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Cardiology in Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077586/aorto-atrial-fistulas-a-contemporary-review
#1
Elizabeth Fierro, Rutuja R Sikachi, Abhinav Agrawal, Isha Verma, Marcin Ojrzanowski, Sonu Sahni
Aorto-atrial fistulas are a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening condition, where an anomalous connection forms between the aortic structures and the cardiac atria. Aorto-atrial fistulas are most often the result of an underlying condition concerning the cardiac structures. It may be congenital, secondary to conditions such as aortic dissection, infective endocarditis, or valve replacement, or iatrogenic in nature. Secondary causes incite local deterioration of cardiac wall integrity leading to formation of fistulous connections, while iatrogenic causes are more traumatic in nature...
October 25, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077585/cardiovascular-complications-of-proteasome-inhibitors-used-in-multiple-myeloma
#2
Daniel C Cole, William H Frishman
The use of proteasome inhibitors (PI) as targeted chemotherapeutics have significantly improved survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, rare and serious cardiovascular complications have occurred as a result of their use, most commonly congestive heart failure, hypertension, and arrhythmias. MM occurs in an aged population with many concurrent cardiovascular risk factors. The primary disease process also contributes to cardiovascular complications. Furthermore, many MM patients have prior exposure to cardiotoxic chemotherapy such as anthracyclines...
October 25, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045291/devices-for-autonomic-regulation-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#3
Benjamin R Wagner, William H Frishman
Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as an increasing economic burden. The persistence of heart failure's risk factors, coupled with an aging population, also leads to an increase in its incidence and prevalence. It is well established that sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic withdrawal are instrumental in the development and worsening of heart failure. Therefore, restoring autonomic balance to the cardiovascular system is an attractive therapeutic approach...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045290/the-prognostic-implications-of-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-current-and-future-perspectives
#4
Thomas Zegkos, Despoina Parcharidou, Dimitrios Ntelios, Georgios Efthimiadis, Haralambos Karvounis
Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography represents a novel, simple and reproducible technique for the estimation of left ventricular myocardial deformation (strain) and the evaluation of left ventricular twist mechanics. During the last few years, its clinical and prognostic implications in cardiomyopathies and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in particular have been rapidly increasing. Reduced global longitudinal strain is associated with more severe disease and confers an increased risk for major cardiac events, independently of other clinical and echocardiographic risk factors...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045289/genetic-origins-of-tetralogy-of-fallot
#5
Ari Morgenthau, William H Frishman
Due to improved survival and clinical outcomes, congenital heart disease is an area of growing importance within the medical community. As these patients reach adulthood and have children, there has been a growing appreciation for the increased risk of CHD among their offspring, strongly implying a genetic element. Given the growing wealth of genetic data available and these clinical implications, this review serves to re-examine the role of genetics within CHD, using Tetralogy of Fallot as a model pathology...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045288/effects-of-anti-inflammatory-medications-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-focus-on-losmapimod
#6
Bradley Tun, William H Frishman
Inflammation plays an integral role in atherogenesis and the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The question remains as to whether targeted inhibition of specific pathways of inflammation will have any clinical benefits in CAD. In this article we will review p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), one of the key sensors of cellular stress that plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. In addition, we will review losmapimod, a reversible competitive inhibitor of the α and β isoforms of p38 MAPK, and its efficacy when added to standard of care in patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045287/yosprala%C3%A2-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-aspirin-and-omeprazole
#7
Keith T Veltri
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Patients who survive a primary cerebrovascular or cardiovascular event are at increased risk of a subsequent occurrence. Antiplatelet therapy plays an essential role for secondary prevention in individuals with stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute or chronic artery disease or peripheral arterial disease. Maintaining high risk patients on low dose aspirin therapy is a fundamental component of management. However, poor adherence, secondary to the drug's gastrointestinal side effects, has been associated with negative cardiovascular outcomes...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045286/ability-of-non-strain-diastolic-parameters-to-predict-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#8
Mohamed Nagiub, J V Ian Nixon, Michael C Kontos
Doxorubicin is an important cause of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Prior studies have found conflicting results of whether non-strain diastolic parameters can predict doxorubicin- induced cardiotoxicity. We performed a systematic review of English written publications using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The following inclusion criteria were applied: cancer subjects, echo-derived non-strain diastolic profile, patients compared before and after treatment to predict systolic dysfunction...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045285/milrinone-dosing-and-a-culture-of-caution-in-clinical-practice
#9
Luke Yong Zheng Chong, Kumar Satya, Bernard Kim, Robert Berkowitz
Milrinone is an invaluable agent in the treatment of end-stage heart failure patients who are refractory to optimal medical therapy. In addition to its use in acute decompensated heart failure, milrinone can also be employed as a home infusion therapy or a bridge to cardiac transplant. Concerns about its adverse effects, such as an increased risk of arrhythmias and hypotension, often limit the doses of milrinone used in clinical practice. In addition, milrinone is infrequently used or avoided entirely in patients with acute renal failure or end-stage renal disease since the drug is primarily cleared by renal excretion...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053483/sex-specific-outcomes-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
Yasameen Azarbaijani, Kathryn O'Callaghan, William E Sanders, Changfu Wu, John Laschinger, Danica Marinac-Dabic, David G Strauss, Daniel A Canos, Robbert Zusterzeel
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a safe and effective therapy for aortic valve replacement in patients ineligible for or at high risk for surgery. However, outcomes after TAVR based on an individual's sex remain to be fully elucidated. We searched PUBMED and EMBASE using the keywords: 'transcatheter aortic valve replacement', 'transcatheter aortic valve implantation', 'sex differences', 'gender', 'sex characteristics' and collected information on baseline features, procedural characteristics and post-procedural outcomes in women...
October 9, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053482/five-presidents-and-a-secretary
#11
William H Frishman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984671/early-coronary-angiography-for-survivors-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrests-without-st-elevation
#12
Michael Goldfarb, Bojan Cercek
There are over 300,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OOHCA) in the United States each year, and the long-term survival rate is less than 10%. Despite improvements in postarrest management, the greatest drop-off in survival occurs during hospitalization, mostly due to myocardial dysfunction and neurological injury. Coronary artery disease is common in postcardiac arrest patients, with an incidence of approximately 60-80%. In patients with a chest pain syndrome and an ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction pattern evident on the presenting electrocardiogram, immediate revascularization is recommended by cardiovascular societies due to established mortality benefits...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984670/neprilysin-inhibition-and-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-recent-steps-in-the-right-direction
#13
Nicholas Bartell, William H Frishman
Numerous investigators have attempted to target the natriuretic peptide system in the treatment of heart failure since it was first described over 30 years ago. The history of neprilysin inhibition as a treatment for heart failure has been characterized by numerous setbacks. Recently, the PARADIGM-HF trial has shown favorable results, which may bring neprilysin inhibition into the mainstream of clinical practice. This article will review the history of the natriuretic peptide system and the investigations into it as a target for heart failure treatment, culminating in the positive results of the PARADIGM-HF trial, as well as planned and potential future directions for research...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984669/vitamins-for-cardiovascular-diseases-is-the-expense-justified
#14
Sulaiman Sultan, Shishir Murarka, Ahad Jahangir, Farouk Mookadam, A Jamil Tajik, Arshad Jahangir
Despite the knowledge that a well-balanced diet provides most of the nutritional requirements, the use of supplemental vitamins is widespread among adults in the United States. Evidence from large randomized controlled trials over the last 2 decades does not support vitamin supplementation for the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors or clinical outcomes. Many of the vitamins used in common practice likely are safe when consumed in small doses, but long-term consumption of megadoses is not only expensive but has the potential to cause adverse effects...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984668/brain-heart-interactions-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Ayman El-Menyar, Abhishek Goyal, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani, William Frishman
The cardiovascular manifestations associated with nontraumatic head disorders are commonly known. Similar manifestations have been reported in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the underlying mechanisms and impact on the patient's clinical outcomes are not well explored. The neurocardiac axis theory and neurogenic stunned myocardium phenomenon could partly explain the brain-heart link and interactions and can thus pave the way to a better understanding and management of TBI. Several observational retrospective studies have shown a promising role for beta-adrenergic blockers in patients with TBI in reducing the overall TBI-related mortality...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984667/ascending-aortic-aneurysm-is-an-inherited-disease-a-contemporary-literature-review-based-on-hill-s-criteria-of-specificity-strength-of-association-and-biological-coherence
#16
Mirza Mujadil Ahmad, Immad Arif Kiani, Khawaja Afzal Ammar, Mirza Nubair Ahmad, Bijoy K Khandheria, Timothy E Paterick, Renuka Jain, A Jamil Tajik
There is growing evidence of a differential etiological basis for thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), with ascending (As) TAAs being genetically mediated and descending (Des) TAAs more strongly related to acquired pathologies. A comprehensive literature review of this hypothesis has not been carried out. We carried out a systematic literature review based on the latest guidelines on TAA endorsed by the American Heart Association. The etiologies were classified as genetic and inherited, the studies were tabulated accordingly, and Hill's epidemiological criteria of causality were applied...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984666/adrian-kantrowitz-md-1918-2008-and-his-contributions-to-cardiac-transplantation
#17
George L Hines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984665/westchester-medical-center-and-its-health-care-system-one-hundred-years-1917-2017-of-dedicated-service-to-community-country-and-cardiology
#18
William H Frishman, John Savino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832375/contemporary-diagnosis-and-management-of-atrial-flutter-a-continuum-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-vice-versa
#19
Antonis S Manolis
Atrial flutter (AFlu) is usually a fast (>240 bpm) and regular right atrial macroreentrant tachycardia, with a constrained critical region of the reentry circuit located at the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI; typical CTI-dependent AFlu). However, a variety of right and left atrial tachycardias, resulting from different mechanisms, can also present as AFlu (atypical non-CTI-dependent AFlu). The electrocardiogram can provide clues to its origin and location; however, additional entrainment and more sophisticated electroanatomical mapping techniques may be required to identify its mechanism, location, and target area for a successful ablation...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832373/pregnancy-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-a-contemporary-challenge
#20
Despina Ntiloudi, Thomas Zegkos, Athanasios Koutsakis, George Giannakoulas, Haralambos Karvounis
The majority of female patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) survives into childbearing age and require evidence-based counseling regarding pregnancy options. Even though most of them will have an uneventful pregnancy, they may be at high risk of cardiac, obstetric, and fetal complications. Predictive factors for these complications have been previously identified in numerous studies and with the use of specific scores [CARdiac disease in PREGnancy, Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren HARtAfwijkingen, and World Health Organization (WHO) risk stratification...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
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