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Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902726/incremental-dialysis-review-of-recent-literature
#1
Thomas A Golper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are clinical, physiological, financial, and practical reasons to perform incremental hemodialysis in selected patients, incident to end-stage renal disease. Recent papers inform us further, especially in the large database studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Small studies suggested, then a larger study corroborated, that incremental hemodialysis was associated with preservation of residual kidney function whenever compared with conventional hemodialysis...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901990/the-impact-of-frailty-on-outcomes-in-dialysis
#2
John Sy, Kirsten L Johansen
: Advances in the assessment of frailty among dialysis patients have improved our understanding of the association between frailty and poor outcomes. We review recent studies that assess the association between frailty and mortality, falls and fractures, hospitalizations, cognitive impairment, and other less traditional outcomes. A greater understanding of these associations may provide more accurate prognostic information, allow tailored interventions, and improve discussions between patients and providers about the risks and benefits of the dialysis procedure...
September 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885307/the-treatment-of-paraprotein-related-kidney-disease
#3
Colin A Hutchison, Fei Xiong, Peter Mollee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myeloma kidney and amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis remain the principal kidney complications of paraproteins. In this review, we update readers to many of the recent advances which have occurred in the care and outcomes for patients with these presentations. RECENT FINDINGS: Myeloma kidney has historically caused a severe acute kidney injury with very poor outcomes. The combination of new diagnostic techniques, enabling a rapid diagnosis and novel chemotherapy agents has transformed these poor outcomes for the better...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877040/ischemic-conditioning-in-solid-organ-transplantation-is-it-worth-giving-your-right-arm-for
#4
Luxme Nadarajah, Muhammed M Yaqoob, Kieran McCafferty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable complication in solid organ transplantation. Limiting this injury can increase patient and graft survival and can decrease complications associated with transplantation. We provide an extensive literature review analyzing the available evidence for ischemic conditioning in solid organ transplantation, including kidney, liver, heart, and lung. RECENT FINDINGS: Ischemic conditioning strategies are a group of interventions, characterized by episodes of ischemia and reperfusion to an organ which confirm tissue protection...
September 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877041/sodium-mri-a-new-frontier-in-imaging-in-nephrology
#5
Susan Francis, Charlotte E Buchanan, Ben Prestwich, Maarten W Taal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent technological advances in quantitative sodium (Na) MRI to provide a noninvasive measure of tissue viability for use in clinical studies of patients with kidney disease. Na MRI is the only noninvasive imaging technique that allows for the absolute spatial quantification of tissue sodium concentration (TSC), providing assessment of the corticomedullary sodium gradient (CMSG) in the kidney, and allowing measures of TSC in the skin and muscle...
September 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863048/causes-and-management-of-postrenal-transplant-diarrhea-an-underappreciated-cause-of-transplant-associated-morbidity
#6
Ho Sik Shin, Anil Chandraker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the current literature on both infectious and noninfectious diarrhea in renal transplant recipients and provides a diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of posttransplant diarrhea. RECENT FINDINGS: Renal transplant recipients share certain predisposing characteristics for the development of posttransplant diarrhea, including a generalized immunosuppressed state and exposure to polypharmacy, most notably broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858910/digital-pathology-in-nephrology-clinical-trials-research-and-pathology-practice
#7
Laura Barisoni, Jeffrey B Hodgin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857783/a-critical-review-of-biomarkers-in-kidney-transplantation
#8
Kassem Safa, Ciara N Magee, Jamil Azzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improved long-term kidney allograft survival remains a critical goal in transplantation; the achievement of this, however, is highly dependent on the identification of biomarkers that can either predict or allow advance detection of patients at risk of allograft injury. The present review outlines the commonly used biomarkers in kidney transplantation, while also highlighting those currently under investigation, discussing their advantages and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the approved biomarkers currently used in kidney transplantation capture antigen recognition or alloantibody production...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832357/recurrent-glomerular-disease-after-kidney-transplantation
#9
Christopher D Blosser, Roy D Bloom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improving short-term kidney transplant outcomes, recurrent glomerular disease is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic allograft failure. Further understanding of the risks and pathogenesis of recurrent glomerular disease enable informed transplant decisions, along with the development of preventive and treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have highlighted differences in rates and outcomes for various recurrent glomerular diseases, although these rates have not markedly improved over the last decade...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832356/blood-pressure-in-hemodialysis-targets
#10
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the absence of 'hard' clinical-trial evidence to define optimal blood pressure (BP) targets and validate different BP measurement techniques, management of hypertension in hemodialysis is based on expert opinions. In this review, we provide a comparative evaluation of out-of-dialysis BP monitoring versus dialysis-unit BP recordings in diagnosing hypertension, guiding its management and prognosticating mortality risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Owing to their high variability and poor reproducibility, predialysis and postdialysis BP recordings provide inaccurate reflection of the actual BP load outside of dialysis...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806192/micrornas-as-biomarkers-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Alexa Wonnacott, Timothy Bowen, Donald J Fraser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent data supporting the concept that urinary microRNAs are a useful new class of biomarker. They may improve capacity to stratify patients with chronic kidney disease according to risk of progression, and may also inform about response to therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs are present, stable and readily quantifiable in tissues and body fluids, including urine, and have widespread importance as regulators in the kidney...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806191/a-patient-centred-approach-to-measuring-quality-in-kidney-care-patient-reported-outcome-measures-and-patient-reported-experience-measures
#12
Olalekan L Aiyegbusi, Derek Kyte, Paul Cockwell, Nicola Anderson, Melanie Calvert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with symptoms that can significantly reduce the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients. Patient-reported outcome and experience measures (PROMs and PREMs) may assist with the evaluation of HRQOL and quality of care from the patient perspective. This review focuses on evidence from recent studies exploring the role of PROMs and PREMs in the measurement of quality in CKD care. RECENT FINDINGS: PROMs are increasingly used in CKD research as measures of clinical effectiveness, whereas the current use of PROMs in routine clinical settings and PREMs in all settings is more limited...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#13
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771453/nonsteroidal-mineralocorticoid-antagonists-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#14
Farheen K Dojki, George Bakris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current data highlight the pathological aspects of excess aldosterone in promoting glomerular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The role of nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in DKD is being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies demonstrate beneficial effects of adding MRAs to the treatment regimen of patients with type 2 diabetes with nephropathy...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767465/editorial-introductions
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622163/novel-roles-for-mucin-1-in-the-kidney
#16
Mohammad M Al-Bataineh, Timothy A Sutton, Rebecca P Hughey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies in the kidney have revealed that the well characterized tumor antigen mucin 1 (MUC1/Muc1) also has numerous functions in the normal and injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Mucin 1 is a transmembrane mucin with a robust glycan-dependent apical targeting signal and efficient recycling from endosomes. It was recently reported that the TRPV5 calcium channel is stabilized on the cell surface by galectin-dependent cross-linking to mucin 1, providing a novel mechanism for regulation of ion channels and normal electrolyte balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617689/paracellular-transport-and-energy-utilization-in-the-renal-tubule
#17
Alan S L Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614118/the-renal-response-to-potassium-stress-integrating-past-with-present
#18
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Arohan R Subramanya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review combines past findings with recent advances in our understanding of the homeostatic response to potassium imbalance. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the ingestion of a dietary potassium load, a combination of extrarenal and renal mechanisms act to maintain extracellular K+ within a tight window. Through hormonal regulation and direct K+ sensing, the nephron is ideally suited to respond to wide shifts in external K+ balance. Current evidence indicates that dietary K+ loading triggers a coordinated kaliuretic response that appears to involve voltage-dependent changes in sodium transport across multiple nephron segments, including the proximal tubule, medullary loop of Henle, and distal tubule...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614117/role-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-kidney-tubular-transport-metabolism-and-disease
#19
Roshan Rajani, Nuria M Pastor-Soler, Kenneth R Hallows
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor that regulates cellular energy balance, transport, growth, inflammation, and survival functions. This review explores recent work in defining the effects of AMPK on various renal tubular epithelial ion transport proteins as well as its role in kidney injury and repair in normal and disease states. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, several groups have uncovered additional functions of AMPK in the regulation of kidney and transport proteins...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614116/parathyroid-hormone-and-the-regulation-of-renal-tubular-calcium-transport
#20
Benjamin Ko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal tubule excretion of calcium is carefully and complexly regulated. At the center of this process, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the chief regulator of renal calcium reabsorption. This review outlines our current understanding of PTH's effects on renal tubular calcium transport, focusing on the more recent discoveries beyond its direct regulation of epithelial Ca channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) and looking at its interaction with sodium transport and the hormones fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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