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Consciousness and Cognition

Paul Seli, Mahiko Konishi, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
Recent research has indicated that reducing the difficulty of a task by increasing the predictability of critical stimuli produces increases in intentional mind wandering, but, contrary to theoretical expectations, decreases in unintentional mind wandering. Here, we sought to determine whether reducing task difficulty by reducing working-memory load would yield similar results. Participants completed an easy (Choice Response Time; CRT) task and a relatively difficult (Working Memory; WM) task, and intermittently responded to thought probes asking about intentional and unintentional mind wandering...
September 13, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Richard Ramsey
Humans unintentionally copy other people's gestures, postures and speech patterns. This behaviour has been termed 'automatic imitation', and is thought to play a crucial role in the development of social relationships by building affiliation and rapport between interaction partners. The current paper critically evaluates reaction time measures of automatic imitation and demonstrates that it is currently unclear what reaction time indices measure, due to a lack of research assessing dimensions of validity and domain-specificity...
September 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Sophie Sowden, Sofia Koletsi, Eva Lymberopoulos, Elisabeta Militaru, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Social conformity is a class of social influence whereby exposure to the attitudes and beliefs of a group causes an individual to alter their own attitudes and beliefs towards those of the group. Compliance and acceptance are varieties of social influence distinguished on the basis of the attitude change brought about. Compliance involves public, but not private conformity, while acceptance occurs when group norms are internalised and conformity is demonstrated both in public and in private. Most contemporary paradigms measuring conformity conflate compliance and acceptance, while the few studies to have addressed this issue have done so using between-subjects designs, decreasing their sensitivity...
September 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Kyungmi Kim, Youngbin A Jeon, Alexis M Banquer, Danielle J Rothschild
Co-presenting an item with self-relevant vs. other-relevant information under a non-self-referential encoding context can produce a memory advantage. The present study examined the relative contributions of conscious vs. unconscious processing of self-cues to this incidental self-memory advantage. During encoding, the participant's own or another person's name was presented supraliminally or subliminally prior to the presentation of each target word. Consistent across two experiments, we found better memory for words preceded by the own name vs...
September 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Olga Perepelkina, Viktoriia Vorobeva, Olga Melnikova, Galina Arina, Valentina Nikolaeva
The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of two multisensory body illusions: a static rubber hand illusion (RHI) and a moving virtual hand illusion (VHI). We explored the onset and fading of these illusions. A sense of ownership questionnaire and proprioceptive drift were used for illusion estimation. Novel kinematic analysis was applied for the VHI. Positive dynamics of ownership were found in the RHI but not in the VHI. The general dynamics of proprioceptive drift were similar in both illusions: during the onset phase of artificial hand representation proprioceptive drift gradually increased, and during the fading phase - it gradually decreased...
September 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
S B Selwyn Renard, R J C Rafaele Huntjens, G H M Marieke Pijnenborg
Derealization, depersonalization and schizotypal experiences are described as separate concepts but they can be hard to distinguish. One way to show the uniqueness of these concepts is by showing a dissociation between these experiences. The aim of this study was to experimentally induce derealization without inducing depersonalization or schizotypal experiences. Healthy participants watched a neutral video in one of four conditions: (1) with stroboscopic light, (2) while wearing deforming glasses, (3) with stroboscopic light and while wearing "vision deforming glasses" or (4) without any manipulation...
September 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Jaan Aru, Kadi Tulver, Talis Bachmann
Predictions about the world can guide our perception and action, but they can also misguide us. We developed novel dual-task setups where the participants are occupied by a primary task and are from time to time queried about the phenomenal contents of the auxiliary task. We show that "hallucinating" the presence of an actually absent stimulus is not an exception, but a common phenomenon (more than 90% of participants experienced illusory objects at least once). Additionally, in experiment 1 we found a negative correlation between the amount of illusory perceptions and the Autism Spectrum Quotient score...
September 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Paul Rogers, John E Fisk, Emma Lowrie
This study examines the extent to which belief in extrasensory perception (ESP), psychokinesis (PK) or life after death (LAD), plus need for cognition (NFC) and faith in intuition (FI), predict the generation of confirmatory conjunction errors. An opportunity sample (n = 261) completed sixteen conjunction problems manipulated across a 2 event type (paranormal vs. non-paranormal) × 2 outcome type (confirmatory vs. disconfirmatory) within subjects design. Three Generalised Linear Mixed Models - one per paranormal belief type - were performed...
September 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Kosuke Itoh, Tsutomu Nakada
Sounds evoke color sensations in sound-color synesthesia. Recently, we showed that pitch classes (do, re, mi, etc.) have rainbow hues and that colors are linked to the names of pitch classes rather than to their sounds in 15 subjects who had "pitch class-color synesthesia." However, all synesthetes in our previous study had high levels of absolute pitch (AP); therefore the effects of AP on the condition remained unclear. The present study investigated 18 additional pitch class-color synesthetes who had no or lower levels of AP, and confirmed the generality of the above findings...
September 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
John E Roberts, Paula Yanes-Lukin, Yoonhee Kyung
Autobiographical memory is central to identity and self-awareness, but individuals with depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder tend to have overgeneral memories. Recent research has suggested that the ability to retrieve specific memories and individual differences in the amount of detail in specific memories are independent (Kyung, Yanes-Lukin, & Roberts, 2016). We re-analyzed data from Kyung et al. to test whether these constructs are distinct in terms of their trajectories over cue presentations...
September 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Jeniffer Ortega, Patricia Montañes, Anthony Barnhart, Gustav Kuhn
We used cognitive illusions/magic tricks to study the role of visual awareness as a source of biases in visual metacognitive judgments. We conducted a questionnaire-based study (n = 144) and an eye tracking study (n = 69) in which participants watched videos of four different magic tricks that capitalize on failures of visual awareness (inattentional blindness and change blindness). We measured participants' susceptibility to these illusions, their beliefs about other people's susceptibility, as well as the role that fixating (i...
August 31, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ania Aïte, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
Most researchers assume that deception involves a conflict between a predominant truth response and a deliberate deceptive response. Such a view is consistent with dual process theories that state that high-order cognition operates through fast-automatic processes that may conflict with slow-deliberate ones. In the present study, we tested whether one must inhibit the truth to deceive in light of inconsistent findings in the literature. One hundred and eighty-nine participants were tested across two Negative Priming paradigms that rest on the logic that the activation of a fast-automatic process will be hampered on a given display if it is inhibited on the previous display...
August 31, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Georgia A Floridou, Victoria J Williamson, Lisa-Marie Emerson
A wide range of cognitions is generated involuntarily in the human mind daily. We developed a paradigm, which covertly induces and samples spontaneous cognitions in the visual and auditory modalities, focusing on 3 key characteristics: spontaneity, repetition, and emotional valence. Sixty participants watched two visual clips while listening to music and assessed their characteristics. Post-induction, participants closed their eyes for 5 min and then completed a questionnaire, which indirectly samples different forms of spontaneous cognition...
August 22, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Laura Schmalzl, Chivon Powers, Anthony P Zanesco, Neil Yetz, Erik J Groessl, Clifford D Saron
Yoga-based practices (YBP) typically involve a combination of movement sequences, conscious regulation of the breath, and techniques to engage attention. However, little is known about whether effects of YBP result from the synergistic combination of these components, or whether a subset may yield similar effects. In this study we compared the effect of a movement-focused practice and a breath-focused practice on stress parameters (perceived stress and salivary cortisol) and sustained attention (response inhibition) in yoga naïve university students...
August 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Dexian He, Xianyou He, Siyan Lai, Shuang Wu, Juan Wan, Tingting Zhao
Temporal concepts could be represented horizontally(X-axis) or vertically (Y-axis). However, whether the spatial representation of time exists in the whole plane remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether processing temporal concepts would automatically activate spatial representations in a whole plane without any guidance or cue. Participants first indicated whether a word was past-related or future-related, then, they identified a target in different visual fields. In Experiment 1, the results demonstrated that past time mapped onto the left and top in a plane or axis, while future time mapped onto the right and bottom, with the horizontal effect being stronger than the vertical effect...
August 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Peter Moseley, Ben Alderson-Day, Sukhbinder Kumar, Charles Fernyhough
Musical hallucinations (MH) account for a significant proportion of auditory hallucinations, but there is a relative lack of research into their phenomenology. In contrast, much research has focused on other forms of internally generated musical experience, such as earworms (involuntary and repetitive inner music), showing that they can vary in perceived control, repetitiveness, and in their effect on mood. We conducted a large online survey (N = 270), including 44 participants with MH, asking participants to rate imagery, earworms, or MH on several variables...
August 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Daniel Bor, Adam B Barrett, David J Schwartzman, Anil K Seth
Does disruption of prefrontal cortical activity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) impair visual metacognition? An initial study supporting this idea (Rounis, Maniscalco, Rothwell, Passingham, & Lau, 2010) motivated an attempted replication and extension (Bor, Schwartzman, Barrett, & Seth, 2017). Bor et al. failed to replicate the initial study, concluding that there was not good evidence that TMS to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex impairs visual metacognition. This failed replication has recently been critiqued by some of the authors of the initial study (Ruby, Maniscalco, & Peters, 2018)...
July 30, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Koyo Nakamura, Hideaki Kawabata
Facial attractiveness is a core facial attribute in social interactions. This study used a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm to investigate whether facial attractiveness can be processed unconsciously. In the b-CFS paradigm, a monocularly viewed visual stimulus is erased from visual awareness by rapidly flashing, high-contrast masks presented to the other eye. Faces with different levels of attractiveness but an emotionally neutral expression were presented under CFS, and the time taken to break CFS was measured...
July 30, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Brett A Cochrane, Hanzhuang Zhu, Bruce Milliken
Priming of Pop-out (PoP) is defined by faster responses in singleton search when the target repeats across trials than when it switches. In a recent study, it was shown that the PoP effect can be reversed using visual imagery (Cochrane, Nwabuike, Thomson, & Milliken, 2018). The goal of the current study was to pinpoint the procedural constraints necessary to observe the imagery-induced reversal of PoP. Across four experiments the reversal of the PoP effect (i) depended critically on the response-stimulus interval between trials, (ii) was remarkably stable across long experimental sessions, (iii) was observed within trial-pairs when participants engaged in visual imagery, but not between trial-pairs when participants did not, and (iv) appeared to be more robust with self-paced trial-pairs than with a long continuous run of trials...
July 21, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Michael K McBeath, Ty Y Tang, Dennis M Shaffer
Conscious experience implies a reference-frame or vantage, which is often important in scientific models. Control models of ball-interception are used as an example. Models that use viewer-dependent egocentric reference-frames are contrasted with viewer-independent allocentric ones. Allocentric reference-frames serve well for models like Newtonian physics, which utilize static coordinate-systems that allow forces and object-movements to be compartmentalized. In contrast, egocentric reference-frames are natural for modeling mobile organisms or robots when controlling perception-action behavior...
July 18, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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