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Insect Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451334/microrna-profiling-between-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-susceptible-and-resistant-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis-h%C3%A3-bner
#1
T Yu, X Li, B-S Coates, Q Zhang, B-D Siegfried, X Zhou
Transgenic maize hybrids that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins effectively protect against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a devastating maize pest. Field monitoring and laboratory selections have detected varying levels of O. nubilalis resistance to Cry1Ab toxin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Their potential roles in the evolution of Bt resistance, however, remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441628/a-serine-protease-homologue-bombyx-mori-scarface-induces-a-short-and-fat-body-shape-in-silkworm
#2
R-X Wang, X-L Tong, T-T Gai, C-L Li, L Qiao, H Hu, M-J Han, Z-H Xiang, C Lu, F-Y Dai
Body shape is one of the most prominent and basic characteristics of any organism. In insects, abundant variations in body shape can be observed both within and amongst species. However, the molecular mechanism underlying body shape fine-tuning is very complex and has been largely unknown until now. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, the tubby (tub) mutant has an abnormal short fat body shape and the abdomen of tub larvae expands to form a fusiform body shape. Morphological investigation revealed that the body length was shorter and the body width was wider than that of the Dazao strain...
February 14, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424082/a-microrna-1-gene-tci-mir-1-3p-is-involved-in-cyflumetofen-resistance-by-targeting-a-glutathione-s-transferase-gene-tcgstm4-in-tetranychus-cinnabarinus
#3
Y Zhang, K Feng, J Hu, L Shi, P Wei, Z Xu, G Shen, M Li, Q Xu, L He
microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a well-studied conservative microRNA (miRNA) involved in immune responses in mammals and insects. However, little is known about its role in pesticide resistance in arthropods. In this study, we found that a microRNA belong to miR-1 family (tci-miR-1-3p) was significantly down-regulated in a cyflumetofen-resistant strain (CYR) of Tetranychus cinnabarinus compared with its homologous susceptible strain (SS), indicating an involvement of miR-1 in cyflumetofen resistance in mites. One glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene (TCGSTM4, a mu class GST gene), a candidate target gene of tci-miR-1-3p, was found to be significantly down-regulated when tci-miR-1-3p was over-expressed...
February 8, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381231/optimization-of-reverse-chemical-ecology-method-false-positive-binding-of-aenasius-bambawalei-odorant-binding-protein-1-caused-by-uncertain-binding-mechanism
#4
Q L Li, S C Yi, D Z Li, X P Nie, S Q Li, M-Q Wang, A M Zhou
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are considered as the core molecular targets in reverse chemical ecology, which is a convenient and efficient method by which to screen potential semiochemicals. Herein, we identified a classic OBP, AbamOBP1 from Aenasius bambawalei, which showed high mRNA expression in male antennae. Fluorescence competitive binding assay (FCBA) results demonstrated that AbamOBP1 has higher binding affinity with ligands at acid pH, suggesting the physiologically inconsistent binding affinity of this protein...
January 30, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377385/a-massive-incorporation-of-microbial-genes-into-the-genome-of-tetranychus-urticae-a-polyphagous-arthropod-herbivore
#5
N Wybouw, T Van Leeuwen, W Dermauw
A number of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) have been identified in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate herbivore. However, the genome of this mite species has at present not been thoroughly mined for the presence of HGT genes. Here, we performed a systematic screen for HGT genes in the T. urticae genome using the h-index metric. Our results not only validated previously identified HGT genes but also uncovered 25 novel HGT genes. In addition to HGT genes with a predicted biochemical function in carbohydrate, lipid and folate metabolism, we also identified the horizontal transfer of a ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase and a pantoate β-alanine ligase gene...
January 29, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336504/wolbachia-induced-transcription-factor-gata4-suppresses-ovary-specific-genes-blastoderm-specific-protein-25d-and-imaginal-disc-growth-factor
#6
S Osei-Amo, M Hussein, S Asad, L Hugo, S Asgari
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects a wide array of insect hosts and has been implicated in a range of biological modifications as a consequence of its infection. Previously, it was shown that the transcription factor GATA4 was significantly induced in Wolbachia wMelPop-CLA strain infected Aedes aegypti whole mosquitoes and cells. Here, we provide evidence that this induction also occurs in mosquito ovaries where the ovary-specific genes blastoderm-specific protein 25D (Bsg25D) and imaginal disc growth factor (Disc) are suppressed by Wolbachia...
January 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314423/kr%C3%A3-ppel-homologue-1-acts-as-a-repressor-and-an-activator-in-the-transcriptional-response-to-juvenile-hormone-in-adult-mosquitoes
#7
R Ojani, X Fu, T Ahmed, P Liu, J Zhu
Krüppel homologue 1 (Kr-h1) is a zinc finger transcription factor that is upregulated in insects by juvenile hormone (JH) in metamorphosis and adult reproduction. The molecular function of Kr-h1 in reproduction remains largely unknown. Here we report that AaKr-h1 functions as an important transcription regulator in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The amount of AaKr-h1 protein increases with rising JH levels after adult emergence, reaches its peak at 48 h after eclosion, then decreases gradually and disappears after blood feeding...
January 4, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271528/a-soluble-inorganic-pyrophosphatase-from-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-capable-of-hydrolysing-polyphosphates
#8
C S Cruz, E P Costa, J A Machado, J N Silva, N C Romeiro, J Moraes, J R Silva, R N Fonseca, I S Vaz, C Logullo, E Campos
Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been investigated mainly in mammalian cells, and only a few studies have addressed arthropods. Pyrophosphatases have been shown to regulate polyphosphate metabolism. However, these studies were restricted to trypanosomatids. Here we focus on the tick Rhipicephalus microplus, a haematophagous ectoparasite that is highly harmful to cattle. We produced a recombinant R...
December 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251378/the-physiological-differentiation-along-the-midgut-of-bombyx-mori-inspirations-from-proteomics-and-gene-expression-patterns-of-the-secreted-proteins-in-the-ectoperitrophic-space
#9
L Liu, M Qu, J Yang, Q Yang
The ectoperitrophic space (EcPS) between the insect midgut epithelial cells and the peritrophic matrix is an unexplored, clean resource for concentrated proteins secreted by the midgut epithelial cells, which offers an ideal opportunity to uncover the midgut functions. In this study, we used Bombyx mori as a model organism and performed comparative proteomic analyses of the secreted proteins in the EcPS at the feeding and wandering stages. A total of 372 proteins were identified from both stages and 70 proteins were predicted to be secreted...
December 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235691/rna-interference-mediated-functional-characterization-of-aquaporin-genes-in-tribolium-castaneum
#10
X-X Yao, Q-W Meng, G-Q Li
An obvious challenge faced by most terrestrial insects is maintaining water homeostasis in an arid environment. Current research suggests aquaporins may be evolved to meet the challenge. However, up to now, this suggestion has not been verified in any insect that feeds upon solid food with mandibulate mouthparts. In the present paper, nine putative aquaporin genes [Tribolium castaneum big brain, T. castaneum Drosophila integral protein (TcDrip), T. castaneum Pyrocoelia rufa integral protein (TcPrip), T. castaneum aquaporin 12-like, T...
December 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226991/vitellogenin-and-its-receptor-play-essential-roles-in-the-development-and-reproduction-of-the-brown-citrus-aphid-aphis-toxoptera-citricidus
#11
F Shang, J-Z Niu, B-Y Ding, Q Zhang, C Ye, W Zhang, G Smagghe, J-J Wang
Vitellogenin (Vg) and its receptor (VgR) play a key role in the reproductive process and development of insects. Aphids are a group of high-fecundity insect species with pseudoplacental viviparity, but the roles of their Vg and VgR genes have not been investigated yet. The brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus, is a major insect pest of citrus and the main vector of Citrus tristeza closterovirus. In this study, we identified and characterized these two genes, designated as AcVg and AcVgR, from the brown citrus aphid...
December 11, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226989/transcriptome-characterization-of-male-accessory-glands-in-ants-to-identify-molecules-involved-in-their-reproductive-success
#12
A Gotoh, S Shigenobu, K Yamaguchi, S Kobayashi, F Ito, K Tsuji
In insects, seminal fluid proteins that are produced by male accessory glands and transferred to females during mating have key functions in sperm competition and sperm physiology that lead to male reproductive success. In ants, male reproductive success also depends on the longevity of sperm stored in the queen's spermatheca because their sexual offspring are usually produced only after a prolonged storage period. We identified genes that were up-regulated in the male accessory glands relative to the bodies of Crematogaster osakensis to characterize the reproductive molecules associated with male reproductive success in ants...
December 11, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205612/homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-phosphorylates-the-drosophila-paired-box-protein-6-pax6-homologues-twin-of-eyeless-and-eyeless
#13
E L Steinmetz, D N Dewald, U Walldorf
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk), the Drosophila homologue of mammalian HIPK2, plays several important roles in regulating differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and stress responses and acts as a mediator for signals of diverse pathways, such as Notch or Wingless signalling. The Paired box protein 6 (Pax6) has two Drosophila homologues, Twin of eyeless (Toy) and Eyeless (Ey). Both stand atop the retinal determination gene network (RDGN), which is essential for proper eye development in Drosophila...
December 4, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193387/the-nuclear-hormone-receptor-e75a-regulates-vitellogenin-gene-al-vg-expression-in-the-mirid-bug-apolygus-lucorum
#14
Y-A Tan, X-D Zhao, Y Sun, D-J Hao, J Zhao, Y-P Jiang, L-X Bai, L-B Xiao
Apolygus lucorum is the predominant pest of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in China. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a key role in the reproduction of this insect. To better understand the mechanism underlying 20E-regulated reproduction, the nuclear hormone receptor E75 isoform-A of Ap. lucorum (Al-E75A) was cloned and its expression analysed. A 2241-bp sequence of Al-E75A cDNA encoded an open reading frame of a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 69.04 kDa. Al-E75A mRNA was detected in female adult stages of Ap...
November 29, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164729/identification-and-characterization-of-a-histamine-binding-lipocalin-like-molecule-from-the-relapsing-fever-tick-ornithodoros-turicata
#15
G Neelakanta, H Sultana, D E Sonenshine, J F Andersen
Lipocalins are low molecular weight membrane transporters that are abundantly expressed in the salivary glands and other tissues of ticks. In this study, we identified a lipocalin-like molecule, designated as otlip, from the soft ticks Ornithodoros turicata, the vector for the relapsing fever causing spirochete Borrelia turicatae. We noted that the expression of otlip was developmentally regulated, with adult ticks expressing significantly higher levels in comparison to the larvae or nymphal ticks. Expression of otlip was evident in both fed and unfed O...
November 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030999/molecular-characterizations-of-dna-methyltransferase-3-and-its-roles-in-temperature-tolerance-in-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-mediterranean
#16
T-M Dai, Z-C Lü, Y-S Wang, W-X Liu, X-Y Hong, F-H Wan
The Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species is an invasive pest, distributed worldwide, with high ecological adaptability and thermotolerance. DNA methylation (a reversible chromatin modification) is one possible change that may occur within an organism subjected to environmental stress. To assess the effects of temperature stress on DNA methyltransferase 3 (Dnmt3) in MED, we cloned and sequenced BtDnmt3 and identified its functions in response to high and low temperatures. The full-length cDNA of BtDnmt3 was 3913 bp, with an open reading frame of 1962 bp, encoding a 73...
February 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940938/downregulation-of-chilo-suppressalis-alkaline-phosphatase-genes-associated-with-resistance-to-three-transgenic-bacillus-thuringiensis-rice-lines
#17
L Qiu, P Wang, T Wu, B Li, X Wang, C Lei, Y Lin, J Zhao, W Ma
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are highly toxic to lepidopteran pests. Strains of transgenic rice expressing cry genes have been developed that are resistant to rice pests. Understanding the mode of action of Cry toxins in rice pests will improve our ability to use them effectively as insecticides. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) are involved in Cry1A, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca toxicity in Chilo suppressalis, an important insect pest of rice crops in China...
February 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776797/micrornas-are-differentially-abundant-during-aedes-albopictus-diapause-maintenance-but-not-diapause-induction
#18
Z A Batz, A C Goff, P A Armbruster
Diapause is a programmed dormancy that allows organisms to tolerate predictable periods of unfavourable conditions by temporarily halting development and reducing metabolism. Diapause is widespread amongst insects and is crucial for allowing organisms to coordinate their growth and reproduction with favourable environmental conditions. Although the adaptive significance of diapause is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause remain unresolved. We performed high-throughput sequencing to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the diapause of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus...
December 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143394/bactericera-cockerelli-vitellogenin-6-like-a-vitellogenin-without-a-direct-reproductive-function
#19
F Ibanez, X Tang, C Tamborindeguy
Vitellogenin-like proteins are members of the large lipid transfer proteins, a family of proteins involved in reproduction, lipid circulation and immune defences. In this study, we identified a new Bactericera cockerelli vitellogenin-like (Vg-like) transcript, and named it BcVg6-like based on its similarity to Acyrthosiphon pisum Vg6. In silico analyses predicted different conserved domains in BcVg6-like compared with the conventional Ba. cockerelli vitellogenin, BcVg1-like, previously described by our research group...
November 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131435/transgenic-characterization-of-two-silkworm-tissue-specific-promoters-in-the-haemocyte-plasmatocyte-cells
#20
K Zhang, C Li, X Weng, J Su, L Shen, G Pan, D Long, A Zhao, H Cui
Haemocytes play crucial roles in insect metabolism, metamorphosis, and innate immunity. As a model of lepidopteran insects, the silkworm is a useful model to study the functions of both haematopoiesis and haemocytes. Tissue-specific promoters are excellent tools for genetic manipulation and are widely used in fundamental biological research. Herein, two haemocyte-specific genes, Integrin β2 and Integrin β3, were confirmed. Promoter activities of Integrin β2 and Integrin β3 were evaluated by genetic manipulation...
November 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
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