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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

Vikas Duggal, Samriti Sharma, Rohit Mehra
Radon concentrations were measured in 59 groundwater samples collected from Fatehabad district of Haryana, India. The measurements were performed by RAD7 an electronic radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company Inc. The measured radon concentration ranged from 1.4 to 22.6Bql(-1). 14% of the groundwater samples were above the United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended value for radon in water. The annual effective dose for ingestion and inhalation was also evaluated in this research. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation of radon in drinking water varied from 14...
February 17, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Virginia Peyres, Teresa Crespo, Marcos Mejuto, Eduardo García-Toraño
This paper discusses the use of CeBr3 detectors for the analysis of NORM samples. These detectors have a number of characteristics that make them suitable to field measurements: they can work at ambient temperatures, have better energy resolution than NaI(Tl) detectors for energies over 100keV and do not present the radioactive contamination typical of the lanthanum halides detectors. Results of the measurements made at the laboratory for three reference materials are compared to those made using a conventional HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system...
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
I Tucaković, D Barišić, Ž Grahek
Mathematical efficiency calibrations for the specific matrices such as honey and borosilicate filters are performed. Their reliability is experimentally tested. The influence of the choice of the matrix composition in the mathematical calibration on the results is investigated. After the verification of the mathematical models, the results for activity concentrations in the test samples are presented.
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Octavian Sima
The full energy peak efficiency for inhomogeneous samples, comprising a number of components with different activity and matrix is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. The distribution of the values of the efficiency due to the effects of inhomogeneity is constructed. In the particular case when one of the components is a highly active and highly attenuating medium, then the efficiency and its uncertainty at low energies is sensitive to the properties of this component, including the dimensions of the grains...
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jamal Asfahani
Fractal theory modeling technique is newly proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, for establishing the lithological cross section in basaltic environments. The logging data of Kodana well, localized in Southern Syria are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established cross section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay...
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
L Irazola, J A Terrón, R Bedogni, A Pola, M Lorenzoli, E Jimenez-Ortega, A R Barbeiro, B Sánchez-Nieto, F Sánchez-Doblado
One of the major causes of secondary malignancies after radiotherapy treatments are peripheral doses, known to increase for some newer techniques (such as IMRT or VMAT). For accelerators operating above 10MV, neutrons can represent important contribution to peripheral doses. This neutron contamination can be measured using different passive or active techniques, available in the literature. As far as active (or direct-reading) procedures are concerned, a major issue is represented by their parasitic photon sensitivity, which can significantly affect the measurement when the point of test is located near to the field-edge...
February 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jolanta Szymańska-Majchrzak, Katarzyna Pałka, Marianna Kańska
Synthesis of 3-fluoro-[2-(2)H]-L-alanine (3-F-[(2)H]-L-Ala) in reductive amination of 3-fluoropyruvic acid catalysed by L-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) was described. Fluorine derivative was used to study oxidative deamination catalysed by AlaDH applied kinetic (for 3-F-L-Ala in H2O - KIE's on Vmax: 1.1; on Vmax/KM: 1.2; for 3-F-L-Ala in (2)H2O - on Vmax: 1.4; on Vmax/KM: 2.1) and solvent isotope effect methods (for 3-F-L-Ala - SIE's on Vmax: 1.0; on Vmax/KM: 0.87; for 3-F-[2-(2)H]-L-Ala - on Vmax: 1.4; on Vmax/KM: 1...
February 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Amr Abdelhady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Bo Yang, Rui Qiu, Minghai Yu, Jinlong Jiao, Wei Lu, Yonghong Yan, Bo Zhang, Zhimeng Zhang, Weimin Zhou, Junli Li, Hui Zhang
Experiments have shown that high-intensity laser interaction with a solid target can generate significant X-ray doses. This study was conducted to determine the X-ray doses and spectra produced for picosecond laser-irradiated solid targets. The photon doses and X-ray spectra in the laser forward and side directions were measured using an XG III ps 300 TW laser system. For laser intensities of 7×10(18)-4×10(19)W/cm(2), the maximum photon dose was 16.8 mSv at 50cm with a laser energy of ~153J on a 1-mm Ta target...
February 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
L Benedik, M Trdin
Determination of a low level (237)Np in environmental samples was performed by various techniques: i) a direct gamma-ray spectrometry, ii) an alpha-particle spectrometry that followed pre-separation of neptunium radioisotope(s) by ion-exchange or extraction chromatography and iii) pre-separation radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The methods used were applied to various reference materials with inorganic and organic matrix as well as to a wide range of neptunium content. The results were compared with reference and literature values...
February 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
U Iliyasu, Y V Ibrahim, Sadiq Umar, S A Agbo, Y Jibrin
Investigation of reactivity variation due to flooding of the irradiation channels of Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) a low power miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria using the MCNP code for High Enrich Uranium (HEU) and Low Enrich Uranium (LEU) core has been simulated in this present study. In this work, the excess reactivity worth of flooding HEU core for 1 inner, 2 inner, 3 inner, 4 inner and all inner are 0...
February 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Uk Yun, Tae Seong Kim, Hyun Koo Kim, Moon Su Kim, Soo Young Cho, Chang Oh Choo, Byong Wook Cho
Tank waters from 13 Community Groundwater Systems (CGS) showed average radon reduction rate of 26.5% (varying from -17.9% to 63.3%). When applying the reduction rate of 26.5% to the nationwide CGS, the percentage of CGS having radon level above 100Bq/L decreases from 28.8% to 22.0%. The natural radon reduction method would be applied to the CGS having radon level slightly exceeding guideline of WHO, as an alternative for aeration or GAC.
February 7, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Bo-Kil Jang, Jun-Cheol Lee, Ji-Hyun Kim, Chul-Woo Chung
Concrete has been used as a traditional biological shielding material. High hydrogen content in concrete also effectively attenuates high-energy fast neutrons. However, concrete does not have strong protection against thermal neutrons because of the lack of boron compound. In this research, boron was added in the form of borosilicate glass powder to increase the neutron shielding property of cement mortar. Borosilicate glass powder was chosen in order to have beneficial pozzolanic activity and to avoid deleterious expansion caused by an alkali-silica reaction...
February 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Kevin Kelleher, Jennie Wong, Luis León-Vintró, Lorraine Currivan
A radon in drinking water interlaboratory comparison (ILC) was conducted between eight laboratories in Europe. The majority of the measurement results submitted were in agreement with the assigned value, with a single result deemed questionable. The questionable result does not deviate significantly from the assigned value but the measurement uncertainties associated with this result could be too small. The results from this ILC indicate that there is good agreement between participating laboratories for radon in water measurements...
February 4, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Lucrezia Auditore, Ernesto Amato, Sergio Baldari
PURPOSE: This work presents the theoretical estimation of a combined production of (18)F and (64)Cu isotopes for PET applications. (64)Cu production is induced in a secondary target by neutrons emitted during a routine (18)F production with a 30MeV cyclotron: protons are used to produce (18)F by means of the (18)O(p,n)(18)F reaction on a [(18)O]-H2O target (primary target) and the emitted neutrons are used to produce (64)Cu by means of the (64)Zn(n,p)(64)Cu reaction on enriched zinc target (secondary target)...
February 3, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Matthew J O'Hara, Anthony J Krzysko, Cynthia M Niver, Samuel S Morrison, Stanley L Owsley, Donald K Hamlin, Eric F Dorman, D Scott Wilbur
Astatine-211 ((211)At) is a promising cyclotron-produced radionuclide being investigated for use in targeted alpha therapy. The wet chemical isolation of trace quantities of (211)At, produced within several grams of Bi metal deposited onto an aluminum cyclotron target assembly, involves a multi-step procedure. Because the (211)At isolation method is labor-intensive and complex, automation of the method is being developed to facilitate routine processing at the University of Washington and to make it easier to transfer the process to other institutions...
February 2, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A Cagniant, O Delaune, M Réglat, G Douysset, P Gross, G Le Petit
The ultralow background versatile spectrometer GAMMA(3) has been optimized with the following shielding improvements: (i) optimized nitrogen injection flux of 300Lh(-1), and (ii) cosmic veto configuration with 9 scintillating plates. These improvements allow a reduction of 39% of the normalized integral background count rate down to 2.7±0.2min(-1)kgGe(-1) (40-2500keV energy range). Minimum Detectable Activities when performing direct γ-ray spectrometry or γ-γ coincidence spectrometry are compared.
February 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Charles G Doll, Cherylyn W Wright, Shannon M Morley, Bob W Wright
A modified version of the Direct LSC method to correct for quenching effect was investigated for the determination of bio-originated fuel content in fuel samples produced from multiple biological starting materials. The modified method was found to be accurate in determining the percent bio-originated fuel to within 5% of the actual value for samples with quenching effects ≤43%. Analysis of highly quenched samples was possible when diluted with the exception of one sample with a 100% quenching effect.
February 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A O Ezzati, M T Studenski
In radiation therapy, neutron contamination is an undesirable side effect of using high energy photons to treat patients. Neutron contamination requires adjustments to the shielding requirements of the linear accelerator vault and contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients by delivering dose outside of the primary treatment field. Using MCNPX, an established Monte Carlo code, manufacturer blueprints, and the most up to date ICRP neutron dose conversion factors, the neutron spectra, neutron/photon dose ratio, and the neutron capture gamma ray dose were calculated at different depths and off axis distances in a tissue equivalent phantom...
February 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
D B Kulkarni, Leena Joseph, R Anuradha, M S Kulkarni, B S Tomar
(68)Ga has great scope for use in future for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging due to its very fast blood clearance and fast target localization, even though at present (18)F is widely used. (68)Ge in equilibrium with (68)Ga ((68)Ge-(68)Ga) can also be used as a surrogate for (18)F calibration, as (18)F source standardization can be done at national metrology institute (NMI) but, these standards cannot be sent to nuclear medicine centers (NMCs) across India for calibration of isotope calibrators, due to the short half-life of (18)F (110min)...
January 31, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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