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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#1
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211118/transcriptional-and-cell-cycle-alterations-mark-aging-of-primary-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#2
Xiaoyin Shan, Cleresa Roberts, Eun Ji Kim, Ariana Brenner, Gregory Grant, Ivona Percec
Adult stem cells play a critical role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and prevention of aging. While the regenerative potential of stem cells with low cellular turnover, such as adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), is increasingly recognized, the study of chronological aging in ASCs is technically difficult, and remains poorly understood. Here, we employ our model of chronological aging in primary human ASCs to examine genome-wide transcriptional networks. We demonstrate first that the transcriptome of aging ASCs is distinctly more stable than that of age-matched fibroblasts, and further, that age-dependent modifications in cell cycle progression and translation initiation specifically characterize aging ASCs in conjunction with increased nascent protein synthesis and a distinctly shortened G1 phase...
February 17, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207204/concise-review-increasing-the-validity-of-cerebrovascular-disease-models-and-experimental-methods-for-translational-stem-cell-research
#3
Johannes Boltze, Franziska Nitzsche, Jukka Jolkkonen, Gesa Weise, Claudia Pösel, Björn Nitzsche, Daniel-Christoph Wagner
Interspecies differences, anatomical and physiological aspects as wells as simplified study designs contribute to an overestimation of treatment effects and limit the transferability of experimental results into clinical applications. Confounders of cell therapies for cerebrovascular disorders (CVD) include common CVD comorbidities, frequent medications potentially affecting endogenous and transplanted stem cells, as well as age- and immune-system-related effects. All of those can contribute to a substantial modelling bias, ultimately limiting the prospective quality of preclinical research programs regarding the clinical value of a particular cell therapy...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207192/temporal-spatial-establishment-of-initial-niche-for-the-primary-spermatogonial-stem-cell-formation-is-determined-by-an-arid4b-regulatory-network
#4
Ray-Chang Wu, Yang Zeng, Yu-Fang Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Mei-Yi Wu
During neonatal testis development, centrally located gonocytes migrate to basement membrane of the seminiferous cords, where physical contact with a niche established by Sertoli cells is essential for transition of gonocytes into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To provide structural support and signaling stimuli for the gonocyte-to-SSC transition that occurs at a specific location during a finite phase, temporal-spatial establishment of the niche is critical. To date, the factors that guide Sertoli cells to establish the initial stem cell niche remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207189/effects-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-co-culture-on-calcium-induced-differentiation-of-normal-human-keratinocytes
#5
Shyam Kishor Sah, Hae Young Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Seong-Wook Lee, Hyung-Sik Kim, Yeon-Soo Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Tae-Yoon Kim
The influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on keratinocytes in altered microenvironments is poorly understood. Here, we co-cultured umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to evaluate their paracrine effect in the presence of high extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) ) concentration. High Ca(2+) environment to keratinocytes can disrupt normal skin barrier function due to abnormal/premature differentiation of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, we found that MSCs suppress both proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes under a high Ca(2+) environment in TGFβ1-dependent manner...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207184/an-im-penetrable-shield-how-the-tumor-microenvironment-protects-cancer-stem-cells
#6
Theresa Relation, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their unlimited self-renewal ability and their capacity to initiate and maintain malignancy, traits that are not found in most cells that comprise the tumor. Although current cancer treatments successfully reduce tumor burden, the tumor will likely recur unless CSCs are effectively eradicated. This challenge is made greater by the protective impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of infiltrating immune cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207177/quaking-is-a-key-regulator-of-endothelial-cell-differentiation-neovascularization-and-angiogenesis
#7
Amy Cochrane, Sophia Kelaini, Marianna Tsifaki, James Bojdo, Marta Vilà-González, Daiana Drehmer, Rachel Caines, Corey Magee, Magdalini Eleftheriadou, Yanhua Hu, David Grieve, Alan W Stitt, Lingfang Zeng, Qingbo Xu, Andriana Margariti
The capability to derive endothelial cell (ECs) from induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells holds huge therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease. Objective- This study elucidates the precise role of the RNA-binding protein Quaking isoform 5 (QKI-5) during EC differentiation from both mouse and human iPS cells and dissects how RNA-binding proteins can improve differentiation efficiency towards cell therapy for important vascular diseases. iPS cells represent an attractive cellular approach for regenerative medicine today since they can be used to generate patient-specific therapeutic cells towards autologous cell therapy...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181357/post-embryonic-fish-brain-proliferation-zones-exhibit-neuroepithelial-type-gene-expression-profile
#8
E Dambroise, M Simion, T Bourquard, S Bouffard, B Rizzi, Y Jaszczyszyn, M Bourge, P Affaticati, A Heuzé, J Jouralet, J Edouard, S Brown, C Thermes, A Poupon, E Reiter, F Sohm, F Bourrat, J-S Joly
In mammals, neuroepithelial cells play an essential role in embryonic neurogenesis, whereas glial stem cells are the principal source of neurons at post-embryonic stages. By contrast, neuroepithelial-like stem/progenitor (NE) cells have been shown to be present throughout life in teleosts. We used 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of cleared transgenic wdr12:GFP medaka brains to demonstrate that this cell type is widespread in juvenile and to identify new regions containing NE cells. We established the gene expression profile of optic tectum (OT) NE cells by cell sorting followed by RNA-seq...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181347/biomechanical-forces-promote-immune-regulatory-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#9
Miguel F Diaz, Abishek B Vaidya, Siobahn M Evans, Hyun J Lee, Benjamin M Aertker, Alexander J Alexander, Katherine M Price, Joyce A Ozuna, George P Liao, Kevin R Aroom, Hasen Xue, Liang Gu, Rui Omichi, Supinder Bedi, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Pamela L Wenzel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are believed to mobilize from the bone marrow in response to inflammation and injury, yet the effects of egress into the vasculature on MSC function are largely unknown. Here we show that wall shear stress (WSS) typical of fluid frictional forces present on the vascular lumen stimulates antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mediators, as well as chemokines capable of immune cell recruitment. WSS specifically promotes signaling through NFκB-COX2-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by activated immune cells...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164431/extracellular-vesicle-shuttled-mrna-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-communication
#10
Enrico Ragni, Federica Banfi, Mario Barilani, Alessandro Cherubini, Valentina Parazzi, Paola Larghi, Vincenza Dolo, Valentina Bollati, Lorenza Lazzari
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into several cell types, hence providing cell reservoirs for therapeutic applications. The absence of detectable MSC homing at injury sites suggests that paracrine functions could, at least in part, be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs); EVs are newly identified players that are studied mainly as predictive or diagnostic biomarkers. Together with their clinical interests, EVs have recently come to the fore for their role in cell-to-cell communication...
February 5, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152565/sphere-induced-rejuvenation-of-swine-and-human-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-is-primarily-caused-by-telomere-elongation
#11
Ni Xu, Yao Chen, Kevin C Dean, Xiaoqin Lu, Xiao Liu, Wei Wang, Douglas C Dean, Henry J Kaplan, Ling Gao, Fangtian Dong, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells in the retina with important functions in histogenesis and synaptogenesis during development, and in maintenance of mature neurons as they show to secrete various cytokines and manifest potentials of self-renewal and transdifferentiation into retinal neurons following injury in the vertebrate retinas. The swine retina has a visual streak structure similar to the human macular where cone photoreceptors are highly concentrated, thereby can serve as a better model for studying retinal diseases and for formulating cell-based therapeutics than the rodent retinas...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142229/whole-genome-dna-methylation-analyses-revealed-epigenetic-instability-in-tumorigenic-human-ips-cell-derived-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#12
Tsuyoshi Iida, Akio Iwanami, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Narihito Nagoshi, Rei Kashiwagi, Yoshiaki Toyama, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Although human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives are considered promising cellular resources for regenerative medicine, their tumorigenicity potentially limits their clinical application in hiPSC technologies. We previously demonstrated that oncogenic hiPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs) produced tumor-like tissues that were distinct from teratomas. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of tumorigenicity in hiPSC-NS/PCs, we performed an integrated analysis using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and the HumanHT-12 v4...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142228/notch1-dependent-nitric-oxide-signaling-deficiency-in-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-revealed-through-patient-specific-phenotypes-detected-in-bioengineered-cardiogenesis
#13
Sybil C L Hrstka, Xing Li, Timothy J Nelson
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart defect (CHD) attributable to multifactorial molecular underpinnings. Multiple genetic loci have been implicated to increase the risk of disease, yet genotype-phenotype relationships remain poorly defined. Whole genome sequencing complemented by cardiac phenotype from five individuals in an HLHS-affected family enabled the identification of NOTCH1 as a prioritized candidate gene linked to CHD in three individuals with mutant allele burden significantly impairing Notch signaling in the HLHS-affected proband...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142215/proteasomal-ido-degradation-reduces-the-immunosuppressive-potential-of-clinical-grade-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-undergoing-replicative-senescence
#14
Séverine Loisel, Joëlle Dulong, Cédric Ménard, Marie-Laure Renoud, Nadine Meziere, Bezier Isabelle, Maëlle Latour, Nadège Bescher, Rémy Pedeux, Nicolas Bertheuil, Erwan Flecher, Luc Sensebé, Karin Tarte
Owing to their immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) or adipose tissue (ASCs) are considered a promising tool for cell therapy. However, important issues should be considered to ensure the reproducible production of efficient and safe clinical-grade MSCs. In particular, high expansion rate, associated with progressive senescence, was recently proposed as one of the parameters that could alter MSC functionality. In this study, we directly address the consequences of replicative senescence on BM-MSC and ASC immunomodulatory properties...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142208/intravenously-transplanted-human-bone-marrow-endothelial-progenitor-cells-engraft-within-brain-capillaries-preserve-mitochondrial-morphology-and-display-pinocytotic-activity-towards-bbb-repair-in-ischemic-stroke-rats
#15
Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Edward Haller, Roger Lin, Cesario V Borlongan
Stroke is a life threatening disease with limited therapeutic options. Cell therapy has emerged as an experimental stroke treatment. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a key pathological manifestation of ischemic stroke, and barrier repair is an innovative target for neurorestoration in stroke. Here, we evaluated via electron microscopy the ability of transplanted human bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (hBMEPCs) to repair the BBB in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142205/reprogramming-postnatal-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-toward-functional-neural-crest-fates
#16
Vivek K Bajpai, Laura Kerosuo, Georgios Tseropoulos, Kirstie A Cummings, Xiaoyan Wang, Pedro Lei, Biao Liu, Song Liu, Gabriela Popescu, Marianne E Bronner, Stelios T Andreadis
During development, neural crest cells are induced by signaling events at the neural plate border of all vertebrate embryos. Initially arising within the central nervous system, neural crest cells subsequently undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to migrate into the periphery, where they differentiate into diverse cell types. Here we provide evidence that postnatal human epidermal keratinocytes, in response to FGF2 and IGF1 signals, can be reprogrammed toward a neural crest fate. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses show that keratinocyte-derived neural crest cells are similar to those derived from human embryonic stem cells...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142204/emerging-drugs-targeting-epithelial-cancer-stem-like-cells-a-concise-review
#17
Mehreen Ahmed, Kritika Chaudhari, Roya Babaei-Jadidi, Lodewijk V Dekker, Abdolrahman Shams Nateri
Increasing evidence suggests that cancer cell populations contain a small proportion of cells that display stem-like cell properties and which may be responsible for overall tumor maintenance. These cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) appear to have unique tumor-initiating ability and innate survival mechanisms that allow them to resist cancer therapies, consequently promoting relapses. Selective targeting of CSCs may provide therapeutic benefit and several recent reports have indicated this may be possible. In this article, we review drugs targeting CSCs, in selected epithelial cell-derived cancers...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102558/concise-reviews-regeneration-in-mammalian-cochlea-hair-cells-help-from-supporting-cells-transdifferentiation
#18
Bénédicte Franco, Brigitte Malgrange
It is commonly assumed that mammalian cochlear cells do not regenerate. Therefore, if hair cells are lost following an injury, no recovery could occur. However, during the first postnatal week, mice harbor some progenitor cells that retain the ability to give rise to new hair cells. These progenitor cells are in fact supporting cells. Upon hair cells loss, those cells are able to generate new hair cells both by direct transdifferentiation or following cell cycle re-entry and differentiation. However, this property of supporting cells is progressively lost after birth...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100040/concise-review-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-research-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Takashi Hamazaki, Nihal El Rouby, Natalie C Fredette, Katherine E Santostefano, Naohiro Terada
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies are revealing how human genetic variations associate with differential health risks, disease susceptibilities, and drug responses. Such information is now expected to help evaluate individual health risks, design personalized health plans and treat patients with precision. It is still challenging, however, to understand how such genetic variations cause the phenotypic alterations in pathobiologies and treatment response. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies are emerging as a promising strategy to fill the knowledge gaps between genetic association studies and underlying molecular mechanisms...
January 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100039/low-dose-radiation-causes-skin-cancer-in-mice-and-has-a-differential-effect-on-distinct-epidermal-stem-cells
#20
Tatiana Revenco, Gaelle Lapouge, Virginie Moers, Sylvain Brohée, Panagiota A Sotiropoulou
The carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation has been evaluated based on limited populations accidently exposed to high dose radiation. In contrast, insufficient data are available on the effect of low dose radiation (LDR), such as radiation deriving from medical investigations and interventions, as well as occupational exposure that concern a large fraction of western populations. Using mouse skin epidermis as a model, we showed that LDR results in DNA damage in sebaceous gland (SG) and bulge epidermal stem cells (SCs)...
January 18, 2017: Stem Cells
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