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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734128/the-experience-of-initiating-injection-drug-use-and-its-social-context-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#1
REVIEW
Andy Guise, Danielle Horyniak, Jason Melo, Ryan McNeill, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Understanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We systematically reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, and SSCI), along with a manual search, including of key journals and subject experts...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734126/german-estsmoke-estimating-adult-smoking-related-costs-and-consequences-of-smoking-cessation-for-germany
#2
Diana Sonntag, Simon Gilbody, Winkler Volker, Shehzad Ali
AIMS: We compared predicted lifetime health care costs for current, never and ex-smokers in Germany under the current set of tobacco control polices. We compared these economic consequences of the current situation with an alternative in which Germany were to implement more comprehensive tobacco control policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) guidelines. DESIGN: German EstSmoke, an adapted version of the UK EstSmoke simulation model, applies the Markov modelling approach...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710874/association-between-universal-hepatitis-b-prison-vaccination-vaccine-uptake-and-hepatitis-b-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#3
Norah E Palmateer, David J Goldberg, Alison Munro, Avril Taylor, Alan Yeung, Lesley A Wallace, Alan Mitchell, Samantha J Shepherd, Rory N Gunson, Celia Aitken, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Scotland, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination for all prisoners was introduced in 1999; here, we examine the impact of this programme among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the community. This study aimed to compare rates of HBV vaccine uptake before and after implementation of the prison programme and to estimate the determinants of vaccine uptake, the levels of ever/current HBV infection and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710873/mecamylamine-treatment-for-alcohol-dependence-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Ismene L Petrakis, Elizabeth Ralevski, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Stephanie S O'Malley, Albert Arias, Kevin A Sevarino, Jane S Jane, Erin O'Brien, John H Krystal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mecamylamine, is a potential novel pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. The aims were to compare alcohol consumption between mecamylamine and placebo and test if smoking status modified treatment effects. DESIGN: Outpatient, randomized, double-blind clinical trial for 12 weeks of treatment with mecamylamine (10mg) (n=65) vs. placebo (n=63). SETTING: Connecticut, USA...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710870/self-changing-behaviour-in-smoking-cessation-linked-to-trait-and-cognitive-impulsivity
#5
Jaume Celma-Merola, Francesc Abella-Pons, Fernanda Mata, Gerard Pedra-Pagés, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare impulsivity, measured using self-report and cognitive tasks in people who ceased smoking without treatment (self-changers) with each of the following groups: (i) smoking non-treatment seekers, (ii) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent, and (iii) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: The smoking cessation unit of a public general hospital, Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lleida, Spain...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696583/mapping-medical-marijuana-state-laws-regulating-patients-product-safety-supply-chains-and-dispensaries-2017
#6
Sarah B Klieger, Abraham Gutman, Leslie Allen, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Jennifer K Ibrahim, Scott Burris
AIMS: 1) To describe open source legal datasets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of U.S. state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. 2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety, and dispensary practice. METHODS: Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety, and dispensaries in effect on February 1, 2017, creating three empirical legal datasets...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695705/all-drinking-is-not-equal-how-a-social-practice-theory-lens-could-enhance-public-health-research-on-alcohol-and-other-health-behaviours
#7
Petra Sylvia Meier, Alan Warde, John Holmes
BACKGROUND: The social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685900/challenges-the-addiction-field-must-overcome-to-avert-being-the-cinderella-of-medicine
#8
Anne Lingford-Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678415/are-alcohol-related-disparities-between-sexual-minority-and-heterosexual-youth-decreasing
#9
Jessica N Fish, Ryan J Watson, Carolyn M Porta, Stephen T Russell, Elizabeth M Saewyc
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although sexual orientation-related alcohol use disparities are well established, researchers have not identified whether disparities are diminishing as societal attitudes towards lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) people become more accepting. We examined changes in four alcohol-related disparities between heterosexual and LGB youth from 1998 to 2013 by (1) estimating the prevalence of these behaviors; (2) estimating disparities in alcohol-related outcomes between heterosexual and LGB youth within each wave year; and (3) testing whether the degree of difference in alcohol-related disparities between heterosexual and LGB youth has changed...
July 5, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667828/the-relationship-between-gambling-expenditure-socio-demographics-health-related-correlates-and-gambling-behaviour-a-cross-sectional-population-based-survey-in-finland
#10
Sari Castrén, Jukka Kontto, Hannu Alho, Anne H Salonen
AIMS: To investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population survey. SETTING: Population-based survey in Finland. PARTICIPANTS: Finnish people aged 15-74 years randomly drawn from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past-year gamblers (n = 3671; 1418 women and 1833 men)...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667826/effectiveness-of-intensive-practice-nurse-counselling-versus-brief-general-practitioner-advice-both-combined-with-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-a-randomised-pragmatic-trial-in-primary-care
#11
Carolien van Rossem, Mark Spigt, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, A E M Lucas, Onno C P van Schayck, Daniel Kotz
AIMS: To study the effectiveness of intensive counselling by a practice nurse versus brief advice by a general practitioner, each combined with pharmacotherapy, for tobacco 6 months (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included 12-month abstinence, medication adherence, and incremental costs per life year gained. DESIGN: A multi-site (N=10), two-group, parallel, pragmatic randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A network of primary healthcare centres in the Netherlands...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667825/heavy-alcohol-consumption-increases-the-risk-of-active-tuberculosis-in-taiwanese-adults-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Yung-Feng Yen, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Ya-Ling Lee, Po-Wen Ku, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yun-Ju Lai, Dachen Chu
AIMS: To investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on tuberculosis (TB) development in Taiwanese adults. DESIGN: Participants from the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667824/the-association-between-personal-income-and-smoking-among-adolescents-a-study-in-six-european-cities
#13
J Perelman, J Alves, T Pfoertner, I Moor, B Federico, M A G Kuipers, M Richter, A Rimpela, A E Kunst, V Lorant
AIMS: This study investigates the link between personal income and smoking among adolescents, and aims to answer the following questions: (i) to what extent is personal income related to smoking, independent of family socioeconomic status (SES)? (ii) does the association between personal income and smoking apply to different sub-populations? DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Six cities from European countries (Amersfoort/Netherlands, Coimbra/Portugal, Hannover/Germany, Latina/Italy, Namur/Belgium, Tampere/Finland), in 2013...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667822/effects-of-comorbid-substance-use-disorders-on-outcomes-in-a-housing-first-intervention-for-homeless-people-with-mental-illness
#14
Karen Urbanoski, Scott Veldhuizen, Michael Krausz, Christian Schutz, Julian M Somers, Maritt Kirst, Marie-Josée Fleury, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Michelle Patterson, Verena Strehlau, Paula Goering
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence supports the effectiveness of Housing First (HF) programs for people who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness; however, questions remain about its use in people with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this project was to test whether SUD modifies the effectiveness of an HF intervention. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of HF versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with 24-month follow-up, comparing those with and without SUD at trial entry...
July 1, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660658/cannabis-and-psychotic-experiences
#15
LETTER
Hans Oh, Jordan DeVylder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646566/structural-neuroimaging-correlates-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescents-and-adults
#16
Rachel E Thayer, Sophie YorkWilliams, Hollis C Karoly, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sarah Feldstein Ewing, Angela D Bryan, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic alcohol use is associated with lower gray matter volume, and we recently reported that alcohol use showed negative associations with widespread gray matter (GM) volume even among young adults. The current study aimed to test the strength of association between (1) alcohol use and GM volume; (2) alcohol use and white matter (WM) integrity; (3) cannabis use and GM volume; and (4) cannabis use and WM integrity among adults and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: General linear models within large pooled cross-sectional samples of adolescents and adults who had participated in studies collecting substance use and neuroimaging data in the southwestern United States...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646524/risk-factors-for-severe-respiratory-depression-from-prescription-opioid-overdose
#17
Lindsay M Fox, Robert S Hoffman, David Vlahov, Alex F Manini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prescription opioid overdose is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with clinical severity in emergency department patients with prescription opioid overdose. DESIGN: This was a secondary data analysis of adult prescription opioid overdoses from a large prospective cohort of acute overdoses. We examined elements of a typical emergency department evaluation using a multivariable model to determine which characteristics were associated with clinical severity, specifically severe respiratory depression (SRD)...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645137/-to-take-or-not-to-take-the-association-between-perceived-addiction-risk-expected-analgesic-response-and-likelihood-of-trying-novel-pain-relievers-in-self-identified-chronic-pain-patients
#18
D Andrew Tompkins, Andrew S Huhn, Patrick S Johnson, Michael T Smith, Eric C Strain, Robert R Edwards, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probability discounting refers to the effect of outcome uncertainty on decision making. Using probability discounting, we examined the degree to which self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) were likely to try a novel analgesic medication given increasing addiction risk. We postulated that propensity for opioid misuse, trait impulsivity, and previous opioid experience would be positively associated with likelihood of risky medication use. DESIGN: This cross-sectional online study determined state/trait associations with addiction-related medication decisions in CPP...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#19
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644580/a-free-ride-an-analysis-of-the-association-of-casino-bus-tours-and-problem-gambling-among-older-adults
#20
Mark van der Maas, Robert E Mann, Flora I Matheson, Nigel E Turner, Hayley A Hamilton, John McCready
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little research has examined the relationship between incentives used by gambling venues to attract customers and the experience of gambling related harm. Organized and subsidized bus tours are a common example of such incentives. The aim of this study was to examine whether bus tour patronage was associated with increased odds of problem gambling among older adults. This study also compared rates of bus tour use by sociodemographic characteristics and gambling behaviours...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
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