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Matthew C Aalsma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: Addiction
Jade Boyd, Alexandra B Collins, Samara Mayer, Lisa Maher, Thomas Kerr, Ryan McNeil
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: North America's overdose epidemic is increasingly driven by fentanyl and fentanyl-adulterated drugs. Supervised consumption sites, including low-threshold models (termed overdose prevention sites; OPS), are now being debated in the United States and implemented in Canada. Despite evidence that gendered and racialized violence shape access to harm reduction among women who use drugs (WWUD), this has not been examined in relation to OPS and amid the overdose epidemic...
September 13, 2018: Addiction
Tea Skaaby, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Amy E Taylor, Yuvaraj Mahendran, Andrew Wong, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Lavinia Paternoster, Stella Trompet, David J Stott, Claudia Flexeder, Ang Zhou, Guy Brusselle, Ayesha Sajjad, Lies Lahousse, Henning Tiemeier, Christian Theil Have, Betina H Thuesen, Line Lund Kårhus, Line Tang Møllehave, Katja Biering Leth-Møller, Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Arturo Gonzalez-Quintela, Chris Power, Elina Hyppönen, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Thomas Meitinger, J Wouter Jukema, Uwe Völker, Matthias Nauck, Henry Völzke, Nele Friedrich, Tobias N Bonten, Raymond Noordam, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Janne S Tolstrup, Christian Taube, Annette Peters, Harald Grallert, Konstantin Strauch, Holger Schulz, Niels Grarup, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Stephen Burgess, Marcus R Munafò, Allan Linneberg
AIMS: To use the rs1229984 variant associated with alcohol consumption as an instrument for alcohol consumption to test the causality of the association of alcohol consumption with hay fever, asthma, allergic sensitization, and serum total IgE. DESIGN: Observational and Mendelian randomization analyses using genetic variants as unbiased markers of exposure to estimate causal effects, subject to certain assumptions. SETTING: Europe. PARTICIPANTS: We included a total of 466434 persons aged 15-82 years from 17 population-based studies conducted from 1997-2015...
September 12, 2018: Addiction
Gerhard Bühringer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Addiction
Carlos Nordt, Marc Vogel, Michelle Dey, Andreas Moldovanyi, Thilo Beck, Toni Berthel, Marc Walter, Erich Seifritz, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Marcus Herdener
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is currently the most effective treatment for people with opioid dependence. In most countries, however, access to the whole range of effective medications is restricted. This study aims to model the distribution of different OAT medications within a naturalistic and relatively unrestricted treatment setting (Zurich, Switzerland) over time, and to identify patient characteristics associated with each medication. METHODS: We used generalized estimating equation analysis with data from the OAT register of Zurich and the Swiss register for heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) to model and forecast the annual proportion of opioids applying exponential distributions until 2018 and patient characteristics between 1992 and 2015...
September 12, 2018: Addiction
Nathan Smith, Silvia S Martins, June Kim, Ariadne Rivera-Aguirre, David S Fink, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Stephen G Henry, Stephen J Mooney, Brandon D L Marshall, Corey Davis, Magdalena Cerda
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), defined as state-level databases used in the USA that collect prescribing information when controlled substances are dispensed, have varied substantially between states and over time. Little is known about the combinations of PDMP features that, collectively, may produce the greatest impact on prescribing and overdose. We aimed to (1) identify the types of PDMP models that have developed from 1999 to 2016, (2) estimate whether states have transitioned across PDMP models over time, and (3) examine whether states have adopted different types of PDMP models in response to the burden of opioid overdose...
September 11, 2018: Addiction
Katie Witkiewitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Addiction
Tara M Brinkman, E Anne Lown, Chenghong Li, Ingrid Tonning Olsson, Jordan Gilleland Marchak, Margaret L Stuber, Stefanie Vuotto, Deokumar Srivastava, Paul C Nathan, Wendy Leisenring, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Kevin R Krull
AIMS: To estimate the level of alcohol consumption behaviors in adult survivors of childhood cancer and to test associations between alcohol consumption behaviors and symptoms of neurocognitive impairment and emotional distress. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up of self-reported health outcomes. SETTING: Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a 26-center study of >5 year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed <21 years of age between 1970 and 1986 in the United States and Canada...
September 8, 2018: Addiction
Christopher M Jones, Elinore F McCance-Katz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Expanding access to medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine is a cornerstone of the opioid crisis response; yet, buprenorphine remains underutilized. Research has identified multiple barriers to prescribing buprenorphine. This study aimed to examine clinician characteristics, prescribing practices, and barriers and incentives to prescribing buprenorphine among clinicians with a federal Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA) waiver to prescribe buprenorphine for opioid use disorder treatment...
September 8, 2018: Addiction
Michael Amlung, Derek D Reed, Vanessa Morris, Elizabeth R Aston, Jane Metrik, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The evolving legal status of cannabis worldwide necessitates evidence-based regulatory policies to minimize risks associated with cannabis misuse. A prominent concern is the impact legalization may have on the illegal cannabis market, including whether illegal cannabis will serve as a substitute for legal cannabis. Empirical data on this issue are virtually nonexistent. This study used behavioral economcis to investigate substitutability of legal and illegal cannabis in legalized catchment areas in the U...
September 8, 2018: Addiction
Omara Dogar, Raana Zahid, Sonia Mansoor, Mona Kanaan, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Mohammed Jawad, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a growing public health concern. There is limited research using pharmacotherapy and no research using varenicline (established treatment for smoking cessation) in waterpipe-smokers. We tested the efficacy of varenicline in achieving abstinence from all tobacco use among waterpipe-smokers. DESIGN: Two-arm, parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-centre (n=4), individually randomised trial with follow-up to 25 weeks...
September 6, 2018: Addiction
Theresa L Osypuk, Spruha Joshi, Nicole M Schmidt, M Maria Glymour, Toben F Nelson
AIMS: To test how a housing voucher generating residential mobility to lower-poverty neighborhoods, compared with public housing controls, influenced adolescent binge drinking, and whether gender modified effects. DESIGN: A multi-site household-level three-arm randomized trial of a housing intervention executed 1994-98, evaluated 2001-02. SETTING: Five US cities: Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and New York, NY. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3537 adolescents in 4248 low-income eligible families were randomized; 2829 adolescents were analyzed at the interim evaluation (1950 in treatment; 879 in the control group)...
September 6, 2018: Addiction
Amy O'Donnell, Michelle Addison, Liam Spencer, Heike Zurhold, Moritz Rosenkranz, Ruth McGovern, Eilish Gilvarry, Marcus-Sebastian Martens, Uwe Verthein, Eileen Kaner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is limited evidence on what shapes Amphetamine Type Stimulant (ATS) use trajectories. This systematic narrative review and qualitative synthesis aimed to identify individual, social and environmental influences shaping key phases in the ATS use trajectory: initiation, continuation, increase/relapse, and decrease/abstinence. METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and PROQUEST (social science premium collection) were searched from 2000-2018...
September 3, 2018: Addiction
Cindy L Ehlers, David A Gilder, Ian R Gizer, Kirk Wilhelmsen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The emergence of negative affective symptoms over the course of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) (e.g. "dark side symptoms") has been suggested theoretically,; however, the description of their occurrence is limited. This study operationalized two negative affect symptoms and tested the strength of association between these phenotypes and 1) indicators of the clinical course of the severity of AUD, 2) comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorders, suicidal behaviors, and trait neuroticism, and 3) whether participants reported drinking to relieve the negative affective symptoms...
August 28, 2018: Addiction
Erin Kelty, Duong Tran, Tina Lavin, David B Preen, Gary Hulse, Alys Havard
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of exposure to acamprosate in pregnancy in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to compare the maternal health of women exposed to acamprosate during pregnancy with non-exposed women, and to compare neonatal outcomes in neonates exposed to acamprosate in utero with non-exposed neonates. DESIGN: A population-based retrospective cohort study, comparing maternal and neonatal health outcomes in women exposed to acamprosate during pregnancy with women with a recent history of problematic alcohol use (alcohol comparison group), and women from the general community (community comparison group) using state-wide linked health data...
August 27, 2018: Addiction
Craig Gunn, Marlou Mackus, Chris Griffin, Marcus R Munafò, Sally Adams
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies examining the next-day cognitive effects of heavy alcohol consumption have produced mixed findings, which may reflect inconsistencies in definitions of 'hangover'. Recent consensus has defined hangover as 'mental and physical symptoms, experienced the day after a single episode of heavy drinking, starting when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) approaches zero'. In light of this, we aimed to review the literature systematically to evaluate and estimate mean effect sizes of the next-day effects of heavy alcohol consumption on cognition...
August 25, 2018: Addiction
Aveek Bhattacharya, Colin Angus, Robert Pryce, John Holmes, Alan Brennan, Petra S Meier
AIMS: To understand the extent of the alcohol industry's financial dependence on drinking above government low-risk guidelines in England. DESIGN: Scenario modelling using descriptive analyses of pooled data from the 2013 and 2014 waves of two nationally representative surveys: the Health Survey for England (HSE) and the Living Costs and Food Survey (LCF). We estimated the proportion of alcohol sales revenue accounted for by drinkers above guideline levels, and how this varies between different beverage and retailer types...
August 22, 2018: Addiction
Murat Yücel, Erin Oldenhof, Serge Ahmed, David Belin, Joel Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Adrian Carter, Samuel R Chamberlain, Luke Clark, Jason Connor, Mark Daglish, Geert Dom, Pinhas Dannon, Theodora Duka, Maria Jose Fernandez-Serrano, Matt Field, Ingmar Franken, Rita Z Goldstein, Raul Gonzalez, Anneke Goudriaan, Jon E Grant, Matthew J Gullo, Rob Hester, David Hodgins, Bernard Le Foll, Rico S C Lee, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Valentina Lorenzetti, Scott J Moeller, Marcus R Munafò, Brian Odlaug, Marc N Potenza, Rebecca Segrave, Zsuzsika Sjoerds, Nadia Solowij, Wim van den Brink, Ruth J Van Holst, Valerie Voon, Reinout Wiers, Leonardo F Fontenelle, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness symptoms and diagnoses. The RDoC framework comprises 39 functional constructs designed to be revised and refined, with the overall goal to improve diagnostic validity and treatments. This study aimed to reach a consensus among experts in the addiction field on the 'primary' RDoC constructs most relevant to substance and behavioural addictions...
August 22, 2018: Addiction
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