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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341428/epigenetic-silencing-of-tap1-in-aldefluor-breast-cancer-stem-cells-contributes-to-their-enhanced-immune-evasion
#1
Mohammad Sultan, Dejan Vidovic, Arianne S Paine, Thomas T Huynh, Krysta M Coyle, Margaret L Thomas, Brianne M Cruickshank, Cheryl A Dean, Derek R Clements, Youra Kim, Kristin Lee, Shashi A Gujar, Ian C Weaver, Paola Marcato
Avoiding detection and destruction by immune cells is key for tumor initiation and progression. The important role of cancer stem cells (CSC) in tumor initiation has been well established, yet their ability to evade immune detection and targeting is only partly understood. To investigate the ability of breast CSCs to evade immune detection we identified a highly tumorigenic population in a spontaneous murine mammary tumor based on increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. We performed tumor growth studies in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#2
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341332/cornea-derived-mscs-therapeutically-modulate-macrophage-immunophenotype-and-angiogenic-function
#3
Medi Eslani, Ilham Putra, Xiang Shen, Judy Hamouie, Asha Tadepalli, Khandaker N Anwar, John A Kink, Samaneh Ghassemi, Gaurav Agnihotri, Sofiya Reshetylo, Alireza Mashaghi, Reza Dana, Peiman Hematti, Ali R Djalilian
Macrophages are crucial drivers of inflammatory corneal neovascularization and thus are potential targets for immunomodulatory therapies. We hypothesized that therapeutic use of cornea derived mesenchymal stromal cells (cMSCs) may alter the function of macrophages. We found that cMSCs can modulate the phenotype and angiogenic function of macrophages. In vitro, cMSCs induce apoptosis of macrophages while preferentially promoting a distinct CD14hi CD16hi CD163hi CD206hi immunophenotype that has significantly reduced angiogenic effects based on in vitro angiogenesis assays...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330880/concise-review-optimized-strategies-for-stem-cell-based-therapy-in-myocardial-repair-clinical-translatability-and-potential-limitation
#4
REVIEW
Rongrong Wu, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) remain major public health problems with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances, current therapeutic approaches are unable to rescue the extensive and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes caused by severe ischemia. Over the past 16 years, stem cell-based therapy has been recognized as an innovative strategy for cardiac repair/regeneration and functional recovery after IHDs. Although substantial preclinical animal studies using a variety of stem/progenitor cells have shown promising results, there is a tremendous degree of skepticism in the clinical community as many stem cell trials do not confer any beneficial effects...
January 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327488/isolation-of-human-photoreceptor-precursors-via-a-cell-surface-marker-panel-from-stem-cell-derived-retinal-organoids-and-fetal-retinae
#5
Jörn Lakowski, Emily Welby, Dimitri Budinger, Fabiana Di Marco, Valentina Di Foggia, James W B Bainbridge, Kyle Wallace, David M Gamm, Robin R Ali, Jane C Sowden
Loss of photoreceptor cells due to retinal degeneration is one of the main causes of blindness in the developed world. Although there is currently no effective treatment, cell replacement therapy using stem-cell-derived photoreceptor cells may be a feasible future treatment option. In order to ensure safety and efficacy of this approach, robust cell isolation and purification protocols must be developed. To this end, we previously developed a biomarker panel for the isolation of mouse photoreceptor precursors from the developing mouse retina and mouse embryonic stem cell cultures...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327467/erbb3-binding-protein-ebp1-is-a-novel-dppa4-cofactor-in-human-pluripotent-cells
#6
Priyanka Somanath, Kelly M Bush, Paul S Knoepfler
Developmental Pluripotency-Associated-4 (DPPA4) is one of the few core pluripotency genes lacking clearly defined molecular and cellular functions. Here we used a proteomics screening approach of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) nuclear extract to determine DPPA4 molecular functions through identification of novel cofactors. Unexpectedly, the signaling molecule ERBB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) was the strongest candidate binding partner for DPPA4 in hESC. EBP1 is a growth factor signaling mediator present in two isoforms, p48 and p42...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327399/plga-mpeg-nanoparticles-loaded-with-melatonin-protect-adipose-derived-stem-cells-transplanted-in-infarcted-heart-tissue
#7
Qiang Ma, Junjie Yang, Xu Huang, Weisheng Guo, Sulei Li, Hao Zhou, Jingwei Li, Yundai Chen
Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for myocardial infarction. However, transplanted cells face low survival rates due to oxidative stress and the inflammatory microenvironment in ischemic heart tissue. Melatonin has been used as a powerful endogenous antioxidant to protect cells from oxidative injury. However, melatonin cannot play a long lasting effect against the hostile microenvironment. Nano drug delivery carriers have the ability to protect the loaded drug from degradation in physiological environments in a controlled manner, which results in longer effects and decreased side effects...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314431/a-preview-of-selected-articles
#8
EDITORIAL
Stuart P Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315990/activation-of-akt-mtor-signaling-directs-tenogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Xiao Xia Cong, Xi Sheng Rao, Jun Xin Lin, Xiao Ceng Liu, Guang An Zhang, Xiu Kui Gao, Min Yi He, Wei Liang Shen, Wei Fan, Dominique Pioletti, Li Ling Zheng, Huan Huan Liu, Zi Yin, Boon Chuan Low, Ronen Schweitzer, Hongwei Ouyang, Xiao Chen, Yi Ting Zhou
Tendon repair is a clinical challenge because of the limited understanding on tenogenesis. The synthesis of type I collagen (Collagen I) and other extracellular matrix are essential for tendon differentiation and homeostasis. Current studies on tenogenesis focused mostly on the tenogenic transcriptional factors while the signaling controlling tenogenesis on translational level remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling was activated by protenogenic growth factor, transforming growth factors beta1, and insulin-like growth factor-I...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314444/a-kinase-anchor-protein-12-is-required-for-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-adult-white-matter
#10
Takakuni Maki, Yoon Kyung Choi, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Akihiro Shindo, Anna C Liang, Bum Ju Ahn, Emiri T Mandeville, Seiji Kaji, Kanako Itoh, Ji Hae Seo, Irwin H Gelman, Josephine Lok, Ryosuke Takahashi, Kyu-Won Kim, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to oligodendrocytes in cerebral white matter. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain to be fully defined, especially in adult brains. Recently, it has been suggested that signaling via A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12), a scaffolding protein that associates with intracellular molecules such as protein kinase A, may be involved in Schwann cell homeostasis and peripheral myelination. Here, we asked whether AKAP12 also regulates the mechanisms of myelination in the CNS...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314416/transient-microrna-expression-enhances-myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Joanna Bem, Iwona Grabowska, Maciej Daniszewski, Dorota Zawada, Areta Czerwinska, Lukasz Bugajski, Katarzyna Piwocka, Anna Fogtman, Maria A Ciemerych
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of various cellular processes, including pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We analyzed differentiation of two ESC lines - D3 and B8, and observed significant differences in the expression of miRNAs and genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation. We also examined if transient miRNA overexpression could serve as a sufficient impulse modulating differentiation of mouse ESCs. ESCs were transfected with miRNA Mimics and differentiated in embryoid bodies and embryoid body outgrowths...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314417/a-nestin-cdk5-drp1-axis-regulates-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-stemness-via-a-metabolic-shift
#12
Jiancheng Wang, Yinong Huang, Jianye Cai, Qiong Ke, Jiaqi Xiao, Weijun Huang, Hongyu Li, Yuan Qiu, Yi Wang, Bin Zhang, Haoxiang Wu, Yanan Zhang, Xin Sui, Adham Sameer A Bardeesi, Andy Peng Xiang
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) transplantation provides an alternative approach for various central nervous system (CNS) diseases treatment, while the difficulties in NSPC acquisition and expansion limit their further application. Unveiling the mechanism of NSPC stemness regulation may contribute to its further application. Nestin, generally recognized as a marker of NSPCs, plays a crucial role in the CNS development and NSPC stemness maintenance. Here, we report that Nestin loss triggers mitochondrial network remodeling and enhances oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in NSPCs treated with Nestin RNA interference (RNAi)...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282831/bmi1-progenitor-cell-dynamics-in-murine-cornea-during-homeostasis-and-wound-healing
#13
Solja Kalha, Bideep Shrestha, Maria Sanz Navarro, Kyle B Jones, Ophir D Klein, Frederic Michon
The outermost layer of the eye, the cornea, is renewed continuously throughout life. Stem cells of the corneal epithelium reside in the limbus at the corneal periphery and ensure homeostasis of the central epithelium. However, in young mice, homeostasis relies on cells located in the basal layer of the central corneal epithelium. Here, we first studied corneal growth during the transition from newborn to adult and assessed Keratin 19 (Krt19) expression as a hallmark of corneal maturation. Next, we set out to identify a novel marker of murine corneal epithelial progenitor cells before, during and after maturation, and we found that Bmi1 is expressed in the basal epithelium of the central cornea and limbus...
December 28, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282804/in-vitro-modeling-of-congenital-heart-defects-associated-with-an-nkx2-5-mutation-revealed-a-dysregulation-in-bmp-notch-mediated-signaling
#14
Abeer F Zakariyah, Rashida F Rajgara, Ellias Horner, Marie-Elodie Cattin, Alexandre Blais, Ilona S Skerjanc, Patrick G Burgon
The Nkx2-5 gene codes for a transcription factor that plays a critical role in heart development. Heterozygous mutations in NKX2-5 in both human and mice result in congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, the molecular mechanisms by which these mutations cause the disease are still unknown. Recently, we have generated the heterozygous mouse model of the human CHDs associated mutation NKX2-5 R142C (Nkx2-5R141C/+ mouse ortholog of human NKX2-5 R142C variant) that developed septal and conduction defects. This study generated a heterozygous Nkx2-5 R141C mouse embryonic stem cell line (Nkx2-5R141C/+ mESCs) to model CHDs in vitro...
December 28, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282803/hair-follicle-stem-cell-faith-is-dependent-on-chromatin-remodeling-capacity-following-low-dose-radiation
#15
Nadine Schuler, Sara Timm, Claudia E Rübe
The main function of the skin, to protect against the environment, is supported by the activity of different stem cell populations. The main focus of this study was elucidating the coping mechanisms of stem cells against the stimulation of constant exposure to genotoxic stresses, both endogenous and exogenous, to ensure long-term function. Investigation of various mouse strains, differing in their DNA repair capacity, enables us to clarify fractionated low-dose irradiation (LDR)-induced consequences for different stem cell populations of the murine hair follicle in their physiological stem cell niche...
December 28, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271023/polycystin-2-plays-an-essential-role-in-glucose-starvation-induced-autophagy-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#16
Jun Lu, Kenneth R Boheler, Liwen Jiang, Camie W Chan, Wan Wai Tse, Wendy Keung, Ellen Ny Poon, Ronald A Li, Xiaoqiang Yao
Autophagy is a process essential for cell survival under stress condition. The patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, which is caused by polycystin-1 or polycystin-2 (PKD2) mutation, display cardiovascular abnormalities and dysregulation in autophagy. However, it is unclear whether PKD2 plays a role in autophagy. In the present study, we explored the functional role of PKD2 in autophagy and apoptosis in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. HES2 hESC line-derived cardiomyocytes (HES2-CMs) were transduced with adenoviral-based PKD2-shRNAs (Ad-PKD2-shRNAs), and then cultured with normal or glucose-free medium for 3 hours...
December 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266799/ecological-balance-of-oral-microbiota-is-required-to-maintain-oral-mesenchymal-stem-cell-homeostasis
#17
Yingying Su, Chider Chen, Lijia Guo, Juan Du, Xiaoyan Li, Yi Liu
Oral microbiome is essential for maintenance of oral cavity health. Imbalanced oral microbiome causes periodontal and other diseases. It is unknown whether oral microbiome affect oral stem cells function. In this study, we used a common clinical anti-biotic treatment approach to alter oral microbiome ecology and examine whether oral mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are affected. We found that altered oral microbiome resulted gingival MSCs deficiency, leading to a delayed wound healing in male mice. Mechanistically, oral microbiome release LPS that stimulates the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and then impair the normal function of gingival MSCs and wound healing process through miR-21/Sp1/TERT pathway...
December 21, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266629/human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-failure-to-adapt-to-glucose-shortage-and-rapidly-use-intracellular-energy-reserves-through-glycolysis-explains-poor-cell-survival-after-implantation
#18
A Moya, J Paquet, M Deschepper, N Larochette, K Oudina, C Denoeud, M Bensidhoum, D Logeart-Avramoglou, H Petite
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold considerable promise in tissue engineering (TE). Their poor survival when exogenously administered, however, limits their therapeutic potential. Previous studies from our group demonstrated that lack of glucose (but not of oxygen) is fatal to human MSCs because it serves as a pro-survival and pro-angiogenic molecule for hMSC upon transplantation. However, which energy-providing pathways MSCs use to metabolize glucose upon transplantation? Are there alternative energetic nutrients to replace glucose? And most importantly, do hMSCs possess significant intracellular glucose reserves for ensuring their survival upon transplantation? These remain open questions at the forefront of TE based-therapies...
December 21, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239062/gvhd-amelioration-by-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-is-associated-with-peripheral-preservation-of-naive-t-cell-populations
#19
Sumie Fujii, Yasuo Miura, Aya Fujishiro, Takero Shindo, Yutaka Shimazu, Hideyo Hirai, Hidetoshi Tahara, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Taira Maekawa
A substantial proportion of patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) respond to cell therapy with culture-expanded human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (BM-MSCs). However, the mechanisms by which these cells can ameliorate aGVHD-associated complications remain to be clarified. We show here that BM-MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) recapitulated the therapeutic effects of BM-MSCs against aGVHD. Systemic infusion of human BM-MSC-derived EVs prolonged the survival of mice with aGVHD and reduced the pathologic damage in multiple GVHD-targeted organs...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235200/concise-review-the-cellular-conspiracy-of-als
#20
REVIEW
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
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