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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328168/intrastriatal-transplantation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-restores-the-impaired-subventricular-zone-in-parkinsonian-mice
#1
Fuxing Zuo, Feng Xiong, Xia Wang, Xueyuan Li, Renzhi Wang, Wei Ge, Xinjie Bao
Cell replacement therapy using neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation has recently emerged as a promising method of Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To gain new insights into the mechanisms of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesioning and therapeutic efficacy of human NSCs (hNSCs) transplantation, the striatum (ST) of intrastriatal 6-OHDA-injected parkinsonian mice were unilaterally engrafted with undifferentiated hNSCs. A high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to characterize the proteome profiles of PD-related brain regions such as the SN, ST, olfactory bulb (OB), and subventricular zone (SVZ) in these mice...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316123/the-msc-adhesion-cascade-insights-into-homing-and-transendothelial-migration
#2
Franziska Nitzsche, Claudia Müller, Barbara Lukomska, Jukka Jolkkonen, Alexander Deten, Johannes Boltze
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for adult cell therapies in regenerative medicine. To fully exert their potential, efficient homing and migration towards lesion sites plays an important role. Local transplantation deposits MSC in spatial proximity to the lesion, but often requires invasive procedures. Systemic administration routes are favored, but require the targeted extravasation of the circulating MSC at the site of injury. Transplanted MSC can indeed leave the blood flow and transmigrate through the endothelial barrier, and reach the lesion site...
March 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299842/electroacupuncture-promotes-cns-dependent-release-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Tatiana E Salazar, Matthew R Richardson, Eleni Beli, Matthew S Ripsch, John George, Youngsook Kim, Yaqian Duan, Leni Moldovan, Yuanqing Yan, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Jared A Smith, Susan McGorray, Alicia L Bertone, Dmitri O Traktuev, Keith L March, Luis M Colon-Perez, Keith Avin, Emily Sims, Julie A Mund, Jamie Case, Shaolin Deng, Min Su Kim, Bruce McDavitt, Michael E Boulton, Jeffrey Thinschmidt, Sergio Li Calzi, Stephanie D Fitz, Robyn K Fuchs, Stuart J Warden, Todd McKinley, Anantha Shekhar, Marcelo Febo, Phillip L Johnson, Lung Ji Chang, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin, Song Lai, Jinfeng Ma, Xinzhong Dong, Fletcher A White, Huisheng Xie, Mervin C Yoder, Maria B Grant
Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295901/high-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-identifies-a-subset-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-vascular-regenerative-potential
#4
Stephen E Sherman, Miljan Kuljanin, Tyler T Cooper, David M Putman, Gilles A Lajoie, David A Hess
During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSC, cell progeny were purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity by fluorescence activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and pro-vascular regenerative functions...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295880/mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulate-differentiation-of-myeloid-progenitor-cells-during-inflammation
#5
Afsaneh Amouzegar, Sharad K Mittal, Anuradha Sahu, Srikant K Sahu, Sunil K Chauhan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess distinct immunomodulatory properties and have tremendous potential for use in therapeutic applications in various inflammatory diseases. MSCs have been shown to regulate pathogenic functions of mature myeloid inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils. Intriguingly, the capacity of MSCs to modulate differentiation of myeloid progenitors to mature inflammatory cells remains unknown to date. Here, we report the novel finding that MSCs inhibit the expression of differentiation markers on myeloid progenitors under inflammatory conditions...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294454/concise-review-msc-derived-exosomes-for-cell-free-therapy
#6
Donald G Phinney, Mark F Pittenger
Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is undergoing extensive evaluation as a cellular therapy in human clinical trials. Because MSCs are easily isolated and amenable to culture expansion in vitro there is a natural desire to test MSCs in many diverse clinical indications. This is exemplified by the rapidly expanding literature base that includes many in vivo animal models. More recently, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes and microvesicles (MV), are being examined for their role in MSC-based cellular therapy...
March 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276606/smarca5-snf2h-is-required-for-proliferation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-differentiating-into-erythroid-and-myeloid-lineages
#7
Juraj Kokavec, Tomas Zikmund, Filipp Savvulidi, Vojtech Kulvait, Winfried Edelmann, Arthur I Skoultchi, Tomas Stopka
The Imitation Switch (ISWI) nuclear ATPase Smarca5 (Snf2h) is one of the most conserved chromatin remodeling factors. It exists in a variety of oligosubunit complexes that move DNA with respect to the histone octamer to generate regularly spaced nucleosomal arrays. Smarca5 interacts with different accessory proteins and represents a molecular motor for DNA replication, repair and transcription. We deleted Smarca5 at the onset of definitive hematopoiesis (Vav1-iCre) and observed that animals die during late fetal development due to anemia...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276603/ucp2-regulates-embryonic-neurogenesis-via-ros-mediated-yap-alternation-in-the-developing-neocortex
#8
Fen Ji, Tianjin Shen, Wenzheng Zou, Jianwei Jiao
Mitochondrial metabolism is a fundamental process in tissue development. How this process play functions in embryonic neurogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) regulates the embryonic neurogenesis by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect the proliferation of progenitors. In the embryonic brains of UCP2 knockdown or condition knockout mice, the proliferation of progenitors is significantly increased, while the differentiation of progenitors is reduced...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276602/multifactorial-experimental-design-to-optimize-the-anti-inflammatory-and-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids
#9
Kaitlin C Murphy, Jacklyn Whitehead, Patrick C Falahee, Dejie Zhou, Scott I Simon, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cell therapies promote wound healing by manipulating the local environment to enhance the function of host cells. Aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into three-dimensional spheroids increases cell survival and augments their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic potential, yet there is no consensus on the preferred conditions for maximizing spheroid function in this application. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for forming MSC spheroids that simultaneously enhance their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic nature...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276156/retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-1-protein-rig1-like-receptor-pathway-is-required-for-efficient-nuclear-reprogramming
#10
Nazish Sayed, Frank Ospino, Farhan Himmati, Jieun Lee, Palas Chanda, Edward S Mocarski, John P Cooke
We have revealed a critical role for innate immune signaling in nuclear reprogramming to pluripotency, and in the nuclear reprogramming required for somatic cell transdifferentiation. Activation of innate immune signaling causes global changes in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to promote epigenetic plasticity. In our previous papers, we focused on the role of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in this signaling pathway. Here we define the role of another innate immunity pathway known to participate in the response to viral RNA, the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 receptor (RIG-1)-like receptor (RLR) pathway...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263009/multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-enhance-recovery-after-stroke-by-modulating-the-immune-response-from-the-spleen
#11
Bing Yang, Jason A Hamilton, Krystal S Valenzuela, Annelies Bogaerts, XiaoPei Xi, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Robert W Mays, Sean I Savitz
Stem cell therapy modulates not only the local microenvironment of the brain but also the systemic immune responses. We explored the impact of human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) modulating splenic activation and peripheral immune responses after ischemic stroke. Hundred twenty-six Long-Evans adult male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Twenty-four hours later, they received IV MAPC or saline treatment. At 3 days after infusion, RNA was isolated from the injured cortex and spleen for microarray analysis...
March 6, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248004/highly-efficient-differentiation-of-endothelial-cells-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-requires-the-mapk-and-the-pi3k-pathways
#12
Aja Harding, Elizabeth Cortez-Toledo, Nataly L Magner, Julie R Beegle, Dane P Coleal-Bergum, Dake Hao, Aijun Wang, Jan A Nolta, Ping Zhou
Pluripotent stem cells are a promising source of endothelial cells (ECs) for the treatment of vascular diseases. We have developed a robust protocol to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into ECs with high purities (94%-97% CD31(+) and 78%-83% VE-cadherin(+) ) in 8 days without cell sorting. Passaging of these cells yielded a nearly pure population of ECs (99% of CD31(+) and 96.8% VE-cadherin(+) ). These ECs also expressed other endothelial markers vWF, Tie2, NOS3, and exhibited functions of ECs such as uptake of Dil-acetylated low-density lipoprotein and formation of tubes in vitro or vessels in vivo on matrigel...
March 1, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233425/prostaglandin-e2-indicates-therapeutic-efficacy-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Daniel J Kota, Karthik S Prabhakara, Naama Toledano-Furman, Deepa Bhattarai, Qingzheng Chen, Bryan DiCarlo, Philippa Smith, Fabio Triolo, Pamela L Wenzel, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is soon predicted to become the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide. After the primary injury, a complex set of secondary injuries develops hours and days later with prolonged neuroinflammation playing a key role. TBI and other inflammatory conditions are currently being treated in pre-clinical and clinical trials by a number of cellular therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of great interest due to their widespread usage, safety, and relative ease to isolate and culture...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233392/mending-a-broken-heart-the-evolution-of-biological-therapeutics
#14
Caressa Chen, Vittavat Termglinchan, Ioannis Karakikes
Heart failure (HF), a common sequela of cardiovascular diseases, remains a staggering clinical problem, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in pharmacological, interventional and operative management have improved patient care, but these interventions are insufficient to halt the progression of HF, particularly the end-stage irreversible loss of functional cardiomyocytes. Innovative therapies that could prevent HF progression and improve the function of the failing heart are urgently needed...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233380/human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-like-cells-pda-002-enhance-angiogenesis-via-t-cell-dependent-reprogramming-of-macrophage-differentiation
#15
Shuyang He, Joseph Gleason, Ewa Fik, Andrea DiFiglia, Mini Bharathan, Andrew Morschauser, Ivana Djuretic, Yan Xu, Michael Krakovsky, Vladimir Jankovic, Charito Buensuceso, James Edinger, Uri Herzberg, Wolfgang Hofgartner, Robert Hariri
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is a leading cause of limb loss and mortality worldwide with limited treatment options. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy has demonstrated positive effects on angiogenesis in preclinical models and promising therapeutic efficacy signals in early stage clinical studies; however, the mechanisms underlying MSC-mediated angiogenesis remain largely undefined. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of PDA-002, human placenta-derived MSC-like cells, in inducing angiogenesis using mice hind-limb ischemia (HLI) model...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233378/the-number-of-point-mutations-in-ips-cells-and-ntes-cells-depends-on-the-method-and-somatic-cell-type-employed-for-their-generation
#16
Ryoko Araki, Eiji Mizutani, Yuko Hoki, Misato Sunayama, Sayaka Wakayama, Hiroaki Nagatomo, Yasuji Kasama, Miki Nakamura, Teruhiko Wakayama, Masumi Abe
Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine but point mutations have been identified in these cells and have raised serious concerns about their safe use. We generated nuclear-transfer ES cells (ntESCs) from both MEFs and tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) and by whole genome sequencing found fewer mutations compared with iPSCs generated by retroviral gene transduction. Furthermore, TTF-derived ntESCs showed only a very small number of point mutations, approximately 80% less than the number observed in iPSCs generated using retrovirus...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233376/transcriptional-networks-in-single-perivascular-cells-sorted-from-human-adipose-tissue-reveal-a-hierarchy-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
W Reef Hardy, Nicanor I Moldovan, Leni Moldovan, Kenneth J Livak, Datta, Chirayu Goswami, Mirko Corselli, Dmitry O Traktuev, Iain R Murray, Bruno Péault, Keith March
Adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem-like cells, located in the perivascular niche. Based on their surface markers, these have been assigned to two main categories: CD34+CD31-CD45-CD146- cells (adventitial stromal/stem cells, ASCs), and CD146+CD31-CD34-CD45- cells (pericytes, PCs). These populations display heterogeneity of unknown significance. We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a functional marker of primitivity, could help to better define ASC and PC subclasses...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233396/p107-determines-a-metabolic-checkpoint-required-for-adipocyte-lineage-fates
#18
Deanna P Porras, Maryam Abbaszadeh, Debasmita Bhattacharya, Ninoschka C D'Souza, Nareh R Edjiu, Christopher G R Perry, Anthony Scimè
We show that the transcriptional corepressor p107 orchestrates a metabolic checkpoint that determines adipocyte lineage fates for non-committed progenitors. p107 accomplishes this when stem cell commitment would normally occur in growth arrested cells. p107-deficient embryonic progenitors are characterized by a metabolic state resembling aerobic glycolysis that is necessary for their pro-thermogenic fate. Indeed, during growth arrest they have a reduced capacity for NADH partitioning between the cytoplasm and mitochondria...
February 23, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#19
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211118/transcriptional-and-cell-cycle-alterations-mark-aging-of-primary-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#20
Xiaoyin Shan, Cleresa Roberts, Eun Ji Kim, Ariana Brenner, Gregory Grant, Ivona Percec
Adult stem cells play a critical role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and prevention of aging. While the regenerative potential of stem cells with low cellular turnover, such as adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), is increasingly recognized, the study of chronological aging in ASCs is technically difficult, and remains poorly understood. Here, we employ our model of chronological aging in primary human ASCs to examine genome-wide transcriptional networks. We demonstrate first that the transcriptome of aging ASCs is distinctly more stable than that of age-matched fibroblasts, and further, that age-dependent modifications in cell cycle progression and translation initiation specifically characterize aging ASCs in conjunction with increased nascent protein synthesis and a distinctly shortened G1 phase...
February 17, 2017: Stem Cells
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