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Jane Mounteney, Paul Griffiths, Roumen Sedefov, Michael Evans-Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Addiction
Marica Ferri, Jane Mouteney, Paul Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Addiction
Megan Kirouac, Katie Witkiewitz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For decades, researchers have called for the systematic inclusion of non-consumption outcomes, such as alcohol-related consequences and, temptation/craving, in addition to consumption outcomes (e.g., percent days abstinent) to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment efficacy. However, FDA guidelines for alcohol medications development suggest non-consumption outcomes may be insensitive to changes that occur within AUD treatment trial assessment windows, though this has never been directly tested...
January 16, 2019: Addiction
Karen O Brandon, Vani N Simmons, Lauren R Meltzer, David J Drobes, Úrsula Martínez, Steven K Sutton, Amanda M Palmer, Christopher R Bullen, Paul T Harrell, Thomas H Brandon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most e-cigarette users who also smoke combustible cigarettes (dual users) begin vaping to quit smoking, yet only a subset succeeds. We hypothesized that reinforcing characteristics of e-cigarettes (Vaping Reinforcement) would positively predict smoking cessation propensity (SCP) among dual users. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from dual users in an ongoing smoking cessation trial. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA and CFA) created latent variables for Vaping Reinforcement and SCP...
January 15, 2019: Addiction
Arne Kristian Skulberg, Anders Åsberg, Hasse Zare Khiabani, Hilde Røstad, Ida Tylleskar, Ola Dale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intranasal (IN) naloxone is an established treatment for opioid overdose. Anyone likely to witness an overdose should have access to the antidote. We aimed to determine whether an IN formulation delivering 1.4 mg naloxone hydrochloride would achieve systemic exposure comparable to that of 0.8 mg intramuscular naloxone. DESIGN: Open, randomised four-way crossover trial SETTING: Clinical Trials Units in St. Olav´s Hospital, Trondheim, and Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway PARTICIPANTS: 22 healthy human volunteers, ten women...
January 14, 2019: Addiction
Robert West, John Marsden, Janna Hastings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Addiction
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2019: Addiction
Máirtín S McDermott, Grace Li, Ann McNeill, David Hammond, James F Thrasher, Richard J O'Connor, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Geoffrey T Fong, Sara C Hitchman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The presence and content of health warning labels (HWLs) on nicotine vaping products (NVPs), such as electronic cigarettes, varies by country and manufacturer. We compared proportions of people who report (i) noticing HWLs on NVPs and (ii) feeling concerned having noticed HWLs, by country and by smoking or vaping status. We also examined recall of HWL content and whether this varies by country. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey SETTING: Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN), and the United States (US)...
January 7, 2019: Addiction
Sarah E Jackson, Jennifer A McGowan, Harveen Kaur Ubhi, Hannah Proudfoot, Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown, Robert West
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is useful, for theoretical and practical reasons, to be able to specify functions for continuous abstinence over time in smoking cessation attempts. This study aimed to find the best fitting models of mean proportion abstinent with different smoking cessation pharmacotherapies up to 52 weeks from the quit date. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify RCTs of pharmacological treatments to aid smoking cessation...
January 7, 2019: Addiction
Shane Darke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2019: Addiction
Hugh Garavan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2019: Addiction
Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Patrick M O'Malley, Lloyd D Johnston, John E Schulenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term frequent marijuana use is associated with significant negative outcomes, yet little is known about the longitudinal course of marijuana use among those who start frequent use during adolescence. Objectives are (a) to identify latent patterns of within-person marijuana use from ages 19-30 among 12th graders reporting frequent marijuana use, (b) to examine if membership in identified patterns has changed across historical time, and (c) to examine if key covariates differentiate class membership...
January 4, 2019: Addiction
John Marsden, Betty Tai, Robert Ali, Lian Hu, A John Rush, Nora Volkow
CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: Measurement-based care (MBC) is an evidence-based healthcare practice in which indicators of disease are tracked to inform clinical actions, provide feedback to patients and improve outcomes. The current opioid crisis in multiple countries provides a pressing rationale for adopting a basic MBC approach for OUD using DSM-5 to increase treatment retention and effectiveness. PROPOSAL: To stimulate debate, we propose a basic MBC approach using the 11 symptoms of opioid use disorder (OUD; DSM-5) to inform the delivery of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD; including methadone, buprenorphine and naltrexone) and their evaluation in office-based primary care and specialist clinics...
January 4, 2019: Addiction
Marushka L Silveira, Victoria R Green, Robert Iannaccone, Heather L Kimmel, Kevin P Conway
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Youth aged 15-17 years are at high risk of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Given the changing landscape with respect to availability, use of emerging products, and regulatory environments, we examined patterns and correlates of poly-substance use among U.S. youth aged 15-17 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-reported data. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: 6,127 U.S. youth aged 15-17 years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study...
January 4, 2019: Addiction
Samara Wilson, Timea Partos, Ann McNeill, Leonie S Brose
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-cigarettes (EC) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are less harmful than smoking, but misperceptions of relative harm are common. Aims were to (1) assess nicotine knowledge and perceptions of: harm of EC and NRT relative to smoking, addictiveness of EC relative to smoking, and change in harm to user if smoking replaced with EC; (2) define associations of these perceptions with respondent characteristics including nicotine knowledge; and (3) explore perceived main harms of EC and whether these differ by vaping status...
January 3, 2019: Addiction
Ian Gilmore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Addiction
Tom P Freeman, Teodora Groshkova, Andrew Cunningham, Roumen Sedefov, Paul Griffiths, Michael T Lynksey
AIMS: To quantify changes in (i) potency (concentration of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol; %THC), (ii) price (Euros/gram of cannabis), and (iii) value (quantity of THC per price unit; mg THC/Euro) of cannabis resin and herbal cannabis in Europe. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data collected from 28 EU member states, Norway and Turkey by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables were potency, price, and value for cannabis resin and herbal cannabis in Europe, 2006-2016...
December 29, 2018: Addiction
Sarah E Jackson, Cheryll Smith, Hazel Cheeseman, Robert West, Jamie Brown
AIMS: To examine smoking prevalence, motivation and attempts to stop smoking, markers of cigarette addiction, and success in quit attempts of people living in social housing in England compared with other housing tenures. DESIGN AND SETTING: A large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the English population conducted between January 2015 and October 2017. PARTICIPANTS: 57,522 adults (≥16y). MEASUREMENTS: Main outcomes were smoking status, number of cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, exposure to smoking by others, motivation to stop smoking, past-year quit attempts and use of cessation support...
December 29, 2018: Addiction
Marianne Jauncey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2018: Addiction
June H Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2018: Addiction
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