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Nuclear Medicine and Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692851/a-simple-device-to-convert-a-small-animal-pet-scanner-into-a-multi-sample-tissue-and-injection-syringe-counter
#1
Michael V Green, Jurgen Seidel, Peter L Choyke, Elaine M Jagoda
INTRODUCTION: We describe a simple fixture that can be added to the imaging bed of a small-animal PET scanner that allows for automated counting of multiple organ or tissue samples from mouse-sized animals and counting of injection syringes prior to administration of the radiotracer. The combination of imaging and counting capabilities in the same machine offers advantages in certain experimental settings. METHODS: A polyethylene block of plastic, sculpted to mate with the animal imaging bed of a small-animal PET scanner, is machined to receive twelve 5-ml containers, each capable of holding an entire organ from a mouse-sized animal...
June 3, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719807/evaluation-of-a-novel-radiotracer-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Alan A Wilson, Oleg Sadovski, José N Nobrega, Roger J Raymond, Francis R Bambico, Mina G Nashed, Armando Garcia, Peter M Bloomfield, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Junchao Tong
INTRODUCTION: Few, if any, radiotracers are available for the in vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system. ROS play a critical role in normal cell processes such as signaling and homeostasis but overproduction of ROS is implicated in several disorders. We describe here the radiosynthesis and initial ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]hydromethidine ([(11)C]HM) as a radiotracer to image ROS using positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: [(11)C]HM and its deuterated isotopologue [(11)C](4) were produced using [(11)C]methyl triflate in a one-pot, two-step reaction and purified by high performance liquid chromatography...
June 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683361/-211-at-labeled-substance-p-5-11-as-potential-radiopharmaceutical-for-glioma-treatment
#3
Monika Lyczko, Marek Pruszynski, Agnieszka Majkowska-Pilip, Krzysztof Lyczko, Bogdan Was, Sylwia Meczynska-Wielgosz, Marcin Kruszewski, Katarzyna Szkliniarz, Jerzy Jastrzebski, Anna Stolarz, Aleksander Bilewicz
INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present work were to label substance P (5-11) with (211)At using a rhodium(III) complex with a bifunctional ligand-2-(1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecan-3-yloxy)acetic acid ([16aneS4]-COOH) and to assess the in vitro stability and toxicity of the obtained radiobioconjugate. METHODS: Two approaches were evaluated to obtain (131)I/(211)At-Rh[16aneS4]-SP5-11 radiobioconjugates, based on 2-step and 1-step syntheses. In the first method (131)I/(211)At-Rh[16aneS4]-COOH complexes were obtained that required further coupling to a biomolecule...
May 25, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528264/baseline-and-longitudinal-variability-of-normal-tissue-uptake-values-of-18-f-fluorothymidine-pet-images
#4
Matthijs C F Cysouw, Gerbrand M Kramer, Virginie Frings, Adrianus J De Langen, Mariëlle J Wondergem, Laura M Kenny, Eric O Aboagye, Carsten Kobe, Jürgen Wolf, Otto S Hoekstra, Ronald Boellaard
PURPOSE: [(18)F]-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]-FLT) is a PET-tracer enabling in-vivo visualization and quantification of tumor cell proliferation. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, adequate knowledge of normal tissue uptake is indispensable. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate baseline tracer uptake of blood pool, lung, liver and bone marrow and their precision, and to assess the longitudinal effect of systemic treatment on biodistribution. METHODS: (18)F-FLT-PET(/CT) scans (dynamic or static) of 90 treatment-naïve oncological patients were retrospectively evaluated...
May 10, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528265/synthesis-radiolabeling-and-preclinical-evaluation-of-a-11-c-gmom-derivative-as-pet-radiotracer-for-the-ion-channel-of-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor
#5
Pieter J Klein, Robert C Schuit, Athanasios Metaxas, Johannes Am Christiaans, Esther Kooijman, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Bart Nm van Berckel, Albert D Windhorst
INTRODUCTION: Presently available PET ligands for the NMDAr ion channel generally suffer from fast metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop a metabolically more stable ligand for the NMDAr ion channel, taking [(11)C]GMOM ([(11)C]1) as the lead compound. METHODS: [(11)C]1, its fluoralkyl analogue [(18)F]PK209 ([(18)F]2) and the newly synthesized fluorovinyloxy analogue [(11)C]7b were evaluated ex vivo in male Wistar rats for metabolic stability. In addition, [(11)C]7b was subjected to a biodistribution study and its affinity (Ki) and lipophilicity (logD7...
May 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511073/preparation-and-evaluation-of-l-and-d-5-18-f-fluorotryptophan-as-pet-imaging-probes-for-indoleamine-and-tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenases
#6
Tang Tang, Herman S Gill, Annie Ogasawara, Jeff N Tinianow, Alexander N Vanderbilt, Simon-Peter Williams, Georgia Hatzivassiliou, Sharla White, Wendy Sandoval, Kevin DeMent, Mengling Wong, Jan Marik
Indoleamine and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (IDO1 and TDO2) are pyrrolases catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of the 2,3-double bond of L-tryptophan in kynurenine pathway. In the tumor microenvironment, their increased activity prevents normal immune function, i.e. tumor cell recognition and elimination by cytotoxic T-cells. Consequently, inhibition of the kynurenine pathway may enhance the activity of cancer immunotherapeutics by reversing immune dysfunction. We sought to investigate the properties of radiolabeled 5-[(18)F]fluorotryptophan with respect to its ability for measuring IDO1 and TDO2 activity by positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 5, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648984/whole-body-biodistribution-of-the-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-ligand-18-f-mk-9470-in-the-rat
#7
H G Buchholz, K Uebbing, S Maus, S Pektor, N Afahaene, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, I Miederer
The endocannabinoid system participates in many processes in the body, including memory, reward, pain, motor activity, food intake, energy metabolism, and gastrointestinal functions. [(18)F]MK-9470 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds with high affinity and selectivity to the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. In order to fully characterize ligand behavior, tracer uptake measured using in vivo microPET was compared with results from ex vivo tissue dissection. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three subgroups and scanned over time periods of 10min, 30min and 90min using PET...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636973/amide-to-triazole-switch-vs-in-vivo-nep-inhibition-approaches-to-promote-radiopeptide-targeting-of-grpr-positive-tumors
#8
Theodosia Maina, Aikaterini Kaloudi, Ibai E Valverde, Thomas L Mindt, Berthold A Nock
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled bombesin (BBN)-analogs have been proposed for diagnosis and therapy of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-expressing tumors, such as prostate, breast and lung cancer. Metabolic stability represents a crucial factor for the success of this approach by ensuring sufficient delivery of circulating radioligand to tumor sites. The amide-to-triazole switch on the backbone of DOTA-PEG4-[Nle(14)]BBN(7-14) (1) was reported to improve the in vitro stability of resulting (177)Lu-radioligands...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628775/developing-new-pet-tracers-to-image-the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-1a-ghs-r1a
#9
Kazunori Kawamura, Masayuki Fujinaga, Yoko Shimoda, Tomoteru Yamasaki, Yiding Zhang, Akiko Hatori, Lin Xie, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Katsushi Kumata, Takayuki Ohkubo, Yusuke Kurihara, Masanao Ogawa, Nobuki Nengaki, Ming-Rong Zhang
INTRODUCTION: `The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) is the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, and its endogenous ligand is ghrelin. GHS-R1a contributes to regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory and learning, food addiction, and neuroprotection. Several PET tracers for GHS-R1a have been developed, but none have been reported to be clinically applicable to GHS-R1a imaging. In this study, we developed three new PET tracers for GHS-R1a: (18)F-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-fluoroethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), (11)C-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-methoxyethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (2), and (11)C-labeled (S)-(4-(1H-indole-6-carbonyl)-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methanone (3)...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624669/neutron-activatable-radionuclide-cancer-therapy-using-graphene-oxide-nanoplatelets
#10
Junghyun Kim, Michael Jay
Neutron-activation is a promising method of generating radiotherapeutics with minimal handling of radioactive materials. Graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONs) were examined as a carrier for neutron-activatable holmium with the purpose of exploiting inherent characteristics for theranostic application. GONs were hypothesized to be an ideal candidate for this application owing to their desirable characteristics such as a rigid structure, high metal loading capacity, low density, heat resistance, and the ability to withstand harsh environments associated with the neutron-activation process...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602965/-67-ga-labeled-deferoxamine-derivatives-for-imaging-bacterial-infection-preparation-and-screening-of-functionalized-siderophore-complexes
#11
Joseph A Ioppolo, Deanna Caldwell, Omid Beiraghi, Lisset Llano, Megan Blacker, John F Valliant, Paul J Berti
INTRODUCTION: Deferoxamine (DFO) is a siderophore that bacteria use to scavenge iron and could serve as a targeting vector to image bacterial infection where current techniques have critical limitations. [(67)Ga]-DFO, which is a mimetic of the corresponding iron complex, is taken up by bacteria in culture, however in vivo it clears too rapidly to allow for imaging of infection. In response, we developed several new DFO derivatives to identify those that accumulate in bacteria, and at sites of infection, and that could potentially have improved pharmacokinetics...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599133/dose-on-demand-production-of-diverse-18-f-radiotracers-for-preclinical-applications-using-a-continuous-flow-microfluidic-system
#12
Lidia Matesic, Annukka Kallinen, Ivan Greguric, Giancarlo Pascali
INTRODUCTION: The production of (18)F-radiotracers using continuous flow microfluidics is under-utilized due to perceived equipment limitations. We describe the dose-on-demand principle, whereby the back-to-back production of multiple, diverse (18)F-radiotracers can be prepared on the same day, on the same microfluidic system using the same batch of [(18)F]fluoride, the same microreactor, the same HPLC column and SPE cartridge to obtain a useful production yield. METHODS: [(18)F]MEL050, [(18)F]Fallypride and [(18)F]PBR111 were radiolabeled with [(18)F]fluoride using the Advion NanoTek Microfluidic Synthesis System...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578290/-131-i-labeled-chitosan-hydrogels-for-radioembolization-a-preclinical-study-in-small-animals
#13
Hyosook Hwang, Kwang Il Kim, JeongIl Kwon, Byoung Soo Kim, Hwan-Seok Jeong, Su Jin Jang, Phil-Sun Oh, Ho Sung Park, Seok Tae Lim, Myung-Hee Sohn, Hwan-Jeong Jeong
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to examine potential of (131)I-labeled chitosan hydrogels (Chi) for treatment of liver cancer. METHODS: Orthotopic hepatoma was induced by McA-RH7777-fLuc cells (1×10(7)) that were injected into the left hepatic lobe of rats. Ten days later, tumor-bearing rats evidenced by bioluminescence received (125)I-labeled Chi with left hepatic artery access. Pharmacokinetics and excretion (n=8) and biodistribution (n=6/time point) were studied after injection...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575795/-11-c-erlotinib-pet-cannot-detect-acquired-erlotinib-resistance-in-nsclc-tumor-xenografts-in-mice
#14
Alexander Traxl, Taraneh Beikbaghban, Thomas Wanek, Kushtrim Kryeziu, Christine Pirker, Severin Mairinger, Johann Stanek, Thomas Filip, Michael Sauberer, Claudia Kuntner, Walter Berger, Oliver Langer
INTRODUCTION: [(11)C]Erlotinib PET has shown promise to distinguish non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors harboring the activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation delE746-A750 from tumors with wild-type EGFR. To assess the suitability of [(11)C]erlotinib PET to detect the emergence of acquired erlotinib resistance in initially erlotinib-responsive tumors, we performed in vitro binding and PET experiments in mice bearing tumor xenografts using a range of different cancer cells, which were erlotinib-sensitive or exhibited clinically relevant resistance mechanisms to erlotinib...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575794/-99m-tc-labeled-psma-inhibitor-biokinetics-and-radiation-dosimetry-in-healthy-subjects-and-imaging-of-prostate-cancer-tumors-in-patients
#15
Clara Santos-Cuevas, Jenny Davanzo, Guillermina Ferro-Flores, Francisco O García-Pérez, Blanca Ocampo-García, Eleazar Ignacio-Alvarez, Edgar Gómez-Argumosa, Martha Pedraza-López
The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in epithelial cells of the prostate and highly overexpressed in 95% of advanced prostate cancers. The aims of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA ((99m)Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor) in eight healthy subjects and evaluate its usefulness as a tumor-imaging agent in eight prostate cancer patients. METHODS: (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities >98%, determined by reversed-phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577428/vpac1-targeted-64-cu-tp3805-kit-preparation-and-its-evaluation
#16
Sushil K Tripathi, Pardeep Kumar, Edouard J Trabulsi, Sung Kim, Peter A McCue, Charles Intenzo, Adam Berger, Leonard Gomella, Mathew L Thakur
INTRODUCTION: Previously, our laboratory has shown that (64)Cu-TP3805 can specifically target VPAC1 receptors and be used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of breast (BC) and prostate cancer (PC) in humans. Present work is aimed at the formulation of a freeze-dried diaminedithiol-peptide (N2S2-TP3805) kit and it's evaluation for the preparation of (64)Cu labeled TP3805. Parameters such as pH, temperature and incubation time were examined that influenced the radiolabeling efficiency and stability of the product...
August 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575697/pet-ct-with-18-f-choline-physiological-whole-bio-distribution-in-male-and-female-subjects-and-diagnostic-pitfalls-on-1000-prostate-cancer-patients-18-f-choline-pet-ct-bio-distribution-and-pitfalls-a-southern-italian-experience
#17
Ferdinando Calabria, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Carmelo Cicciò, Vincenzo Gangemi, Domenico Gullà, Federico Rocca, Gianpasquale Gallo, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Orazio Schillaci
INTRODUCTION: The (11)C/(18)F-choline is a PET/CT radiopharmaceutical useful in detecting tumors with high lipogenesis. (11)C/(18)F-choline uptake can occur in physiological conditions or tumors. The knowledge of its bio-distribution is essential to recognize physiologic variants or diagnostic pitfalls. Moreover, few information are available on the bio-distribution of this tracer in female patients. Our aim was to discuss some documented (18)F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in prostate cancer patients...
August 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365524/pancreas-and-liver-uptake-of-new-radiolabeled-incretins-glp-1-and-exendin-4-in-models-of-diet-induced-and-diet-restricted-obesity
#18
Daniele Seo, Bluma Linkowski Faintuch, Erica Aparecida de Oliveira, Joel Faintuch
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled GLP-1 and its analog Exendin-4, have been employed in diabetes and insulinoma. No protocol in conventional Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), and Diet-Restricted Obesity (DRO), has been identified. Aiming to assess pancreatic beta cell uptake in DIO and DRO, a protocol was designed. METHODS: GLP-1-βAla-HYNIC and HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 were labeled with technetium-99m. Four Swiss mouse models were adopted: Controls (C), Alloxan Diabetes Controls (ADC), DIO and DRO...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364664/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-to-changes-in-11-c-flumazenil-binding-in-the-rat-brain-evaluation-of-the-inflamed-pons-as-reference-tissue
#19
Andrea Parente, David Vállez García, Alexandre Shoji, Isadora Lopes Alves, Bram Maas, Rolf Zijlma, Rudi Ajo Dierckx, Carlos A Buchpiguel, Erik Fj de Vries, Janine Doorduin
INTRODUCTION: [(11)C]Flumazenil is a well-known PET tracer for GABAA receptors and is mainly used as an imaging biomarker for neuronal loss. Recently, GABAA receptors on immune cells have been investigated as target for modulation of inflammation. Since neuronal loss is often accompanied by neuroinflammation, PET imaging with [(11)C]flumazenil is potentially affected by infiltrating immune cells. This may also compromise the validity of using the pons as reference tissue in quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327434/-99m-tc-3prgd2-scintigraphy-to-stage-liver-fibrosis-and-evaluate-reversal-after-fibrotic-stimulus-withdrawn
#20
Xin Zhang, Qiyong Guo, Yu Shi, Weina Xu, Shupeng Yu, Zhiguang Yang, Li Cao, Changping Liu, Zhoushe Zhao, Jun Xin
OBJECTIVE: Scintigraphy using 99mTc-3PRGD2 targeting integrin αvβ3 could assess activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Liver fibrogenesis is intimately associated with activation of HSCs, and the fibrolytic process is accompanied by the reduction of the activated HSCs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of this method to assess the severity of liver fibrosis and the reversal after the fibrotic stimulus withdrawal. METHODS: Liver fibrosis of different stages was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) injection for 2, 4 and 6 weeks (n = 6 for each time point)...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
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