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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Alyssa J Lawler, Thomas F Duda
Knowledge concerning the taxonomic diversity of marine organisms is crucial for understanding processes associated with species diversification in geographic areas that are devoid of obvious barriers to dispersal. The marine gastropod family Conidae contains many species complexes due to lack of clear morphological distinctiveness and existence of morphological intergradations among described species. Conus flavidus Lamarck, 1810 and Conus frigidus Reeve, 1848 are currently recognized as distinct taxa, but are often difficult to distinguish by morphological characters and include several synonyms, including Conus peasei Brazier, 1877...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ming-Ying Zhang, Peter W Fritsch, Peng-Fei Ma, Hong Wang, Lu Lu, De-Zhu Li
Gaultheria series Trichophyllae Airy Shaw is an angiosperm clade of high-alpine shrublets endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and characterized by recent species divergence and convergent character evolution that has until recently caused much confusion in species circumscription. Although multiple DNA sequence regions have been employed previously, phylogenetic relationships among species in the group have remained largely unresolved. Here we examined the effectiveness of plastid genome for improving phylogenetic resolution within the G...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Perla Hamon, Corrinne E Grover, Aaron P Davis, Jean-Jacques Rakotomalala, Nathalie E Raharimalala, Victor A Albert, Hosahalli L Sreenath, Piet Stoffelen, Sharon E Mitchell, Emmanuel Couturon, Serge Hamon, Alexandre de Kochko, Dominique Crouzillat, Michel Rigoreau, Ucu Sumirat, Sélastique Akaffou, Romain Guyot
A comprehensive and meaningful phylogenetic hypothesis for the commercially important coffee genus (Coffea) has long been a key objective for coffee researchers. For molecular studies, progress has been limited by low levels of sequence divergence, leading to insufficient topological resolution and statistical support in phylogenetic trees, particularly for the major lineages and for the numerous species occurring in Madagascar. We report here the first almost fully resolved, broadly sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for coffee, the result of combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology with a newly developed, lab-based workflow to integrate short read next-generation sequencing for low numbers of additional samples...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Dean H Leavitt, Angela B Marion, Bradford D Hollingsworth, Tod W Reeder
The increased availability of nuclear DNA sequence data has led to a better appreciation of the role and frequency of introgressive hybridization and subsequent mitochondrial capture in misleading phylogenetic hypotheses based on mtDNA sequence data alone. Relationships among members of the alligator lizard genus Elgaria have been addressed with morphology, allozyme and mtDNA sequence data with discordant results. In this study, we use seven nuclear loci (total of 5.9 kb) and ∼3 kb of mtDNA to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Elgaria species and test whether the discordance among previous phylogenetic hypotheses is due to introgression and mtDNA capture...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Malay Bhattacharyya, Tuhin Ghosh, Sujit Shankar, Namrata Tomar
The proliferation and intensification of diseases have forced every researcher to take actions for a robust understanding of the organisms. This demands deep knowledge about the cells and tissues in an organ and its entire surroundings, more precisely the microbiome community which involves viruses, bacteria, archaea, among others. They play an important role in the function of our body, and act both as a deterrent as well as shelter for diseases. Therefore, it is pertinent to study the relation within the microbiome in a human body...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ana C Pavan, Gabriel Marroig
We investigate the biogeographic processes related to the origin and current patterns of distribution of the extant species of the genus Pteronotus. This clade of insectivorous bats is widely distributed in the Neotropical Region and has recently gone through a taxonomic update which increased more than twice its diversity. Using six molecular markers of 15 Pteronotus lineages ranging from Mexico to Central Brazil, we reconstruct a time-calibrated tree and infer molecular evolutionary rates for this bat genus...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Itzi Fragoso-Martínez, Gerardo A Salazar, Martha Martínez-Gordillo, Susana Magallón, Luna Sánchez-Reyes, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Federico Sazatornil, Carolina Granados Mendoza
We conducted a pilot study using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment to resolve relationships among a mostly Neotropical sage lineage that may have undergone a recent evolutionary radiation. Conventional markers (ITS, trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA) have not been able to resolve the relationships among species nor within portions of the backbone of the lineage. We sampled 12 representative species of subgenus Calosphace and included one species of Salvia's s.l. closest relative, Lepechinia, as outgroup. Hybrid enrichment and sequencing were successful, yielding 448 alignments of individual loci with an average length of 704 bp...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
David Peris, Armando Arias, Sandi Orlić, Carmela Belloch, Laura Pérez-Través, Amparo Querol, Eladio Barrio
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mei He, Sheng-Yu Guan, Cheng-Qiang He
Rice stripe virus (RSV) is an insect-borne tenuivirus of economical significance. It is endemic to the rice-growing regions of East Asia and exhibits more genetic diversity in Yunnan province of China. To gain more insights into the molecular epidemiology and evolution of RSV, recombination analyses were conducted and potential events were detected in each of the four RNA segments of RSV. Bayesian coalescent method was then applied to the time-stamped coding sequences of the CP gene. The nucleotide substitution rate and the divergence time were estimated...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Zhou Ming-Bing, Hu Hui, Csaba Miskey, Katina Lazarow, Zoltan Ivics, Reinhard Kunze, Yang Guojun, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Tang Ding-Qin
The moso bamboo genome contains the two structurally intact and thus potentially functional mariner-like elements Ppmar1 and Ppmar2. Both elements contain perfect terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and a full-length intact transposase gene. Here we investigated whether Ppmar1 is functional in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We have designed a two-component system consisting of a transposase expression cassette and a non-autonomous transposon on two separate plasmids. We demonstrate that the Ppmar1 transposase Pptpase1 catalyses excision of the non-autonomous Ppmar1NA element from the plasmid and reintegration at TA dinucleotide sequences in the yeast chromosomes...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Zhijun Zhou, Ling Zhao, Nian Liu, Huifang Guo, Bei Guan, Juanxia Di, Fuming Shi
Although mitogenomes are useful tools for inferring evolutionary history, only a few representative ones can be used for most Ensifera lineages. Thirty-two ensiferan mitogenomes were determined using ABI Sanger sequencing and standard primer walking of 2-3 overlapping Long-PCR fragments, or Illumina® HiSeq2000 for "shotgun" sequenced long-PCR-amplified mitochondrial or total genomic DNA. Six patterns of gene arrangements, including the novel trnR-trnS(AGN)-trnA-trnN-trnG-nad3 in Lipotactes tripyrga (Lipotactinae), were identified from 59 ensiferan mitogenomes...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Flores-Rentería Lluvia, Rymer Paul, Riegler Markus
Reticulate evolution by hybridization is considered a common process shaping the evolution of many plant species, however, reticulation could also be due to incomplete lineage sorting in biodiverse systems. For our study we selected a group of closely related plant taxa with contrasting yet partially overlapping geographic distributions and different population sizes, to distinguish between reticulated patterns due to hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. We predicted that sympatric or proximal populations of different species are more likely to have gene flow than geographically distant populations of the same widespread species...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Matthew A Campbell, Jørgen G Nielsen, Tetsuya Sado, Chuya Shinzato, Miyuki Kanda, Takashi P Satoh, Masaki Miya
Fishes are widely diverse in shape and body size and can quite rapidly undergo these changes. Consequently, some relationships are not clearly resolved with morphological analyses. In the case of fishes of small body size, informative characteristics can be absent due to simplification of body structures. The Parabrotulidae, a small family of diminutive body size consisting of two genera and three species has most recently been classified as either a perciform within the suborder Zoarcoidei or an ophidiiform...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
M Oikonomopoulou, V L Demetriou, L G Kostrikis, D Paraskevis
HCV global sequences have been classified into 7 genotypes, several subtypes and a number of unassigned sequences. Our aim was to perform an in depth investigation of the taxonomic relationships of the unclassified CYHCV025 strain by means of phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions were performed using ML methods on full-length genomic and partial HCV alignments. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length sequences revealed that CYHCV025 clustered close to the root node of genotype 1, showing distant genetic relationships to all previously classified subtypes and unclassified sequences...
February 4, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Martina Fernández, Cecilia Ezcurra, Carolina I Calviño
Azorella, Laretia and Mulinum are taxonomically complex, and good candidates to study evolutionary radiations in the Andes and the importance of hybridizations. Previous phylogenetic studies of subfamily Azorelloideae agree that Azorella and Mulinum as currently conceived are not monophyletic, and hence a revision of their circumscription is necessary. However, these phylogenies were based only on chloroplast DNA sequence data. Here, phylogenetic relationships within Azorelloideae were inferred using sequence data from five chloroplast DNA (rps16 intron, trnQ-rps16, rps16-trnK(UUU) 5' -exon, trnG(GCC)-trnS(GCU) and rpL32-trnL(UAG)), and from nuclear rDNA ITS regions to assess the monophyly of Azorella and Mulinum and discuss generic re-circumscriptions, determine hybridization and radiation events, identify and characterize important lineages, and propose hypotheses on evolution of key morphological characters...
February 4, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Matheus Fortes Santos, Eve Lucas, Paulo Takeo Sano, Sven Buerki, Vanessa Graziele Staggemeier, Félix Forest
Many recent studies discuss the influence of climatic and geological events in the evolution of Neotropical biota by correlating these events with dated phylogenetic hypotheses. Myrtaceae is one of the most diverse Neotropical groups and it therefore a good proxy of plant diversity in the region. However, biogeographic studies on Neotropical Myrtaceae are still very limited. Myrcia s.l. is an informal group comprising three accepted genera (Calyptranthes, Marlierea and Myrcia) making up the second largest Neotropical group of Myrtaceae, totalling about 700 species distributed in nine subgroups...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Eliana Buenaventura, Thomas Pape
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Michael G Rix, Steven J B Cooper, Karen Meusemann, Seraina Klopfstein, Sophie E Harrison, Mark S Harvey, Andrew D Austin
The formation and spread of the Australian arid zone during the Neogene was a profoundly transformative event in the biogeographic history of Australia, resulting in extinction or range contraction in lineages adapted to mesic habitats, as well as diversification and range expansion in arid-adapted taxa (most of which evolved from mesic ancestors). However, the geographic origins of the arid zone biota are still relatively poorly understood, especially among highly diverse invertebrate lineages, many of which are themselves poorly documented at the species level...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jan M Strugnell, Nathan E Hall, Michael Vecchione, Dirk Fuchs, A Louise Allcock
The phylogenetic position of the only known species within the order Spirulida, the Ram's Horn Squid, Spirula spirula, may be the key to resolving relationships within Decapodiformes (squids and cuttlefishes). Spirula spirula possesses several unique features including an internal calcareous chambered shell unlike the familiar cuttlebone of Sepiidae (cuttlefishes). The shell is reduced to a gladius or absent in other decapod clades. To resolve decapodiform phylogenetic relationships we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of S...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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