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Insect Molecular Biology

L C Perkin, E N Elpidina, B Oppert
Tribolium castaneum is a major agriculture pest damaging stored grains and cereal products. The T. castaneum genome contains 26 cysteine peptidase genes, mostly cathepsins L and B, and seven have a major role in digestion. We targeted the expression of the most highly expressed cathepsin L gene on chromosome 10, TC011001, by RNA interference (RNAi), using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) constructs of different regions of the gene (3', middle, 5' and entire coding regions). RNA sequencing and quantitation (RNA-seq) was used to evaluate knockdown and specificity amongst the treatments...
October 22, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
F H Matsubara, G O Meissner, V Herzig, H C Justa, B C L Dias, D Trevisan-Silva, L H Gremski, W Gremski, A Senff-Ribeiro, O M Chaim, G F King, S S Veiga
Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects...
October 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
L Xu, L Li, P Yang, Z Ma
The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) shows aggregative traits in nymph marching bands and swarm formations through mutual olfactory attraction of conspecifics. However, olfactory preference in different nymph stages in gregarious locusts is not sufficiently explored. In this study, we found that the nymph olfactory preference for gregarious volatiles exhibited obvious variations at different developmental stages. The gregarious locusts show attractive response to conspecific volatiles from the third stadium...
October 7, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
W Silva, A F Ribeiro, M C P Silva, W R Terra, C Ferreira
A role of gelsolin in opening the way along the microvilli for secretory vesicles during microapocrine secretion is proposed here. Data obtained with different techniques showed that many digestive enzymes are released by microapocrine secretion in insects. Proteins that might be involved in the machinery of microapocrine secretion were selected from our transcriptomes and literature searches. The proteins were annexin, Complex actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (ARP 2/3) cofilin, fimbrin, gelsolin 1, gelsolin 2, moesin, myosin 1, myosin 6, protein disulphide isomerase 1 (PDI 1), PDI 2 and profilin...
September 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
E Dumas, C M Atyame, C A Malcolm, G Le Goff, S Unal, P Makoundou, N Pasteur, M Weill, O Duron
The Culex pipiens mosquito complex is a group of evolutionarily closely related species including C. pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus, both infected by the cytoplasmically inherited Wolbachia symbiont. A Wolbachia-uninfected population of C. pipiens was however described in South Africa and was recently proposed to represent a cryptic species. In this study, we reconsidered the existence of this species by undertaking an extensive screening for the presence of Wolbachia-uninfected C. pipiens specimens and by characterizing their genetic relatedness with known members of the complex...
September 3, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
K Etebari, S Asgari
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is the most devastating pest of brassica crops worldwide. Although 128 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) have been annotated from this species in miRBase, there is a need to extend and correct the current P. xylostella miRNA repertoire as a result of its recently improved genome assembly and more available small RNA sequence data. We used our new ultra-deep sequence data and bioinformatics to re-annotate the P. xylostella genome for high confidence miRNAs with the correct 5p and 3p arm features...
August 12, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
B Yu, D-T Li, S-L Wang, H-J Xu, Y-Y Bao, C-X Zhang
Ion transport peptide (ITP) and its alternatively spliced homologous ITP-like (ITPL) products play important roles in various insect developmental processes. We found for the first time that alternative 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) of ITPL (NilluITPLs-1, -2, -3 and -4) control spatiotemporal expression in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, as demonstrated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. By using an alternative 5' UTR, NilluITPL-1 was expressed exclusively in the male reproductive system, resulting in the production of the NilluITPL seminal fluid protein...
August 12, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
A F Sandoval-Mojica, M E Scharf
The peritrophic matrix (PM) is a noncellular structure that lines the gut of most insects. Because of its close involvement in digestive processes and its role as a barrier against pathogens and toxins, the PM is an attractive target for pest management strategies. The objectives of this study were to (1) reduce the expression of a chitin synthase gene (Reticulitermes flavipes chitin synthase B, RfCHSB), a putative peritrophin [R. flavipes Protein with Peritrophin-A domain 1, (RfPPAD1)] and a confirmed peritrophin [R...
August 12, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
X Sun, F-F Zeng, M-J Yan, A Zhang, Z-X Lu, M-Q Wang
It is well known that the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play crucial roles in insect olfactory detection. To explore if interactions of OBPs affect olfactory coding in the rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis ligand-binding experiments, molecular docking, RNA interference and electrophysiological recording were performed. The binding activity of two C. medinalis OBPs (CmedOBPs) to rice plant volatiles showed wide flexibility depending on the structure of ligands and interactions of CmedOBPs involved. The binding sites of CmedOBP2 and CmedOBP3 to rice plant volatiles were well predicted by three-dimensional structure modelling and molecular docking experiments...
August 9, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
R C Chaw, P Arensburger, T H Clarke, N A Ayoub, C Y Hayashi
Orb-web weaving spiders produce a variety of task-specific silks from specialized silk glands. The genetics underlying the synthesis of specific silk types are largely unknown, and transcriptome analysis could be a powerful approach for identifying candidate genes. However, de novo assembly and expression profiling of silk glands with RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) are problematic because the few known gene transcripts for silk proteins are extremely long and highly repetitive. To identify candidate genes for tubuliform (egg case) silk synthesis by the orb-weaver Argiope argentata (Araneidae), we estimated transcript abundance using two sequencing methods: RNAseq reads from throughout the length of mRNA molecules, and 3' digital gene expression reads from the 3' region of mRNA molecules...
August 8, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Z Tian, Y Zhang
A full-length cDNA encoding Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 1 (CpomPBP1) was cloned and characterized. CpomPBP1, possessing the typical characteristics of lepidopteran odorant binding proteins, was detected to be specifically expressed in the antennae of male and female moths at the mRNA and protein level. Soluble recombinant CpomPBP1 was subjected to in vitro binding to analyse its binding properties and to search for potentially active semiochemicals. A competitive binding assay showed that three 12-carbon ligands, codlemone, 1-dodecanol and E,E-2,4-dodecadienal, were able to bind to CpomPBP1 in decreasing order of affinity...
August 4, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
J Spit, L Badisco, L Vergauwen, D Knapen, J Vanden Broeck
The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is a serious agricultural pest and important insect model in the study of insect digestion and feeding behaviour. The gut is one of the primary interfaces between the insect and its environment. Nevertheless, knowledge on the gut transcriptome of L. migratoria is still very limited. Here, 48 802 expressed sequence tags were extracted from publicly available databases and their expression in larval gut and/or brain tissue was determined using microarray hybridization...
August 1, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
J Qiu, Y He, J Zhang, K Kang, T Li, W Zhang
Recently, transcriptome and proteome data have increasingly been used to identify potential novel genes related to insect phenotypes. However, there are few studies reporting the large-scale functional identification of such genes in insects. To identify novel genes related to fecundity in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, 115 genes were selected from the transcriptomic and proteomic data previously obtained from high- and low-fecundity populations in our laboratory. The results of RNA interference (RNAi) feeding experiments showed that 91...
July 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
M Zielonka, P Gehrke, E Badeke, S Sachse, H Breer, J Krieger
Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1)...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
L Shi, J Zhang, G Shen, Z Xu, Q Xu, L He
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), as an important family of detoxification enzymes, participate in the metabolism of agrochemicals in almost all agricultural pests and play important roles in the development of insecticide resistance. Two P450 genes (CYP389B1 and CYP392A26) were identified and their expression patterns were investigated in our previous study. In this study, four more P450 gene sequences (CYP391A1, CYP384A1, CYP392D11 and CYP392A28) from the Clan 2, Clan 3 and Clan 4 families were identified and characterized...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
N Al-Wathiqui, E B Dopman, S M Lewis
Mating triggers a cascade of physiological and behavioural responses in females that persist after copulation. In insects, seminal fluid proteins contained within male ejaculates are known to initiate some responses, but our understanding of how females mediate these reactions remains limited. Few studies have examined postmating transcriptional changes within ejaculate-receiving organs within females or how these changes might depend on the identity of the male. Furthermore, whereas males of many insects transfer packaged ejaculates, transcriptional dynamics have mainly been examined in dipterans, in which males transfer a free ejaculate...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
M-M Ji, A-Q Liu, Y-H Sima, S-Q Xu
The pathway of communication between endocrine hormones and ribosome biogenesis critical for physiological adaptation is largely unknown. Nucleolar essential protein 1 (Nep1) is an essential gene for ribosome biogenesis and is functionally conserved in many in vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we cloned Bombyx mori Nep1 (BmNep1) due to its high expression in silk glands of silkworms on day 3 of the fifth instar. We found that BmNep1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in silk glands during fourth-instar ecdysis and larval-pupal metamorphosis...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
I Ronai, B P Oldroyd, V Vergoz
In social insect colonies the presence of a queen, secreting her pheromones, is a key environmental cue for regulating the reproductive state of workers. However, until recently the proximate molecular mechanisms underlying facultative worker sterility were unidentified. Studies into worker oogenesis in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) have indicated that programmed cell death is central to the regulation of oogenesis. Here we investigate how queen pheromone, age of the worker and ovary state affect both programmed cell death and cell number in worker ovaries...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
A R Paulson, C H Le, J C Dickson, J Ehlting, P von Aderkas, S J Perlman
One of the most striking host range transitions is the evolution of plant parasitism from animal parasitism. Parasitoid wasps that have secondarily evolved to attack plants (ie gall wasps and seed-feeders) demonstrate intimate associations with their hosts, yet the mechanism of plant-host manipulation is currently not known. There is, however, emerging evidence suggesting that ovipositional secretions play a role in plant manipulation. To investigate whether parasites have modified pre-existing adaptations to facilitate dramatic host shifts we aimed to characterize the expression of venom proteins in a plant parasite using a collection of parasitoid venom sequences as a guide...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
A R Agnihotri, A A Roy, R S Joshi
Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli...
October 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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