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Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957655/adaptive-remodeling-of-renal-na-and-k-transport-during-pregnancy
#1
Aline M A de Souza, Crystal A West
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal ion transport undergoes dramatic changes during the course of gestation. These adaptations are necessary to meet the dynamic requirements of pregnancy and support fetal development. Pregnancy is characterized by a high demand for both sodium and potassium. Recently there has been work in the field profiling the modifications of the renal tubules in pregnancy to meet these demands. The purpose of this review is to summarize these findings. RECENT FINDINGS: The work to date suggests an important role for the distal nephron in both the renal sodium and potassium reabsorption during pregnancy...
June 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939850/emerging-therapeutic-options-for-management-of-anaemia-in-with-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Sehrish Ali, Natasha Dave, Sankar D Navaneethan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916852/epithelial-sodium-channel-biogenesis-and-quality-control-in-the-early-secretory-pathway
#3
Teresa M Buck, Jeffrey L Brodsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, is responsible for Na reabsorption in several epithelia and is composed of homologous α, β, and γ subunits. Here, we will explore the differential regulation of ENaC subunits during biogenesis in the early secretory pathway. RECENT FINDINGS: ENaC subunits are subject to numerous posttranslational modifications, including glycosylation, protease activation, disulfide bond formation, palmitoylation, and glycosylation, each of which modulate channel function...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905580/iron-therapy-for-managing-anaemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Iain C Macdougall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Iron deficiency is a major contributory cause to the development of anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and thus, iron replacement therapy plays a critical role in the management of this condition. The two main routes for administering iron are oral and intravenous, and there have been a number of new publications relevant to both routes of administration. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments on the topic of iron management in CKD include the introduction of new oral iron preparations, as well as two recent meta-analyses on iron therapy in CKD (one on oral versus intravenous iron, and one on high- versus low-dose intravenous iron in haemodialysis patients)...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894319/distal-tubule-basolateral-potassium-channels-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-regulation
#5
Oleg Palygin, Oleh Pochynyuk, Alexander Staruschenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and translational evidence support benefits of high potassium diet; however, there many uncertainties underlying the molecular and cellular mechanisms determining effects of dietary potassium. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 proteins form a functional heteromer (Kir4.1/Kir5.1), which is the primary inwardly rectifying potassium channel on the basolateral membrane of both distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the collecting duct principal cells. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize latest advances in our understanding of the evolution, physiological relevance and mechanisms controlling these channels...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847322/activin-receptor-ligand-traps-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Wolfgang Jelkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sotatercept and luspatercept are recombinant soluble activin type-II receptor-IgG-Fc fusion proteins that are tested in clinical trials for the treatment of various types of anemias, including renal anemia. The mechanism of the action of the novel drugs is incompletely understood, but it seems to be based on the inactivation of soluble proteins of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) family. This review considers pros and cons of the clinical use of the drugs in reference to the current therapy with recombinant erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs)...
May 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846220/will-there-still-be-a-role-for-the-originator-erythropoiesis-simulating-agents-after-the-biosimilars-and-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-stabilizers-approval
#7
Francesco Locatelli, Lucia Del Vecchio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss if there will still be a role for the originator ESAs after the already available biosimilars and the approval of HIF stabilizers in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: Current treatment with erythropoiesis-simulating agents (ESAs) is effective and generally well tolerated, but requires parenteral injections. It is also surrounded by safety concerns and is still expensive. Functional iron deficiency is the major obstacle for efficient ESA therapy...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746307/erythropoietin-mimetic-peptides-and-erythropoietin-fusion-proteins-for-treating-anemia-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Nupur Gupta, Jay B Wish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First generation erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have short duration of action which requires administration once weekly or greater. Second generation ESAs were developed which have longer duration of action and can be administered one to two times monthly. Erythropoietin (EPO) mimetic peptides (EMPs) activate the EPO receptor but have no structural analogy to EPO, offering the potential for lower cost as they are not biologic drugs. The first approved EMP, peginesatide, was withdrawn from the market within a year of its approval because of fatal anaphylactic reactions...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851418/%C3%AE-klotho-s-effects-on-mineral-homeostasis-are-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-dependent
#9
Reinhold G Erben
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: α-Klotho (Klotho) occurs in three isoforms, a membrane-bound form acting as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) signalling, a shed soluble form consisting of Klotho's large ectodomain thought to act as an enzyme or a hormone, and a secreted truncated form generated by alternative splicing of the Klotho mRNA with unknown function. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in our understanding of Klotho's function in mineral homeostasis...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847376/the-systems-biology-of-uric-acid-transporters-the-role-of-remote-sensing-and-signaling
#10
Sanjay K Nigam, Vibha Bhatnagar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uric acid homeostasis in the body is mediated by a number of SLC and ABC transporters in the kidney and intestine, including several multispecific 'drug' transporters (e.g., OAT1, OAT3, and ABCG2). Optimization of uric acid levels can be viewed as a 'systems biology' problem. Here, we consider uric acid transporters from a systems physiology perspective using the framework of the 'Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis.' This hypothesis explains how SLC and ABC 'drug' and other transporters mediate interorgan and interorganismal communication (e...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782346/claudins-and-nephrolithiasis
#11
Allein Plain, R Todd Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The greatest risk factor for kidney stone formation is increased urinary calcium excretion. Most filtered calcium is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop via a paracellular pathway. Claudins are tight junction proteins that confer the permeability properties of an epithelium. We review the contribution of renal claudins to nephron calcium permeability and how perturbations in these pathways cause alterations in tubular calcium transport, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, or nephrolithiasis...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781842/application-of-echocardiographic-data-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Ruth F Dubin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a high risk for cardiovascular events and mortality, particularly heart failure. Echocardiography is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modality for heart failure. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent literature that demonstrates how echocardiography may be used to define cardiac structure and function in the CKD population and to identify echocardiographic abnormalities that have utility in predicting clinical outcomes in this population...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771702/pathogenesis-of-cerebral-edema-in-patients-with-acute-renal-and-liver-failure-and-the-role-of-the-nephrologist-in-the-management
#13
Tamim Hamdi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and complex illness and one of the most daunting conditions managed in the ICU. Because the renal care is intertwined with multiple disciplines, the aim of this review is to examine the multifactorial pathogenesis of cerebral edema in ALF, covering basic established facts as well as recent advances in our understanding of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Acetaminophen remains the most common cause of ALF in the United States and many European countries...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746306/source-and-microenvironmental-regulation-of-erythropoietin-in-the-kidney
#14
Karen A Nolan, Roland H Wenger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically, the identity of O2-sensing renal erythropoietin (Epo)-producing (REP) cells was a matter of debate. This review summarizes how recent breakthroughs in transgenic mouse and in-situ hybridization techniques have facilitated sensitive and specific detection of REP cells and accelerated advancements in the understanding of the regulation of renal Epo production in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: REP cells are a dynamically regulated unique subpopulation of tubulointerstitial cells with features of fibroblasts, pericytes and neurons...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702492/management-of-stones-and-bones-reduction-of-uncertainty-through-research
#15
Tamara Isakova, David A Bushinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702491/acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-transition-insufficient-cellular-stress-response
#16
Sarah A Strausser, Daisuke Nakano, Tomokazu Souma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent epidemiological and preclinical mechanistic studies provide strong evidence that acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) form an interconnected syndrome. Injured kidneys undergo a coordinated reparative process with an engagement of multiple cell types after injury; however, maladaptation to the injury subjects kidneys to a vicious cycle of fibrogenesis and nephron loss. In this review, we will outline and discuss the pathogenesis of AKI-to-CKD transition with an emphasis on dysregulated 'cellular stress adaptation' as a potential therapeutic target...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702490/rationale-to-reduce-calcium-intake-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Sharon M Moe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Calcium is an essential ion for the maintenance of normal bone health and physiologic functions. The extracellular and intracellular levels of calcium are maintained through hormonal regulation called homeostasis. Balance, the net intake minus excretion of calcium, is maintained by hormonal regulation of intestinal absorption and fecal/urinary excretion. Homeostasis and balance are disconnected in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this review is to understand how calcium homeostasis and balance are impaired in CKD...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697410/role-of-klotho-in-bone-and-implication-for-ckd
#18
Hirotaka Komaba, Beate Lanske
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Klotho is a transmembrane protein that acts as a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Recent investigations have discovered the presence of Klotho in bone-forming osteoblasts and osteocytes. This review summarizes emerging literature on the roles of bone Klotho in mineral and bone metabolism and discusses their possible involvement in renal osteodystrophy. RECENT FINDINGS: Mouse genetic studies have demonstrated that loss of Klotho in osteocytes leads to increased bone formation and bone volume...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697409/beginnings-of-nephrolithiasis-insights-into-the-past-present-and-future-of-randall-s-plaque-formation-research
#19
Scott V Wiener, Sunita P Ho, Marshall L Stoller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney stones form as a result of heterogeneous nucleation on a calcium phosphate lesion in the renal papilla known as Randall's plaque. Stone disease has plagued humans for millennia with relatively little progress made in the realm of prevention. An understanding of the historical aspects of research into Randall's plaque is necessary to interpret novel correlative imaging discoveries. Focus for the past several decades has been on the distal papillary tip, and the overlooked Anderson-Carr-Randall progression is revitalized with novel supporting evidence...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677006/evidence-basis-for-integrated-management-of-mineral-metabolism-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#20
Julia J Scialla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of mineral metabolism is a mainstay of dialysis care including some of its most widely used and costly pharmaceuticals. Although many mineral metabolites are associated with increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and other morbidities, few clinical trials are available to guide therapy and most focus on single drug approaches. In practice, providers manage many aspects of mineral metabolism simultaneously in integrated treatment approaches that incorporate multiple agents and changes in the dialysis prescription...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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