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Wayne Hall, Malcolm Parker
The recent practice in Belgium and the Netherlands of accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia raises important issues for the field of addiction and the practice of euthanasia. In this paper we outline some of these issues. We also argue that physicians making decisions about whether to accept requests for euthanasia from people with an allegedly untreatable addiction should consider two issues carefully. They should ensure that: (1) the person has the capacity to give free and informed consent to undergo euthanasia; and (2) their request is the outcome of a deliberative process in which all reasonable treatment options and harm reduction measures have been offered to and considered by the person...
October 10, 2017: Addiction
Adam J Rubenis, Rebecca E Fitzpatrick, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methamphetamine dependence is associated with heightened impulsivity and diminished quality of life, but the link between impulsivity and changes in quality of life during treatment has not been examined. We aimed to investigate how different elements of impulsivity predict change in quality of life in the six weeks after engaging in treatment. DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational cohort study. SETTING: Public and private detoxification and rehabilitation facilities in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia...
October 7, 2017: Addiction
Angela Russolillo, Akm Moniruzzaman, Lawrence C McCandless, Michelle Patterson, Julian M Somers
AIMS: To estimate and test the difference in rates of violent and non-violent crime during medicated and non-medicated methadone treatment episodes. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study involved linkage of population level administrative data (health and justice) for all individuals (n=14,530) in British Columbia, Canada with a history of conviction and who filled a methadone prescription between January 1, 1998 and March 31, 2015. Methadone maintenance treatment was the primary independent variable and was treated as a time-varying exposure...
October 7, 2017: Addiction
Linn Gjersing, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
AIMS: To examine the mortality risk in a cohort of "hard-to-reach" polysubstance users and its putative associations with substance use. Specifically, we estimated all-cause mortality risk as a function of individual substance use indicators, and then as a function of their complex, "real-life" patterns as identified through Latent Class Analysis (LCA). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study among street-and low-threshold-service-recruited polysubstance users included between September and November 2013 and followed through the National Cause of Death Registry until 31 October 2015...
October 7, 2017: Addiction
Paulien A W Nuyts, Mirte A G Kuipers, Marc C Willemsen, Anton E Kunst
BACKGROUND AND AIM: As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is primarily targeted at young adolescents (under 16 years old). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have occurred. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 11,574 respondents born between 1980 and 1995...
October 7, 2017: Addiction
Andrea C Villanti, Shari P Feirman, Raymond S Niaura, Jennifer L Pearson, Allison M Glasser, Lauren K Collins, David B Abrams
AIMS: To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. DESIGN: A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction. SETTINGS: Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States...
October 3, 2017: Addiction
Suzanne Fraser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Addiction
Stacey B Daughters, Jessica F Magidson, Deepika Anand, C J Seitz-Brown, Yun Chen, Sydney Baker
AIMS: to compare outcomes for a behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT), versus a time and group size matched control condition delivered in a residential treatment setting. DESIGN: single-site two-arm parallel-group randomized clinical trial with follow-up assessment at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. SETTING: residential substance use treatment facility in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: participants were 263 adults [mean age 42...
September 30, 2017: Addiction
Joanne Neale, Annabel Bouteloup, Mel Getty, Cassandra Hogan, Paul Lennon, Martin Mc Cusker, John Strang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2017: Addiction
Kevin D Shield, Gerrit Gmel, Pia Mäkelä, Charlotte Probst, Robin Room, Gerhard Gmel, Jürgen Rehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Addiction
Jessica N Fish, Tonda L Hughes, Stephen T Russell
AIM: To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015. PARTICIPANTS: US adults ages 18 and older (N = 215,684; n = 203,562 heterosexual, n = 2,784 lesbian/gay, n = 2,892 bisexual, n = 686 "other" and n = 1,947 don't know/unsure). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported past 30-day standard binge and high-intensity binge drinking...
September 23, 2017: Addiction
Clément Palpacuer, Renan Duprez, Alexandre Huneau, Clara Locher, Rémy Boussageon, Bruno Laviolle, Florian Naudet
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is an emerging concept. Our objective was to explore the comparative effectiveness of drugs used in this indication. DESIGN: Systematic review with direct and network meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in non-abstinent adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence or AUDs...
September 20, 2017: Addiction
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Addiction
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Addiction
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems...
September 18, 2017: Addiction
Michael P Schaub, Marcela Tiburcio, Nora Martinez, Atul Ambekar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Andreas Wenger, André Luiz Monezi Andrade, Dzianis Padruchny, Sergey Osipchik, Elise Gehring, Vladimir Poznyak, Dag Rekve, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza-Formigoni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the Internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. DESIGN: Two-arm RCT with follow-up 6 months after randomisation...
September 17, 2017: Addiction
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
Erica Thomson, Hugh Lampkin, Russ Maynard, Mohammad Karamouzian, Ehsan Jozaghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Addiction
William C Kerr, Camillia Lui, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological trends show marijuana use in the United States to have increased in recent years. Previous research has identified cohort effects as contributing to the rising prevalence, in particular birth cohorts born after 1945. However, given recent policy efforts to regulate marijuana use at the state level, period effects could also play a contributory role. This study aimed to examine whether cohort or period effects play a larger role in explaining trends in marijuana use...
September 12, 2017: Addiction
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
AIMS: To estimate the effects of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ≥100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles/syringes per reported injecting frequency)...
September 11, 2017: Addiction
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