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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005140/a-preview-of-selected-articles-august-2018
#1
Stuart P Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005139/vitamin-c-promotes-astrocyte-differentiation-through-dna-hydroxymethylation
#2
Jong-Hwan Kim, Mirang Kim, Xi-Biao He, Noviana Wulansari, Byoung-Ha Yoon, Dong-Hyuck Bae, Nanhyung Huh, Yong Sung Kim, Sang-Hun Lee, Seon-Young Kim
Previous studies have reported that vitamin C (VC) promotes neural stem/precursor cell (NSC) differentiation toward dopamine (DA) neurons via DNA hydroxymethylation-induced transcriptional activation of DA neuron-specific genes. To further understand the VC effects on NSC differentiation, we profiled the transcriptome and DNA methylome/hydroxymethylome using high-throughput sequencing. Interestingly, RNA-sequencing analyses have shown that, in addition to DA neuronal genes, astrocytic genes Gfap, Slc1a3, and S100a16 were also up-regulated in NSC cultures differentiated with VC treatment...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005133/jak2v617f-megakaryocytes-promote-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-expansion-in-mice-through-thrombopoietin-mpl-signaling
#3
Yu Zhang, Chi Hua Sarah Lin, Kenneth Kaushansky, Huichun Zhan
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are stem cell disorders characterized by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion and overproduction of mature blood cells. The acquired kinase mutation JAK2V617F plays a central role in these disorders. The mechanisms responsible for HSPC expansion in MPNs are not fully understood, limiting the effectiveness of current treatments. One hallmark feature of the marrow in patients with MPNs is megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. Previously, we reported that JAK2V617F-bearing MKs cause a murine myeloproliferative syndrome with HSPC expansion...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004616/flt3-ligand-contributes-to-the-development-and-function-of-the-subpopulation-of-cd8%C3%AE-plasmacytoid-precursor-dc-in-cd8-tcr-facilitating-cells
#4
Yiming Huang, Hong Xu, Thomas Miller, Yujie Wen, Suzanne T Ildstad
Facilitating cells (FC) are a CD8+ TCR- bone marrow subpopulation that enhance engraftment of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and induce antigen-specific CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in vivo. The major subpopulation in FC resembles plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells (p-preDC) both phenotypically and functionally. Here, we report that the number of FC was significantly reduced in Flt3 ligand knockout (Flt3-L-KO) mice. Specifically, there was a selective decrease in the B220+ CD11c+ CD11b- p-preDC FC subpopulation...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004612/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-generate-light-responsive-retinal-organoids-with-variable-and-nutrient-dependent-efficiency
#5
Dean Hallam, Gerrit Hilgen, Birthe Dorgau, Lili Zhu, Min Yu, Sanja Bojic, Philip Hewitt, Michael Schmitt, Marianne Uteng, Stefan Kustermann, David Steel, Mike Nicholds, Robert Thomas, Achim Treumann, Andrew Porter, Evelyne Sernagor, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako
The availability of in vitro models of the human retina in which to perform pharmacological and toxicological studies is an urgent and unmet need. An essential step for developing in vitro models of human retina is the ability to generate laminated, physiologically functional and light-responsive retinal organoids from renewable and patient specific sources. We investigated five different human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and showed a significant variability in their efficiency to generate retinal organoids...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004607/myeloid-disease-mutations-of-splicing-factor-srsf2-cause-g2-m-arrest-and-skewed-differentiation-of-human-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#6
Aditi Bapat, Nakia Keita, William Martelly, Paul Kang, Christopher Seet, Jeffery R Jacobsen, Peter Stoilov, Chengcheng Hu, Gay M Crooks, Shalini Sharma
Myeloid malignancies including myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia are characterized by abnormal proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Reports on analysis of bone marrow samples from patients have revealed a high incidence of mutations in splicing factors in early stem and progenitor cell clones, but the mechanisms underlying transformation of HSPCs harboring these mutations remain unknown. Using ex vivo cultures of primary human CD34+ cells as a model, we find that mutations in splicing factors SRSF2 and U2AF1 exert distinct effects on proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004606/the-adaptive-remodeling-of-stem-cell-niche-in-stimulated-bone-marrow-counteracts-the-leukemic-niche
#7
Seon-Yeong Jeong, Jin-A Kim, Il-Hoan Oh
Accumulating studies have shown the cellular nature of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in bone marrow (BM) and their degenerative changes under leukemic conditions. However, the dynamic adaptation of niche cells to changes in physiological stimulatory signals remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have established a niche stimulation model induced by 5-fluorouracil. This model reveals a rapid and reversible conversion of mesenchymal cells into niche-like stromal cells, which exhibit a platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha+ /leptin receptor+ (PL) phenotype...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004605/repurposing-the-cord-blood-bank-for-haplobanking-of-hla-homozygous-ipscs-and-their-usefulness-to-multiple-populations
#8
Suji Lee, Ji Young Huh, David M Turner, Soohyeon Lee, James Robinson, Jeremy E Stein, Sung Han Shim, Chang Pyo Hong, Myung Seo Kang, Masato Nakagawa, Shin Kaneko, Mahito Nakanishi, Mahendra S Rao, Andreas Kurtz, Glyn N Stacey, Steven G E Marsh, Marc L Turner, Jihwan Song
Although autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can potentially be useful for treating patients without immune rejection, in reality it will be extremely expensive and labor-intensive to make iPSCs to realize personalized medicine. An alternative approach is to make use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype homozygous donors to provide HLA matched iPSC products to significant numbers of patients. In order to establish a haplobank of iPSCs, we repurposed the cord blood bank by screening ~4,200 high resolution HLA typed cord blood samples, and selected those homozygous for the ten most frequent HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 haplotypes in the Korean population...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004601/adipose-derived-stem-cells-of-blind-mole-rat-spalax-exhibit-reduced-homing-ability-molecular-mechanisms-and-potential-role-in-cancer-suppression
#9
Anatolii Mamchur, Eva Leman, Safaa Salah, Aaron Avivi, Imad Shams, Irena Manov
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are recruited by cancer cells from the adjacent tissue, and they become an integral part of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that ADSCs from the long-living, tumor-resistant blind mole rat, Spalax, have a low ability to migrate towards cancer cells compared with cells from its Rattus counterpart. Tracking 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine EdU-labeled ADSCs, introduced to tumor-bearing nude mice, toward the xenografts, we found that rat ADSCs intensively migrated and penetrated the tumors, whereas only a few Spalax ADSCs reached the tumors...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001480/role-of-ap-1-complex-in-phenotype-of-human-osteosarcomas-generated-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Stefano Gambera, Ander Abarrategi, Miguel A Rodríguez-Milla, Francisca Mulero, Sofía T Menéndez, René Rodriguez, Samuel Navarro, Javier García-Castro
Osteosarcoma is a highly aggressive bone tumor that usually arises intramedullary at the extremities of long bones. Due to the fact that the peak of incidence is in the growth spurt of adolescence, the specific anatomical location and the heterogeneity of cells, it is believed that osteosarcomagenesis is a process associated to bone development. Different studies in murine models showed that the tumor-initiating cell in osteosarcoma could be an uncommitted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) developing in a specific bone microenvironment...
July 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999568/uhrf1-licensed-self-renewal-of-active-adult-neural-stem-cells
#11
Albert Blanchart, Anna C Navis, Natalia Assaife-Lopes, Dmitry Usoskin, Sergi Aranda, Jana Sontheimer, Patrik Ernfors
Adult neurogenesis in the brain continuously seeds new neurons throughout life, but how homeostasis of adult neural stem cells is maintained is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA methylation adapter UHRF1 is expressed in, and regulates proliferation of, the active but not quiescent pool of adult neural progenitor cells. Mice with a neural stem cell-specific deficiency in UHRF1 exhibit a massive depletion of neurogenesis resulting in a collapse of formation of new neurons. In the absence of UHRF1, neural stem cells unexpectedly remain in the cell cycle but with a 17-fold increased cell cycle length due to a failure of replication phase entry caused by promoter de-methylation and de-repression of Cdkn1a, which encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21...
July 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999566/an-optimized-system-for-effective-derivation-of-three-dimensional-retinal-tissue-via-wnt-signaling-regulation
#12
Ziming Luo, Xiufeng Zhong, Kaijing Li, Bingbing Xie, Yuchun Liu, Meifang Ye, Kang Li, Chaochao Xu, Jian Ge
Effective derivation of three-dimensional (3D) retinal tissue from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) could provide models for drug screening and facilitate patient-specific retinal cell replacement therapy. However, some hiPSC lines cannot undergo 3D self-organization and show inadequate differentiation efficiency to meet clinical demand. In this study, we developed an optimized system for derivation of 3D retinal tissue. We found that the Wnt signaling pathway antagonist Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1) rescued the inability of differentiated retinal progenitors to self-organize...
July 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968952/hypoxic-preconditioning-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-subsequent-spheroid-formation-accelerates-repair-of-segmental-bone-defects
#13
Steve S Ho, Ben P Hung, Nasser Heyrani, Mark A Lee, J Kent Leach
Cell-based approaches for musculoskeletal tissue repair are limited by poor cell survival and engraftment. Short-term hypoxic preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can prolong cell viability in vivo, while the aggregation of MSCs into spheroids increases cell survival, trophic factor secretion, and tissue formation in vivo. We hypothesized that preconditioning MSCs in hypoxic culture before spheroid formation would increase cell viability, proangiogenic potential, and resultant bone repair compared with that of individual MSCs...
July 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938858/runx1-role-in-epithelial-and-cancer-cell-proliferation-implicates-lipid-metabolism-and-scd1-and-soat1-activity
#14
Prachi Jain, Mary Nattakom, David Holowka, Dong Hao Wang, J Thomas Brenna, Amy Tsu Ku, Hoang Nguyen, Sheriff Ibrahim, Tudorita Tumbar
The role of lipid metabolism in epithelial stem cell (SC) function and carcinogenesis is poorly understood. The transcription factor Runx1 is known to regulate proliferation in mouse epithelial hair follicle (HF) SCs in vivo and in several mouse and human epithelial cancers. We found a novel sub-set of in vivo Runx1 HFSC target genes related to lipid metabolism and demonstrated changes in distinct classes of lipids driven by Runx1. Inhibition of lipid-enzymes Scd1 and Soat1 activity synergistically reduces proliferation of mouse skin epithelial cells and of human skin and oral squamous cell carcinoma cultured lines...
June 25, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893054/leucine-rich-repeat-neuronal-protein-1-regulates-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-by-posttranslational-modifications-of-pluripotency-factors
#15
Chien Huang Liao, Ya-Hui Wang, Wei-Wei Chang, Bei-Chia Yang, Tsai-Jung Wu, Wei-Li Liu, Alice L Yu, John Yu
Stem cell surface markers may facilitate a better understanding of stem cell biology through molecular function studies or serve as tools to monitor the differentiation status and behavior of stem cells in culture or tissue. Thus, it is important to identify additional, novel stem cell markers. We used glycoproteomics to discover surface glycoproteins on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that may be useful stem cell markers. We found that a surface glycoprotein, leucine-rich repeat neuronal protein 1 (LRRN1), is expressed abundantly on the surface of hESCs prior to differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs)...
June 11, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893019/stem-progenitor-cell-proteoglycans-decorated-with-7-d-4-4-c-3-and-3-b-3-chondroitin-sulphate-motifs-are-morphogenetic-markers-of-tissue-development
#16
REVIEW
Anthony J Hayes, Susan M Smith, Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
This study reviewed the occurrence of chondroitin sulphate (CS) motifs 4-C-3, 7-D-4 and 3-B-3(-) which are expressed by progenitor cells in tissues undergoing morphogenesis. These motifs have a transient early expression pattern during tissue development and also appear in mature tissues during pathological remodeling and attempted repair processes by activated adult stem cells. The CS motifs are information and recognition modules, which may regulate cellular behavior and delineate stem cell niches in developmental tissues...
June 11, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883022/concise-review-age-related-clonal-hematopoiesis-stem-cells-tempting-the-devil
#17
REVIEW
Lambert Busque, Manuel Buscarlet, Luigina Mollica, Ross L Levine
The recent characterization of clonal hematopoiesis in a large segment of the aging population has raised tremendous interest and concern alike. Mutations have been documented in genes associated with hematological cancers and in non-driver candidates. These mutations are present at low frequency in the majority of individuals after middle-age, and principally affect the epigenetic modifiers DNMT3A and TET2. In 10%-40% of cases, the clone will progress to meet the diagnostic criteria for Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential, which is associated with an increased risk of hematological cancer and cardiovascular mortality...
June 8, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873154/esrp1-induced-cd44-v3-is-important-for-controlling-pluripotency-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Young-Dae Kim, Han-Seop Kim, Jungwoon Lee, Jung-Kyun Choi, Enna Han, Ji Eun Jeong, Yee Sook Cho
The importance of alternative splicing (AS) events in pluripotency regulation has been highlighted by the determination of different roles and contributions of different splice isoforms of pluripotency-related genes and by the identification of distinct pluripotency-related splicing factors. In particular, epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) has been characterized as an essential splicing factor required for the regulation of human pluripotency and differentiation. Nevertheless, a detailed molecular characterization of ESRP1 (mRNA splice variants 1-6) in human pluripotency is lacking...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873146/a-prokineticin-driven-epigenetic-switch-regulates-human-epicardial-cell-stemness-and-fate
#19
Rehana Qureshi, Michel Kindo, Mounia Boulberdaa, Jean-Jacques von Hunolstein, Marja Steenman, Canan G Nebigil
Epicardial adipose tissues (EAT) and vascular tissues may both belong to the mesoepithelial lineage that develops from epicardium-derived progenitor cells (EPDCs) in developing and injured hearts. Very little is known of the molecular mechanisms of EPDC contribution in EAT development and neovascularization in adult heart, which the topic remains a subject of intense therapeutic interest and scientific debate. Here we studied the epigenetic control of stemness and anti-adipogenic and pro-vasculogenic fate of hEPDCs, through investigating an angiogenic hormone, prokineticin-2 (PK2) signaling via its receptor PKR1...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873142/high-basal-levels-of-%C3%AE-h2ax-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-are-linked-to-replication-associated-dna-damage-and-repair
#20
Haritha Vallabhaneni, Patrick J Lynch, Guibin Chen, Kyeyoon Park, Yangtengyu Liu, Rachel Goehe, Barbara S Mallon, Manfred Boehm, Deborah A Hursh
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential as source cells for therapeutic uses. However, reports indicate that iPSCs carry genetic abnormalities, which may impede their medical use. Little is known about mechanisms contributing to intrinsic DNA damage in iPSCs that could lead to genomic instability. In this report, we investigated the level of DNA damage in human iPSC lines compared to their founder fibroblast line and derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cell (MSC) lines using γH2AX as a marker of DNA damage...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cells
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