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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

Ka-Ngo Leung, James K Leung, Graeme Melville
Compact neutron generators can provide high flux of neutrons with energies ranging from thermal (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV. Recent measurements demonstrated high neutron yields from the D-7 Li fusion reaction at an interaction energy of 500 keV. Using the D-7 Li reaction and applying new advancements in high flux neutron generator technology along with the commercial availability of high voltage DC power supplies enables the production of useful quantities of radioisotopes for medical applications. Using the known neutron reaction cross-sections, it has been estimated that hundreds-to-thousands MBq (or tens-to-hundreds mCi) of99 Mo,225 Ac,64 Cu and67 Cu can be obtained from a compact high flux neutron generator...
March 7, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Leena Joseph, A P Das, Anuradha Ravindra, D B Kulkarni, M S Kulkarni
4πβ-γ coincidence method is a powerful and widely used method to determine the absolute activity concentration of radioactive solutions. A new automated liquid scintillator based coincidence system has been designed, developed, tested and established as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements. The automation is achieved using PLC (programmable logic controller) and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition). Radioactive solution of60 Co was standardized to compare the performance of the automated system with proportional counter based absolute standard maintained in the laboratory...
March 6, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A Pántya, Á Dálnoki, A R Imre, P Zagyvai, T Pázmándi
Tritium may exist in several chemical and physical forms in workplaces, common occurrences are in vapor or liquid form (as tritiated water) and in organic form (e.g. thymidine) which can get into the body by inhalation or by ingestion. For internal dose assessment it is usually assumed that urine samples for tritium analysis are obtained after the tritium concentration inside the body has reached equilibrium following intake. Comparison was carried out for two types of vials, two efficiency calculation methods and two available liquid scintillation devices to highlight the errors of the measurements...
March 6, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
J Vedelago, F Mattea, M Valente
The use and implementation of nanoparticles in medicine has grown exponentially in the last twenty years. Their main applications include drug delivery, theranostics, tissue engineering and magneto function. Dosimetry techniques can take advantage of inorganic nanoparticles properties and their combination with gel dosimetry techniques could be used as a first step for their later inclusion in radio-diagnostics or radiotherapy treatments. The present study presents preliminary results of properly synthesized and purified silver nanoparticles integration with Fricke gel dosimeters...
March 1, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
M F S Casagrande, D M Bonotto
This paper describes an alternative method for evaluating gross alpha and beta radioactivity in waters by using γ-rays analysis performed with hyper-pure germanium detector (HPGe). Several gamma emissions related to α and β- decays were used to provide the activity concentration data due to natural radionuclides commonly present in waters like40 K and those belonging to the238 U and232 Th decay series. The most suitable gamma emissions related to β- decays were214 Bi (1120.29 keV,238 U series) and208 Tl (583...
February 23, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Guogang Jia
A new method has been developed for determination of210 Pb and a simultaneous determination of210 Po and210 Pb was performed in solid samples.210 Po and210 Pb were sequentially leached at 250 °C with HNO3 +HF, HClO4 and HCl. Twenty percent of the leaching solution was used for210 Po determination by α-spectrometry after210 Po spontaneous deposition on a silver disc from a weak HCl solution that containing hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and209 Po tracer. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of210 Pb, conducted by precipitation as PbCrO4 at about pH < 4, purification with an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO4 , and measurement with a β-counter...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Marco Kaltofen, Robert Alvarez, Lucas W Hixson
Radioactive particulate matter (RPM) in St Louis, MO, area surface soils, house dusts and sediments was examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Analyses found RPM containing238 U and decay products (up to 46 wt%), and a distinct second form of RPM containing230 Th and decay products (up to 15.6 wt%). The SEM-EDS analyses found similar RPM in Manhattan Project-era radioactive wastes and indoor dusts in surrounding homes.
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
S Takács, F Ditrói, Z Szűcs, M Aikawa, H Haba, Y Komori, M Saito
Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on iridium were investigated using a 51.2-MeV alpha particle beam. The standard stacked-foil target technique and the activation method were applied. The activity of the reaction products was assessed without chemical separation using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Excitation functions for production of gold, platinum and iridium isotopes (196m2 Au,196m,g Au,195m,g Au,194 Au,193 m,g Au,192 Au,191m,g Au,191 Pt,195m Pt,194g Ir,194m Ir,192g Ir,190g Ir and189 Ir) were determined and compared with available earlier measured experimental data and results of theoretical calculations using TALYS code system...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A L M C Malthez, B Marczewska, D Kulig, P Bilski, M Kłosowski
TL (Thermoluminescent) and OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) techniques are both luminescent techniques widely applied in several areas into radiation dosimetry. The main difference between them are related to the employed stimulus (thermal or optical) for luminescent emission, as well as the advantages of each technique. Due to simplicity and not to be required heating, the OSL technique has been continuously improved and new researches in materials to be used with this technique have grown in the last decades...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
E Sadeghi, M Zahedifar, M Khalifeh Shoushtari
Lithium fluoride doped with Mg and Dy was fabricated for the first time using melting method. The optimum concentrations of impurities and thermal treatment were studied to achieve high thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity. TL sensitivity of the fabricated phosphor is close to that of TLD-100 powder. Tm -Tstop technique was used to identify the number of overlapped TL glow peaks. Initial rise, isothermal decay and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods were applied to obtain kinetic parameters of the prepared TL material...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Howard A Shugart, Edgardo Browne, Eric B Norman
Using long-term gamma-ray spectroscopy with high resolution germanium detectors and a ratio method, the half-lives of101 Rhg and108 Agm have been determined to be 4.07 ± 0.05 years and 448 ± 27 years, respectively. These results are compared with previously reported values.
February 20, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Hamza Badry, Lhoucine Oufni, Hmad Ouabi, Hideo Hirayama
In this study, the dosimetric characterization for The BEBIG60 Co High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy source model Co0.A86 was investigated and the validity of the EGS5 Monte Carlo code to reproduce the dosimetric parameters in water phantom was checked. In addition, the dose distribution for different tissue phantoms was calculated. The BEBIG60 Co HDR brachytherapy source was modeled using EGS5 Monte Carlo simulation code. A description of the source design, geometry and materials used in this work were provided...
February 18, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Lenin E Cevallos Robalino, Gonzalo Felipe García Fernández, Eduardo Gallego, Karen A Guzmán-García, Hector Rene Vega-Carrillo
Detection of hidden explosives is of utmost importance for homeland security. Several configurations of an Explosives Detection System (EDS) to intercept hidden threats, made up with a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) compact neutron generator and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, have been evaluated using MCNP6 code. The system's response to various samples of explosives, such as RDX and Ammonium Nitrate, is analysed. The D-D generator is able to produce fast neutrons with 2.5 MeV energy in a maximum yield of 1010 n/s...
February 17, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A Nikjou, M Sadeghi
The123 I radionuclide (T1/2 = 13.22 h, β+ = 100%) is one of the most potent gamma emitters for nuclear medicine. In this study, the cyclotron production of this radionuclide via different nuclear reactions namely, the121 Sb(α,2n),122 Te(d,n),123 Te(p,n),124 Te(p,2n),124 Xe(p,2n),127 I(p,5n) and127 I(d,6n) were investigated. The effect of the various phenomenological nuclear level density models such as Fermi gas model (FGM), Back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), Generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Enhanced generalized superfluid model (EGSM) moreover, the three microscopic level density models were evaluated for predicting of cross sections and production yield predictions...
February 17, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Z J Sun, M Danjaji, Y Kim
N values are routinely introduced in photon activation analysis (PAA) as the ratio of special activities of product nuclides to compare the relative intensities of different reaction channels. They determine the individual activities of each radioisotope and the total activity of the sample, which are the primary concerns of radiation safety. Traditionally, N values are calculated from the gamma spectroscopy in real measurements by normalizing the activities of individual nuclides to the reference reaction [58 Ni(γ, n)57 Ni] of the nickel monitor simultaneously irradiated in photon activation...
February 16, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
J Al Abdullah, Abdul G Al Lafi, Yusr Amin, Tasneem Alnama
Nano-composites were synthesized by the reaction of waste polystyrene (PS) and KMnO4 . The structure of the composite was controlled by the solvent/non-solvent system and the concentration of KMnO4 . The FTIR spectra indicated the functionalization of PS and the attachment of NMO with the polymer chains. The maximum adsorption capacities (qmax ) were 10,000 and 5000 Bq g-1 , for U and Th respectively. Different but controllable sorption/desorption behaviours were noted between Th and U, which could be promising in the separation of Th and U from their mixture...
February 16, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
T Kuo, W Chen, C Ho
Recurrent groundwater radon anomalies were observed at the Paihe spring (P1) in southwestern Taiwan prior to the Mw 6.3 Jiasian and Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquakes that occurred on March 4, 2010 and February 5, 2016, respectively. Specifically, the concentration of groundwater radon decreased from background levels of 144 ± 7 and 137 ± 8 pCi/L to minima of 104 ± 8 and 97 ± 9 pCi/L prior to the 2010 Jiasian and 2016 Meinong earthquakes, respectively. The Paihe spring (P1) is located 46 km and 45 km, respectively, from the epicenters of the 2010 Mw 6...
February 16, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
T Alharbi
In this paper, we have simulated the performance of a proportional counter for α and β measurement of soil samples. The simulations were performed for α particles from210 Po and β particles from90 Sr. The results of the simulations indicate that the maximum count-to-background ratio can be achieved by using sample thicknesses greater than 4 µm and 100 µm, respectively, for α and β measurements. The maximum efficiencies for α and β counting were calculated to be, respectively, 25% and 42.50%. The maximum α-to-β cross talk was also calculated to be 5...
February 15, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
P R González, D Mendoza-Anaya, H J Virafuentes-Chávez, J Azorín
A new α-Al2 O3 doped with Tm3+ ions was obtained by combustion method; doped α-Al2 O3 in the powder form was mixed with polytetrafluoroethylene resin (PTFE) to obtain dosimeters in pellet form, in order to be used as radiation dosimeter. The glow curve, linearity, lower detection limit, repeatability and fading, were studied. The kinetic parameters were determined by deconvolution method. Morphological characteristics were studied by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that α-Al2 O3 +PTFE obtained is a promising material to radiation dosimetry...
February 13, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Usha Pandey, Aruna Korde, Archana Mukherjee, Ajit Shinto, K K Kamaleswaran, Raghi P Jose, Naresh Gamre, Ashutosh Dash
Pharmaceutical grade DOTATOC kits compliant with all the quality control criteria were formulated and radiolabeled with68 Ga in high yields. Comparison with module-based68 Ga-DOTATOC established product equivalency. Clinical utility was evaluated in patients with histopathologically confirmed well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Kit-based preparation of68 Ga-DOTATOC could identify sites of primary and metastatic disease. PET/CT images of patients conformed to the established criteria for somatostatin imaging agents and clinical expectations...
February 10, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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