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Insect Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799241/functional-characterization-of-carboxylesterase-gene-mutations-involved-in-aphis-gossypii-resistance-to-organophosphate-insecticides
#1
Y-H Gong, G-M Ai, M Li, X-Y Shi, Q-Y Diao, X-W Gao
Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides in insects. Over-expression and structural modification of CarEs have been implicated in the development of organophosphate (OP) insecticide resistance in insects. A previous study identified four nonsynonymous mutations (resulting in four amino acid residue substitutions) in the open reading frame of the carboxylesterase gene of resistant cotton aphids compared to the omethoate susceptible strain, which has possibly influenced the development of resistance to omethoate (a systemic OP insecticide)...
August 11, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796386/heat-shock-protein-70-from-a-thermotolerant-diptera-species-provides-higher-thermoresistance-to-drosophila-larvae-than-correspondent-endogenous-gene
#2
V Y Shilova, O G Zatsepina, D G Garbuz, S Y Funikov, E S Zelentsova, N G Schostak, A M Kulikov, M B Evgen'ev
Heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) from two Diptera species that drastically differ in their heat shock response and longevity were investigated. Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by the absence of Hsp70 and other hsps under normal conditions and the dramatic induction of hsp synthesis after temperature elevation. The other Diptera species examined belongs to the Stratiomyidae family (Stratiomys singularior) and exhibits high levels of inducible Hsp70 under normal conditions coupled with a thermotolerant phenotype and much longer lifespan...
August 10, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776797/micrornas-are-differentially-abundant-during-aedes-albopictus-diapause-maintenance-but-not-diapause-induction
#3
Z A Batz, A C Goff, P A Armbruster
Diapause is a programmed dormancy that allows organisms to tolerate predictable periods of unfavourable conditions by temporarily halting development and reducing metabolism. Diapause is widespread amongst insects and is crucial for allowing organisms to coordinate their growth and reproduction with favourable environmental conditions. Although the adaptive significance of diapause is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause remain unresolved. We performed high-throughput sequencing to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the diapause of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus...
August 4, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767183/identification-of-glutathione-s-transferases-in-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-and-evidence-that-gstd7-helps-explain-the-difference-in-insecticide-susceptibility-between-b-%C3%A2-tabaci-middle-east-minor-asia-1-and-mediterranean
#4
C He, W Xie, X Yang, S-L Wang, Q-J Wu, Y-J Zhang
The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) species complex includes invasive and destructive pests of field crops, and the sibling species MEAM1 and MED are its two most damaging members. Previous research indicated that the replacement of Middle East-Minor Asia 1 (MEAM1) by Mediterranean (MED) as the dominant B. tabaci species in China can be mainly attributed to MED's greater tolerance to insecticides. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the detoxification of hydrophobic toxic compounds...
August 2, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753244/functional-characterization-of-the-transcriptional-regulatory-elements-of-three-highly-expressed-constitutive-genes-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis
#5
P D Shirk, R B Furlong, A Dolan, J H Werren
The jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is an easily reared parasitoid that is providing an ever increasingly malleable model for examining the biology and genetics of Hymenoptera. Utilizing genomic and transcriptome resources, 5' upstream transcriptional regulatory sequences (TREs) from three highly expressed genes were identified and cloned. Criteria for TRE selection included the presence of an adjacent gene 5' of the translation initiation site. One gene was methylated whereas the other two were nonmethylated...
July 28, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753233/knockout-of-a-p-glycoprotein-gene-increases-susceptibility-to-abamectin-and-emamectin-benzoate-in-spodoptera-exigua
#6
Y-Y Zuo, J-L Huang, J Wang, Y Feng, T-T Han, Y-D Wu, Y-H Yang
P-glycoprotein [P-gp or the ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1)] is an important participant in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, yet the precise function of this arthropod transporter is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp for susceptibility to insecticides in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene-editing technology. We cloned an open reading frame (ORF) encoding the S...
July 28, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745455/identification-and-characterization-of-a-gene-involved-in-the-encapsulation-response-of-helicoverpa-armigera-haemocytes
#7
Q-Q Hu, X-H Wei, Y-P Li, J-L Wang, X-S Liu
Encapsulation is a kind of cellular immune response of insect haemocytes, which results in the formation of capsules around invading parasites. However, the molecular mechanism of this response is largely unknown. In this study, we identified a potential immune-related gene in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, called defence protein 1 (Ha-DFP1). A tissue distribution analysis revealed that Ha-DFP1 protein was expressed in haemocytes and secreted into the haemolymph of Helic. armigera larvae. The Ha-DFP1 mRNA transcript level in haemocytes and the concentration of the Ha-DFP1 protein in haemolymph both increased after injecting chromatography beads...
July 26, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741319/key-genes-of-the-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-pathway-in-female-moths-are-required-for-pheromone-quality-and-possibly-mediate-olfactory-plasticity-in-conspecific-male-moths-in-spodoptera-litura
#8
X Lin, B Wang, Y Du
Ninety sex pheromone biosynthesis genes in Spodoptera litura were identified in transcriptome data and were investigated and classified into the following five groups: fatty acid synthase, beta oxidase, fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase, desaturase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase. Fourteen female-specific genes were identified through semi-quantitative PCR, and 15 additional genes had expression levels that were 3- to 10-fold higher in females than in males. The majority of the genes had higher expression levels in the sex pheromone glands...
July 24, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719023/identification-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-and-the-ligand-affinity-of-two-of-the-encoded-proteins-suggest-a-complex-olfactory-perception-system-in-periplaneta-americana
#9
P He, Z-Q Li, Y-F Zhang, L Chen, J Wang, L Xu, Y-N Zhang, M He
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an urban pest with a precise chemosensory system that helps it achieve complex physiological behaviours, including locating food and mating. However, its chemosensory mechanisms have not been well studied. Here, we identified 71 putative odorant carrier protein genes in P. americana, including 57 new odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 chemosensory proteins (CSPs). To identify their physiological functions, we investigated their tissue expression patterns in antennae, mouthparts, legs, and the remainder of the body of both sexes, and determined that most of these genes were expressed in chemosensory organs...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718976/low-density-lipopolyprotein-inhibits-flavivirus-acquisition-in-aedes-aegypti
#10
Z L Wagar, M O Tree, M C Mpoy, M J Conway
Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of a number of human pathogens including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. aegypti acquires these viruses during the processing of bloodmeals obtained from an infected vertebrate host. Vertebrate blood contains a number of factors that have the potential to modify virus acquisition in the mosquito. Interestingly, low density lipopolyprotein (LDL) levels are decreased during severe DENV infection. Accordingly, we hypothesized that LDL is a modifiable factor that can influence flavivirus acquisition in the mosquito...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703934/analysis-of-cytochrome-p450-contribution-to-evolved-plant-toxin-resistance-in-drosophila-sechellia
#11
R D Peyser, S M Lanno, S J Shimshak, J D Coolon
Drosophila sechellia is a dietary specialist species of fruit fly that has evolved resistance to the toxic secondary defence compounds produced by the fruit of its preferred host plant Morinda citrifolia. The genetic basis of adult toxin resistance is the result of evolution at five loci across the genome. Genetic mapping between D. sechellia and Drosophila simulans and subsequent functional studies in Drosophila melanogaster have identified candidate genes potentially underlying one locus involved in toxin resistance but the remainder of the genes involved are unknown...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703893/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
P-J Yang, M-Y Zhan, C Ye, X-Q Yu, X-J Rao
Peptidoglycan is the major bacterial component recognized by the insect immune system. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize peptidoglycans and modulate innate immune responses. Some PGRPs retain N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Enzyme Commission number: 3.5.1.28) activity to hydrolyse bacterial peptidoglycans. Others have lost the enzymatic activity and work only as immune receptors. They are all important modulators for innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of PGRP-S4, a short-form PGRP from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677915/dusky-works-upstream-of-four-jointed-and-forked-in-wing-morphogenesis-in-tribolium-castaneum
#13
C Li, B Li, S Ma, P Lü, K Chen
Dusky (dy) is required for cytoskeletal reorganization during wing morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, but which genes participate together with dy for wing morphogenesis has remained unclear. In Tribolium castaneum, dy is highly expressed at the late embryonic stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated high expression levels of dy in the epidermis, head and fat body of late-stage larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting dy significantly decreased adult wing size and caused improper folding of the elytra...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677913/identification-of-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-coding-gene-and-localization-of-its-site-of-expression-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#14
M Barberà, D Martínez-Torres
Insect hormones control essential aspects of physiology, behaviour and development in insects. The majority of insect hormones are peptide hormones that perform a highly diverse catalogue of functions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is a brain neuropeptide hormone whose main function is to stimulate the secretion of ecdysone (the moulting hormone) by the prothoracic glands in insect larvae thus playing a key role in the control of moulting and metamorphosis. Moreover, both PTTH release or blockade have been reported to act as a switch to terminate or initiate larval and pupal diapauses...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654199/imidacloprid-is-hydroxylated-by-laodelphax-striatellus-cyp6ay3v2
#15
R Wang, Y Zhu, L Deng, H Zhang, Q Wang, M Yin, P Song, M E A Elzaki, Z Han, M Wu
Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is one of the most destructive pests of rice, and has developed high resistance to imidacloprid. Our previous work indicated a strong association between imidacloprid resistance and the overexpression of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP6AY3v2 in a L. striatellus imidacloprid resistant strain (Imid-R). In this study, a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster line that overexpressed the L. striatellus CYP6AY3v2 gene was established and was found to confer increased levels of imidacloprid resistance...
June 27, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640534/dynamics-of-transcriptomic-response-to-infection-by-the-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora-and-its-bacterial-symbiont-photorhabdus-temperata-in-heliothis-virescens-larvae
#16
R An, K S Suri, J L Jurat-Fuentes, P S Grewal
Entomopathogenic nematodes in the Heterorhabditis genus and their symbiotic Photorhabdus bacteria are important biocontrol agents of insect pests and models for the study of microbe-host interactions. In this work, we used larvae of the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) as a model to study its defensive mechanisms against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes carrying symbiotic Photorhabdus temperata. We first determined time points of initial nematode entry and release of bacteria into the haemolymph to perform transcriptional analysis of insect gene expression during these steps in the infective process...
June 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636213/distribution-and-hypoxia-regulation-of-haemocyanin-in-springtails-collembola
#17
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636075/molecular-cloning-mrna-expression-and-biological-activity-of-the-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-pban-from-the-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis
#18
J Fodor, G Köblös, Á Kákai, Z Kárpáti, B P Molnár, T Dankó, G Bozsik, C Bognár, G Szőcs, A Fónagy
Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is a member of the pyrokinin (FXPRLamide) insect neuropeptides. Here, we report the cloning of the gene Ostnu-PBAN from the E and Z pheromone strains of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a major pest of maize. The Ostnu-PBAN genomic sequence is > 5 kb in length and consists of six exons. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 200-residue precursor protein including a signal peptide, a 24-amino acid (aa) diapause hormone, a 37-aa PBAN and three other FXPRLamide neuropeptides...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632334/functional-analysis-of-female-biased-odorant-binding-protein-6-for-volatile-and-nonvolatile-host-compounds-in-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#19
L Sun, Q Wang, S Yang, Q Wang, Z Zhang, A Khashaveh, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
The polyphagous mirid bug Adelphocoris lineolatus relies heavily on olfactory cues to track suitable host plants. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular basis of its olfactory detection could contribute to the development of effective pest management strategies. In the present study, we report the expression profile of the odorant binding protein gene A. lineolatus odorant binding protein 6 (AlinOBP6). Quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggest that AlinOBP6 is female adult antennae-biased. Cellular immunolocalization analyses show that AlinOBP6 is highly expressed in the lymph of both multiporous sensilla basiconica and uniporous sensilla chaetica...
June 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621470/the-pou-homeodomain-transcription-factor-poum2-and-broad-complex-isoform-2-transcription-factor-induced-by-20-hydroxyecdysone-collaboratively-regulate-vitellogenin-gene-expression-and-egg-formation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#20
Y Lin, H Liu, C Yang, J Gu, G Shen, H Zhang, E Chen, C Han, Y Zhang, Y Xu, J Wu, Q Xia
Vitellogenin (Vg) is a source of nutrition for embryo development. Our previous study showed that the silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcription factor broad complex isoform 2 (BmBrC-Z2) regulates gene expression of the Vg gene (BmVg) by induction with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, the mechanism by which 20E regulates BmVg expression was not clarified. In this study, cell transfection experiments showed that the BmVg promoter containing the POU homeodomain transcription factor POUM2 (POUM2) and BrC-Z2 cis-response elements (CREs) showed a more significant response to 20E than that harbouring only the BrC-Z2 or POUM2 CRE...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
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