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Insect Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181326/single-molecule-rna-sequencing-uncovers-trans-splicing-and-improves-annotations-in-anopheles-stephensi
#1
X Jiang, A B Hall, J K Biedler, Z Tu
Single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has recently been used to obtain full-length cDNA sequences that improve genome annotation and reveal RNA isoforms. Here, we used one such method called isoform sequencing from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence a cDNA library from the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. More than 600 000 full-length cDNAs, referred to as reads of insert, were identified. Owing to the inherently high error rate of PacBio sequencing, we tested different approaches for error correction...
February 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168773/characterization-of-an-entomopathogenic-fungi-target-integument-protein-bombyx-mori-single-domain-von-willebrand-factor-type-c-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#2
F Han, A Lu, Y Yuan, W Huang, B T Beerntsen, J Huang, E Ling
The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis...
February 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121379/identification-of-ecdysteroidogenic-enzyme-genes-and-their-expression-during-pupal-diapause-in-the-cabbage-armyworm-mamestra-brassicae
#3
M H Ogihara, H Ikeda, N Yamada, J Hikiba, T Nakaoka, Y Fujimoto, Y Suzuki, K Saito, A Mizoguchi, H Kataoka
In this study, we identified ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, and demonstrated reduced expression of these genes during diapause. Some insects employ a temporary developmental arrest, diapause, to survive in severe environments. The titres of the moulting hormone ecdysteroid were reduced in diapause pupae of M. brassicae; therefore, ecdysteroidogenesis might be suppressed by a diapause-specific mechanism. To clarify expression changes of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes during diapause in M...
January 25, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105732/comparison-of-the-proliferation-and-excretion-of-bartonella-quintana-between-body-and-head-lice-following-oral-challenge
#4
J H Kim, D J Previte, K S Yoon, E Murenzi, J E Koehler, B R Pittendrigh, S H Lee, J M Clark
Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice...
January 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067439/the-anopheles-gambiae-transcriptome-a-turning-point-for-malaria-control
#5
REVIEW
A Domingos, R Pinheiro-Silva, J Couto, V do Rosário, J de la Fuente
Mosquitoes are important vectors of several pathogens and thereby contribute to the spread of diseases, with social, economic and public health impacts. Amongst the approximately 450 species of Anopheles, about 60 are recognized as vectors of human malaria, the most important parasitic disease. In Africa, Anopheles gambiae is the main malaria vector mosquito. Current malaria control strategies are largely focused on drugs and vector control measures such as insecticides and bed-nets. Improvement of current, and the development of new, mosquito-targeted malaria control methods rely on a better understanding of mosquito vector biology...
January 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032930/20-hydroxyecdysone-enhances-the-expression-of-the-chitinase-5-via-broad-complex-zinc-finger-4-during-metamorphosis-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#6
X Zhang, S Zheng
Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E...
December 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032922/pancreatic-lipase-related-protein-2-is-essential-for-egg-hatching-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#7
L Xu, H-J Huang, X Zhou, C-W Liu, Y-Y Bao
In this study, we identified a pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) gene through searching the transcriptome data of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a monophagous rice pest. PLRP2 mRNAs were first isolated in the human pancreas and play an important role in hydrolysis of galactolipids from the diet. Although homologous PLRP2 genes have been identified in many insect species, their physiological functions remain unknown. The present study for the first time reports the functional role of PLRP2 in an insect species...
December 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001328/transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-reveal-complex-mechanisms-of-reproductive-diapause-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#8
J-Y Zhao, X-T Zhao, J-T Sun, L-F Zou, S-X Yang, X Han, W-C Zhu, Q Yin, X-Y Hong
Although a variety of factors underlying diapause have been identified in arthropods and other organisms, the molecular mechanisms regulating diapause are still largely unknown. Here, to better understand this process, we examined diapause-associated genes in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, by comparing the transcriptomes and proteomes of early diapausing and reproductive adult females. Amongst genes underlying diapause revealed by the transcriptomic and proteomic data sets, we described the noticeable change in Ca(2+) -associated genes, including 65 Ca(2+) -binding protein genes and 23 Ca(2+) transporter genes, indicating that Ca(2+) signalling has a substantial role in diapause regulation...
December 21, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991710/rna-interference-in-mosquito-understanding-immune-responses-double-stranded-rna-delivery-systems-and-potential-applications-in-vector-control
#9
REVIEW
A Balakrishna Pillai, U Nagarajan, A Mitra, U Krishnan, S Rajendran, S L Hoti, R K Mishra
RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the process of post-transcriptional silencing of cellular mRNA by the application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi strategies have been widely employed to regulate gene expression in plants and animals including insects. With the availability of the full genome sequences of major vector mosquitoes, RNAi has been increasingly used to conduct genetic studies of human pathogens in mosquito vectors and to study the evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. This review summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of mosquito-pathogen interactions using RNAi and various methods of dsRNA delivery in mosquitoes at different stages...
December 19, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991709/rna-interference-unveils-the-importance-of-pseudotrichonympha-grassii-cellobiohydrolase-a-protozoan-exoglucanase-in-termite-cellulose-degradation
#10
X-J Liu, L Xie, N Liu, S Zhan, X-G Zhou, Q Wang
Based on prior work, a cellulase from glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GHF7) was identified and found to be expressed at a high level in Coptotermes formosanus. To determine the function of GHF7 family members in vivo, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to functionally analyse the exoglucanase gene Pseudotrichonympha grassii cellobiohydrolase gene (PgCBH), which was highly expressed in Pseudotrichonympha grassii, a flagellate found in the hindgut of C. formosanus. In this study, the expression level of PgCBH was down-regulated by RNAi, causing the death of P...
December 19, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#11
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902874/spodoptera-litura-autophagy-related-protein-1-interacts-with-autophagy-related-protein-5-and-enhances-its-degradation
#12
N Zhang, Y Yang, H Lu, Y Xiang, X Huang, R Hu, Z Chen, W Yuan, R Peng, J Peng, H Ai, K Liu
It is known that the autophagy-related protein 1 (ATG1) plays critical roles in the regulation of autophagy in mammals and yeast, whereas the function of ATG1 in lepidopteran insects is not well elucidated. Here Spodoptera litura ATG1 (SlATG1) and its interactions with other ATG proteins were characterized. Alternative splicing of SlAtg1 produced at least four transcript variants. Over-expression and RNA interference knockdown of SlAtg1 demonstrated that SlATG1 enhanced autophagy. SlATG1A-Green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged localized in the cytoplasm and formed some punctuate dots, which were colocalized with red fluorescent protein mCherry tagged Spodoptera exigua ATG5 (SeATG5)...
November 30, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888648/identification-and-characterization-of-the-distinct-expression-profiles-of-candidate-chemosensory-membrane-proteins-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#13
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
November 26, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883266/silencing-of-ecdysone-receptor-insect-intestinal-mucin-and-sericotropin-genes-by-bacterially-produced-double-stranded-rna-affects-larval-growth-and-development-in-plutella-xylostella-and-helicoverpa-armigera
#14
B Israni, M V Rajam
RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses...
November 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880024/insect-cold-hardiness-the-role-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-akt-signalling-in-freeze-avoiding-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#15
J Zhang, K B Storey
Larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, use the freeze avoidance strategy of cold hardiness to survive the winter. Here we report that protein kinase-dependent signal transduction featuring mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades (extracellular signal regulated kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK pathways) and the Akt (also known as protein kinase B, or PKB) pathway could be integral parts of the development of cold hardiness by E. scudderiana. We used Luminex technology to assess the protein levels and phosphorylation status of key components and downstream targets of those pathways in larvae in response to low temperature acclimation...
November 23, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054419/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#16
A M Kantor, S Dong, N L Held, E Ishimwe, A L Passarelli, R J Clem, A W E Franz
Aedes aegypti is a major vector for arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. During acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal, an arbovirus infects mosquito midgut cells before disseminating to secondary tissues, including the salivary glands. Once virus is released into the salivary ducts it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The midgut is surrounded by a basal lamina (BL) in the extracellular matrix, consisting of a proteinaceous mesh composed of collagen IV and laminin. BL pore size exclusion limit prevents virions from passing through...
February 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870150/corrigendum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627876/gelsolin-role-in-microapocrine-secretion
#18
W Silva, A F Ribeiro, M C P Silva, W R Terra, C Ferreira
A role of gelsolin in opening the way along the microvilli for secretory vesicles during microapocrine secretion is proposed here. Data obtained with different techniques showed that many digestive enzymes are released by microapocrine secretion in insects. Proteins that might be involved in the machinery of microapocrine secretion were selected from our transcriptomes and literature searches. The proteins were annexin, Complex actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (ARP 2/3) cofilin, fimbrin, gelsolin 1, gelsolin 2, moesin, myosin 1, myosin 6, protein disulphide isomerase 1 (PDI 1), PDI 2 and profilin...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591564/molecular-data-reveal-a-cryptic-species-within-the-culex-pipiens-mosquito-complex
#19
E Dumas, C M Atyame, C A Malcolm, G Le Goff, S Unal, P Makoundou, N Pasteur, M Weill, O Duron
The Culex pipiens mosquito complex is a group of evolutionarily closely related species including C. pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus, both infected by the cytoplasmically inherited Wolbachia symbiont. A Wolbachia-uninfected population of C. pipiens was however described in South Africa and was recently proposed to represent a cryptic species. In this study, we reconsidered the existence of this species by undertaking an extensive screening for the presence of Wolbachia-uninfected C. pipiens specimens and by characterizing their genetic relatedness with known members of the complex...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515977/revised-annotation-of-plutella-xylostella-micrornas-and-their-genome-wide-target-identification
#20
K Etebari, S Asgari
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is the most devastating pest of brassica crops worldwide. Although 128 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) have been annotated from this species in miRBase, there is a need to extend and correct the current P. xylostella miRNA repertoire as a result of its recently improved genome assembly and more available small RNA sequence data. We used our new ultra-deep sequence data and bioinformatics to re-annotate the P. xylostella genome for high confidence miRNAs with the correct 5p and 3p arm features...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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