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Arthur N Westover, Paul A Nakonezny, Ethan A Halm, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonmedical use of prescribed stimulant medications is a growing concern. This study's aims were to ascertain the demographics of stimulant medication users compared with nonusers, examine temporal trends of stimulant medication use, and estimate risk factors for development of amphetamine use disorder (AUD) and mortality among new users of stimulant medications. DESIGN: Cox proportion hazards regression in a retrospective cohort adjusted by baseline covariates...
December 7, 2017: Addiction
Keith Humphreys, Shane Darke, John Marsden, Robert West
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Addiction
Megan Weier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Addiction
John Strang, Joanne Neale, Rebecca McDonald, Nicola Kalk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Addiction
Hsien-Yen Chang, Irene B Murimi, Christopher M Jones, G Caleb Alexander
AIMS: (1) To characterize the amount of prescription opioids prescribed for high-risk patients by low-volume prescribers; (2) to quantify how high- and low-volume prescribers differ systematically in their prescribing patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using 2015 longitudinal, all-payer QuintilesIMS pharmacy claims. We conducted an aggregated analysis for the first aim and an individual-level analysis for the second aim. SETTING: California, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, and Washington, USA...
November 29, 2017: Addiction
Michael F Pesko, Jidong Huang, Lloyd D Johnston, Frank J Chaloupka
AIMS: We estimate associations between e-cigarette prices (both disposable and refill) and e-cigarette use among middle and high school students in the United States. We also estimate associations between cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. DESIGN: We use regression models to estimate the associations between e-cigarette and cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. In our regression models, we exploit changes in e-cigarette and cigarette prices across four periods of time and across 50 markets...
November 29, 2017: Addiction
Karolina M Bogdanowicz, Robert Stewart, Chin-Kuo Chang, Hitesh Shetty, Mizanur Khondoker, Edward Day, Richard D Hayes, John Strang
AIMS: To investigate clustering of all-cause and overdose deaths after a transfer of patients and their care to alternative treatment provider and after the end of opioid substitution therapy (OST) in opioid-dependent individuals in specialist addiction treatment. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Mortality data were identified within a sample of 5,445 patients with opioid use disorder who had received OST treatment between 1st April 2008 and 31st December 2013 from a large mental healthcare provider in United Kingdom...
November 27, 2017: Addiction
Steve Allsop
AIMS: This narrative exploration of alcohol treatment research focuses on key contentions and advances in alcohol treatment during the critical 1970s and 1980s. METHODS: Papers and books which signal some of the major debates and advances in alcohol treatment research were selected from the 1970s and 1980s. The selection process was based on significant debate during this period, and included those that influenced the field in general and this author in particular...
November 27, 2017: Addiction
Claire Wilkinson, Amy Pennay, Sarah MacLean, Michael Livingston, Robin Room, Margaret Hamilton, Anne-Marie Laslett, Heng Jiang, Sarah Callinan, Orratai Waleewong
Established in 2006, the Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR) is Australia's only research centre with a primary focus on alcohol policy. CAPR has four main areas of research: alcohol policy impacts; alcohol policy formation and regulatory processes involved in implementing alcohol policies; patterns and trends in drinking and alcohol problems in the population; and the influence of drinking norms, cultural practices and social contexts, particularly in interaction with alcohol policies. In this paper, we give examples of key publications in each area...
November 26, 2017: Addiction
Andrew L Skinner, Robert West, Martin Raw, Emma Anderson, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Behavioural and pharmacological support for smoking cessation improves the chances of success and represents a highly cost-effective way of preventing chronic disease and premature death. There is a large number of clinical stop-smoking services throughout the world. These could be connected into a global network to provide data to assess what treatment components are most effective, for what populations and in what settings. To enable this, a minimum data set (MDS) is required to standardize the data captured from smoking cessation services globally...
November 26, 2017: Addiction
Alexander C Wagenaar, Melvin D Livingston, Dallas W Pettigrew, Terrence K Kominsky, Kelli A Komro
AIMS: We evaluated the effects of a community organizing intervention, Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA), on the propensity of retail alcohol outlets to sell alcohol to young buyers without age identification and on alcohol acquisition behaviors of underage youth. DESIGN: Random assignment of community to treatment (n=3) or control (n=2). Student surveys were conducted four times per year for three years; the cohort was in 9th and 10th grades in the 2012-13 academic year...
November 25, 2017: Addiction
Reto Auer, Stephen Sidney, David Goff, Eric Vittinghoff, Mark J Pletcher, Norrina B Allen, Jared P Reis, Cora E Lewis, Jeffrey Carr, Jamal S Rana
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unlike tobacco, the effect of marijuana smoke on subclinical atherosclerosis, a surrogate measure for cardiovascular disease, is not known. This study aimed to determine the association between lifetime exposure to marijuana and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in mid-life. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the US-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 years at baseline in 1985-86, with up to 7 follow-up exams over 25 years...
November 22, 2017: Addiction
Keith Humphreys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Addiction
Assoc Prof Diana Egerton-Warburton, Andrew Gosbell, Katie Moore, Angela Wadsworth, Drew Richardson, Daniel M Fatovich
BACKGROUND: Emergency department alcohol-related presentation data are not routinely collected. It is likely that previous research has underestimated the numbers of patients presenting with alcohol-related conditions. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective study. Patients were prospectively screened for alcohol-related presentations over a seven-day period in December 2014. Part one involved screening to determine alcohol positive ED presentations, and data collection of patient demographic and clinical information...
November 20, 2017: Addiction
Simon J Forsyth, Megan Carroll, Nicholas Lennox, Stuart A Kinner
AIMS: To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for mortality in adults released from prisons in the state of Queensland, Australia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, linking baseline survey data with a national death register. SETTING: Selected prisons within Queensland, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N=1320) recruited in Queensland prisons within 6 weeks of expected release, between August 2008 and July 2010, followed for up to 4...
November 20, 2017: Addiction
Daan van der Gouwe, Sander Rigter, Tibor Markus Brunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2017: Addiction
Michael J Green, Shona Hilton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2017: Addiction
Harry R Sumnall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2017: Addiction
Jane Mounteney, Andrew Cunningham, Teodora Groshkova, Roumen Sedefov, Paul Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2017: Addiction
Rebecca McDonald, Ulrike Lorch, Jo Woodward, Björn Bosse, Helen Dooner, Gill Mundin, Kevin Smith, John Strang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Take-home naloxone can prevent death from heroin/opioid overdose, but pre-provision is difficult because naloxone is usually given by injection. Non-injectable alternatives, including naloxone nasal sprays, are currently being developed. To be effective, the intranasal (i.n.) spray dose must be adequate but not excessive, and early absorption must be comparable to intramuscular (i.m.) injection. We report on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a specially produced concentrated novel nasal spray...
November 16, 2017: Addiction
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