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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148109/notch-signaling-controls-transdifferentiation-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cells-in-response-to-lung-injury
#1
Erica Yao, Chuwen Lin, Qingzhe Wu, Kuan Zhang, Hai Song, Pao-Tien Chuang
Production of an appropriate number of distinct cell types in precise locations during embryonic development is critical for proper tissue function. Homeostatic renewal or repair of damaged tissues in adults also requires cell expansion and transdifferentiation to replenish lost cells. However, the responses of diverse cell types to tissue injury are not fully elucidated. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. This knowledge is essential for harnessing the regenerative potential of individual cell types...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143419/long-non-coding-rna-rp11-380d23-2-drives-distal-proximal-patterning-of-the-lung-by-regulating-pitx2-expression
#2
Poulomi Banerjee, Harshini Surendran, Kapil Bharti, Kaoru Morishita, Anurag Varshney, Rajarshi Pal
Early lung development is a tightly orchestrated process encompassing (a) formation of definitive endoderm, (b) anteriorization of definitive endoderm followed by (c) specification and maturation of both proximal and distal lung precursors. Several reports detailing the interaction of genes and proteins during lung development are available; however, studies reporting the role(s) of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in lung morphogenesis are limited. To investigate this, we tailored a protocol for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into distal and proximal lung progenitors to mimic in vivo lung development...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139178/notch1-and-notch2-coordinately-regulate-stem-cell-function-in-the-quiescent-and-activated-states-of-muscle-satellite-cells
#3
Shin Fujimaki, Daiki Seko, Yasuo Kitajima, Kiyoshi Yoshioka, Yoshifumi Tsuchiya, Shinya Masuda, Yusuke Ono
Satellite cells, the muscle tissue stem cells, express three Notch receptors (Notch1-3). The function of Notch1 and Notch2 in satellite cells has to date not been fully evaluated. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in myogenic progression in adult skeletal muscle using tamoxifen-inducible satellite cell-specific conditional knockout mice for Notch1 (N1-scKO), Notch2 (N2-scKO), and Notch1/Notch2 (scDKO). In the quiescent state, the number of satellite cells was slightly reduced in N2-scKO, but not significantly in N1-scKO, and almost completely depleted in scDKO mice...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139175/hax-1-regulates-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-through-akt-pathway-modulation
#4
Xin-Bin Guo, Xin Deng, Ying Wei
Endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) are involved in vasculogenesis of various physiological and pathological processes. The proliferation and survival mechanism of EPCs needs to be explored further for the purpose of developing an effective glioma treatment. Hematopoietic-substrate-1 associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) has been reported as an anti-apoptosis protein that plays an important role in several malignant tumors. However, the effect and mechanism of HAX-1 on EPCs remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of HAX-1 on the proliferation and apoptosis EPCs and explore its mechanism...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139170/single-cell-resolution-of-human-hemato-endothelial-cells-defines-transcriptional-signatures-of-hemogenic-endothelium
#5
Mathew G Angelos, Juan E Abrahante, Robert H Blum, Dan S Kaufman
Endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) is an important stage in definitive hematopoietic development. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying human EHT remains poorly characterized. We performed single cell RNA-seq using 55 hemogenic endothelial cells (HE: CD31(+) CD144(+) CD41(-) CD43(-) CD45(-) CD73(-) RUNX1c(+) ), 47 vascular endothelial cells without hematopoietic potential (non-HE: CD31(+) CD144(+) CD41(-) CD43(-) CD45(-) CD73(-) RUNX1c(-) ), and 35 hematopoietic progenitor cells (HP: CD34(+) CD43(+) RUNX1c(+) ) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124822/advanced-cell-culture-models-for-diamond-blackfan-anemia-and-other-erythroid-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Anna Rita Migliaccio, Lilian Varricchio
In vitro surrogate models of human erythropoiesis made many contributions to our understanding of the extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of this process in vivo and how they are altered in erythroid disorders. In the past, variability among the levels of hemoglobin F produced by adult erythroblasts generated in vitro by different laboratories identified stage of maturation, fetal bovine serum and accessory cells as "confounding factors", i.e. parameters intrinsically wired in the experimental approach that bias the results observed...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119708/eif5a2-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-cd133-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-via-the-c-myc-microrna-29b-axis
#7
Hai-Yan Bai, Yi-Ji Liao, Mu-Yan Cai, Ning-Fang Ma, Qi Zhang, Jie-Wei Chen, Jia-Xing Zhang, Feng-Wei Wang, Chen-Yuan Wang, Wen-Hui Chen, Xiao-Han Jin, Rui-Hua Xu, Xin-Yuan Guan, Dan Xie
Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are suggested responsible for driving cancer resistance to conventional therapies and for cancer recurrence and/or metastasis. CD133 is served as a key biomarker to identify and characterize this subpopulation of cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous study indicated that overexpression of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) promotes HCC cell metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that EIF5A2 might play a crucial role in CSCs regulation and investigated its potential molecular mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086459/epidermal-growth-factor-and-g-csf-signaling-are-synergistic-for-hematopoietic-regeneration
#8
Sadhna O Piryani, Angel Y F Kam, Evelyna G Kliassov, Benny J Chen, Neil L Spector, John P Chute, David S Hsu, Nelson J Chao, Phuong L Doan
Hematopoietic regeneration following chemotherapy may be distinct from regeneration following radiation. While we have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) accelerates regeneration following radiation, its role following chemotherapy is currently unknown. We sought to identify EGF as a hematopoietic growth factor for chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. Following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), EGF accelerated hematopoietic stem cell regeneration and prolonged survival compared to saline-treated mice. To mitigate chemotherapy-induced injury to endothelial cells in vivo, we deleted Bax in VEcadherin(+) cells (VEcadherinCre;Bax(FL/FL) mice)...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086457/passive-stretch-induces-structural-and-functional-maturation-of-engineered-heart-muscle-as-predicted-by-computational-modeling
#9
Oscar J Abilez, Evangeline Tzatzalos, Huaxiao Yang, Ming-Tao Zhao, Gwanghyun Jung, Alexander M Zöllner, Malte Tiburcy, Johannes Riegler, Elena Matsa, Praveen Shukla, Yan Zhuge, Tony Chour, Vincent C Chen, Paul W Burridge, Ioannis Karakikes, Ellen Kuhl, Daniel Bernstein, Larry A Couture, Joseph D Gold, Wolfram H Zimmermann, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: The ability to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into cardiomyocytes (CMs) makes them an attractive source for repairing injured myocardium, disease modeling, and drug testing. Although current differentiation protocols yield hPSC-CMs to >90% efficiency, hPSC-CMs exhibit immature characteristics. With the goal of overcoming this limitation, we tested the effects of varying passive stretch on engineered heart muscle (EHM) structural and functional maturation, guided by computational modeling...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076623/inflammation-stimulated-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-attenuate-inflammation
#10
Matthew T Harting, Amit K Srivastava, Siqin Zhaorigetu, Henry Bair, Karthik S Prabhakara, Naama E Toledano Furman, Jody V Vykoukal, Katherine A Ruppert, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been proposed to be a key mechanistic link in the therapeutic efficacy of cells in response to cellular injuries through paracrine effects. We hypothesize that inflammatory stimulation of MSCs results in the release of EVs that have greater anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluates the immunomodulatory abilities of EVs derived from inflammation-stimulated and naive MSCs (MSCEv(+) and MSCEv, respectively) isolated using a current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant tangential flow filtration (TFF) system...
October 27, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076593/brief-report-3d-culture-reduces-cell-size-by-increasing-vesicle-excretion
#11
Miaohua Mo, Ying Zhou, Sen Li, Yaojiong Wu
Our previous study has shown that three-dimensional (3D) culture decreases mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) size, leading to enhanced trafficking ability and reduced lung vascular obstructions. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we proposed that 3D culture reduces MSC size by increasing vesicle excretion. Scanning electron microscope showed that 3D culture markedly increased the amount of membrane-bound vesicles on the cell surface. In consistence, tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) quantifying analysis of vesicles in the culture medium indicated that there were higher levels of vesicles in the 3D culture MSC medium...
October 27, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067757/brief-report-survivin-is-required-for-mouse-and-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-function
#12
Pratibha Singh, Seiji Fukuda, Liqiong Liu, Brahmananda Reddy Chitteti, Louis M Pelus
Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have significant potential in cell-based therapies, little is known about the factors that regulate their functions. While exploring regulatory molecules potentially involved in MSC activities, we found that the endogenous multifunctional factor Survivin is essential for MSC survival, expansion, lineage commitment, and migration. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of Survivin expression in mouse and human bone marrow MSC enhances caspase 3 and 7 expression and reduces proliferation resulting in fewer MSC and clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F), whereas ectopic Survivin overexpression in MSC results in their expansion...
October 25, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067740/the-pericytic-phenotype-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-is-promoted-by-notch2
#13
Vincenzo Terlizzi, Matthias Kolibabka, Janette Kay Burgess, Hans Peter Hammes, Martin Conrad Harmsen
Long-term diabetes leads to macrovascular and microvascular complication. In diabetic retinopathy (DR), persistent hyperglycemia causes permanent loss of retinal pericytes and aberrant proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) may serve to functionally replace retinal pericytes and normalize retinal microvasculature during disease progression. We hypothesized that Notch signaling in ASC underlies regulation and stabilization of dysfunctional retinal microvascular networks such as in DR...
October 25, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067732/a-novel-construction-of-lentiviral-vectors-for-eliminating-tumorigenic-cells-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Kanako Ide, Kaoru Mitsui, Rie Irie, Yohei Matsushita, Nobuhiro Ijichi, Soichiro Toyodome, Ken-Ichiro Kosai
The risk of tumor formation poses a challenge for human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based transplantation therapy. Specific and total elimination of tumorigenic hPSCs by suicide genes has not been achieved because no methodology currently exists for testing multiple candidate transgene constructs. Here, we present a novel method for efficient generation of tumorigenic cell-targeting lentiviral vectors (TC-LVs) with diverse promoters upstream of a fluorescent protein and suicide genes. Our two-plasmid system achieved rapid and simultaneous construction of different TC-LVs with different promoters...
October 25, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047191/wnt-signalling-pathways-in-skin-development-and-epidermal-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Anthony Veltri, Christopher Lang, Wen-Hui Lien
Mammalian skin and its appendages constitute the integumentary system forming a barrier between the organism and its environment. During development, skin epidermal cells divide rapidly and stratify into a multilayered epithelium, as well as invaginate downward in the underlying mesenchyme to form hair follicles (HFs). In postnatal skin, the interfollicular epidermal (IFE) cells continuously proliferate and differentiate while HFs undergo cycles of regeneration. Epidermal regeneration is fueled by epidermal stem cells (SCs) located in the basal layer of the IFE and the outer layer of the bulge in the HF...
October 19, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047185/pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-haematopoietic-progenitors-are-unable-to-downregulate-key-emt-associated-mirnas
#16
Ellie Meader, Tomas Barta, Dario Melguzo-Sanchis, Katarzyna Tilgner, David Montaner, Ashraf A El-Harouni, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako
Haematopoietic stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells could be used as an alternative to bone marrow transplants. Deriving these has been a long-term goal for researchers. However, the success of these efforts has been limited, with the cells produced able to engraft in the bone marrow of recipient animals only in very low numbers. There is evidence that defects in the migratory and homing capacity of the cells are due to mis-regulation of miRNA expression, and are responsible for their failure to engraft...
October 19, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044808/neuroprotective-effects-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-on-human-retinal-ganglion-cells
#17
Andrew Osborne, Julie Sanderson, Keith R Martin
Optic neuropathies such as glaucoma occur when retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye are injured. Strong evidence suggests mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be a potential therapy to protect RGCs, however little is known regarding their effect on the human retina. We, therefore, investigated if human MSCs (hMSCs), or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) as produced by hMSC, could delay RGC death in a human retinal explant model of optic nerve injury. Our results showed hMSCs and the secreted growth factor PDGF-AB could substantially reduce human RGC loss and apoptosis following axotomy...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044933/cross-tissue-identification-of-somatic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-using-a-single-cell-rna-seq-derived-gene-signature
#18
Petra C Schwalie, Paloma Ordonez Moran, Joerg Huelsken, Bart Deplancke
A long-standing question in biology is whether multipotent somatic stem and progenitor cells (SSPCs) feature molecular properties that could guide their system-independent identification. Population-based transcriptomic studies have so far not been able to provide a definite answer, given the rarity and heterogeneous nature of these cells. Here, we exploited the resolving power of single-cell RNA-sequencing to develop a computational model that is able to accurately distinguish SSPCs from differentiated cells across tissues...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044892/mouse-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells-with-biparental-like-expression-of-imprinted-genes-generate-cortical-like-neurons-that-integrate-into-the-injured-adult-cerebral-cortex
#19
Annie Varrault, Sigrid Eckardt, Benoît Girard, Anne Le Digarcher, Isabelle Sassetti, Céline Meusnier, Chantal Ripoll, Armen Badalyan, Federica Bertaso, K John McLaughlin, Laurent Journot, Tristan Bouschet
One strategy for stem cell-based therapy of the cerebral cortex involves the generation and transplantation of functional, histocompatible cortical-like neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Diploid parthenogenetic Pg-ESCs have recently emerged as a promising source of histocompatible ESC derivatives for organ regeneration but their utility for cerebral cortex therapy is unknown. A major concern with Pg-ESCs is genomic imprinting. In contrast with biparental Bp-ESCs derived from fertilized oocytes, Pg-ESCs harbor two maternal genomes but no sperm-derived genome...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044882/sox2-communicates-with-tregs-through-ccl1-to-promote-the-stemness-property-of-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Yingxi Xu, Xiaoli Dong, Pingping Qi, Yujie Ye, Wenzhi Shen, Liang Leng, Lina Wang, Xuefei Li, Xiaohe Luo, Yanan Chen, Peiqing Sun, Rong Xiang, Na Li
As an important component of tumor microenvrionment, CD4(+) CD25(+) Tregs reduce antitumor immunity, promote angiogenesis and metastasis in breast cancer. However, their function in regulating the "stemness" of tumor cells and the communication between Tregs and cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain elusive. Here, we disclose that the primarily cultured Tregs isolated from breast-tumor-bearing Foxp3-EGFP mouse up-regulate the stemness property of breast cancer cells. Tregs increased the side-population and the ALDH(br) population of mouse breast cancer cells, promoted their sphere formation in a paracrine manner and enhanced the expression of stemness genes, such as Sox2 etc...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
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