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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

Amin Shahrokhi, Tamás Vigh, Csaba Németh, Anita Csordás, Tibor Kovács
In the new European Basic Safety Standard (EU-BSS), a new reference level for indoor radon concentration in workplaces has recommended that the annual average activity concentration of indoor radon shall not be higher than 300Bqm(-3). This paper describes the radon concentration level in an underground workplace (manganese ore mine) over long time intervals (4 years). Several common radon monitors devices - including NRPB and Raduet (as a passive method based on CR-39), AlphaGUARD PQ 2000Pro, SARAD EQF3220, TESLA and Pylon WLX (as active methods) - were used for continuous radon measurements...
March 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Toshioh Fujibuchi, Takatoshi Toyoda, Shingo Baba, Yoshiyuki Umezu, Isao Komiya, Masayuki Sasaki, Hiroshi Honda
The distribution of activation inside a compact medical cyclotron was evaluated by measuring 1cm dose equivalent rates and γ-ray spectra. Analysis of the distribution of activation showed high activation at the deflector and the magnetic channel. Radionuclides (60)Co, (57)Co, (65)Zn, and (54)Mn were detected. Different radionuclides were generated from different components of the cyclotron, and low-activity radionuclides could be detected under low-background-radiation conditions.
March 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Natsumi Kimoto, Hiroaki Hayashi, Takashi Asahara, Yoshiki Mihara, Yuki Kanazawa, Tsutomu Yamakawa, Shuichiro Yamamoto, Masashi Yamasaki, Masahiro Okada
The aim of our study is to develop a novel material identification method based on a photon counting technique, in which the incident and penetrating X-ray spectra are analyzed. Dividing a 40 kV X-ray spectra into two energy regions, the corresponding linear attenuation coefficients are derived. We can identify the materials precisely using the relationship between atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient through the correction of the beam hardening effect of the X-ray spectra.
March 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Franz Josef Maringer, Andreas Baumgartner, Francesco Cardellini, Philippe Cassette, Teresa Crespo, Julian Dean, Hannah Wiedner, Jiři Hůlka, Mikael Hult, Simon Jerome, Franz Kabrt, Petr Kovář, Cyrus Larijani, Guillaume Lutter, Maria Marouli, Alexander Mauring, Monika Mazánová, Bogusław Michalik, Nathalie Michielsen, Virginia Peyres, Sylvie Pierre, Roy Pöllänen, Stefaan Pommé, Mário Reis, Michael Stietka, László Szücs, Branko Vodenik
The results of the three years European Metrology Research Programme's (EMRP) joint research project 'Metrology for processing materials with high natural radioactivity' (MetroNORM) are presented. In this project, metrologically sound novel instruments and procedures for laboratory and in-situ NORM activity measurements have been developed. Additionally, standard reference materials and sources for traceable calibration and improved decay data of natural radionuclides have been established.
March 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
J Roman-Lopez, I B Lozano, E Cruz-Zaragoza, J I Guzman Castañeda, J A I Díaz-Góngora
In this work, luminescent emissions of beta-calcium pyrophosphate doped with terbium ions (β-Ca2P2O7:Tb(3+)) were studied. The Ca2P2O7:Tb(3+) powders were prepared by precipitation and annealed at 900°C for 2h was applied on the powders to observe the beta phase. Radioluminescence measurements showed emission bands related with (5)D3 ((5)D4)→(7)FJ transitions of Tb(3+) ions. Three overlapped peaks at 126, 165 and 220°C were observed in thermoluminescence response. A linear TL dose-response in the range of 0...
March 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
F Ortega, J Marcazzó, F Spano, M Santiago, P Molina, E Caselli
Analysis of phosphorescence curves is an alternative procedure to glow curve analysis in order to find the parameters characterizing trap and recombination centers of thermoluminescence materials. In this article a new algorithm to analyze phosphorescence curves is reported, which is derived from the set of coupled differential equation describing the carrier traffic without resorting to approximations. The new algorithm has been employed to analyze the phosphorescence curves of the K2YF5:Pr compound.
March 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A Martín Sánchez, J de la Torre Pérez, A B Ruano Sánchez
Indoor radon retrospective dosimetry can be performed by measuring the (210)Po activity concentration deposited on surfaces. An experimental study about the implantation of (210)Po on mirrors exposed to radon has been performed. Two cases were studied: exposure to high and low (222)Rn concentrations. Results were compared with those calculated by using the activity evolution equations. Experimental results can be only explained assuming additional deposition of the long-lived (222)Rn descendants.
March 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
I Bandac, S Borjabad, A Ianni, R Nuñez-Lagos, C Pérez, S Rodríguez, J A Villar
To support the construction of experiments at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC) in Spain, an Ultra-Low Background Service (ULBS) and a Copper Electroforming Service (CES) were created. The measurement technique employed at the ULBS is gamma spectroscopy with high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new anti-radon system is being implemented. The main goal of CES is to obtain high-purity copper pieces. A new electroforming set-up inside LSC underground clean room is planned. Radon and environmental measurements at the LSC are presented...
March 4, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Martin E Keillor, C E Aalseth, I J Arnquist, T A Eggemeyer, E S Fuller, B D Glasgow, E W Hoppe, S M Morley, A W Myers, J L Orrell, C T Overman, A Seifert, S M Shaff, K S Thommasson
Low-background lead for radiation measurement shielding is often assayed for (210)Pb to ensure acceptable backgrounds. Samples of lead assayed with a germanium spectrometer calibrated for bremsstrahlung-based assay of (210)Pb provide a view into the (210)Pb content of commercial lead in the U.S. (other than stockpiled Doe Run lead). Results suggest that the loss of lead smelting in the U.S. has eliminated the traditional supply of "low background" lead (~30Bqkg(-1)), and indicate current commercial supplies contain roughly an order of magnitude higher (210)Pb levels...
March 3, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Alessia Ceccatelli, Ashild Dybdal, Ales Fajgelj, Aurelien Pitois
An Excel calculation spreadsheet has been developed to estimate the uncertainty of measurement results in γ-ray spectrometry. It considers all relevant uncertainty components and calculates the combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result. The calculation spreadsheet has been validated using two independent open access software and is available for download free of charge at: It provides a simple and easy-to-use template for estimating the uncertainty of γ-ray spectrometry measurement results and supports the radioanalytical laboratories seeking accreditation for their measurements using γ-ray spectrometry...
March 3, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Maryam Fallahpoor, Mehrshad Abbasi, Ali Asghar Parach, Faraz Kalantari
Using digital phantoms as an atlas compared to acquiring CT data for internal radionuclide dosimetry decreases patient overall radiation dose and reduces the required analysis effort and time for organ segmentation. The drawback is that the phantom may not match exactly with the patient. We assessed the effect of varying BMIs on dosimetry results for a bone pain palliation agent, (153)Sm-EDTMP. The simulation was done using the GATE Monte Carlo code. Female XCAT phantoms with the following different BMIs were employed: 18...
February 28, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Franz Josef Maringer, Claudia Ackerl, Andreas Baumgartner, Christopher Burger-Scheidlin, Maria Kocadag, Johannes H Sterba, Michael Stietka, Jan Matthew Welch
In the course of the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3), coordinated by the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR), laboratory ships travelled 2375km down the Danube River engaging in sampling, processing and on-board analyses during the summer of 2013. The results of the radiometric analysis of (90)Sr, (137)Cs and natural radionuclides in recent riverbed sediment are presented. The activity concentrations of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in Danube sediments have been found below 100Bq/kg.
February 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yuichiro Kumamoto, Michio Aoyama, Yasunori Hamajima, Shigeto Nishino, Akihiko Murata, Takashi Kikuchi
We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014.
February 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Zhen Qin, Heping Pan, Zhonghao Wang, Bintao Wang, Ke Huang, Shaohua Liu, Gang Li, Ahmed Amara Konaté, Sinan Fang
Geosteering is an effective method to increase the reservoir drilling rate in horizontal wells. Based on the features of an azimuthal gamma-ray logging tool and strata spatial location, a fast forward calculation method of azimuthal gamma-ray logging is deduced by using the natural gamma ray distribution equation in formation. The response characteristics of azimuthal gamma-ray logging while drilling in the layered formation models with different thickness and position are simulated and summarized by using the method...
February 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
He Wu, Feng Zhang, Hongbo Guo, Yi Xin, Zhongyue Han
The response of the gamma-gamma density logging tool with different focused gamma ray beam angle is investigated by using the MCNP code. This work focuses on the four aspects of spatial distribution and energy spectrum of scattered gamma rays, measurement uncertainty, the depth of investigation, and vertical resolution of the logging tool. The results show that the density measurement accuracy can be improved when a relative larger collimator angle is employed, and the vertical resolution of the tool would not get worse...
February 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
D Zapata-García, H Wershofen
Radioactive waste generated in decommissioning activities need be classified according to their radioactive content. The radiological information required by national authorities includes diverse alpha and beta emitters, which can only be determined after a radiochemical separation process. This paper presents the work on the development of radiochemical methods for the simultaneous separation of several radionuclides in concrete, steel and graphite samples, on the basis of individual sample treatments which merge in a common radiochemical separation procedure based on extraction chromatography...
February 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Christian Nitsch, Marcel Gerhardt, Claus Gößling, Kevin Kröninger
The Dortmund Low Background Facility is a germanium gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory situated above ground. A massive artificial shielding, corresponding to 10m of water equivalent in combination with an active muon veto results in a background level comparable to laboratories situated underground. Due to the recent completion of the muon veto, the background is lowered by 20% compared to previously reported values (Gastrich et al., 2016). Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic muon induced components of the background spectrum are described...
February 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Clarence Rolle, Zhichao Lin, Stephanie Healey
Source-based calibration methods used for photon attenuation and coincidence summing corrections are time consuming and require multiple certified standards that match sample geometry with varying densities. Three programs which are capable of simulating a variety of sample geometries, matrix compositions, and sample densities have been examined as alternatives. LabSOCS, ANGLE 3 and GESPECOR are effective at generating efficiency curves for food matrices with a range with different densities. The curves generated have been successfully used to determine activity in food samples...
February 24, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Nematollah Heidarloo, Hamid Reza Baghani, Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, Seyed Rabi Mahdavi, Mohammad Esmail Akbari
Beam shaper is a newly designed device for beam shaping in IOERT. The aim of this study is evaluating the performance of this device for conformal IOERT and preparing it for clinical applications. Dosimetric characteristics for different combinations of energy/field size were determined by ionometric dosimetry, film dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation. Desirable dosimetric characteristics of beam shaper make it a useful tool for conformal IOERT. Usability of Monte Carlo simulation in any clinical setup of beam shaper was demonstrated...
February 24, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Takahiro Yamada, Mihoko Kikuchi, Daisuke Yagihashi, Shinya Yamakawa, Hidetake Ishizu, Takuya Shiina
A food inspection service system for home grown products or wild plants collected by individual consumers for self-consumption was implemented in Fukushima in Nov. 2012. About 500 NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers were distributed to 300 or more temporary testing laboratories which were set up in public halls or meeting places of the municipalities. The screening method for radiocaesium was adapted to the present inspection service system. The performance of the equipment under field conditions was evaluated using sampled data obtained by temporary testing laboratories...
February 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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