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Pia Horvat, Denes Stefler, Michael Murphy, Lawrence King, Martin McKee, Martin Bobak
AIMS: To assess the relationship between alcohol intake frequency and mortality among males and females in three Eastern European populations, and to estimate the additional mortality risk posed by a combination of frequent drinking, binge drinking and other hazardous drinking habits. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; the cohort consisted of close relatives of survey participants. SETTING: Middle-sized settlements in Russia, Belarus and Hungary...
February 15, 2018: Addiction
Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Roman Gabrhelík, Anders Engeland, Marte Handal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is recommended to opioid dependent females during pregnancy. However, it is not clear which medication should be preferred. We aimed to compare neonatal outcomes after prenatal exposure to methadone (M) and buprenorphine (B) in two European countries. DESIGN: Nationwide register-based cohort study using personalized IDs assigned to all citizens for data linkage. SETTING: The Czech Republic (2000-2014) and Norway (2004-2013)...
February 14, 2018: Addiction
Jalie A Tucker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Addiction
Christopher J Ruhm
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most prior estimates of opioid-involved drug poisoning mortality counts or rates are understated because the specific drugs leading to death are frequently not identified on death certificates. This analysis provides corrected national estimates of opioid and heroin/synthetic opioid-involved counts and mortality rates, as well as changes over time in them from 1999 to 2015. METHODS: Data on drug poisoning deaths to US residents from 1999 to 2015, obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD) files, were used with the drugs involved in fatal overdoses imputed when not identified on the death certificates...
February 12, 2018: Addiction
Charlotte Anraad, Kei-Long Cheung, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Lesley Owen, Robert West, Hein de Vries, Silvia M Evers, Subhash Pokhrel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increasing the reach of smoking cessation services and/or including new but effective medications to the current provision may provide significant health and economic benefits; the scale of such benefits is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness from a health-care perspective of viable national level changes in smoking cessation provision in the Netherlands and England. METHODS: A Markov-based state transition model [European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD)] was used to estimate costs and benefits [expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALY)] of changing the current provision of smoking cessation programmes in the Netherlands and England...
February 11, 2018: Addiction
Robert K Jackler, Noel F Ayoub
BACKGROUND AND AIM: During the mid-20th century tobacco companies placed advertisements in medical journals to entice physicians to smoke their brand and, more importantly, to recommend it to their patients. They have been little studied, in part because advertising sections in medical journals are almost universally discarded before binding. This study aimed to define the themes and techniques used in doctor-targeted tobacco advertisements that appeared in American medical journals in the mid-20th century and determine the motivations and tactics of the tobacco industry in engaging the medical profession in this way...
February 7, 2018: Addiction
Hua-Hie Yong, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, Timea Partos
AIMS: To estimate predictors of time to smoking relapse and test if prediction varied by quit duration. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort data from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country survey with annual follow up collected between 2002 and 2015. SETTING: Canada, US, UK and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9,171 eligible adult smokers who made at least one quit attempt over the study period. MEASUREMENTS: Time to relapse was the main outcome...
February 6, 2018: Addiction
Rebecca McKetin, Dan I Lubman, Amanda Baker, Sharon Dawe, Joanne Ross, Richard P Mattick, Louisa Degenhardt
AIMS: To estimate the extent to which specific sexual behaviours (being sexually active, having multiple sex partners, casual sex, condomless casual sex, anal sex, and condomless anal sex) change during periods of methamphetamine use. DESIGN: Within-person estimates for the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual behaviour were derived from longitudinal panel data from the MATES cohort (2006 to 2010). SETTING: Sydney and Brisbane, Australia...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
L R Vaz, M J Jones, L Szatkowski, L J Tata, S Petrou, T Coleman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about the long term economic consequences of smoking during pregnancy. We estimated the association between smoking in pregnancy and the costs of delivering healthcare to infants and children in England, and investigated which aspects of care are the key drivers of these costs. METHODS: We used Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) linked with Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) data in England from January 2003 until January 2015 in children with longitudinal data for at least one, five and ten years after birth...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
Brantley P Jarvis, August F Holtyn, Shrinidhi Subramaniam, D Andrew Tompkins, Emmanuel A Oga, George E Bigelow, Kenneth Silverman
AIMS: To review systematically the published literature on extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol®), marketed as a once-per-month injection product to treat opioid use disorder. We addressed the following questions: (1) How successful is induction on XR-NTX?; (2) What are adherence rates to XR-NTX?; and (3) Does XR-NTX decrease opioid use? Factors associated with these outcomes as well as overdose rates were examined. METHODS: We searched PubMed and used Google Scholar for forward citation searches of peer-reviewed articles from January 2006 to June 2017...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
Nicolas Bertholet, Joseph Studer, John A Cunningham, Gerhard Gmel, Bernard Burnand, Jean-Bernard Daeppen
AIM: To estimate the long-term efficacy of an internet-based brief intervention (IBI) in decreasing alcohol use among men on 1.) number of drinks/week and 2.) monthly or more binge drinking prevalence. In addition, overall changes in alcohol use were assessed. DESIGN: Participants in a cohort study were recruited in a two parallel-group randomized controlled trial of an IBI versus no-intervention control condition, showing a positive intervention effect at 6 months...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
Jo-An Atkinson, Ante Prodan, Michael Livingston, Dylan Knowles, Eloise O'Donnell, Robin Room, Devon Indig, Andrew Page, Geoff McDonnell, John Wiggers
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on' and 'off' license venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol related harm...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
Laura J Rosen, Tal Galili, Jeffrey Kott, Mark Goodman, Laurence S Freedman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although smoking cessation medications have shown effectiveness in increasing abstinence in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is unclear to what extent benefits persist over time. This paper assesses whether the benefits of smoking cessation medications decline over the first year. METHODS: We selected studies from three systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Collaboration. RCTs of first-line smoking cessation medications, with 6- and 12-month follow-up, were eligible for inclusion...
January 29, 2018: Addiction
Bertalan Németh, Puttarin Kulchaitanaroaj, Adam Lester-George, Mirjana Huic, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Subhash Pokhrel, Zoltán Kaló
AIMS: To inform the transferability of tobacco control-related economic evidence to resource-poor countries. METHODS: We ran a univariate sensitivity analysis on a return on investment (ROI) model, the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), to identify key input values to which the ROI estimates were sensitive. The EQUIPTMOD used a Markov-based state transition model to estimate the ROI of several tobacco control interventions in five European countries (England, Germany, Spain, Hungary and the Netherlands)...
January 28, 2018: Addiction
Naji C Salloum, Melissa J Krauss, Arpana Agrawal, Laura J Bierut, Richard A Grucza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adolescents and young adults increasingly view cannabis as a relatively safe drug. Perception of risk associated with cannabis use is negatively correlated with the prevalence of use, but the causal nature of this association is debated. The aim of this study is to quantitate the reciprocal associations between cannabis use and risk perception in a longitudinal panel of emerging adults. DESIGN: Observational study of longitudinal data from the Monitoring the Future longitudinal study using auto-regressive cross-lagged panel analyses to investigate reciprocal associations between cannabis risk perception and frequency of past year cannabis use...
January 27, 2018: Addiction
Charlotte Probst, Jakob Manthey, Aaron Merey, Margaret Rylett, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use is among the most important risk factors for burden of disease globally. An estimated quarter of the total alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded. However, partly due to the challenges associated with its assessment, evidence on the magnitude of unrecorded alcohol use is sparse. This study estimated country-specific proportions of unrecorded alcohol used in 2015. DESIGN: A statistical model was developed for data prediction using data on the country-specific proportion of unrecorded alcohol use from nominal group expert assessments and secondary, nationally representative survey data and country-level covariates...
January 27, 2018: Addiction
Frank de Vocht, Jamie Brown, Emma Beard, Robert West, Susan Michie, Rona Campbell, Matthew Hickman
AIMS: To assess how far motivation to reduce alcohol consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England predicts self-reported attempts to reduce alcohol consumption and changes in alcohol intake during the following 6 months. METHODS: This study used self-reported data from 2928 higher-risk drinkers in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS): a series of monthly cross-sectional household surveys of adults aged 16+ years of age in England. Alcohol consumption was measured in an initial survey and in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C questionnaire...
January 25, 2018: Addiction
Bertalan Németh, Judit Józwiak-Hagymásy, Gábor Kovács, Attila Kovács, Tibor Demjén, Manuel B Huber, Kei-Long Cheung, Kathryn Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Subhash Pokhrel, Zoltán Vokó
AIMS: To evaluate potential health and economic returns from implementing smoking cessation interventions in Hungary. METHODS: The EQUIPTMOD, a Markov-based economic model, was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of three implementation scenarios: (a) introducing a social marketing campaign; (b) doubling the reach of existing group-based behavioural support therapies and proactive telephone support; and (c) a combination of the two scenarios. All three scenarios were compared with current practice...
January 25, 2018: Addiction
Joanne Neale, Charlotte N E Tompkins, Alison D Marshall, Carla Treloar, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Women-only addiction services tend to be provided on a poorly evidenced assumption that women want single-sex treatment. We draw upon women's expectations and experiences of women-only residential rehabilitation to stimulate debate on this issue. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 19 women aged 25-44 years [currently in treatment (n = 9), successfully completed treatment (n = 5), left treatment prematurely (n = 5)]. All had histories of physical or sexual abuse, and relapses linked to relationships with men...
January 24, 2018: Addiction
Stefan Christensen, Peter Buggisch, Stefan Mauss, Klaus H W Böker, Eckart Schott, Hartwig Klinker, Tim Zimmermann, Bernd Weber, Jens Reimer, Yvonne Serfert, Heiner Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is limited real-world information on the effectiveness of antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in people on opioid substitution therapy (OST). This study compared sustained virological response (SVR) rates and proportion of lost to follow-up (LTFU) between OST and non-OST patients in the German Hepatitis C-Registry (DHC-R). DESIGN: National multi-centre prospective real-world registry (German Hepatitis C-Registry, DHC-R)...
January 23, 2018: Addiction
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