of Bavaria, South Eastern Germany. A process evaluation documented how group formation and empowerment processes developed during the course of the intervention. Extensive field notes were taken in 27 meetings, interviews (n = 13) and focus groups (n = 4) were conducted with participants and key persons at different points of the intervention...
April 22, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Wilhelmina Mijntje Looman, Robbert Huijsman, Isabelle Natalina Fabbricotti
Integrated care is increasingly promoted as an effective and cost-effective way to organise care for community-dwelling frail older people with complex problems but the question remains whether high expectations are justified. Our study aims to systematically review the empirical evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for community-dwelling frail older people and close attention is paid to the elements and levels of integration of the interventions. We searched nine databases for eligible studies until May 2016 with a comparison group and reporting at least one outcome regarding effectiveness or cost-effectiveness...
April 17, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Astrid M Altena, Mariëlle D Beijersbergen, Jeroen K Vermunt, Judith R L M Wolf
It is important to gain more insight into specific subgroups of homeless young adults (HYA) to enable the development of tailored interventions that adequately meet their diverse needs and to improve their quality of life. Within a heterogeneous sample of HYA, we investigated whether subgroups are distinguishable based on risk- and protective factors for quality of life. In addition, differences between subgroups were examined regarding the socio-demographic characteristics, the use of cognitive coping strategies and quality of life...
April 17, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Jenny Ceolta-Smith, Sarah Salway, Angela Mary Tod
Recent UK welfare reforms have been less successful than expected by the Government in supporting unemployed people with long-term illness into work. Frontline workers remain a core element of the new welfare-to-work machinery, but operate within a changed organisational and policy landscape. These changes raise important questions regarding whether and how claimants' health-related barriers to work are considered. This paper examines the UK welfare-to-work frontline worker's role with claimants who have long-term illness...
April 17, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Saras Henderson, Maria Horne, Ruth Hills, Elizabeth Kendall
This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research...
July 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Jianping Ren, Xianhong Huang, Tao Zhang, Xueyang Zhou, Chaojie Liu, Xiaodi Wang
The National essential medicines policy (NEMP) is promoted by the World Health Organization for affordable medicines that can meet the basic needs of communities. Patient acceptance is essential for achieving the policy goals of the NEMP. This study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with prescribed medicines in community health services under the NEMP context in China. A stratified random sampling strategy was adopted to select 1,037 participants in 40 community health centres from four provinces in China...
July 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Roni Holler, Shirli Werner
Over the last decades, the disability movement has been advocating for a paradigmatic shift in how disability is perceived and managed: from a medical or individual perspective focusing on the person's body and mind to a social perspective emphasizing the context and barriers of disability. However, we still know little about the perceptions of helping professionals, particularly social workers who work closely with disabled people. Thus, the aim of the current study is to develop and validate a scale-Perceptions Toward Disability Scale (PTDS)-to measure how social workers view disability: as an individual or social category...
May 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Didi Verver, Hanneke Merten, Paul Robben, Cordula Wagner
The growth in the numbers of older adults needing long-term care has resulted in rising costs which have forced the Dutch government to change its long-term care system. Now, the local authorities have greater responsibility for supporting older adults and in prolonging independent living with increased support provided by the social network. However, it is unclear whether these older adults have such a network to rely upon. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the providers of formal and informal care to older adults, and to assess possible differences between older adults who are frail and those who are not...
May 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Margaret O'Connor, Samar M Aoun, Lauren J Breen
While the experiences of family members supporting a person with a terminal illness are well documented, less is known about the needs of carers of people with neurological diseases, in particular, Motor Neurone Disease (MND). This paper describes the qualitative data from a large Australian survey of family carers of people with MND, to ascertain their experiences of receiving the diagnosis. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of family carers of people with MND in receiving the diagnosis in order to inform and improve ways in which the diagnosis is communicated...
May 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
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