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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770526/current-status-of-3-d-organoids-as-pre-clinical-models
#1
REVIEW
Garima Kaushik, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra
Three-dimensional (3D) cultures use the property of some cells to self-organize in matrices and generate structures that can be programmed to represent an organ or a pathology. Organoid cultures are the 3D cultivation of source tissue (ranging from cells to tissue fragments) in a support matrix and specialized media that nearly resembles the physiological environment. Depending on the source tissue, growth factors, and inhibitors provided, organoids can be programmed to recapitulate the biology of a system and progression of pathology...
May 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770522/conclusive-evidence-for-oct4-transcription-in-human-cancer-cell-lines-possible-role-of-a-small-oct4-positive-cancer-cell-population
#2
Tomoyuki Miyamoto, Nobuhiko Mizuno, Mitsuko Kosaka, Yoko Fujitani, Eiji Ohno, Aiji Ohtsuka
The role of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) in human cancer is still debated. Although many studies have been published on human OCT4, determining which of the findings are accurate or which are false-positives is currently challenging. We thus developed the most reliable method to date for highly specific and comprehensive detection of genuine OCT4-transcript variants without false-positive results. Our results provided clear evidence that the transcripts of OCT4A, OCT4B, OCT4B1 and other novel splicing variants are indeed present in many cancer cell lines, but are rarely detected in normal tissue-derived differentiated cells...
May 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761600/loss-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-exacerbates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-promoting-bone-marrow-dysfunction
#3
Yaqian Duan, Eleni Beli, Sergio Li Calzi, Judith L Quigley, Rehae C Miller, Leni Moldovan, Dongni Feng, Tatiana E Salazar, Sugata Hazra, Jude Al-Sabah, Kakarla V Chalam, Thao Le Phuong Trinh, Marya Meroueh, Troy A Markel, Matthew C Murray, Ruchi J Vyas, Michael E Boulton, Patricia Parsons-Wingerter, Gavin Y Oudit, Alexander G Obukhov, Maria B Grant
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that loss of ACE2 would exacerbate diabetic retinopathy by promoting bone marrow dysfunction. ACE2-/y were crossed with Akita mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. When comparing the bone marrow of the ACE2-/y -Akita mice to that of Akita mice, we observed a reduction of both short-term and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells, a shift of hematopoiesis towards myelopoiesis, and an impairment of lineage- c-kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) migration and proliferation...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761584/reduction-of-fibrosis-and-scar-formation-by-partial-reprogramming-in-vivo
#4
Markus C Doeser, Hans R Schöler, Guangming Wu
Transient expression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC (OSKM) to induce partial reprogramming while avoiding the pluripotent state and teratoma formation has recently been discussed as a strategy for regenerating damaged tissues in vivo, whereby the impact of partial reprogramming on tissue repair remains to be elucidated. Here, we activated OSKM transcription factors in cutaneous wounds of OSKM-inducible transgenic mice and found that induction of OSKM factors in excisional wounds caused a diminished fibroblast transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts and wound contraction...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761578/identification-of-the-coiled-coil-domain-as-an-essential-mbd3-element-for-preserving-lineage-commitment-potential-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Masataka Hirasaki, Atsushi Ueda, Masamitsu N Asaka, Kousuke Uranishi, Ayumu Suzuki, Masakazu Kohda, Yosuke Mizuno, Yasushi Okazaki, Masazumi Nishimoto, Jafar Sharif, Haruhiko Koseki, Akihiko Okuda
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exhibit two salient features beneficial for regenerative medicine: unlimited self-renewal and pluripotency. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3 (Mbd3), a scaffolding component of the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex, is a specific regulator of pluripotency, as ESCs lacking Mbd3 are defective for lineage commitment potential but retain normal self-renewal properties. However, functional similarities and dissimilarities among the three Mbd3 isoforms (a, b, and c) have not been intensively explored...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761573/using-fat-to-fight-disease-a-systematic-review-of-non-homologous-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cell-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Marjorie E Bateman, Amy L Strong, Jeffrey M Gimble, Bruce A Bunnell
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe the safety and efficacy of ASC and SVF in treating common diseases and the next steps in research that must occur prior to clinical use. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles about use of SVF or ASC for disease therapy published between 2012 and 2017. One meta-analysis, 2 randomized controlled trials, and 16 case series were included, representing 844 human patients...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732653/the-regenerative-journey-of-pericytes-towards-clinical-translation
#7
REVIEW
William Cathery, Ashton Faulkner, Davide Maselli, Paolo Madeddu
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the single leading cause of death worldwide. Advances in treatment and management have significantly improved patient outcomes. On the other hand, although mortality rates have decreased, more people are left with sequelae that require additional treatment and hospitalization. Moreover, patients with severe nonrevascularizable CAD remain with the only option of heart transplantation, which is limited by the shortage of suitable hearts. In recent years, cell-based regenerative therapy has emerged as a possible alternative treatment, with several regenerative medicinal products already in the clinical phase of development and other emerging as competitive preclinical solutions...
May 7, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726088/a-novel-2-phenylamino-quinazoline-based-compound-expands-the-neural-stem-cell-pool-and-promotes-the-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-the-cognitive-ability-of-adult-mice
#8
Lu Hui, Cheng Gang, Hong Feng, Zhang Lei, Hu Youhong, Feng Linyin
The adult neurogenesis occurs throughout the life of the mammalian hippocampus and is found to be essential for learning and memory. Identifying new ways to manipulate the number of neural stem cells (NSCs) and enhance endogenous neurogenesis in adult is very important. Here we found that a novel compound, N2-(4-isopropylphenyl)-5-(3-methoxyphenoxy)quinazoline-2,4-diamine (code-named Yhhu-3792), enhanced the self-renewal capability of NSCs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Yhhu-3792 increased the ratio of BrdU + /DAPI+ embryonic NSCs and accelerated the growth of neurospheres significantly...
May 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726086/a-preview-of-selected-articles-stem-cells-2018-36-0-0
#9
Stuart P Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726063/inter-species-incompatibilities-limit-the-immunomodulatory-effect-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-the-rat
#10
Paul Lohan, Oliver Treacy, Maurice Morcos, Ellen Donohoe, Yvonne O'Donoghue, Aideen E Ryan, Stephen J Elliman, Thomas Ritter, Matthew D Griffin
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are an immunomodulatory cell population which are under pre-clinical and clinical investigation for a number of inflammatory conditions including transplantation. In this study, a well-established rat corneal transplantation model was used to test the ability of human MSC to prolong corneal allograft rejection-free survival using a pre-transplant intravenous infusion protocol previously shown to be efficacious with allogeneic rat MSC. Surprisingly, pre-transplant administration of human MSC had no effect on corneal allograft survival...
May 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726060/differential-regulation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-chondrogenesis-by-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-hydroxylase-inhibitors
#11
Dheraj K Taheem, Daniel A Foyt, Sandra Loaiza, Silvia A Ferreira, Dusko Ilic, Holger W Auner, Agamemnon E Grigoriadis, Gavin Jell, Eileen Gentleman
The transcriptional profile induced by hypoxia plays important roles in the chondrogenic differentiation of marrow stromal/stem cells (MSC) and is mediated by the Hypoxia Inducible Factor complex. However, various compounds can also stabilise HIF's oxygen-responsive element, HIF-1α, at normoxia and mimic many hypoxia-induced cellular responses. Such compounds may prove efficacious in cartilage tissue engineering, where microenvironmental cues may mediate functional tissue formation. Here, we investigated three HIF stabilising compounds, which each have distinct mechanisms of action, to understand how they differentially influenced the chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived MSC (hBM-MSC) in vitro...
May 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676038/cardiomyocyte-maturation-requires-tlr3-activated-nuclear-factor-kappa-b
#12
Conrad P Hodgkinson, Richard E Pratt, Imke Kirste, Sophie Dal-Pra, John P Cooke, Victor J Dzau
The process by which committed precursors mature into cardiomyocytes is poorly understood. We found that TLR3 inhibition blocked cardiomyocyte maturation; precursor cells committed to the cardiomyocyte lineage failed to express maturation genes and sarcomeres did not develop. Using various approaches, we found that the effects of TLR3 upon cardiomyocyte maturation were dependent upon the RelA subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). Importantly, under conditions that promote the development of mature cardiomyocytes NFκB became significantly enriched at the promoters of cardiomyocyte maturation genes...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664186/notch-signaling-regulates-lgr5-olfactory-epithelium-progenitor-stem-cell-turnover-and-mediates-recovery-of-lesioned-olfactory-epithelium-in-mouse-model
#13
Qi Dai, Chen Duan, Wenwen Ren, Fangqi Li, Qian Zheng, Li Wang, Wenyan Li, Xiaoling Lu, Wenli Ni, Yanping Zhang, Yan Chen, Tieqiao Wen, Yiqun Yu, Hongmeng Yu
The Notch signaling pathway regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in multiple tissues and organs, and is required for tissue maintenance. However, the role of Notch in regulation of olfactory epithelium (OE) progenitor/stem cells to maintain tissue function is still not clear. A recent study reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in globose basal cells (GBCs) localized in OE. Through lineage tracing in vivo, we found that Lgr5+ cells act as progenitor/stem cells in OE...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664142/the-effect-of-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-stem-cell-biology-a-contribution-to-radiation-risk
#14
REVIEW
Tiziana Squillaro, Giovanni Galano, Roberto De Rosa, Gianfranco Peluso, Umberto Galderisi
Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) (>0.5Gy), negatively affect health. but, less is known about the effects of low dose IR (LDIR) but recent, evidence suggests that it may have profound effects on cellular functions. We are commonly exposed to LDIR over natural background levels from numerous sources: people may be exposed to low dose IR for medical diagnosis and therapy, air travel, illegal IR waste dumpsites or by occupational exposures in the nuclear and medical sectors. Stem cells reside for long periods of time in our bodies, and this increases the possibility that they may be accumulate genotoxic damage derived from extrinsic LDIR or intrinsic sources (such as DNA replication)...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658164/bipotent-megakaryocytic-erythroid-progenitors-concepts-and-controversies
#15
REVIEW
Juliana Xavier-Ferrucio, Diane S Krause
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells maintain blood formation throughout our lifetime by undergoing long and short-term self-renewal, respectively. As progenitor cells progress through the hematopoiesis process, their differentiation capabilities narrow, and at the point where potential limits the fate, and the precursors become committed to only one or two lineages. This review focuses on recent advances in the identification and characterization of bipotent megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitors (MEP), the cell that can further produce two completely different functional outputs: platelets and red blood cells...
April 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658163/a-novel-oncolytic-herpes-capable-of-cell-specific-transcriptional-targeting-of-cd133%C3%A2-cancer-cells-induces-significant-tumor-regression
#16
Kaoru Terai, Danse Bi, Zhengian Liu, Emma Borrego-Diaz, Kyle Kimura, Zohreh Sanaat, Roya Dolatkhah, Mina Soleimani, Christopher Jones, Judith Larson, Allison Bright, Tuba Esfandyari, Faris Farassati
The topic of cancer stem cells is of significant importance due to its implications in our understanding of the tumor biology, as well as the development of novel cancer therapeutics. However, the question of whether targeting cancer stem cells can hamper the growth of tumors remains mainly unanswered due to the lack of specific agents for this purpose. In order to address this issue, we have developed the first mutated version of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) that is transcriptionally targeted against CD133+ cells...
April 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656478/transplantation-of-neural-progenitor-cells-expressing-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-into-the-motor-cortex-as-a-strategy-to-treat-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Gretchen M Thomsen, Pablo Avalos, Annie A Ma, Mor Alkaslasi, Noell Cho, Livia Wyss, Jean-Philippe Vit, Marlesa Godoy, Patrick Suezaki, Oksana Shelest, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Clive N Svendsen
Early dysfunction of cortical motor neurons may underlie the initiation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As such, the cortex represents a critical area of ALS research and a promising therapeutic target. In the current study, human cortical-derived neural progenitor cells engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted into the SOD1G93A ALS rat cortex, where they migrated, matured into astrocytes, and released GDNF. This protected motor neurons, delayed disease pathology and extended survival of the animals...
April 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644784/mindy1-is-a-downstream-target-of-the-polyamines-and-promotes-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#18
Christina James, Tian Yun Zhao, Anisa Rahim, Parul Saxena, Nazreen Abdul Muthalif, Takeshi Uemura, Norihiro Tsuneyoshi, Sheena Ong, Kazuei Igarashi, Chin Yan Lim, Norris Ray Dunn, Leah A Vardy
Embryonic stem cells have the ability to self-renew or differentiate and these processes are under tight control. We previously reported that the polyamine regulator AMD1 is critical for embryonic stem cell self-renewal. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are essential organic cations that play a role in a wide array of cellular processes. Here, we explore the essential role of the polyamines in the promotion of self-renewal and identify a new stem cell regulator that acts downstream of the polyamines: MINDY1...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637670/monoamine-oxidase-deficiency-causes-prostate-atrophy-and-reduces-prostate-progenitor-cell-activity
#19
Lijuan Yin, Jingjing Li, Chun-Peng Liao, Boyang Jason Wu
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) degrade a number of biogenic and dietary amines, including monoamine neurotransmitters, and play an essential role in many biological processes. Neurotransmitters and related neural events have been shown to participate in the development, differentiation, and maintenance of diverse tissues and organs by regulating the specialized cellular function and morphological structures of innervated organs such as the prostate. Here we show that mice lacking both MAO isoforms, MAOA and MAOB, exhibit smaller prostate mass and develop epithelial atrophy in the ventral and dorsolateral prostates...
April 10, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604141/pgd2-ptgdr2-signaling-restricts-the-self-renewal-and-tumorigenesis-of-gastric-cancer
#20
Bin Zhang, Qingli Bie, Peipei Wu, Jie Zhang, Benshuai You, Hui Shi, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
The antitumor effect of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) on gastric cancer (GC) has been known for decades. However, the mechanism of PGD2's control of GC growth is unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Herein, we discovered that signaling between PGD2 and its receptor (PTGDR2) has the ability to restrict the self-renewal of GC cells in vitro and suppress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. To obtain these findings, we first determined that PGD2 synthase (L-PTGDS) and PTGDR2 expression were lower in GC tissues than adjacent tissues and was associated with the patients' prognosis...
March 31, 2018: Stem Cells
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