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Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913973/bone-marrow-stem-cells-do-not-contribute-to-endometrial-cell-lineages-in-chimeric-mouse-models
#1
Yih Rue Ong, Fiona L Cousins, Xiaoqing Yang, Ahmed Aedh A Al Mushafi, David T Breault, Caroline E Gargett, James A Deane
Studies from five independent laboratories conclude that bone marrow stem cells transdifferentiate into endometrial stroma, epithelium and endothelium. We investigated the nature of bone marrow-derived cells in the mouse endometrium by reconstituting irradiated wild type recipients with bone marrow containing transgenic mTert-GFP or chicken β-actin-GFP reporters. mTert-GFP is a telomerase marker identifying hematopoietic stem cells and subpopulations of epithelial, endothelial and immune cells in the endometrium...
September 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913923/an-ipsc-patient-specific-model-of-cfh-y402h-polymorphism-displays-characteristic-features-of-amd-and-indicates-a-beneficial-role-for-uv-light-exposure
#2
Dean Hallam, Joseph Collin, Sanja Bojic, Valeria Chichagova, Adriana Buskin, Yaobo Xu, Lucia Lafage, Elsje G Otten, George Anyfantis, Carla Mellough, Stefan Przyborski, Sameer Alharthi, Viktor Korolchuk, Andrew Lotery, Gabriele Saretzki, Martin McKibbin, Lyle Armstrong, David Steel, David Kavanagh, Majlinda Lako
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness, accounting for 8.7% of all blindness globally. Vision loss is caused ultimately by apoptosis of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and overlying photoreceptors. Treatments are evolving for the wet form of the disease, however these do not exist for the dry form. Complement factor H (CFH) polymorphism in exon 9 (Y402H) has shown a strong association with susceptibility to AMD resulting in complement activation, recruitment of phagocytes, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage and visual decline...
September 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905451/gene-edited-human-kidney-organoids-reveal-mechanisms-of-disease-in-podocyte-development
#3
Yong Kyun Kim, Ido Refaeli, Craig R Brooks, Peifeng Jing, Ramila E Gulieva, Michael R Hughes, Nelly M Cruz, Yannan Liu, Angela J Churchill, Yuliang Wang, Hongxia Fu, Jeffrey W Pippin, Lih Y Lin, Stuart J Shankland, A Wayne Vogl, Kelly M McNagny, Benjamin S Freedman
A critical event during kidney organogenesis is the differentiation of podocytes, specialized epithelial cells that filter blood plasma to form urine. Podocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-podocytes) have recently been generated in nephron-like kidney organoids, but the developmental stage of these cells and their capacity to reveal disease mechanisms remains unclear. Here we show that hPSC-podocytes phenocopy mammalian podocytes at the capillary loop stage (CLS), recapitulating key features of ultrastructure, gene expression, and mutant phenotype...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905448/mzf1-and-gabp-cooperate-with-sox2-in-regulating-the-expression-of-yap1-in-cancer-cells
#4
Narendra Kumar Verma, Abhilash Gadi, Giulia Maurizi, Upal Basu Roy, Alka Mansukhani, Claudio Basilico
The transcription factor YAP1 is a major effector of the tumor suppressive Hippo signaling pathway and is also necessary to maintain pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Elevated levels of YAP1 expression antagonize the tumor suppressive effects of the Hippo pathway, that normally represses YAP1 function. High YAP1 expression is observed in several types of human cancers and is particularly prominent in cancer stem cells. The stem cell transcription factor Sox2, which marks and maintains cancer stem cells in osteosarcomas, promotes YAP1 expression by binding to an intronic enhancer element and YAP1 expression is also crucial for the maintainance of osteosarcoma stem cells...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895255/ubr2-enriched-in-p53-mbmmsc-exosome-promoted-gastric-cancer-progression-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#5
Jiahui Mao, Zhaofeng Liang, Bin Zhang, Huan Yang, Xia Li, Hailong Fu, Xu Zhang, Yongmin Yan, Wenrong Xu, Hui Qian
The deficiency or mutation of p53 has been known to be linked to several types of cancers. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is an important component in tumor microenvironment and exosomes secreted by MSCs can transfer bioactive molecules including proteins and nucleic acid to another cells in tumor microenvironment to influence the progress of tumor. However, whether the state of p53 in MSCs can impact the bioactive molecule secretion of exosomes to promote cancer progression and the regulatory mechanism remain elusive...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895245/genetic-evolution-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-from-primary-to-recurrent-tumor
#6
Francesca Orzan, Francesca De Bacco, Giovanni Crisafulli, Serena Pellegatta, Benedetta Mussolin, Giulia Siravegna, Antonio D'Ambrosio, Paolo M Comoglio, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Carla Boccaccio
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal tumor that displays remarkable genetic heterogeneity. It is also known that GBM contains a cell hierarchy driven by stem-like cells (GSCs), responsible for tumor generation, therapeutic resistance and relapse. An important and still open issue is whether phylogenetically related GSCs can be found in matched primary and recurrent GBMs, and reflect tumor genetic evolution under therapeutic pressure. To address this, we analyzed the mutational profile of GSCs isolated from either human primary GBMs (primary GSCs) or their matched tumors recurring after surgery and chemo-radiotherapy (recurrent GSCs)...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895234/runx2-induction-during-differentiation-of-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-osteoblasts-is-regulated-by-jarid1b-histone-demethylase
#7
Francisco Bustos, Hugo Sepúlveda, Catalina P Prieto, Margarita Carrasco, Lorena Díaz, José Palma, José Lattus, Martín Montecino, Verónica Palma
Novel bone regeneration approaches aim to obtain immature osteoblasts from somatic stem cells. Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) are an ideal source for cell therapy. Hence, the study of mechanisms involved in WJ-MSC osteoblastic differentiation is crucial to exploit their developmental capacity. Here, we have assessed epigenetic control of the RUNX2 osteogenic master regulator gene in WJ-MSC. We present evidence indicating that modulation of RUNX2 expression through preventing JARID1B histone demethylase activity is relevant to enhance WJ-MSC osteoblastic potential...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869691/bone-morphogenetic-protein-promotes-lewis-x-stage-specific-embryonic-antigen-1-expression-thereby-interfering-with-neural-precursor-and-stem-cell-proliferation
#8
Inma Luque-Molina, Priti Khatri, Udo Schmidt-Edelkraut, Ina K Simeonova, Gabriele Hölzl-Wenig, Claudi Mandl, Francesca Ciccolini
The glycoprotein Prominin-1 and the carbohydrate Lewis X stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (LeX-SSEA1) both have been extensively used as cell surface markers to purify neural stem cells (NSCs). While Prominin-1 labels a specialized membrane region in NSCs and ependymal cells, the specificity of LeX-SSEA1 expression and its biological significance are still unknown. To address these issues, we have here monitored the expression of the carbohydrate in neonatal and adult NSCs and in their progeny. Our results show that the percentage of immunopositive cells and the levels of LeX-SSEA1 immunoreactivity both increase with postnatal age across all stages of the neural lineage...
September 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869686/concise-reviews-kidney-generation-with-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Ryuji Morizane, Tomoya Miyoshi, Joseph V Bonventre
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a world-wide healthcare problem, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality and often leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) where patients require kidney replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Loss of functional nephrons contributes to the progression of CKD, which can be attenuated but not reversed due to inability to generate new nephrons in human adult kidneys. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), by virtue of their unlimited self-renewal and ability to differentiate into cells of all three embryonic germ layers, are attractive sources for kidney regenerative therapies...
September 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869683/runx1c-regulates-hematopoietic-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-possibly-in-cooperation-with-proinflammatory-signaling
#10
Oscar Navarro-Montero, Veronica Ayllon, Mar Lamolda, Lourdes López-Onieva, Rosa Montes, Clara Bueno, Elizabeth Ng, Xiomara Guerrero-Carreno, Tamara Romero, Damià Romero-Moya, Ed Stanley, Andrew Elefanty, Verónica Ramos-Mejia, Pablo Menendez, Pedro J Real
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1) is a master hematopoietic transcription factor essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence. Runx1-deficient mice die during early embryogenesis due to the inability to establish definitive hematopoiesis. Here, we have used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as model to study the role of RUNX1 in human embryonic hematopoiesis. Although the three RUNX1 isoforms a, b, and c were induced in CD45+ hematopoietic cells, RUNX1c was the only isoform induced in hematoendothelial progenitors (HEPs)/hemogenic endothelium...
September 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856849/mechanisms-of-quiescent-hair-follicle-stem-cell-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Rui Yi
Maintaining a pool of adult stem cells is essential for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. In mammalian tissues, notably hair follicles, blood, and muscle, stem cells acquire quiescence and infrequently divide for self-renewal. Mechanistic understanding of stem cell quiescence is critical for applying these multipotent cells in regenerative medicine and interrogating their roles in human diseases such as cancer. Quiescent and dividing epithelial stem cells located in hair follicle are conspicuously organized in a spatiotemporally specific manner, allowing them to be studied at a considerable depth...
August 30, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856759/mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-a-new-treatment-for-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#12
REVIEW
Caroline Laroye, Sébastien Gibot, Loïc Reppel, Danièle Bensoussan
Sepsis and septic shock are the leading cause of admission and mortality in non-coronary intensive care units. Currently however no specific treatments are available for this syndrome. Due to the failure of conventional treatments, in recent years research is focussing on innovative therapeutic agents, including cell therapy. One particular type of cells, Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells (MSCs), has raised hopes for the treatment of sepsis. Indeed, their immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial activity and capacity of protection against organ failure confer MSCs with a major advantage to treat the immune and inflammatory dysfunctions associated with sepsis and septic shock...
August 30, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833970/single-cell-phenotyping-reveals-heterogeneity-among-haematopoietic-stem-cells-following-infection
#13
Adam L MacLean, Maia A Smith, Juliane Liepe, Aaron Sim, Reema Khorshed, Narges M Rashidi, Nico Scherf, Axel Krinner, Ingo Roeder, Cristina Lo Celso, Michael Ph Stumpf
The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche provides essential micro-environmental cues for the production and maintenance of HSCs within the bone marrow. During inflammation, haematopoietic dynamics are perturbed, but it is not known whether changes to the HSC-niche interaction occur as a result. We visualise HSCs directly in vivo, enabling detailed analysis of the 3D niche dynamics and migration patterns in murine bone marrow following Trichinella spiralis infection. Spatial statistical analysis of these HSC trajectories reveals two distinct modes of HSC behaviour: (i) a pattern of revisiting previously explored space, and (ii) a pattern of exploring new space...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833887/cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-regulates-adult-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-response-to-insulin
#14
Laura Chirivella, Martina Kirstein, Sacri R Ferrón, Ana Domingo-Muelas, Fabrice C Durupt, Carlos Acosta-Umanzor, Marifé Cano-Jaimez, Francisco Pérez-Sánchez, Mariano Barbacid, Sagrario Ortega, Deborah J Burks, Isabel Fariñas
Insulin is one of the standard components used to culture primary neurospheres. Although it stimulates growth of different types of cells, the effects of insulin on adult neural stem cells (NSCs) have not been well characterized. Here, we reveal that insulin stimulates proliferation, but not survival or self-renewal, of adult NSCs. This effect is mediated by insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and subsequent activation of the protein kinase B (or Akt), leading to increased activity of the G1-phase cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) and cell cycle progression...
August 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833807/the-wnt5a-receptor-ror2-is-a-predictive-cell-surface-marker-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-an-enhanced-capacity-for-chondrogenic-differentiation
#15
Sally C Dickinson, Catherine A Sutton, Kyla Brady, Anna Salerno, Theoni Katopodi, Rhys L Williams, Christopher C West, Denis Evseenko, Ling Wu, Suzanna Pang, Roberta Ferro de Godoy, Allen E Goodship, Bruno Péault, Ashley W Blom, Wael Kafienah, Anthony P Hollander
Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have enormous potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However until now their development for clinical use has been severely limited as they are a mixed population of cells with varying capacities for lineage differentiation and tissue formation. Here we identify ROR2 as a cell surface marker expressed by those MSCs with an enhanced capacity for cartilage formation. We generated clonal human MSC populations with varying capacities for chondrogenesis...
August 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#16
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are functional dichotomies that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this proinflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795454/the-transcription-factor-7-like-2-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator-1-alpha-axis-connects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-metabolic-shift-with-stem-cell-commitment-to-hepatic-differentiation
#17
Anaïs Wanet, Marino Caruso, Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Mehdi Najar, Antoine Fattaccioli, Catherine Demazy, Jonathan Evraerts, Hoda El-Kehdy, Guillaume Pourcher, Etienne Sokal, Thierry Arnould, Nicki Tiffin, Mustapha Najimi, Patricia Renard
Increasing evidence supports that modifications in the mitochondrial content, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, and cell metabolism influence the fate of stem cells. However, the regulators involved in the crosstalk between mitochondria and stem cell fate remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified a transcriptional regulatory axis, composed of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) (a downstream effector of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, repressed during differentiation) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) (the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, induced during differentiation), coupling the loss of pluripotency and early commitment to differentiation, to the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic shift toward OXPHOS...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792678/modeling-glaucoma-retinal-ganglion-cells-generated-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-of-patients-with-six6-risk-allele-show-developmental-abnormalities
#18
Pooja Teotia, Matthew J Van Hook, Christopher S Wichman, R Rand Allingham, Michael A Hauser, Iqbal Ahmad
Glaucoma represents a group of multifactorial diseases with a unifying pathology of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, causing irreversible vision loss. To test the hypothesis that RGCs are intrinsically vulnerable in glaucoma, we have developed an in vitro model using the SIX6 risk allele carrying glaucoma patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for generating functional RGCs. Here, we demonstrate that the efficiency of RGC generation by SIX6 risk allele iPSCs is significantly lower than iPSCs-derived from healthy, age- and sex-matched controls...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782268/reprogramming-antagonizes-the-oncogenicity-of-hoxa13-long-noncoding-rna-hottip-axis-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#19
Deng-Chyang Wu, Sophie S W Wang, Chung-Jung Liu, Kenly Wuputra, Kohsuke Kato, Yen-Liang Lee, Ying-Chu Lin, Ming-Ho Tsai, Chia-Chen Ku, Wen-Hsin Lin, Shin-Wei Wang, Shotaro Kishikawa, Michiya Noguchi, Chu-Chieh Wu, Yi-Ting Chen, Chee-Yin Chai, Chen-Lung Steve Lin, Kung-Kai Kuo, Ya-Han Yang, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Yukio Nakamura, Shigeo Saito, Kyosuke Nagata, Chang-Shen Lin, Kazunari K Yokoyama
Reprogramming of cancer cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a compelling idea for inhibiting oncogenesis, especially through modulation of homeobox proteins in this reprogramming process. We examined the role of various long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-homeobox protein HOXA13 axis on the switching of the oncogenic function of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), which is significantly lost in the gastric cancer cell derived iPS-like cells (iPSLCs). BMP7 promoter activation occurred through the corecruitment of HOXA13, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 lysine N-methyltransferase, WD repeat-containing protein 5, and lncRNA HoxA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) to commit the epigenetic changes to the trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 in cancer cells...
August 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762569/gabp%C3%AE-is-involved-in-the-survival-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Atsushi Ueda, Tadayuki Akagi, Takashi Yokota
Ets-related transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPα), which is encoded by Gabpa, is expressed in a variety of cell types and is involved in cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Here we generated Gabpa conditional knockout embryonic stem (ES) cells and characterized its cellular phenotypes. Disruption of Gabpa revealed that the proliferation of Gabpa-null ES cells was drastically repressed and cells started to die within 2 days. The repressed proliferation of Gabpa-null ES cells was recovered by artificially forced expression of GABPα...
August 1, 2017: Stem Cells
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