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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

Martin Schulc, Michal Košťál, Roberto Capote, Evžen Novák, Jan Šimon, Nicola Burianová, Anton Wallner
Spectrum-averaged cross sections (SACS) have been measured in the reference 252 Cf(sf) neutron field for the following high-threshold (n,2n) neutron dosimetry reactions since they are especially important due to the high threshold which allows validation of upper parts of prompt fission neutron spectrum. This work includes 59Co(n,2n)58Co, 197Au(n,2n)196Au, 169 Tm(n,2n)168 Tm, 55 Mn(n,2n)54 Mn, 93 Nb(n,2n)92 m Nb and 89 Y(n,2n)88 Y and for the 59 Co(n,p)59 Fe threshold reactions. SACS were inferred from experimentally determined reaction rates by gamma spectrometry using a semiconductor high-purity germanium detector to measure irradiated samples...
November 2, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Timotheos Altzitzoglou, Mikael Hult, Marc De Cort
In 2016, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre organised an interlaboratory comparison exercise on the measurement of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I in air filters. The exercise was conducted in the frame of the MetroERM EMRP project with code ENV57. This paper describes the context of the interlaboratory measurement comparison, the technical implementation, the air filter measurements performed by the participating laboratories and finally the evaluation of the comparison results. The intercomparison exercise results are such that 56 out of the 67 laboratories (i...
October 30, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yutian Feng, Michael D Phipps, Tim E Phelps, Nkemakonam C Okoye, Jakob E Baumeister, Donald E Wycoff, Eric F Dorman, A Lake Wooten, Vladislav Vlasenko, Ashley F Berendzen, D Scott Wilbur, Timothy J Hoffman, Cathy S Cutler, Alan R Ketring, Silvia S Jurisson
Positron-emitting 72 As is the PET imaging counterpart for beta-emitting 77 As. Its parent, no carrier added (n.c.a.) 72 Se, was produced for a 72 Se/72 As generator by irradiating an enriched 7 °Ge metal-graphite target via the 70 Ge(α, 2 n)72 Se reaction. Target dissolution used a fast, environmentally friendly method with 93% radioactivity recovery. Chromatographic parameters of the 72 Se/72 As generator were evaluated, the eluted n.c.a. 72 As was characterized with a phantom imaging study, and the previously reported trithiol and aryl-dithiol ligand systems were radiolabeled with the separated n...
October 30, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ming-Chen Hsiao, Shiang-Huei Jiang
In order to improve the quality assurance (QA) procedure for beams of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), this study introduced using the Gafchromic film dosimeter for neutron dose measurement of BNCT beams. The crucial part of this study was investigating an approach to employ the Gafchromic film dosimeter placed inside a PMMA phantom irradiated by a BNCT beam. The spatial distribution of neutron dose of the film was determined using measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. By employing the present approach, the two-dimensional distributions of the neutron dose component of the film at specific depths in the phantom were successfully obtained...
October 27, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Sabrina Metairon, Cibele B Zamboni, Miriam F Suzuki, Carlos R Bueno
The elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, S, and Zn were investigated in the whole blood samples of Golden Retriever dogs submitted to cell therapy (hASCs). These analyses were performed over 2 years using Neutron Activation Analysis and X-Ray Fluorescence techniques. The results were compared with control and untreated dog's. A significant increase was observed in K blood levels. There was also variation in blood levels of Br, Cr, Fe, Rb, S, and Zn.
October 26, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Adam Čepa, Jan Ráliš, Lenka Marešová, Markéta Kleinová, Daniel Seifert, Irena Sieglová, Vlastimil Král, Miloslav Polášek, Monika Paurová, Milan Lázníček, Ondřej Lebeda
Human carbonic anhydrase IX is a membrane enzyme that is significantly expressed in some types of cancer cells, while copper radioisotopes offer wide range of diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic properties. The work was focused on a new approach to the labelling of antibody IgG M75 for epitope human carbonic anhydrase IX with copper radioisotopes 61 Cu and 64 Cu and its in vivo testing in mice with inoculated colorectal cancer. Monoclonal antibody IgG M75 for epitope human carbonic anhydrase IX was successfully conjugated with copper-specific chelator "phosphinate" and labelled with 61 Cu and 64 Cu The obtained molecule has considerable potential as a radioimmuno pharmaceutical suitable for imaging of tumours expressing carbonic anhydrase IX by positron emission tomography (PET)...
October 25, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
S Mukherjee, Vibha Vansola, Siddharth Parashari, R Makwana, N L Singh, S V Suryanarayana, S C Sharma, B K Nayak, H Naik
The neutron capture cross sections of 232 Th and 238 U at the average neutron energies of 5.08 ± 0.17, 8.96 ± 0.77, 12.47 ± 0.83, and 16.63 ± 0.95 MeV have been measured by using the activation technique and off-line γ-ray spectroscopy. The 232 Th and 238 U were irradiated with neutrons produced from the 7 Li(p, n) reaction using the proton energies of 7, 11, 15 and 18.8 MeV from the 14UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron facility in Mumbai, India. Detailed covariance analysis was also performed to evaluate the uncertainties in the measured cross-sections...
October 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Renata Majgier, Magdalena Biernacka, Piotr Palczewski, Arkadiusz Mandowski, George S Polymeris
Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a phosphor with potential significance in retrospective dosimetry and geological dating. NaCl has been extensively studied for practical use in OSL dosimetry, however, the exact mechanism of the OSL emission is not well explained. This work attempts to extend the information on NaCl luminescent properties by establishing the occurrence of very deep traps in NaCl using the thermally assisted OSL (TA - OSL) method. The studied material was sodium chloride in different forms: halite minerals from Kłodawa salt mine in Poland and NaCl in chemically pure form...
October 21, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ivón Oramas Polo, William Souza Santos, Linda V E Caldas
A study of the influence of a dosimetric holder and its cover for the irradiation of the dosimeters in the Beta Secondary Standard BSS2 radiation fields is reported. The correction factors for attenuation or scattering were calculated taking into account the BSS2 beta source energy, as well as the detector source distance. The study and the determination of these factors were carried out using the Monte Carlo Method. The results of the correction factors showed that the absorption and scattering of the electrons depend greatly on the energy of beta radionuclides...
October 19, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Sankha Chattopadhyay, Sujata Saha Das, Luna Barua, Asit Kumar Pal, Umesh Kumar, Madhusmita, Md Nayer Alam, Arup Kumar Hudait, Sharmila Banerjee
A compact and portable 99 Mo-99 m Tc generator based on solvent-extraction, mimic to the conventional 99 Mo-99 m Tc alumina column generator is much-needed commodity for use in hospital radiopharmacy setup. The present study includes the development of a portable, simple and low cost 99 Mo/99 m Tc-generator based on MEK solvent extraction technique to obtain a very high concentration of no-carrier added (nca) 99 m Tc solution, where low specific activity 99 Mo source is obtained through 98 Mo(n, γ)99 Mo reaction in a research reactor...
October 18, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Mohammad Amin Kiani, Seyed Javad Ahmadi, Mohammad Outokesh, Ruhollah Adeli, Hossein Kiani
In this study, a series of "Epoxy-Clay-PbO" nanocomposites under the name of ECPNCs were prepared by the molding method, and their physico-mechanical properties were investigated by different techniques. Focus of the work, was on the shielding ability of the ECPNCs for the gamma rays, emitted from Ir-192, Cs-137 and Co-60 with a wide range of energy. Scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that clay platelets were fully exfoliated, and the PbO particles were homogenously distributed in the polymeric matrix...
October 16, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Tommaso Stefano Carzaniga, Saverio Braccini
Novel medical radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapy are essential for the future development of personalized nuclear medicine. Among them, radiometals can be used to label both proteins and peptides and encompass promising theranostic pairs. The optimized supply of radiometals in quantity and quality for clinical applications represents a scientific and technological challenge. 47 Sc is a β- emitter that forms a theranostic pair together with one of the β+ emitters 43 Sc or 44 Sc. It can be produced at a medical cyclotron by proton bombardment of an enriched calcium oxide target...
October 15, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
M Vadrucci, A Mazzinghi, A Gorghinian, L Picardi, C Ronsivalle, C Ruberto, M Chiari
Development of non-destructive or micro-invasive scientific diagnostic techniques gained an outmost importance in the field of Cultural Heritage, contributing to assess authenticity, provenience and age of the objects, as well as supplying additional information to art conservators, to accomplish suitable restoring and preservative procedures. However, each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations, thus in many cases the optimal sample characterization requires a synergy between different analytical approaches...
October 14, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
M Y Nadar, D K Akar, I S Singh, P D Sawant, M S Kulkarni
Counting statistics is an important parameter that can introduce uncertainties in the lung activity measurements of actinides in radiation workers. Evaluation of uncertainties due to counting statistics is practically difficult as it requires monitoring various radiation workers having different levels of lung actinide content, multiple times, each for 50 min of monitoring period. However, different activities in lungs can be simulated by combining uncontaminated male data with LLNL phantom data acquired with 241 Am and natural uranium lung sets at various short periods...
October 13, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
H Özdoğan, M Şekerci, A Kaplan
Scientists have been focused on fusion reactor studies to overcome the increasing energy demand. The materials, which have the potential to be used in fusion reactors must be resistant to the harmful effects of radiation in the manner of material itself. Selection of the appropriate materials to be used in nuclear reactors has a crucial importance to achieve the maximum efficiency and security. Ti, V, Ni and Cu are known as some of the constructional fusion materials. Existence of many knowledge about those materials provides countless advantages to the researchers and one of them is the cross-section, which basically means the probability of a nuclear reaction's occurrence...
October 13, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Maryam Nasrabadi, Ehsan Ebrahimibasabi, Hossein Tavakoli-Anbaran
New developments are under way to reduce the weight and volume of neutron shielding structures using multi-layered materials. The present study aimed at designing and simulating an appropriate neutron shielding material based on a 252 Cf source using MCNPX code. The proposed design is composed of concentric cylinders and sphere layers with a source. The shielding matter consists of paraffin and paraffin +10% graphite as a moderator, beryllium as a reflector and multiplier and boron carbide and lead tungsten as a thermal neutron and gamma absorber, respectively...
October 12, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos, Siti Aslina Hussain, Susan Maria Sipaun
The flow rate or fluid velocity measurement is important to maintain fluid flow quality performance in the systems. This study focuses on determination of volumetric flow rate measurement and to calibrate the conventional flowmeter using industrial radiotracer approach in quadrilateral gas-liquid bubble column reactor. In this work, two different radioisotopes which emit γ-ray have been chosen as radioactive tracer which is 99m Tc produced from 99 Mo/99m Tc radioisotope generator and 198 Au nanoparticle form neutron activation at research nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark II...
October 12, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Huang Meng, Zhu Jianyu, Wu Jun, Li Rui
The future international nuclear disarmament may involve the dismantlement of nuclear warheads. After the dismantlement of a nuclear warhead, the separated explosive needs authentication that it comes from the dismantled nuclear warhead. In this paper, the Monte Carlo numerical simulation method was used to study the feasibility and result of determining the source of the explosive by analyzing the nuclide abundances of the explosive and determining the age of the explosive (calculated since the explosive was placed in the nuclear warhead)...
October 12, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
H Özdoğan
Production of radioisotopes that used in medical diagnosis and treatment are mostly based on the nuclear reactions. The cross-section data are important to understand nuclear reaction mechanisms. In this study TALYS 1.8 code has been used to calculate production cross-sections of 201 Pb, 111 In, 18 F and 11 C radioisotopes at proton induced reactions. Constant Temperature Fermi Gas Model (CTFGM), Back Shifted Fermi Gas Model (BSFGM) and Generalised Super Fluid Model (GSM) have been employed as a level density models for computations...
October 12, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yingying Zhang, Bingwei Wu, Dongyan Liu, Ying Zhang, Yan Cheng
An autonomous sensor for the in-situ radioactivity measurement is developed,based on NaI(Tl) crystal, to detect the activity concentrations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater. Its electronics module, integral enclosure and spectrum analysis were presented. The energy, resolution and efficiency were calibrated. Monte Carlo simulation and the minimum detection estimations were realized. The sensor was tested in the water tank and then successfully deployed for the continuous monitoring in the marine environment in Qingdao offshore for the performance test, background measurement and environmental survey...
October 11, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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