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Addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014552/burroughs-letter-from-a-master-addict-to-dangerous-drugs-a-forgotten-classic
#1
Shane Darke, Michael Farrell
In 1957 William Burroughs published "Letter from a master addict to dangerous drugs" in the pages of this journal. Based on his own extensive drug involvement, like his novel Junky, it may be characterised as autoethnography. In it he expresses views on the nature of addiction, treatment, withdrawal regimes, chronic pain and the harms of polydrug use. Despite being written in the 1950s, it presaged many of today's debates and clinical issues and remains remarkably relevant. While not all contained in the letter stands scrutiny, his views on addiction, treatment, polydrug use and psychopathology were insightful...
July 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014539/underestimation-of-alcohol-consumption-in-cohort-studies-and-implications-for-alcohol-s-contribution-to-the-global-burden-of-disease
#2
Tim Stockwell, Jinhui Zhao, Adam Sherk, Jürgen Rehm, Kevin Shield, Tim Naimi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimated alcohol consumption from national self-report surveys is often only 30% to 40% of official estimates based on sales or taxation data. Global burden of disease (GBD) estimates for alcohol adjust survey estimates up to 80% of total per capita consumption. This assumes that cohort studies needed to estimate relative risks for disease suffer less from under-reporting than typical national surveys. However, there is limited evidence on which to base that assumption...
July 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007117/comment-on-the-global-gaming-industry-s-statement-on-icd-11-gaming-disorder-a-corporate-strategy-to-disregard-harm-and-deflect-social-responsibility
#3
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003630/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-age-at-first-cannabis-use
#4
Camelia C Minică, Karin J H Verweij, Peter J van der Most, Hamdi Mbarek, Manon Bernard, Kristel R van Eijk, Penelope A Lind, Meng Zhen Liu, Dominique F Maciejewski, Teemu Palviainen, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Richard Sherva, Michelle Taylor, Raymond K Walters, Abdel Abdellaoui, Timothy B Bigdeli, Susan J T Branje, Sandra A Brown, Miguel Casas, Robin P Corley, George Davey Smith, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, Lindsay Farrer, Iryna O Fedko, Iris Garcia-Martínez, Scott D Gordon, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew C Heath, Ian B Hickie, Matthew Hickman, Christian J Hopfer, Jouke Jan Hottenga, René S Kahn, Jaakko Kaprio, Tellervo Korhonen, Henry R Kranzler, Ken Krauter, Pol A C van Lier, Pamela A F Madden, Sarah E Medland, Michael C Neale, Wim H J Meeus, Grant W Montgomery, Ilja M Nolte, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Zdenka Pausova, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Vanesa Richarte, Richard J Rose, Jean Shin, Michael C Stallings, Tamara L Wall, Jennifer J Ware, Margaret J Wright, Hongyu Zhao, Hans M Koot, Tomas Paus, John K Hewitt, Marta Ribasés, Anu Loukola, Marco P Boks, Harold Snieder, Marcus R Munafò, Joel Gelernter, Dorret I Boomsma, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie, Jacqueline M Vink, Eske M Derks
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identify associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8,055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried-out a genome wide survival meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24,953 individuals from nine European, North American, and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3,735 individuals...
July 13, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989293/harnessing-the-placebo-effect-a-promising-method-for-curbing-the-opioid-crisis
#5
LETTER
Michael H Bernstein, Molly Magill, Francesca L Beaudoin, Sara Becker, Josiah D Rich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989286/trends-and-characteristics-of-naloxone-therapy-reported-to-u-s-poison-centers
#6
Saumitra V Rege, Duc Anh Ngo, Nassima Ait-Daoud, Sana Sharma, Evan Verplancken, Christopher P Holstege
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the US, access to naloxone has been expanded as a measure to address the growing opioid overdose mortality. The study aimed to describe national trends in naloxone use as reported to the U.S. poison centers (PCs). METHODS: The National Poison Data System (NPDS) was queried for cases reporting naloxone therapy from 01/01/00 through 12/31/16. Demographic and clinical characteristics were descriptively assessed. Trends in naloxone reports were evaluated by using generalized linear mixed models that were adjusted for age, gender and random effects of the geographical census region...
July 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989282/competing-global-statistics-on-prevalence-of-injecting-drug-use-why-does-it-matter-and-what-can-be-done
#7
EDITORIAL
Matt Hickman, Sarah Larney, Amy Peacock, Hayley Jones, Jason Grebely, Louisa Degenhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989247/post-marketing-studies-of-pharmaceutical-opioid-abuse-deterrent-formulations-a-framework-for-research-design-and-reporting
#8
Amy Peacock, Briony Larance, Raimondo Bruno, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Nicholas A Buckley, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid formulations with properties to deter abuse (abuse-deterrent formulations; ADFs) have been developed as one response to the prescription opioid 'epidemic'. As for all medicines, ADFs undergo evaluation of safety and efficacy prior to registration for marketing. Yet, reduced extra-medical use (the primary intended outcome of ADFs and reason for their introduction) can only be established in post-marketing observational studies, comparing them to opioid formulations without abuse-deterrent properties...
July 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989239/medical-cannabis-legalization-and-opioid-prescriptions-evidence-on-us-medicaid-enrollees-during-1993-2014
#9
Di Liang, Yuhua Bao, Mark Wallace, Igor Grant, Yuyan Shi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While the US has been experiencing an opioid epidemic, 29 states and Washington DC have legalized cannabis for medical use. This study examined whether statewide medical cannabis legalization was associated with reduction in opioids received by Medicaid enrollees. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of state-level opioid prescription records from 1993-2014 Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data. Linear time-series regressions assessed the associations between medical cannabis legalization and opioid prescriptions, controlling for state-level time-varying policy covariates (such as prescription drug monitoring programs) and socioeconomic covariates (such as income)...
July 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974569/addiction-lives-betsy-thom
#10
EDITORIAL
Virginia Berridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974540/women-s-role-in-the-rise-in-drinking-in-australia-1950-1980-an-age-period-cohort-analysis-of-data-from-the-melbourne-collaborative-cohort-study
#11
Oliver Stanesby, Harindra Jayasekara, Sarah Callinan, Robin Room, Dallas English, Graham G Giles, Robert J MacInnis, Roger L Milne, Michael Livingston
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Australia as in many countries, alcohol consumption increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century, with increased availability of alcohol, relaxation of attitudes towards drinking, and shifting roles and opportunities for women as facilitating factors. We sought to investigate drinking trends by gender and birth cohort in Australia during this period. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENTS: Using the usual frequency and quantity of beverage-specific alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20, retrospectively reported from 40,789 participants aged 40-69 years (born 1920-1949) at recruitment to the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study in 1990-1994, we compared trends in alcohol consumption by sex in Australia between 1950 and 1990...
July 5, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972623/new-zealand-court-dismisses-ministry-of-health-case-against-heat-not-burn-tobacco-products-highlighting-the-need-to-future-proof-tobacco-control-laws
#12
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972609/audit-c-and-icd-codes-as-phenotypes-for-harmful-alcohol-use-association-with-adh1b-polymorphisms-in-two-u-s-populations
#13
Amy C Justice, Rachel V Smith, Janet P Tate, Kathleen McGinnis, Ke Xu, William C Becker, Kuang-Yao Lee, Kevin Lynch, Ning Sun, John Concato, David A Fiellin, Hongyu Zhao, Joel Gelernter, Henry R Kranzler
Background and Aims Longitudinal electronic health record (EHR) data offer a large-scale, untapped source of phenotypic information on harmful alcohol use. Using established, alcohol-associated variants in the gene that encodes the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) as criterion standards, we compared the individual and combined validity of three longitudinal EHR-based phenotypes of harmful alcohol use: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) trajectories; mean age-adjusted AUDIT-C; and diagnoses of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)...
July 4, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968397/moderation-of-baclofen-response-by-a-gaba-b-receptor-polymorphism-results-from-the-bacald-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Kirsten C Morley, Natasha Luquin, Andrew Baillie, Isabel Fraser, Ronald J Trent, Glenys Dore, Nghi Phung, Paul S Haber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Baclofen has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent individuals, but there is marked heterogeneity in response. An association between GABBR1 rs29220 and alcohol dependence has been demonstrated previously. The present study evaluated whether the response to baclofen is moderated by a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs29220) in the GABAB receptor subunit 1 gene (GABBR1). DESIGN: double-blind, placebo-controlled study SETTING: AUSTRALIA: PARTICIPANTS: 72 alcohol-dependent men and women INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: 12 weeks of 30 mg/day of baclofen, 75 mg baclofen or placebo...
July 3, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953686/inconsistencies-in-the-assumptions-linking-punitive-sanctions-and-use-of-cannabis-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-europe
#15
EDITORIAL
Brendan Hughes, João Matias, Paul Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952052/predatory-monetization-schemes-in-video-games-e-g-loot-boxes-and-internet-gaming-disorder
#16
EDITORIAL
Daniel L King, Paul H Delfabbro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949658/multi-level-analysis-of-alcohol-related-injury-societal-drinking-pattern-and-alcohol-control-policy-emergency-department-data-from-28-countries
#17
Cheryl J Cherpitel, Jane Witbrodt, Rachael A Korcha, Yu Ye, Bridget Kool, Maristela Monteiro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Societal-level volume and pattern of drinking and alcohol control policy have received little attention in the alcohol and injury literature. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between alcohol-related injury, individual-level drinking variables, country-level detrimental drinking pattern and alcohol policy. DESIGN: Probability samples of emergency department (ED) patients from the International Collaborative Alcohol and Injury Study (ICAIS), which includes four collaborative ED studies on alcohol and injury, all using a similar methodology, are analyzed with multilevel modeling of individual-level drinking variables and aggregate-level variables (country drinking pattern and alcohol policy) on alcohol-related injury in 33 ED studies...
June 27, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949213/the-therapeutic-potential-of-kratom
#18
LETTER
Oliver Grundmann, Paula N Brown, Jack Henningfield, Marc Swogger, Zach Walsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920850/the-need-for-more-research-and-considered-debate-regarding-women-s-only-treatment-services-a-comment-on-neale-et-al-2018
#19
LETTER
Carolyn A Day, Heidi Coupland, Maja Moensted, Lucy Burns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920842/carbonyl-emissions-from-a-novel-heated-tobacco-product-iqos-comparison-with-an-e-cigarette-and-a-tobacco-cigarette
#20
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Nikoletta Yannovits, Theoni Sarri, Vassilis Voudris, Konstantinos Poulas, Scott Leischow
AIMS: To measure carbonyl emissions from a heated tobacco product (IQOS) in comparison with an e-cigarette (Nautilus Mini) and a commercial tobacco cigarette (Marlboro Red). DESIGN: Regular and menthol variants of the heated tobacco product were tested. A tank-type atomizer was tested with a tobacco-flavoured liquid at 10 W and 14 W. Aerosol and smoke were collected in impingers containing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Health Canada Intense and two more intense puffing regimes were used...
June 19, 2018: Addiction
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