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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

Robert Adams, Robert Zboray
Gamma imaging using a relatively low strength 5.8mCi laboratory Co-60 source and a CsI(Tl) scintillator screen read out by a CCD camera was investigated. A simple model was used to estimate the effective count rate, which was verified with experiments. Radiography and tomography of phantoms were used to determine the test setup spatial resolution of about 1.3-2.5mm. Exposure times were on the order of a couple minutes per radiograph. These tests demonstrate the value of the count rate model and the feasibility of the setup as a simple and low-cost solution for gamma imaging cases where acquisition time is flexible and resolution requirements are moderate...
May 17, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Komal Saini, B S Bajwa
Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector and multi channel analyzer has been utilized to measure gamma rays emitted by radio nuclides found in soil samples of south-west (SW) region of Punjab state, India where elevated level of uranium of around value of 700µg/l in groundwater has been reported. For comparative study, soil samples were also collected and analyzed from west (W) and north east (NE) regions of the state. Uranium and potassium has been found to be comparatively higher in SW region whereas thorium level is higher in W and NE part of Punjab state...
May 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Mengshi Li, Xiuli Zhang, Thomas P Quinn, Dongyoul Lee, Dijie Liu, Falk Kunkel, Brian E Zimmerman, Daniel McAlister, Keith Olewein, Yusuf Menda, Saed Mirzadeh, Roy Copping, Frances L Johnson, Michael K Schultz
A method for preparation of Pb-212 and Pb-203 labeled chelator-modified peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals for cancer imaging and radionuclide therapy has been developed and adapted for automated clinical production. Pre-concentration and isolation of radioactive Pb2+ from interfering metals in dilute hydrochloric acid was optimized using a commercially-available Pb-specific chromatography resin packed in disposable plastic columns. The pre-concentrated radioactive Pb2+ is eluted in NaOAc buffer directly to the reaction vessel containing chelator-modified peptides...
May 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Akihiko Masuda, Tetsuro Matsumoto, Kenta Takada, Takahiro Onishi, Kohei Kotaki, Hidenori Sugimoto, Hiroaki Kumada, Hideki Harano, Takeji Sakae
The neutron spectral fluence of an accelerator-based neutron source facility for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) based on a proton linac and a beryllium target was evaluated by the unfolding method using a Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS). A (3)He-proportional-counter-based BSS was used with weak beam during the development of the facility. The measured epithermal neutron spectra were consistent with calculations. The epithermal neutron intensity at the beam port was estimated and the results gave a numerical target for the enhancement of the proton beam intensity and will be used as reference data for measurements performed after the completion of the facility...
May 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
H Olaya Dávila, J A Díaz Merchán, H R Vega Carrillo, S A Martínez Ovalle
We developed an experimental set-up by using a continuous emission X-ray (Pantak DXT-3000) and three types of Pb aprons, with thicknesses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75mm, coated with Mylar fiber on their surface. Aprons were placed at a distance of 2.5m from the focus. Aluminum filtration was performed at the beam output to reproduce the qualities of narrow beams, N40 (Eeffective =33keV), N80 (Eeffective =65keV), and N100 (Eeffective =83keV), according to the ISO standard 4037 (1-3). Each apron was fixed with 10 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) over its surface, five dosimeters before and five dosimeters after irradiation with X-rays...
May 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
N Küçük, M Ayvacikli, S Akça, M Yüksel, J Garcia Guinea, Y Karabulut, A Canimoglu, M Topaksu, N Can
Several ZnB2O4 powder samples having dopants concentrations of 0.1, 0.01, 0.04wt% Ce and La were prepared using the nitric acid method via the starting oxides. Several complementary methods such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), Radioluminescence (RL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques were used. Unique luminescence properties of Ce doped ZnB2O4 powder samples are reported for the first time. A new luminescence bands appearing in red part of the spectrum and having all the characteristics of Ce(3+) were obtained from RL results...
May 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Sirichai Theirrattanakul, Mark Prelas
Nuclear batteries based on silicon carbide betavoltaic cells have been studied extensively in the literature. This paper describes an analysis of design parameters, which can be applied to a variety of materials, but is specific to silicon carbide. In order to optimize the interface between a beta source and silicon carbide p-n junction, it is important to account for the specific isotope, angular distribution of the beta particles from the source, the energy distribution of the source as well as the geometrical aspects of the interface between the source and the transducer...
May 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
R Bedogni, A Pietropaolo, J M Gomez-Ros
HOTNES (HOmogeneous Thermal NEutron Source) is a thermal neutron irradiation facility with extended and very uniform irradiation area. A (241)Am-B radionuclide neutron source with nominal strenght 3.5×10(6) s(-1) is located on bottom of a large cylindrical cavity (30cm diameter, 70cm in height) delimited by polyethylene walls. The upper part of this volume (30cm diameter, 40cm in height) is used to irradiate samples. A polyethylene cylinder, acting as shadowing object, prevents fast neutrons to directly reach the irradiation volume...
May 4, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Lily Bossin, Nikolaos A Kazakis, George Kitis, Nestor C Tsirliganis
The present study constitutes the first part of a meteorite project, currently in progress, towards the full and thorough dosimetric study (TL and OSL) of two different meteorites of recent fall, Norton County and Holbrook. Both meteorites exhibit strong TL sensitivity, linear dose response and no saturation for doses up to 2kGy. However, the two meteorites exhibited a very dissimilar TL glow curve and behaviour regarding sensitization and fading. Notably, the Norton County aubrite achondrite was found to exhibit a strong fading of the high-temperature peak (~300°C), attributed to anomalous fading, whereas Holbrook did not seem to show signs of anomalous fading...
May 4, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
J Roman-Lopez, Y I Piña López, E Cruz-Zaragoza, J Marcazzó
In this work, the continuous wave - optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The CW-OSL dose response of natural salt showed a linear range between 0.5Gy and 10Gy of gamma radiation of (60)Co. Samples exposed at 3Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The CW-OSL response as function of the preheating temperature (50-250°C) was analyzed. An increase of 15% of the CW-OSL response was observed in NaCl samples during storage period of 336h...
May 3, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
F Tárkányi, A Hermanne, F Ditrói, S Takács, A V Ignatyuk
Experimental cross sections are presented for the (159)Tb(p,xn)(153,155,157,159)Dy, (152,153,155,156m2,m1,g,158)Tb and (153,151)Gd nuclear reactions up to 65MeV. The experimental results are compared with the recently reported experimental data and with the results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS as reported in the TENDL-2015 on-line library. Integral thick-target yields are also derived for the reaction products used in practical applications and production routes are discussed.
May 2, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
F Tárkányi, A Hermanne, F Ditrói, S Takács, Z Szücs, K Brezovcsik
Excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Sr(d,x)(88,87m,87g,86g,85g)Y, (87m,85g,83g,82)Sr, (86g,84g,83,82m,81g)Rb reactions by the stacked foil activation technique and high-resolution gamma-spectrometry up to 50MeV. We present the first experimental activation cross section data for all investigated reactions. Our experimental data are compared with the TALYS code results as available in the TENDL-2015 on-line library. Use of deuteron induced reactions on Sr for production of medical isotopes is discussed...
May 2, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
M Marouli, S Pommé, R Van Ammel, E García-Toraño, T Crespo, S Pierre
High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry was performed to determine the main alpha-particle emission probabilities in the decay of (226)Ra. Thin, homogeneous sources were prepared by electrodeposition on stainless steel disks. Alpha spectra with an energy resolution of 20keV were obtained in three laboratories and analysed with different deconvolution algorithms. In two set-ups, a magnet system was used to deflect conversion electrons to avoid their coincidental detection with the alpha particles. Spectra taken at close range without a magnet system yielded biased results which cannot be fully compensated by statistical corrections for coincidence summing...
April 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ismail Shaaban, Mohamad Albarhoum
The MOX (UO2&PuO2) caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am as burnable absorber actinides was proposed as a fuel of the MTR-22MW reactor. The MCNP4C code was used to simulate the MTR-22MW reactor and estimate the criticality and the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors before and after replacing its original fuel (U3O8-Al) by the MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides. The obtained results of the criticality, the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors for the MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides were compared with the same parameters of the U3O8-Al original fuel and a maximum difference is -6...
April 25, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Usha Pandey, Naresh Gamre, Sharad Pandurang Lohar, Ashutosh Dash
This paper describes the evaluation of [(R)-2-Amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS) and 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA-NCS) as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu. While (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS could be obtained in high yields at equimolar ratios of lutetium to CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS, >95% yield of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS could be achieved at 1:2M ratio of lutetium to NOTA-NCS. Trace metals reduced the yields of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS significantly as compared to (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS...
April 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Seyed Milad Miremad, Babak Shirani Bidabadi
The current study examined the effective energy of pulsed x-rays emitted from a Mather-type plasma focus device with copper anodes at an energy range of 2-3kJ using x-ray transmission radiography. Aluminum filters of different thicknesses and dental x-ray film were used. When air gas was used at a constant voltage of 21kV at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mbar, the effective energy of pulsed the x-ray was 10.9, 10.7, 17.3 and 15.8keV, respectively. At 0.6 mbar of air, as the operating voltage increased to 19, 21 and 23kV, the effective energy of the x-ray radiation was 10...
April 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Lu Guo, Yunxiang Wang, Lei Zhang, Zhi Zeng, Wenbin Dong, Qiuju Guo
The radon adsorption coefficient of activated charcoal (K) has exponential relationship with temperature theoretically, but few experiment results of K at temperature below 0 ℃ were given. In this study, K were measured using a flow-through system with activated charcoal in cylindrical adsorption beds at temperature adjusted from room temperature to -48°C using liquid nitrogen. Results are consistent with theory and show that the adsorption coefficient at -48°C is nearly 25 times higher than that at 23 ℃...
April 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ranjeet Kumar, D D Rao, Rupali Dubla, J R Yadav
The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry...
April 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
K von Sturm, S Belogurov, R Brugnera, A Garfagnini, I Lippi, L Modenese, D Rosso, M Turcato
Pulse shape discrimination is an important handle to improve sensitivity in low background experiments. A dedicated setup was built to investigate the response of high-purity germanium detectors to single Compton scattered events. Using properly collimated γ-ray sources, it is possible to select events with known interaction location. The aim is to correlate the position dependent signal shape with geometrical and electrical properties of the detector. We report on design and performance of the setup with a first look on data...
April 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Shiou-Shiow Farn, Yuen-Han Yeh, Chang-Chin Li, Ching-Shiuann Yang, Jenn-Tzong Chen, Chung-Shan Yu, Wuu-Jyh Lin
[(123)I]IBZM is used widely for in vivo imaging of D2 receptors in human brain and shows relatively fast kinetics and a greater susceptibility to synaptic dopamine release than other single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radioligands. A reliable and reversed-phase HPLC method using UV/VIS and radiometric detectors has been developed for qualitative analysis of BZM and IBZM and radiochemical purity in [(123)I]IBZM preparations. The method uses gradient elution on a Zorbax XDB C-18 column with a mobile phase that consists of 10mM 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid (DMGA), pH 7...
April 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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