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Stem Cells

Yanling Liao, Larisa Ivanova, Hongwen Zhu, Trevor Plumer, Carl Hamby, Brinda Mehta, Annie Gevertz, Angela M Christiano, John A McGrath, Mitchell S Cairo
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe skin fragility disorder caused by mutations in the Col7a1 gene. Patients with RDEB suffer from recurrent erosions in skin and mucous membranes and have a high risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCCs). TGFβ signaling has been associated with fibrosis and malignancy in RDEB. In this study, the activation of TGFβ signaling was demonstrated in col7a1-/- mice as early as a week after birth starting in the interdigital folds of the paws, accompanied by increased deposition of collagen fibrils and elevated dermal expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13...
September 24, 2018: Stem Cells
Julie R Beegle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Stem Cells
Louise Delsing, Pierre Dönnes, José Sánchez, Maryam Clausen, Dimitrios Voulgaris, Anna Falk, Anna Herland, Gabriella Brolén, Henrik Zetterberg, Ryan Hicks, Jane Synnergren
Cell-based models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are important for increasing the knowledge of BBB formation, degradation and brain exposure of drug substances. Human models are preferred over animal models because of inter-species differences in BBB structure and function. However, access to human primary BBB tissue is limited and has shown degeneration of BBB functions in vitro. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used to generate relevant cell types to model the BBB with human tissue. We generated a human iPSC-derived model of the BBB that includes endothelial cells in co-culture with pericytes, astrocytes and neurons...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Ghazaleh Rafatian, Darryl R Davis
Despite progress in cardiovascular medicine, the incidence of heart failure is rising and represents a growing challenge. To address this, ex vivo proliferated heart-derived cell products have emerged as a promising investigational cell-treatment option. Despite being originally proposed as a straightforward myocyte replacement strategy, emerging evidence has shown that cell-mediated gains in cardiac function are leveraged on paracrine stimulation of endogenous repair and tissue salvage. In this concise review, we focus on the paracrine repertoire of heart-derived cells and outline strategies used to boost cell potency by targeting cytokines, metabolic preconditioning and supportive biomaterials...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Debolina Ganguly, Michelle Sims, Chun Cai, Meiyun Fan, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and malignant brain tumor that is refractory to existing therapeutic regimens, which reflects the presence of stem-like cells, termed Glioma-Initiating Cells (GICs). The complex interactions between different signaling pathways and epigenetic regulation of key genes may be critical in the maintaining GICs in their stem-like state. Although several signaling pathways have been identified as being dysregulated in GBM, the prognosis of GBM patients remains miserable despite improvements in targeted therapies...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
T Squillaro, M Finicelli, G Peluso, U Galderisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
J J Bevelacqua, S M J Mortazavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Jahangir Abdi, Iran Rashedi, Armand Keating
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) deploy Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to respond to exogenous and endogenous signals. Activation of TLR pathways in MSCs alters their inflammatory profile and immunomodulatory effects on cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs), whose expression is modulated by TLR activation, can regulate inflammatory responses by targeting components of the TLR signaling pathways either in MSCs or in the cells with which they interact. Here, we review how the miRNA-TLR pathway axis can regulate the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs, including their interactions with monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, and discuss the therapeutic implications for MSC-based therapies...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Daniel T Malleske, Don Hayes, Scott W Lallier, Cynthia L Hill, Susan D Reynolds
The wingless/integrase-1 (WNT)/β-catenin signaling pathway is active in several chronic lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although this WNT/β-catenin pathway activity is associated with an increase in mucus cell frequency and a decrease in ciliated cell frequency, a cause and consequence relationship between signaling and cell frequency has not been established. We previously demonstrated that genetic stabilization of β-catenin inhibited differentiation of mouse bronchiolar tissue stem cells (TSC)...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Wen-Dong Li, Dong-Ming Zhou, Li-Li Sun, Lu Xiao, Zhao Liu, Min Zhou, Wen-Bin Wang, Xiao-Qiang Li
Efficient recruitment and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical during a thrombus event. However, the details of EPC recruitment and the regulation of angiogenesis have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the long noncoding (lnc)RNA WTAPP1 in regulation of the migration and angiogenesis of EPCs. EPCs were isolated from human peripheral blood and characterized by flow cytometry, after which lentivirus-mediated lncRNA WTAPP1 overexpression and knockdown were performed...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Sanja Bojic, Dean Hallam, Nuno Alcada, Ali Ghareeb, Rachel Queen, Sagoo Pervinder, Harley Buck, Aya Amitai Lange, Gustavo Figueiredo, Paul Rooney, Miodrag Stojkovic, Alex Shortt, Francisco C Figueiredo, Majlinda Lako
One of the main challenges in limbal stem cell (LSC) biology and transplantation is the lack of definitive cell surface markers which can be used to identify and enrich viable LSCs. In this study, expression of 361 cell surface proteins was assessed in ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial cells. One marker, CD200 was selected for further characterisation based on expression in a small subset of limbal epithelial cells (2.25 ± 0.69%) and reduced expression through consecutive passaging and calcium induced differentiation...
August 29, 2018: Stem Cells
Sehar Afreen, Julia Miriam Weiss, Brigitte Strahm, Miriam Erlacher
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is routinely performed for the treatment of various malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. Successful transplantation depends on the number and fitness of donor stem and progenitor cells, whose quality is substantially influenced by the sampling procedure, sample handling and cryopreservation. BCL-2 proteins are central to the survival and maintenance of stem and progenitor cells under both, physiological and stress conditions. Transplantation-associated apoptosis of donor cells is mediated by the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins BIM and BMF and prevented by overexpression of their antagonists, BCL-2 and BCL-XL...
August 29, 2018: Stem Cells
L C Mackey, L A Annab, J Yang, B Rao, G E Kissling, S H Schurman, D Dixon, T K Archer
Epigenetic enzymes regulate higher-order chromatin architecture and cell-type specific gene expression. The ATPase BRG1 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are epigenetic enzymes that regulate chromatin accessibility during steady and transitional cell states. Experiments in mice show that the loss of BRG1 inhibits cellular reprogramming, while studies using human cells demonstrate that the overexpression of BRG1 enhances reprogramming. We hypothesized that the variation of SWI/SNF subunit expression in the human population would contribute to variability in the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) reprogramming...
August 28, 2018: Stem Cells
Majlinda Lako
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Stem Cells
Huan Li, Na Zhao, Yihui Li, Haiyan Xing, Shuying Chen, Yingxi Xu, Kejing Tang, Zheng Tian, Min Wang, Qing Rao, Jianxiang Wang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is initiated and maintained by a unique, small subset of leukemia cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Self-renewal, quiescence and chemotherapy resistance are key stemness properties of LSCs that are essential poor clinical responses to conventional therapies. Identifying LSC surface markers and targeting LSCs are important for the development of potential therapies. In this study, application of chemotherapy treatment in AML-ETO9a (AE9a) leukemia mice led to the enrichment of a chemotherapy-resistant cell population identified as Lin- c-Kit+ c-MPL+ ...
August 14, 2018: Stem Cells
Val Yianni, Paul T Sharpe
Pericytes have been shown to act as precursors of resident adult stem cells in stromal tissues in vivo. When expanded in vitro these cells are capable of giving rise to multiple mesenchymal cell types, irrespective of their tissue of origin. This phenomenon of multi-lineage differentiation is only observed in culture, whereas in vivo, stromal stem cell differentiation is restricted to tissue-specific cell types. An important unanswered question is how a single, widely distributed cell type (a pericyte), gives rise to stem cells with tissue-specific functions and attributes...
August 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Hannah C Leeson, Maria A Kasherman, Tailoi Chan-Ling, Michael D Lovelace, Jeremy C Brownlie, Kelly M Toppinen, Ben J Gu, Michael W Weible
Identifying the signaling mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis is essential to understanding how the brain may respond to neuro-inflammatory events. P2X7 receptors can regulate pro-inflammatory responses, and in addition to their role as cation channels they can trigger cell death and mediate phagocytosis. How P2X7 receptors may regulate adult neurogenesis is currently unclear. Here, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine hippocampal subgranular (SGZ) and cerebral subventricular (SVZ) zones were utilized to characterize the roles of P2X7 in adult neurogenesis, and assess the effects of high extracellular ATP, characteristic of inflammation, on NPCs...
August 1, 2018: Stem Cells
Kristina Probst, Jacek Stermann, Inga von Bomhard, Julia Etich, Lena Pitzler, Anja Niehoff, Björn Bluhm, Haifeng C Xu, Philipp A Lang, Markus Chmielewski, Hinrich Abken, Birgit Blissenbach, Alzbeta Machova, Nikoletta Papadopoulou, Bent Brachvogel
The trabecular extracellular matrix (ECM) forms a three-dimensional scaffold to stabilize the bone marrow, provide substrates for cell-matrix interactions and retain, present or release signals to modulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development. However, the impact of trabecular ECM components on hematopoiesis has been poorly studied. Using collagen IX alpha1 - deficient (Col9a1[-/-] ) mice, we revealed that a lack of collagen IX alpha1 results in a disorganized trabecular network enriched in fibronectin, and in a reduction in myeloid cells, which was accompanied by a decrease in CSF1R expression on monocytes from the bone marrow...
July 31, 2018: Stem Cells
Desiree Perlee, Lonneke A van Vught, Brendon P Scicluna, Anja Maag, René Lutter, Elles M Kemper, Cornelis van 't Veer, Marie A Punchard, Jesús González, Marie Paule Richard, Wilfried Dalemans, Eleuterio Lombardo, Alex F de Vos, Tom van der Poll
In experimental models, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate various immune responses implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into healthy subjects represents a model with relevance for the host response to sepsis. To explore the use of MSCs in sepsis, we determined their effect on the response to intravenous LPS in a randomized study in 32 healthy subjects with four treatment arms: placebo or allogeneic adipose MSCs (ASCs) intravenously at either 0...
July 31, 2018: Stem Cells
Jong-Hwan Kim, Mirang Kim, Xi-Biao He, Noviana Wulansari, Byoung-Ha Yoon, Dong-Hyuck Bae, Nanhyung Huh, Yong Sung Kim, Sang-Hun Lee, Seon-Young Kim
Previous studies have reported that vitamin C (VC) promotes neural stem/precursor cell (NSC) differentiation toward dopamine (DA) neurons via DNA hydroxymethylation-induced transcriptional activation of DA neuron-specific genes. To further understand the VC effects on NSC differentiation, we profiled the transcriptome and DNA methylome/hydroxymethylome using high-throughput sequencing. Interestingly, RNA sequencing analyses have shown that, in addition to DA neuronal genes, astrocytic genes Gfap, Slc1a3, and S100a16 were also upregulated in NSC cultures differentiated with VC treatment...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
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