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Insect Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314050/efficacy-of-rna-interference-knockdown-using-aerosolized-short-interfering-rnas-bound-to-nanoparticles-in-three-diverse-aphid-species
#1
M W Thairu, I H Skidmore, R Bansal, E Nováková, T E Hansen, H Li-Byarlay, S A Wickline, A K Hansen
RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a promising method for validating gene function; however, its utility in nonmodel insects has proven problematic, with delivery methods being one of the main obstacles. This study investigates a novel method of RNAi delivery in aphids, the aerosolization of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-nanoparticle complexes. By using nanoparticles as a siRNA carrier, the likelihood of cellular uptake is increased, when compared to methods previously used in insects. To determine the efficacy of this RNAi delivery system, siRNAs were aerosolized with and without nanoparticles in three aphid species: Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis glycines and Schizaphis graminum...
March 17, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299835/multiple-atp-binding-cassette-transporters-are-involved-in-insecticide-resistance-in-the-small-brown-planthopper-laodelphax-striatellus
#2
H Sun, J Pu, F Chen, J Wang, Z Han
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane-bound proteins involved in the movement of various substrates, including drugs and insecticides, across the lipid membrane. Demonstration of the role of human ABC transporters in multidrug resistance has led to speculation that they might be an important mechanism controlling the fate of insecticides in insects. However, the role of ABC transporters in insects remains largely unknown. The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, has developed resistance to most of the insecticides used for its control...
March 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247518/three-odorant-binding-proteins-may-regulate-the-behavioural-response-of-chrysopa-pallens-to-plant-volatiles-and-the-aphid-alarm-pheromone-e-%C3%AE-farnesene
#3
REVIEW
Z-Q Li, S Zhang, X-M Cai, J-Y Luo, S-L Dong, J-J Cui, Z-M Chen
Artificial Chrysopa pallens release is a well-known method for suppressing aphids, but it is difficult to establish lacewing populations in the field. Understanding the functions of C. pallens odorant-binding proteins (CpalOBPs) and behavioural responses of C. pallens to plant volatiles and aphid alarm pheromone (E)-ß-farnesene has important implications for population establishment after lacewing release. Based on our previous study, five antennae-enriched CpalOBPs were selected. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these five CpalOBPs were Classic OBPs and separated into different clades...
March 1, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234413/expanding-the-view-of-clock-and-cycle-gene-evolution-in-diptera
#4
S Chahad-Ehlers, L P Arthur, A L A Lima, J S M Gesto, F R Torres, A A Peixoto, R A de Brito
We expanded the view of Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) gene evolution in Diptera by studying the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Afra), a Brachycera. Despite the high conservation of clock genes amongst insect groups, striking structural and functional differences of some clocks have appeared throughout evolution. Clk and cyc nucleotide sequences and corresponding proteins were characterized, along with their mRNA expression data, to provide an evolutionary overview in the two major groups of Diptera: Lower Diptera and Higher Brachycera...
February 24, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224717/tissue-specific-expression-and-silencing-phenotypes-of-mitochondrial-phosphate-carrier-paralogues-in-several-insect-species
#5
R Sugahara, A Jouraku, T Nakakura, M Minaba, T Yamamoto, Y Shinohara, H Miyoshi, T Shiotsuki
The mitochondrial phosphate carrier gene (PiC) encodes a membrane protein that mediates the supply of inorganic phosphate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix. This substrate-specific transport system plays an important role in efficient ATP synthesis. Mammals appear to have only one PiC with two alternative splicing variants whose functional differences remain unclear. The present study is the first to characterize the multiple genes that encode PiC in insects. Bombyx mori was found to have two PiC paralogues, one ubiquitous and one testis-specific, the latter seeming to be present only in Lepidoptera...
February 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181326/single-molecule-rna-sequencing-uncovers-trans-splicing-and-improves-annotations-in-anopheles-stephensi
#6
X Jiang, A B Hall, J K Biedler, Z Tu
Single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has recently been used to obtain full-length cDNA sequences that improve genome annotation and reveal RNA isoforms. Here, we used one such method called isoform sequencing from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence a cDNA library from the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. More than 600 000 full-length cDNAs, referred to as reads of insert, were identified. Owing to the inherently high error rate of PacBio sequencing, we tested different approaches for error correction...
February 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168773/characterization-of-an-entomopathogenic-fungi-target-integument-protein-bombyx-mori-single-domain-von-willebrand-factor-type-c-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#7
F Han, A Lu, Y Yuan, W Huang, B T Beerntsen, J Huang, E Ling
The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis...
February 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121379/identification-of-ecdysteroidogenic-enzyme-genes-and-their-expression-during-pupal-diapause-in-the-cabbage-armyworm-mamestra-brassicae
#8
M H Ogihara, H Ikeda, N Yamada, J Hikiba, T Nakaoka, Y Fujimoto, Y Suzuki, K Saito, A Mizoguchi, H Kataoka
In this study, we identified ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, and demonstrated reduced expression of these genes during diapause. Some insects employ a temporary developmental arrest, diapause, to survive in severe environments. The titres of the moulting hormone ecdysteroid were reduced in diapause pupae of M. brassicae; therefore, ecdysteroidogenesis might be suppressed by a diapause-specific mechanism. To clarify expression changes of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes during diapause in M...
January 25, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105732/comparison-of-the-proliferation-and-excretion-of-bartonella-quintana-between-body-and-head-lice-following-oral-challenge
#9
J H Kim, D J Previte, K S Yoon, E Murenzi, J E Koehler, B R Pittendrigh, S H Lee, J M Clark
Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice...
January 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067439/the-anopheles-gambiae-transcriptome-a-turning-point-for-malaria-control
#10
REVIEW
A Domingos, R Pinheiro-Silva, J Couto, V do Rosário, J de la Fuente
Mosquitoes are important vectors of several pathogens and thereby contribute to the spread of diseases, with social, economic and public health impacts. Amongst the approximately 450 species of Anopheles, about 60 are recognized as vectors of human malaria, the most important parasitic disease. In Africa, Anopheles gambiae is the main malaria vector mosquito. Current malaria control strategies are largely focused on drugs and vector control measures such as insecticides and bed-nets. Improvement of current, and the development of new, mosquito-targeted malaria control methods rely on a better understanding of mosquito vector biology...
January 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032930/20-hydroxyecdysone-enhances-the-expression-of-the-chitinase-5-via-broad-complex-zinc-finger-4-during-metamorphosis-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#11
X Zhang, S Zheng
Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E...
December 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032922/pancreatic-lipase-related-protein-2-is-essential-for-egg-hatching-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#12
L Xu, H-J Huang, X Zhou, C-W Liu, Y-Y Bao
In this study, we identified a pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) gene through searching the transcriptome data of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a monophagous rice pest. PLRP2 mRNAs were first isolated in the human pancreas and play an important role in hydrolysis of galactolipids from the diet. Although homologous PLRP2 genes have been identified in many insect species, their physiological functions remain unknown. The present study for the first time reports the functional role of PLRP2 in an insect species...
December 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251713/corrigendum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902874/spodoptera-litura-autophagy-related-protein-1-interacts-with-autophagy-related-protein-5-and-enhances-its-degradation
#14
N Zhang, Y Yang, H Lu, Y Xiang, X Huang, R Hu, Z Chen, W Yuan, R Peng, J Peng, H Ai, K Liu
It is known that the autophagy-related protein 1 (ATG1) plays critical roles in the regulation of autophagy in mammals and yeast, whereas the function of ATG1 in lepidopteran insects is not well elucidated. Here Spodoptera litura ATG1 (SlATG1) and its interactions with other ATG proteins were characterized. Alternative splicing of SlAtg1 produced at least four transcript variants. Over-expression and RNA interference knockdown of SlAtg1 demonstrated that SlATG1 enhanced autophagy. SlATG1A-Green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged localized in the cytoplasm and formed some punctuate dots, which were colocalized with red fluorescent protein mCherry tagged Spodoptera exigua ATG5 (SeATG5)...
April 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054419/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#15
A M Kantor, S Dong, N L Held, E Ishimwe, A L Passarelli, R J Clem, A W E Franz
Aedes aegypti is a major vector for arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. During acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal, an arbovirus infects mosquito midgut cells before disseminating to secondary tissues, including the salivary glands. Once virus is released into the salivary ducts it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The midgut is surrounded by a basal lamina (BL) in the extracellular matrix, consisting of a proteinaceous mesh composed of collagen IV and laminin. BL pore size exclusion limit prevents virions from passing through...
February 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888648/identification-and-characterization-of-the-distinct-expression-profiles-of-candidate-chemosensory-membrane-proteins-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#16
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
February 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862548/molecular-characterizations-of-natalisin-and-its-roles-in-modulating-mating-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#17
S-H Gui, H-B Jiang, X-Q Liu, L Xu, J-J Wang
Initially, natalisin (NTL) was identified from three holometabolous insect species, Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Bombyx mori, and was documented to regulate reproductive behaviours in D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. In this study, we report the sequences of the NTL precursor and its receptor (NTLR) from an important agricultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). NTLR is a typical G-protein coupled receptor and phylogenetic analysis showed that B. dorsalis NTLR was closely related to insect natalisin receptors from other species...
February 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792261/diversity-of-knockdown-resistance-alleles-in-a-single-house-fly-population-facilitates-adaptation-to-pyrethroid-insecticides
#18
S Kasai, H Sun, J G Scott
Insecticide use exerts a tremendous selection force on house fly populations, but the frequencies of the initial resistance mutations may not reach high levels if they have a significant fitness cost in the absence of insecticides. However, with the continued use of the same (or similar) insecticides, it is expected that new mutations (conferring equal or greater resistance, but less of a fitness cost) will evolve. Pyrethroid insecticides target the insect voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and have been widely used for control of house flies at animal production facilities for more than three decades...
February 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775856/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-in-the-screwworm-flies-cochliomyia-hominivorax-and-cochliomyia-macellaria-diptera-calliphoridae
#19
D F Paulo, A M L Azeredo-Espin, L E C Canesin, R Vicentini, A C M Junqueira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in two closely related screwworm flies with different feeding habits: Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria. The New World screwworm, C. hominivorax, is an obligatory parasite of warm-blooded vertebrates, whereas the secondary screwworm, C. macellaria, is a free-living organism that feeds on decaying organic matter. Here, the small RNA transcriptomes of adults and third-instar larvae of both species were sequenced...
February 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001328/transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-reveal-complex-mechanisms-of-reproductive-diapause-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#20
J-Y Zhao, X-T Zhao, J-T Sun, L-F Zou, S-X Yang, X Han, W-C Zhu, Q Yin, X-Y Hong
Although a variety of factors underlying diapause have been identified in arthropods and other organisms, the molecular mechanisms regulating diapause are still largely unknown. Here, to better understand this process, we examined diapause-associated genes in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, by comparing the transcriptomes and proteomes of early diapausing and reproductive adult females. Amongst genes underlying diapause revealed by the transcriptomic and proteomic data sets, we described the noticeable change in Ca(2+) -associated genes, including 65 Ca(2+) -binding protein genes and 23 Ca(2+) transporter genes, indicating that Ca(2+) signalling has a substantial role in diapause regulation...
December 21, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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