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Consciousness and Cognition

Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis)...
March 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
María Tortosa Molina, Greg Davis
Advances in neuroscience offer the exciting prospect of understanding 'free' choices - the subject of the free will debate in philosophy. However, while physiological techniques and analysis have progressed rapidly to meet this challenge, task design has not. The challenge is now to develop laboratory tasks that adequately capture 'free' picking or choosing. To isolate 'internally' generated intentions from those impelled by external stimulus, observers are asked to 'choose freely' or to wait for a felt 'urge'...
March 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
V Botan, S Fan, H Critchley, J Ward
The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) paradigm has been widely used to investigate the sense of body ownership. People who report experiencing the pain of others are hypothesised to have differences in computing body ownership and, hence, we predicted that they would perform atypically on the RHI. The Vicarious Pain Questionnaire (VPQ), was used to divide participants into three groups: (1) non-responders (people who report no pain when seeing someone else experiencing physical pain), (2) sensory-localised responders (report sensory qualities and a localised feeling of pain) and (3) affective-general responders (report a generalised and emotional feeling of pain)...
March 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Eleana Georgiou, Sandra Mai, Katya C Fernandez, Olga Pollatos
Interoception describes the mapping of the body's internal landscape and has been connected to greater intensity of emotional experience. The goal of the current study was to explore the relationship between interoception and emotion face recognition in healthy adolescents. The heartbeat perception task was used to assess interoceptive accuracy(IAC) and participants were asked to recognize different facial expressions. EEG activity was recorded, providing data for the P100, the N170 and the P300 ERP components...
March 8, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ruth Kimchi, Dina Devyatko, Shahar Sabary
In this study we examined whether grouping by luminance similarity and grouping by connectedness can occur in the absence of visual awareness, using a priming paradigm and two methods to render the prime invisible, CFS and sandwich masking under matched conditions. For both groupings, significant response priming effects were observed when the prime was reported invisible under sandwich masking, but none were obtained under CFS. These results provide evidence for unconscious grouping, converging with previous findings showing that visual awareness is not essential for certain perceptual organization processes to occur...
March 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ian Tyndall, Liam Ragless, Denis O'Hora
The present study examined whether increasing visual perceptual load differentially affected both Socially Meaningful and Non-socially Meaningful auditory stimulus awareness in neurotypical (NT, n = 59) adults and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 57) adults. On a target trial, an unexpected critical auditory stimulus (CAS), either a Non-socially Meaningful ('beep' sound) or Socially Meaningful ('hi') stimulus, was played concurrently with the presentation of the visual task. Under conditions of low visual perceptual load both NT and ASD samples reliably noticed the CAS at similar rates (77-81%), whether the CAS was Socially Meaningful or Non-socially Meaningful...
March 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Luis Alejandro Murillo Lara
Why are bodily sensations felt on specific body parts? This paper discusses the view according to which we need body representations to account for the felt location of bodily sensations. My aim will be to consider whether or not some claims linked with that view are substantiated (namely, that all of our grasp of the spatiality of our bodies must come from bodily sensations, that the representation of the body can determine bodily sensations surmounting sensory input, that the content of body representations cannot be action-oriented)...
March 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino
We investigated whether patients with Korsakjoff's Sybdrome (KS) would demonstrate a discrepancy between (low) autobiographical specificity and (high) sense of reliving. We invited 20 KS patients and 24 controls to retrieve personal memories. After memory retrieval, they were invited to rate subjective characteristics of their recall (e.g., reliving, travel in time, remembering, realness). Besides this rating, we analyzed memories objectively with regard to specificity. Analysis demonstrated poorer sense of reliving and memory specificity in KS patients than in controls...
March 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Roberta Vastano, Eliane Deschrijver, Thierry Pozzo, Marcel Brass
Temporal binding is understood as an effect in which a temporal interval between a voluntary action and its consequent effect is perceived as compressed. It denotes an implicit measure of a sense of agency. When people observe someone else performing an action that generates an effect, temporal binding also takes place. We aimed to test whether the interaction between observed actions and tactile sensation influences temporal binding. Participants observed finger tapping movements (of a human or wooden hand), in parallel to receiving tactile stimulations on their fingertip...
February 26, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Vincent Di Lollo
Attention has been defined as a filter, a limited resource, a spotlight, a zoom lens, and even as a glue that binds disconnected visual features into a coherent object. Here, I claim that all of these metaphor-based explanations are circular. As such, they fail to provide adequate accounts of the phenomena they are purported to explain. In contrast, those very phenomena can be explained on the idea that perceptions emerge from iterative exchanges between cortical regions linked by two-way pathways. Processing can occur in one of two modes: feed-forward and reentrant...
February 23, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Rolando N Carol, Nadja Schreiber Compo
The present study investigated the effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory. Participants (N = 227) viewed a mock crime (brief, 15-s vs. long, 30-s vs. irrelevant/control) and were then tested with both implicit and explicit memory prompts or with explicit memory prompts only. Brief-encoding participants revealed more critical details implicitly than long-encoding or control participants. Further, the number and percentage of accurate details recalled explicitly were higher for long-encoding than for brief-encoding participants...
February 23, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Daniel Zeller, Marcus Hullin
A right-hemispheric specificity has been suggested both for spatial attention and for the feeling of body-ownership. Here, we assessed lateralization of spatial attention (Milner landmark task), rubber hand illusion (RHI), and their relationship in a group of 59 healthy elderly subjects. The occurrence of the RHI was assessed by objective (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (questionnaire) measures. Spatial attention was asymmetrical, with a slight, neglect-like overestimation of the right segment of mid-bisected lines...
February 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Alfonso Pitarque, Encarnación Satorres, Joaquín Escudero, Salvador Algarabel, Omar Bekkers, Juan C Meléndez
The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of motivated forgetting and aging on true and false memory. Sixty young and 54 healthy older adults were instructed to study two lists of 18 words each. Each list was composed of three sets of six words associated with three non-presented critical words. After studying list 1, half of the participants received the instruction to forget List 1, whereas the other half received the instruction to remember List 1. Next, all the subjects studied list 2; finally, they were asked to remember the words studied in both lists...
February 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Carina Kreitz, Robert Schnuerch, Philip A Furley, Daniel Memmert
Inattentional blindness-the phenomenon that clearly visible, yet currently unexpected objects go unnoticed when our attention is focused elsewhere-is an ecologically valid failure of awareness. It is currently subject to debate whether previous events and experiences determine whether or not inattentional blindness occurs. Using a simple two-phase paradigm in the present study, we found that the likelihood of missing an unexpected object due to inattention did not change when its defining characteristic (its color) was perceptually preactivated (Experiment 1; N = 188)...
January 29, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ai Koizumi, Hakwan Lau, Yasuhiro Shimada, Hirohito M Kondo
Volitional control has been related to the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) ratio of glutamate-glutamine to γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the different parts of the frontal cortex. Yet, how the neurochemical balance in each of the brain areas modulates volitional control remains unclear. Here, participants performed an auditory Go/No-Go task with and without task-irrelevant face distractors. Neurochemical balance was measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy at rest. Participants with higher E/I ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed less control over No-Go cues under no distraction, whereas participants with higher E/I ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were more prompted to make speeded Go responses under distraction...
January 20, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Klaudia B Ambroziak, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
Previous studies showed stereotyped distortions in hand representations. People judge their knuckles as farther forward in the hand than they actually are. The cause of this bias remains unclear. We tested whether both visual and tactile information contribute to the bias. In Experiment 1, participants judged the location of their knuckles by pointing to the location on their palm with: (1) a metal baton (using vision and touch), (2) a metal baton while blindfolded (using touch), or (3) a laser pointer (using vision)...
January 17, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Valtteri Arstila
Albert Newen and Petra Vetter argue that neurophysiological considerations and psychophysical studies provide striking evidence for cognitive penetration. This commentary focuses mainly on the neurophysiological considerations, which have thus far remained largely absent in the philosophical debate concerning cognitive penetration, and on the cognitive penetration of perceptual experiences, which is the form of cognitive penetration philosophers have debated about the most. It is argued that Newen and Vetter's evidence for cognitive penetration is unpersuasive because they do not sufficiently scrutinize the details of the empirical studies they make use of-the details of the empirical studies are crucial also when the studies are used in philosophical debates...
January 16, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Rebekah C White, Martin Davies, Anne M Aimola Davies
When attention is otherwise engaged, observers may experience inattentional blindness, failing to notice objects or events that are presented in plain sight. In an inattentional blindness experiment, an unexpectedstimulus ispresented alongside primary-task stimuli, and its detection is probed. We evaluate a criterion that is commonly used to exclude observers from the data analysis. On the final experimental trial, observers do not perform the primary task, but instead look for anything new. Observers who fail to report the unexpected stimulus on thisfull-attention trialare excluded...
January 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Maayan Avneon, Dominique Lamy
Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming...
January 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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