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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

Roberta Mansini Cardoso, Carla Daruich de Souza, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins Rostelato, Koiti Araki
A simple and highly efficient (shorter reaction time and almost no rework) method for production of iodine based radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy is described. The method allows almost quantitative deposition of iodine-131 on dozens of silver substrates at once, with even distribution of activity per core and insignificant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes, allowing the fabrication of cheaper radioactive iodine seeds for brachytherapy.
December 1, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
F Ditrói, F Tárkányi, S Takács, A Hermanne, A V Ignatyuk
Excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Ag(d,x)(105,104)Cd, (110)(m,108m,106m,105g,104g)Ag and (101)Pd, (105,101m)Rh reactions over the energy range 33-50MeV by using the stacked foil activation technique and subsequent high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. We present the first experimental cross section data above 40MeV for all of these reactions and the first experimental cross section data for (nat)Ag(d,x)(108m,104g)Ag and (105,103)Rh. The experimental data are compared with results of the model calculations performed with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D theoretical nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS code results as available in the TENDL-2014 and -2015 on-line libraries...
November 27, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Davide Bianchi, Claudia Lenauer, Gerhard Betz, András Vernes
Continuous ultra-mild wear quantification using radioactive isotopes involves measuring very low amounts of activity in limited time intervals. This results in gamma spectra with poor signal-to-noise ratio and hence very scattered wear data, especially during running-in, where wear is intrinsically low. Therefore, advanced filtering methods reducing the wear data scattering and making the calculation of the main peak area more accurate are mandatory. An energy-time dependent threshold for wavelet detail coefficients based on Poisson statistics and using a combined Barwell law for the estimation of the average photon counting rate is then introduced...
November 26, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Sven Boden, Koen Vints, Simone Cagno, Dominic Maertens, Karen Van Hecke, Thomas Cardinaels
Thorium-229 is a valuable, but scarce, radionuclide for nuclear clock applications or targeted alpha therapy. While it is mostly produced by the decay of (233)U, (229)Th can also be produced by neutron irradiation of (226)Ra. At SCK•CEN, capsules containing mainly (228)Th (by-product of (226)Ra irradiation) were characterized to quantify the present amounts of (229)Th, (228)Th, (227)Ac, (226)Ra with high resolution gamma spectroscopy, after a decay period of 40 years in which (228)Th has decayed. High purity (229)Th was quantified, and after recovery using radiochemical separation processes, it can be used to support ongoing research...
November 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
E Picado, M Carmona-Gallardo, J Cal-González, L M Fraile, H Mach, J M Udías, V Vedia
CeBr3 crystals meet many of the demands of high performance scintillators, due to their excellent timing properties, good effective Z and high photon yield. It is important to characterize their efficiency and to verify whether modern Monte Carlo codes are reliable enough to reproduced the observed values. We report here on the measurement of both total and photopeak efficiency of a 1" diameter×1" height CeBr3 crystal for gamma-ray energies up to 1.4MeV at several distances, using a variety of low energy gamma rays sources...
November 23, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Angela Kinoshita, Michelle Mollemberg, William Santana, Ana Maria G Figueiredo, Niede Guidon, Maria de Fátima da Luz, Claude Guérin, Oswaldo Baffa
Smilodon is a genus of big cats that lived from the early to the late Pleistocene in regions extending from North to South America. The fossil records of the "saber-toothed cats" are uneven, with some taxa being quite abundant in certain regions. In Brazil, Smilodon populator is a well-known species whose remains, although scarce in comparison to other large mammals, are found all across the country. In particular, there are multiple records of this species in the region of the Serra da Capivara National Park...
November 22, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Masahiro Hosoda, Hiromi Kudo, Kazuki Iwaoka, Ryohei Yamada, Takahito Suzuki, Yuki Tamakuma, Shinji Tokonami
This paper describes importance of (220)Rn (hereafter thoron) progeny measurement for the dose estimation. Although the spatial distribution of thoron activity concentration strongly depends on the distance from wall surface as an indoor thoron source), a homogeneous distribution was expected to be observed for (212)Pb activity concentration which was one of thoron progeny. Furthermore, the mean equilibrium factor for thoron obtained by the recent measurements in several countries widely ranged from 0.008 to 0...
November 22, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
David E B Fleming, Michel N Nader, Kelly A Foran, Craig Groskopf, Michael C Reno, Chris S Ware, Mina Tehrani, Diana Guimarães, Patrick J Parsons
The feasibility of measuring arsenic and selenium contents in a single nail clipping was investigated using a small-focus portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument with monochromatic excitation beams. Nail clipping phantoms supplemented with arsenic and selenium to produce materials with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20µg/g were used for calibration purposes. In total, 10 different clippings were analyzed at two different measurement positions. Energy spectra were fit with detection peaks for arsenic Kα, selenium Kα, arsenic Kβ, selenium Kβ, and bromine Kα characteristic X-rays...
November 19, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Michal Košťál, Zdeněk Matěj, František Cvachovec, Vojtěch Rypar, Evžen Losa, Jiří Rejchrt, Filip Mravec, Martin Veškrna
A well-defined neutron spectrum is essential for many types of experimental topics and is also important for both calibration and testing of spectrometric and dosimetric detectors. Provided it is well described, such a spectrum can also be employed as a reference neutron field that is suitable for validating selected cross sections. The present paper aims to compare calculations and measurements of such a well-defined spectra in geometrically similar cores of the LR-0 reactor with fuel containing slightly different enrichments (2%, 3...
November 17, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
T Chuenpee, O Nishikawa, Y Kon, K Ninagawa, S Toyoda, T Ogata, T Uchida, I Takashima
This study analyzes the Thermoluminescence (TL) emissions for five emission bands, trace element concentrations and defects in quartz grains extracted from metamorphic rocks and quartz veins in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku. An emission of 500nm with 195, 245, and 320-325°C glow peaks are observed through the lowest to highest grade samples. A 450nm emission band with intense 195 and 245°C glow peaks and a 320-325°C shoulder peak is found in the higher grade samples. A 570nm emission band with a 170°C glow peak is observed in the samples derived from the lower grade zones...
November 17, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
M Inoue, S Yamashita, K Fujimoto, H Kofuji, S Miki, S Nagao
We developed a simple method for (40)K removal by acidified water leaching combined with ammonium phosphomolybdate coprecipitation, for estimating low levels of radiocesium in Japanese flounder. (40)K removal from ashed samples was approximately 98%, with the radiocesium yield of ~98%. The treatment reduced the γ-spectral baseline to ~1/5 at ground and ~3/100 at underground levels (1.04 and 0.11 cph/keV, respectively). Faint signal of (134)Cs, which is embedded in the Compton continuum of (40)K in an untreated sample, was detected...
November 15, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Pouyan Jahangiri, Riley Doering, Simon Ferguson, Keana Li, Ken Buckley, François Bénard, D Mark Martinez, Cornelia Hoehr
The steady-state behaviour of a liquid target used to produce medical isotopes by low-energy cyclotrons is studied. A model based on the conservation of mass and energy is proposed to describe the pressure rise of the target assuming equilibrium between liquid and vapour phases during irradiation. The effects of water radiolysis are taken into account. Excellent agreement is achieved between the model, and both constant-temperature bath tests and experiments conducted on a 13MeV cyclotron at TRIUMF.
November 15, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Namiko Irikura, Hirokazu Miyoshi, Yasuo Shinohara
A scintillation image of tritium fixed in a melt-on scintillator was obtained using a charged-coupled device (CCD) imager, and a linear relationship was observed between the intensity of the scintillation image and the radioactivity of tritium. In a [(3)H]thymidine uptake experiment, a linear correlation between the intensity of the CCD image and the dilution ratio of cells was confirmed. Scintillation imaging has the potential for use in direct observation of tritium radioactivity distribution.
November 15, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Bert M Coursey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Paul A Ellison, Hector F Valdovinos, Stephen A Graves, Todd E Barnhart, Robert J Nickles
Zirconium-89 finds broad application for use in positron emission tomography. Its cyclotron production has been limited by the heat transfer from yttrium targets at high beam currents. A spot welding technique allows a three-fold increase in beam current, without affecting (89)Zr quality. An yttrium foil, welded to a jet-cooled tantalum support base accommodates a 50µA proton beam degraded to 14MeV. The resulting activity yield of 48±4 MBq/(μA∙hr) now extends the outreach of (89)Zr for a broader distribution...
October 13, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
V Wood, N L Ackerman
Cherenkov Luminescence Imaging (CLI) is a new method to image radioactive therapeutic and diagnostic agents, primarily in preclinical studies. This study used Geant4 and Python to generate the predicted Cherenkov light production as a function of time for a set of isotopic chains of interest for targeted alpha therapy: (223)Ra, (212)Pb, and (149)Tb. All are shown to produce substantial Cherenkov light, though time delays between initial decays and the production of Cherenkov light requires caution in interpreting CLI...
October 12, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jihye Lee, Il-Koo Cheong, Sang-Yoon Lee
[(11)C]Raclopride is one of the most popular PET tracers used in Parkinson's disease studies. We previously prepared [(11)C]raclopride with reasonable yields using NaOH as an inorganic base, but the reaction patterns fluctuated. In this study, we describe the successful application of a commercially available 'super basic' proton sponge, TMGN, as a base for the [(11)C]methylation step using [(11)C]CH3OTf. This novel TMGN method produced better radiochemical yields, as well as enhanced reproducibility and a reduction in side products...
October 11, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A Saidu, H Wagiran, M A Saeed, Y S M Alajerami, A B A Kadir
The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5-1000Gy is investigated...
October 11, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Derya İlem-Özdemir, Ulkem Yararbas, Baha Zengel, Gökhan Ertan, Makbule Asikoglu
The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first regional lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor. Therefore, this node is a "sentinel" for second metastatic lymph node stations and for labeling regional tumor spread. For SLN detection, many surgeons preferred a combination of a preoperative injection of radiolabeled colloid and the intraoperative injection of blue dye. Under this combination protocol, nodes are considered to be "sentinel nodes" if they are radioactive and blue...
October 11, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jun Young Lee, Chirag K Vyas, Bo-Ram Kim, Hee Jung Kim, Min Goo Hur, Seung Dae Yang, Jeong Hoon Park, Sang Wook Kim
The (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator system is an excellent source for producing ready-to-use Ga-68 in clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The column adsorbent is the key component for the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator system. Therefore, several studies have been conducted to identify column materials with a stable and superior elution yield in an acidic eluent (0.1 N HCl solution). In this study, four different zirconium phosphates were synthesized with a particle size of 200-800nm, pore-size of 55∼190Å and surface area of 0...
October 7, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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