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Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922850/clinical-nephrology
#1
Bertrand L Jaber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922849/renal-denervation-for-uncontrolled-hypertension-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#2
Chongjia Chen, Ashish Upadhyay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is a major global public health problem. Endovascular catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of renal sympathetic nerve endings (renal denervation) is a novel treatment option for uncontrolled HTN. RECENT FINDINGS: Early clinical studies primarily in Australia and Europe established renal denervation as a well tolerated and feasible procedure that resulted in a sustained reduction in blood pressure among individuals with severe resistant HTN...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906749/sodium-and-potassium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-focus-on-the-brain
#3
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary hypertension is characterized by Na excess and K deficit in the body, which together are key to its pathogenesis. These derangements work jointly in the brain and the peripheral vascular wall to establish hypertension. In this review, we highlight recent evidence describing the central mechanisms through which Na surfeit and K deficit enhance sympathetic nerve activity, thereby raising peripheral vascular resistance and generating hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies point to a small increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Na], a small decrease in CSF [K], and increased levels of circulating angiotensin II, aldosterone, and endogenous ouabain as the central signals evoking hypertension...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906748/evolving-therapies-for-hepatitis-c-virus-in-chronic-kidney-disease-the-beginning-of-a-new-era
#4
Craig E Gordon, Claudia Nader
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection using new classes of agents, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), with a focus on the evidence for their use in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4-5, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: DAA agents target-specific proteins involved in the hepatitis C virus life cycle and interrupt viral replication. Sustained virologic response, a marker of viral eradication, occurs in more than 90% of patients treated with DAA agents in the general population...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#5
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906746/recent-developments-on-the-vascular-effects-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid
#6
Victor Garcia, Michal L Schwartzman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a potent vasoactive eicosanoid and a key constituent of the microcirculation. Its effects on vascular function are multifaceted and include stimulation of smooth muscle, contractility, migration, and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation. Such effects have significant implications with regard to the control of vascular homeostasis and pathophysiology. The clinical relevance of 20-HETE is highlighted by recent studies linking 20-HETE and its biosynthetic enzymes to the development of hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898524/uromodulin-in-kidney-health-and-disease
#7
Pranav S Garimella, Mark J Sarnak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although uromodulin or Tamm-Horsfall protein was discovered over 60 years ago, its functional role in humans remains unclear. This review highlights new studies elucidating the clinical correlates of uromodulin, its association with kidney function decline, nephrolithiasis and urinary host defense. RECENT FINDINGS: Uromodulin is evolutionarily conserved and has multiple functional roles. In large population studies, higher levels of uromodulin are associated with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and kidney size, possibly indicating greater kidney functional reserve...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898523/role-of-corin-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#8
Hui Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898522/context-dependent-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#9
Edwin K Jackson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antidiabetic mechanism of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors is attributed to attenuation of incretin metabolism. Because DPP4 has at least 45 substrates, context-dependent off-target effects of DPP4 inhibitors are likely. Here, we consider the clinical ramifications of the context-dependent effects of DPP4 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Although incretins protect organs from diabetic injury, nonincretin DPP4 substrates also accumulate when DPP4 is inhibited...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898490/editorial-introductions
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820706/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-and-renoprotection-the-role-of-antifibrotic-effects
#11
Yuta Takagaki, Daisuke Koya, Keizo Kanasaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article analyzes the potential beneficial effects of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors on renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathological significance of DPP-4, either dependent or independent on catalytic activities, on renal diseases has been reported in preclinical studies. With regard to this, we have shown that damaged endothelial cells are converted to a mesenchymal cell phenotype, which is associated with the induction of DPP-4 in endothelial cells...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820705/use-of-stress-tests-in-evaluating-kidney-disease
#12
Jay L Koyner, Lakhmir S Chawla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The kidney, like most other organs, has a reserve capacity that can be utilized in times of increased physiologic demand. The ability to quantify this renal reserve function across various parts of the nephron (glomerular and tubular) has been an area of increased investigation over the past several years. In this review, we discuss several techniques that have been developed to interrogate the maximal physiologic capacity of the injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Although protein loading has been established as an ideal method to investigate glomerular filtration capacity in healthy kidneys, other methods such as the antagonism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have demonstrated promise as a method to determine underlying glomerular disease in those with acute kidney injury and other comorbidities (e...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798459/does-leptin-cause-an-increase-in-blood-pressure-in-animals-and-humans
#13
Stephanie E Simonds, Jack T Pryor, Michael A Cowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally. The risk for the development of CVDs is significantly increased in obesity. Leptin, the product of white adipose tissue, appears to contribute to the development of CVDs in obesity. Here, we discuss the premise that leptin engages the sympathetic nervous system and contributes to elevated blood pressure (BP) developing in obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The long-term regulation of BP is dependent on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and specifically the sympathetic nervous system...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798458/the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-and-the-kidney
#14
Antonio A B Peluso, Robson A S Santos, Thomas Unger, U Muscha Steckelings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiotensin II is a main regulator of kidney function. Renal actions mediated by the angiotensin AT1 receptor have been well known for many years. In contrast, several details of angiotensin AT2 receptor actions in kidney physiology and pathophysiology were only described very recently. These findings are reviewed in this article. RECENT FINDINGS: Regarding the role of the angiotensin AT2 receptor in kidney physiology, a major recent finding was that the AT2 receptor-mediated inhibition of Na-H exchanger-3 and Na/K-ATPase in the renal proximal tubules is caused by internalisation of these transporters, thus reducing reabsorption and increasing natriuresis/diuresis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798457/refractory-versus-resistant-hypertension
#15
Mohammed Siddiqui, David A Calhoun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Refractory hypertension is a recently proposed phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. As such it represents an extreme subtype of resistant or difficult-to-treat hypertension. Resistant hypertension is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is typically defined as having an uncontrolled blood pressure on three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Refractory hypertension is rare with a prevalence of approximately 5% of patients with uncontrolled resistant hypertension...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798456/future-considerations-based-on-the-information-from-barrter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndromes
#16
Hadas Alfandary, Daniel Landau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bartter and Gitelman syndromes are typical normotensive salt losing hypokalaemic tubulopathies. Their pathogenesis was gradually deciphered in the past 5 decades, first by typical salt balance studies and histopathology, followed by genetic characterization and discovery of the affected different ion channels. Although the different genotypic subtypes were originally thought to show a similar phenotype, important clinical and biochemical differences can now be found...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798455/the-gut-microbiome-and-hypertension
#17
Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Eran Blacher, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Eran Elinav
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mammalian mucosal surfaces are densely inhabited by a diverse microbial ecosystem termed the microbiota. Among these highly heterogeneous populations, the largest and richest is the gut microbiota, recently suggested to affect various physiological traits and susceptibility to disease. Novel metagenomic and metabolomic approaches, which have been developed in the past decade, have enabled the elucidation of the contribution of the microbiota to metabolic, immunologic, neurologic and endocrine homeostasis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755120/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-and-the-kidney
#18
Netanya Y Spencer, Robert C Stanton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755119/sympathetic-nerves-and-hypertension-in-stress-sleep-apnea-and-caregiving
#19
Michael G Ziegler, Milos Milic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) mediates short-term increases in blood pressure. Evidence that psychosocial stress leads to chronic hypertension is mixed. The SNS activation found in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), caregiving for a severely demented spouse, and obesity more specifically address whether SNS activation might lead to the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is associated with both increased SNS electrical activity and plasma norepinephrine...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753685/mineralocorticoid-antagonists-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Omar Al Dhaybi, George Bakris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current evidence showcases the pathologic effects of excess aldosterone in promoting glomerular and tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis through various pathways. The place for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: MRAs further reduce albuminuria and blood pressure in CKD patients when used in conjunction with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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