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Future of Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516723/child-health-and-access-to-medical-care
#1
Lindsey Leininger, Helen Levy
It might seem strange to ask whether increasing access to medical care can improve children's health. Yet Lindsey Leininger and Helen Levy begin by pointing out that access to care plays a smaller role than we might think, and that many other factors, such as those discussed elsewhere in this issue, strongly influence children's health. Nonetheless, they find that, on the whole, policies to improve access indeed improve children's health, with the caveat that context plays a big role-medical care "matters more at some times, or for some children, than others...
2015: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134512/the-growing-racial-and-ethnic-divide-in-u-s-marriage-patterns
#2
R Kelly Raley, Megan M Sweeney, Danielle Wondra
The United States shows striking racial and ethnic differences in marriage patterns. Compared to both white and Hispanic women, black women marry later in life, are less likely to marry at all, and have higher rates of marital instability. Kelly Raley, Megan Sweeney, and Danielle Wondra begin by reviewing common explanations for these differences, which first gained momentum in the 1960s (though patterns of marital instability diverged earlier than patterns of marriage formation). Structural factors-for example, declining employment prospects and rising incarceration rates for unskilled black men-clearly play a role, the authors write, but such factors don't fully explain the divergence in marriage patterns...
2015: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929590/cohabitation-and-child-wellbeing
#3
Wendy D Manning
In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing...
2015: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518707/family-assets-and-child-outcomes-evidence-and-directions
#4
REVIEW
Michal Grinstein-Weiss, Trina R Williams Shanks, Sondra G Beverly
For poor families, the possession of assets--savings accounts, homes, and the like--has the potential not only to relieve some of the stress of living in poverty but also to make a better future seem like a real possibility. If children in families that own certain assets fare better than children in families without them, then helping poor families build those assets would be an effective strategy for two-generation programs. Indeed, write Michal Grinstein-Weiss, Trina Williams Shanks, and Sondra Beverly, plenty of evidence shows that assets are connected to positive outcomes for poor children...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518706/parents-employment-and-children-s-wellbeing
#5
REVIEW
Carolyn J Heinrich
Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518705/boosting-family-income-to-promote-child-development
#6
REVIEW
Greg J Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal
Families who live in poverty face disadvantages that can hinder their children's development in many ways, write Greg Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, and Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal. As they struggle to get by economically, and as they cope with substandard housing, unsafe neighborhoods, and inadequate schools, poor families experience more stress in their daily lives than more affluent families do, with a host of psychological and developmental consequences. Poor families also lack the resources to invest in things like high-quality child care and enriched learning experiences that give more affluent children a leg up...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518704/two-generation-programs-and-health
#7
REVIEW
Sherry Glied, Don Oellerich
Parents' health and children's health are closely intertwined--healthier parents have healthier children, and vice versa. Genetics accounts for some of this relationship, but much of it can be traced to environment and behavior, and the environmental and behavioral risk factors for poor health disproportionately affect families living in poverty. Unhealthy children are likely to become unhealthy adults, and poor health drags down both their educational attainment and their income. Because of the close connection between parents' and children's health, write Sherry Glied and Don Oellerich, we have every reason to believe that programs to improve parents' health will improve their children's health as well...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518703/intergenerational-payoffs-of-education
#8
REVIEW
Neeraj Kaushal
Better-educated parents generally have children who are themselves better educated, healthier, wealthier, and better off in almost every way than the children of the less educated. But this simple correlation does not prove that the relationship is causal. Neeraj Kaushal sifts through the evidence from economics and public policy and reviews large national and international studies to conclude that, indeed, education has large intergenerational payoffs in many areas of children's lives, and that these payoffs persist over time...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518702/stress-and-child-development
#9
REVIEW
Ross A Thompson
Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518701/two-generation-programs-in-the-twenty-first-century
#10
REVIEW
Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
Most of the authors in this issue of Future of Children focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the past or are currently under way. These explicitly two-generation programs have sought to build human capital across generations by combining education or job training for adults with early childhood education for their children...
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25518700/introduction-two-generation-mechanisms-of-child-development
#11
Ron Haskins, Irwin Garfinkel, Sara McLanahan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522651/access-and-success-with-less-improving-productivity-in-broad-access-postsecondary-institutions
#12
REVIEW
Davis Jenkins, Olga Rodríguez
Achieving national goals for increased college completion in a time of scarce resources will require the postsecondary institutions that enroll the majority of undergraduates--community colleges and less-selective public universities--to graduate more students at a lower cost. Davis Jenkins and Olga Rodriguez examine research on how these "broad-access" institutions can do so without sacrificing access or quality. Research indicates that the strategies broad-access institutions have relied on in the past to cut costs--using part-time instructors and increasing student-faculty ratios--may in fact reduce productivity and efficiency...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522650/e-learning-in-postsecondary-education
#13
REVIEW
Bradford S Bell, Jessica E Federman
Over the past decade postsecondary education has been moving increasingly from the classroom to online. During the fall 2010 term 31 percent of U.S. college students took at least one online course. The primary reasons for the growth of e-learning in the nation's colleges and universities include the desire of those institutions to generate new revenue streams, improve access, and offer students greater scheduling flexibility. Yet the growth of e-learning has been accompanied by a continuing debate about its effectiveness and by the recognition that a number of barriers impede its widespread adoption in higher education...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522649/for-profit-colleges
#14
David Deming, Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz
For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522648/transitions-from-high-school-to-college
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Venezia, Laura Jaeger
The vast majority of high school students aspire to some kind of postsecondary education, yet far too many of them enter college without the basic content knowledge, skills, or habits of mind they need to succeed. Andrea Venezia and Laura Jaeger look at the state of college readiness among high school students, the effectiveness of programs in place to help them transition to college, and efforts to improve those transitions. Students are unprepared for postsecondary coursework for many reasons, the authors write, including differences between what high schools teach and what colleges expect, as well as large disparities between the instruction offered by high schools with high concentrations of students in poverty and that offered by high schools with more advantaged students...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522647/student-supports-developmental-education-and-other-academic-programs
#16
Eric P Bettinger, Angela Boatman, Bridget Terry Long
Low rates of college completion are a major problem in the United States. Less than 60 percent of students at four-year colleges graduate within six years, and at some colleges, the graduation rate is less than 10 percent. Additionally, many students enter higher education ill-prepared to comprehend college-level course material. Some estimates suggest that only one-third of high school graduates finish ready for college work; the proportion is even lower among older students. Colleges have responded to the poor preparation of incoming students by placing approximately 35 to 40 percent of entering freshmen into remedial or developmental courses, along with providing academic supports such as summer bridge programs, learning communities, academic counseling, and tutoring, as well as student supports such as financial aid and child care...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522646/financial-aid-policy-lessons-from-research
#17
REVIEW
Susan Dynarski, Judith Scott-Clayton
In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522645/making-college-worth-it-a-review-of-the-returns-to-higher-education
#18
REVIEW
Philip Oreopoulos, Uros Petronijevic
Despite a general rise in the return to college, likely due to technological change, the cost-benefit calculus facing prospective students can make the decision to invest in and attend college dauntingly complex. Philip Oreopoulos and Uros Petronijevic review research on the varying costs and benefits of higher education and explore in full the complexity of the decision to invest in and attend college. Optimal college attainment decisions are different for all prospective students, who diverge in terms of what they are likely to get out of higher education and what specific options might be best for them...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522644/an-overview-of-american-higher-education
#19
REVIEW
Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, Michael McPherson
This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree...
2013: Future of Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522643/postsecondary-education-in-the-united-states-introducing-the-issue
#20
Lisa Barrow, Thomas Brock, Cecilia Elena Rouse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Future of Children
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