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Insect Molecular Biology

N Zhang, Y Yang, H Lu, Y Xiang, X Huang, R Hu, Z Chen, W Yuan, R Peng, J Peng, H Ai, K Liu
It is known that the autophagy-related protein 1 (ATG1) plays critical roles in the regulation of autophagy in mammals and yeast, whereas the function of ATG1 in lepidopteran insects is not well elucidated. Here Spodoptera litura ATG1 (SlATG1) and its interactions with other ATG proteins were characterized. Alternative splicing of SlAtg1 produced at least four transcript variants. Over-expression and RNA interference knockdown of SlAtg1 demonstrated that SlATG1 enhanced autophagy. SlATG1A-Green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged localized in the cytoplasm and formed some punctuate dots, which were colocalized with red fluorescent protein mCherry tagged Spodoptera exigua ATG5 (SeATG5)...
November 30, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
November 26, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
B Israni, M V Rajam
RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses...
November 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
J Zhang, K B Storey
Larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, use the freeze avoidance strategy of cold hardiness to survive the winter. Here we report that protein kinase-dependent signal transduction featuring mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades (extracellular signal regulated kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK pathways) and the Akt (also known as protein kinase B, or PKB) pathway could be integral parts of the development of cold hardiness by E. scudderiana. We used Luminex technology to assess the protein levels and phosphorylation status of key components and downstream targets of those pathways in larvae in response to low temperature acclimation...
November 23, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
C T Zimmer, M Panini, K S Singh, E L Randall, L M Field, E Roditakis, E Mazzoni, C Bass
The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests of crops is a growing threat to sustainable food production, and strategies that slow the development of resistance are therefore urgently required. The insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) inhibits certain insect detoxification systems and so may delay the evolution of metabolic resistance. In the current study we characterized resistance development in the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, after selection with either a neonicotinoid (thiacloprid) or pyrethroid (alpha-cypermethrin) insecticide alone or in combination with PBO...
November 21, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
L Bingsohn, E Knorr, A Billion, K E Narva, A Vilcinskas
RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising alternative strategy for ecologically friendly pest management. However, the identification of RNAi candidate genes is challenging owing to the absence of laboratory strains and the seasonality of most pest species. Tribolium castaneum is a well-established model, with a strong and robust RNAi response, which can be used as a high-throughput screening platform to identify potential RNAi target genes. Recently, the cactus gene was identified as a sensitive RNAi target for pest control...
November 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
S-H Gui, H-B Jiang, X-Q Liu, L Xu, J-J Wang
Initially, natalisin (NTL) was identified from three holometabolous insect species, Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Bombyx mori, and was documented to regulate reproductive behaviours in D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. In this study, we report the sequences of the NTL precursor and its receptor (NTLR) from an important agricultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). NTLR is a typical G-protein coupled receptor and phylogenetic analysis showed that B. dorsalis NTLR was closely related to insect natalisin receptors from other species...
November 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
S Kasai, H Sun, J G Scott
Insecticide use exerts a tremendous selection force on house fly populations, but the frequencies of the initial resistance mutations may not reach high levels if they have a significant fitness cost in the absence of insecticides. However, with the continued use of the same (or similar) insecticides, it is expected that new mutations (conferring equal or greater resistance, but less of a fitness cost) will evolve. Pyrethroid insecticides target the insect voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and have been widely used for control of house flies at animal production facilities for more than three decades...
October 28, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
H Bayram, A Sayadi, J Goenaga, E Immonen, G Arnqvist
The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a significant agricultural pest and increasingly studied model of sexual conflict. Males possess genital spines that increase the transfer of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) into the female body. As SFPs alter female behaviour and physiology, they are likely to modulate reproduction and sexual conflict in this species. Here, we identified SFPs using proteomics combined with a de novo transcriptome. A prior 2D-sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified male accessory gland protein spots that were probably transferred to the female at mating...
October 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
D F Paulo, A M L Azeredo-Espin, L E C Canesin, R Vicentini, A C M Junqueira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in two closely related screwworm flies with different feeding habits: Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria. The New World screwworm, C. hominivorax, is an obligatory parasite of warm-blooded vertebrates, whereas the secondary screwworm, C. macellaria, is a free-living organism that feeds on decaying organic matter. Here, the small RNA transcriptomes of adults and third-instar larvae of both species were sequenced...
October 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
L C Perkin, E N Elpidina, B Oppert
Tribolium castaneum is a major agriculture pest damaging stored grains and cereal products. The T. castaneum genome contains 26 cysteine peptidase genes, mostly cathepsins L and B, and seven have a major role in digestion. We targeted the expression of the most highly expressed cathepsin L gene on chromosome 10, TC011001, by RNA interference (RNAi), using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) constructs of different regions of the gene (3', middle, 5' and entire coding regions). RNA sequencing and quantitation (RNA-seq) was used to evaluate knockdown and specificity amongst the treatments...
October 22, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
F H Matsubara, G O Meissner, V Herzig, H C Justa, B C L Dias, D Trevisan-Silva, L H Gremski, W Gremski, A Senff-Ribeiro, O M Chaim, G F King, S S Veiga
Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects...
October 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
L Xu, L Li, P Yang, Z Ma
The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) shows aggregative traits in nymph marching bands and swarm formations through mutual olfactory attraction of conspecifics. However, olfactory preference in different nymph stages in gregarious locusts is not sufficiently explored. In this study, we found that the nymph olfactory preference for gregarious volatiles exhibited obvious variations at different developmental stages. The gregarious locusts show attractive response to conspecific volatiles from the third stadium...
October 7, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
W Silva, A F Ribeiro, M C P Silva, W R Terra, C Ferreira
A role of gelsolin in opening the way along the microvilli for secretory vesicles during microapocrine secretion is proposed here. Data obtained with different techniques showed that many digestive enzymes are released by microapocrine secretion in insects. Proteins that might be involved in the machinery of microapocrine secretion were selected from our transcriptomes and literature searches. The proteins were annexin, Complex actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (ARP 2/3) cofilin, fimbrin, gelsolin 1, gelsolin 2, moesin, myosin 1, myosin 6, protein disulphide isomerase 1 (PDI 1), PDI 2 and profilin...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
E Dumas, C M Atyame, C A Malcolm, G Le Goff, S Unal, P Makoundou, N Pasteur, M Weill, O Duron
The Culex pipiens mosquito complex is a group of evolutionarily closely related species including C. pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus, both infected by the cytoplasmically inherited Wolbachia symbiont. A Wolbachia-uninfected population of C. pipiens was however described in South Africa and was recently proposed to represent a cryptic species. In this study, we reconsidered the existence of this species by undertaking an extensive screening for the presence of Wolbachia-uninfected C. pipiens specimens and by characterizing their genetic relatedness with known members of the complex...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
K Etebari, S Asgari
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is the most devastating pest of brassica crops worldwide. Although 128 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) have been annotated from this species in miRBase, there is a need to extend and correct the current P. xylostella miRNA repertoire as a result of its recently improved genome assembly and more available small RNA sequence data. We used our new ultra-deep sequence data and bioinformatics to re-annotate the P. xylostella genome for high confidence miRNAs with the correct 5p and 3p arm features...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
B Yu, D-T Li, S-L Wang, H-J Xu, Y-Y Bao, C-X Zhang
Ion transport peptide (ITP) and its alternatively spliced homologous ITP-like (ITPL) products play important roles in various insect developmental processes. We found for the first time that alternative 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) of ITPL (NilluITPLs-1, -2, -3 and -4) control spatiotemporal expression in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, as demonstrated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. By using an alternative 5' UTR, NilluITPL-1 was expressed exclusively in the male reproductive system, resulting in the production of the NilluITPL seminal fluid protein...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
A F Sandoval-Mojica, M E Scharf
The peritrophic matrix (PM) is a noncellular structure that lines the gut of most insects. Because of its close involvement in digestive processes and its role as a barrier against pathogens and toxins, the PM is an attractive target for pest management strategies. The objectives of this study were to (1) reduce the expression of a chitin synthase gene (Reticulitermes flavipes chitin synthase B, RfCHSB), a putative peritrophin [R. flavipes Protein with Peritrophin-A domain 1, (RfPPAD1)] and a confirmed peritrophin [R...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
X Sun, F-F Zeng, M-J Yan, A Zhang, Z-X Lu, M-Q Wang
It is well known that the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play crucial roles in insect olfactory detection. To explore if interactions of OBPs affect olfactory coding in the rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis ligand-binding experiments, molecular docking, RNA interference and electrophysiological recording were performed. The binding activity of two C. medinalis OBPs (CmedOBPs) to rice plant volatiles showed wide flexibility depending on the structure of ligands and interactions of CmedOBPs involved. The binding sites of CmedOBP2 and CmedOBP3 to rice plant volatiles were well predicted by three-dimensional structure modelling and molecular docking experiments...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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