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Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622163/novel-roles-for-mucin-1-in-the-kidney
#1
Mohammad M Al-Bataineh, Rebecca P Hughey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies in the kidney have revealed that the well characterized tumor antigen mucin 1 (MUC1/Muc1) also has numerous functions in the normal and injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Mucin 1 is a transmembrane mucin with a robust glycan-dependent apical targeting signal and efficient recycling from endosomes. It was recently reported that the TRPV5 calcium channel is stabilized on the cell surface by galectin-dependent cross-linking to mucin 1, providing a novel mechanism for regulation of ion channels and normal electrolyte balance...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617689/paracellular-transport-and-energy-utilization-in-the-renal-tubule
#2
Alan S L Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614118/the-renal-response-to-potassium-stress-integrating-past-with-present
#3
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Arohan R Subramanya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review combines past findings with recent advances in our understanding of the homeostatic response to potassium imbalance. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the ingestion of a dietary potassium load, a combination of extrarenal and renal mechanisms act to maintain extracellular K+ within a tight window. Through hormonal regulation and direct K+ sensing, the nephron is ideally suited to respond to wide shifts in external K+ balance. Current evidence indicates that dietary K+ loading triggers a coordinated kaliuretic response that appears to involve voltage-dependent changes in sodium transport across multiple nephron segments, including the proximal tubule, medullary loop of Henle, and distal tubule...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614117/role-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-kidney-tubular-transport-metabolism-and-disease
#4
Roshan Rajani, Nuria M Pastor-Soler, Kenneth R Hallows
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor that regulates cellular energy balance, transport, growth, inflammation, and survival functions. This review explores recent work in defining the effects of AMPK on various renal tubular epithelial ion transport proteins as well as its role in kidney injury and repair in normal and disease states. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, several groups have uncovered additional functions of AMPK in the regulation of kidney and transport proteins...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614116/parathyroid-hormone-and-the-regulation-of-renal-tubular-calcium-transport
#5
Benjamin Ko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal tubule excretion of calcium is carefully and complexly regulated. At the center of this process, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the chief regulator of renal calcium reabsorption. This review outlines our current understanding of PTH's effects on renal tubular calcium transport, focusing on the more recent discoveries beyond its direct regulation of epithelial Ca channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) and looking at its interaction with sodium transport and the hormones fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614115/trafficking-and-regulation-of-the-nkcc2-cotransporter-in-the-thick-ascending-limb
#6
Kerim Mutig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The kidney Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is essential for urinary concentration and renal electrolyte handling. Loss of function mutations in the NKCC2 gene cause urinary salt and potassium wasting, whereas excessive NKCC2 function has been linked to high blood pressure. Loop diuretics, targeting the transporter, are instrumental for relieving edema or hypertension. This review focuses on intrinsic mechanisms regulating NKCC2 activity at the posttranslational level, namely its trafficking and phosphorylation...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598867/pathophysiology-of-antenatal-bartter-s-syndrome
#7
Martin Kömhoff, Kamel Laghmani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antenatal Bartter syndrome (aBS) is a heterogenous disease resulting from defective ion transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Novel insights into the pathophysiology, as well as the recent identification of a novel genetic cause of aBS, merit an update on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: In aBS, severe salt losing is further aggravated by defective salt sensing in the macula densa, where a reduced tubular salt concentration is perceived and glomerular filtration is increased instead of decreased...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582367/do-effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-diabetes-give-insight-into-potential-use-in-non-diabetic-kidney-disease
#8
Harindra Rajasekeran, David Z Cherney, Julie A Lovshin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our aim was to review the rationale for the role of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) as renoprotective therapy in patients with and without diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: SGLT-2i are antihyperglycemic agents, approved for treating type 2 diabetes to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, type A1c. Primary glucoregulatory effects occur through selective inhibition of SGLT-2 at the renal proximal tubule promoting glucosuria leading to blood glucose lowering...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548994/emerging-therapeutic-options-for-managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#9
Carl P Walther, Adam Whaley-Connell, Sankar D Navaneethan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538016/hypoxia-inducible-factor-activation-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#10
Patrik Persson, Fredrik Palm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tissue hypoxia is present in kidneys from diabetic patients and constitutes a central pathway to diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This review summarizes regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and interventions towards the same for treatment of DKD. RECENT FINDINGS: In the hypoxic diabetic kidney, HIF activity and the effects of HIF signaling seem to be cell-specific. In mesangial cells, elevated glucose levels induce HIF activity by a hypoxia-independent mechanism...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538015/the-kallikrein-kinin-system-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#11
Wenjuan Liu, Robert C Stanton, Zhaoyun Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus and accounts for a large proportion of clinical nephrology practice. Studies have shown that the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) may be involved in several pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to DKD, including oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and profibrotic autacoids. This review focuses on recent research advance on the potential role of the KKS in the development of DKD and its clinical relevance...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520568/endothelin-a-receptor-antagonists-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#12
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite optimal therapy of diabetic nephropathy with agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the residual risk of nephropathy progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains high. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential role of endothelin antagonism as a therapeutic tool to reduce residual proteinuria and delay kidney injury progression among patients with diabetic nephropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies have shown that endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) exert proteinuria lowering and nephroprotective actions in experimental models of diabetic nephropathy...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426518/pathophysiologic-insight-into-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#13
Magdalena Madero, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is an emerging pathophysiological entity of Chronic kidney desease (CKD) not related to traditional risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) that have caused thousands of deaths in Central America, mainly in sugarcane workers. The focus of this review is to discuss the risk factors and probable mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of this devastating disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Frequent episodes of subclinical Acute kidney injury caused by repetitive heat stress, dehydration, and strenuous work have been regarded as the main risk factors for MeN...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410252/molecular-modifiers-of-kidney-stones
#14
Bryan G Alamani, Jeffrey D Rimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the role of molecular modifiers as inhibitors of kidney stone formation, drawing largely from in-vitro evidence while also citing relevant in-vivo studies. An emphasis is placed on physical observations of crystal growth inhibition, including mechanisms of action that focus predominantly on the literature of calcium oxalate and L-cystine. RECENT FINDINGS: The last decade has witnessed several breakthroughs in the identification of molecules with promise to curb kidney stone formation, as well as discoveries of the mechanisms by which these molecules (or combinations thereof) function as inhibitors of pathological crystal growth...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403013/vasopressin-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Ronan Roussel, Gilberto Velho, Lise Bankir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is increasing worldwide. Despite major therapeutic advances in the last decades in DKD, the current standard of care let many people progress to severe stages. Vasopressin secretion is increased in diabetes, and its potential role in the onset and progression of DKD is being re-investigated. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, observational studies evidenced an association between surrogates of vasopressin secretion (daily fluid intake or urine volume, and plasma copeptin concentration) and chronic kidney disease in the community, but also specifically in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399022/palliative-and-end-of-life-care-in-nephrology-moving-from-observations-to-interventions
#16
Nwamaka D Eneanya, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Angelo Volandes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In comparison with patients who have other serious illnesses, patients with advanced kidney disease have a higher rate of intensive care utilization at the end of life and receive palliative care less frequently. Consensus and clinical practice guidelines have therefore recommended the incorporation of palliative care earlier in the disease trajectory. This review summarizes recent literature on this aspect of care and will highlight future directions for patient-centered care within palliative nephrology...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399021/an-update-on-the-treatment-of-iga-nephropathy
#17
Sean Barbour, John Feehally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been limited by several controversies in the literature, including the benefits of corticosteroids in addition to optimized renin-angiotensin system blockers (RASBs), in those with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), or in different ethnic groups. Recent studies have attempted to address these issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Two observational studies suggest the efficacy of corticosteroids in those with lower eGFR, but with a higher risk of adverse events...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399020/therapeutic-micrornas-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#18
Matanel Yheskel, Vishal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: microRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that function as sequence-specific inhibitors of gene expression. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage kidney failure with limited treatment options. The realization that miRNA upregulation, and thus its gain-of-function, can drive the progression of ADPKD has raised the possibility that anti-miRs represent a novel drug class for this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: A common set of miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in various murine models of polycystic kidney disease...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399019/pathophysiology-and-implications-of-intradialytic-hypertension
#19
Peter Noel Van Buren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intradialytic hypertension occurs regularly in 10--15% of hemodialysis patients. A large observational study recently showed that intradialytic hypertension of any magnitude increased mortality risk comparable to the most severe degrees of intradialytic hypotension. The present review review discusses the most recent evidence underlying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypertension and implications for its management. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with intradialytic hypertension typically have small interdialytic weight gains, but bioimpedance spectroscopy shows these patients have significant chronic extracellular volume excess...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399018/renal-arteriovenous-oxygen-shunting
#20
Willy Kuo, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal arteriovenous oxygen shunting has been proposed as a mechanism by which oxygen supplied to the kidney can bypass the renal parenchyma. Shunting could, therefore, play a crucial role in renal hypoxia and hyperoxia. In the absence of suitable quantitative experimental methods, computational modeling has been employed in recent years to estimate the extent and potential impact of oxygen shunting. RECENT FINDINGS: Overestimation of the separation distance between arteries and veins was suggested to be responsible for previous findings that only negligible amounts of oxygen are shunted in the preglomerular vasculature...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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