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Consciousness and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431294/exploring-the-experience-of-episodic-past-future-and-counterfactual-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults-a-study-of-a-colombian-sample
#1
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412643/my-action-lasts-longer-potential-link-between-subjective-time-and-agency-during-voluntary-action
#2
Shu Imaizumi, Tomohisa Asai
Time perception distorts across different phases of bodily movement. During motor execution, sensory feedback matching an internal sensorimotor prediction is perceived to last longer. The sensorimotor prediction also underlies sense of agency. We investigated association between subjective time and agency during voluntary action. Participants performed hand action while watching a video feedback of their hand with various delays to manipulate agency. The perceived duration and agency over the video feedback were judged...
April 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411474/prior-expectations-modulate-unconscious-evidence-accumulation
#3
Leonardo S Barbosa, Alexandra Vlassova, Sid Kouider
Unconscious processes have been shown to affect both perception and behaviour. However, the flexibility of such processes remains unknown. Here we investigate whether unconscious decisional processes can adapt to the utility of sensory information. To this end, we had participants gradually accumulate information from noisy motion stimuli, until a decision was reached. We titrated conscious awareness of these stimuli by simultaneously presenting a dynamic dichoptic mask. Crucially, we manipulated the likelihood that the suppressed portion of each presentation would contain useful information...
April 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411473/adaptive-attunement-of-selective-covert-attention-to-evolutionary-relevant-emotional-visual-scenes
#4
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Aída Gutiérrez-García, Juan Capafons, Manuel G Calvo
We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing...
April 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410866/backward-masking-interrupts-spatial-attention-slows-downstream-processing-and-limits-conscious-perception
#5
Talia Losier, Christine Lefebvre, Mattia Doro, Roberto Dell'Acqua, Pierre Jolicœur
The attentional blink (AB) is a difficulty in correctly processing a target when it follows one or more other targets after a short delay. When no backward mask is presented after the last critical target, there is no or little behavioral AB deficit. The mask plays an important role in limiting conscious access to target information. In this electrophysiological study, we tested the impact of masking on the deployment and engagement of attention by measuring the N2pc and P3 components in an RSVP paradigm. We found that the presence of a mask in an AB paradigm reduced the amplitude of the N2pc, P3a, and P3b components...
April 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410470/the-action-congruency-effect-on-the-feelings-of-agency
#6
Roberta Vastano, Thierry Pozzo, Marcel Brass
Previous studies suggest that the sense of agency (SoA), the feeling of control about one's own actions and ensuing effects is also generated during action selection processes. We investigate whether the conflict at the action selection stage induced by a supraliminal stimulus, modulates an implicit measure of SoA, namely intentional binding. Furthermore, we were interested to investigate the influence of different types of stimulus-response compatibility on SoA. To this aim we compared the influence of an automatic imitation task and a stroop-like task on intentional binding...
April 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327348/know-thy-agency-in-predictive-coding-meta-monitoring-over-forward-modeling
#7
Tomohisa Asai
Though the computation of agency is thought to be based on prediction error, it is important for us to grasp our own reliability of that detected error. Here, the current study shows that we have a meta-monitoring ability over our own forward model, where the accuracy of motor prediction and therefore of the felt agency are implicitly evaluated. Healthy participants (N=105) conducted a simple motor control task and SELF or OTHER visual feedback was given. The relationship between the accuracy and confidence in a mismatch detection task and in a self-other attribution task was examined...
April 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392004/-paradox-of-slow-frequencies-are-slow-frequencies-in-upper-cortical-layers-a-neural-predisposition-of-the-level-state-of-consciousness-npc
#8
Georg Northoff
Consciousness research has much focused on faster frequencies like alpha or gamma while neglecting the slower ones in the infraslow (0.001-0.1Hz) and slow (0.1-1Hz) frequency range. These slower frequency ranges have a "bad reputation" though; their increase in power can observed during the loss of consciousness as in sleep, anesthesia, and vegetative state. However, at the same time, slower frequencies have been conceived instrumental for consciousness. The present paper aims to resolve this paradox which I describe as "paradox of slow frequencies"...
April 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388484/making-punishment-palatable-belief-in-free-will-alleviates-punitive-distress
#9
Cory J Clark, Roy F Baumeister, Peter H Ditto
Punishing wrongdoers is beneficial for group functioning, but can harm individual well-being. Building on research demonstrating that punitive motives underlie free will beliefs, we propose that free will beliefs help justify punitive impulses, thus alleviating the associated distress. In Study 1, trait-level punitiveness predicted heightened levels of anxiety only for free will skeptics. Study 2 found that higher state-level incarceration rates predicted higher mental health issue rates, only in states with citizens relatively skeptical about free will...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388483/illusions-of-integration-are-subjectively-impenetrable-phenomenological-experience-of-lag-1-percepts-during-dual-target-rsvp
#10
Luca Simione, Elkan G Akyürek, Valentina Vastola, Antonino Raffone, Howard Bowman
We investigated the relationship between different kinds of target reports in a rapid serial visual presentation task, and their associated perceptual experience. Participants reported the identity of two targets embedded in a stream of stimuli and their associated subjective visibility. In our task, target stimuli could be combined together to form more complex ones, thus allowing participants to report temporally integrated percepts. We found that integrated percepts were associated with high subjective visibility scores, whereas reports in which the order of targets was reversed led to a poorer perceptual experience...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388482/face-proprioception-does-not-modulate-access-to-visual-awareness-of-emotional-faces-in-a-continuous-flash-suppression-paradigm
#11
Sebastian Korb, Sofia A Osimo, Tiziano Suran, Ariel Goldstein, Raffaella Ida Rumiati
An important question in neuroscience is which multisensory information, presented outside of awareness, can influence the nature and speed of conscious access to our percepts. Recently, proprioceptive feedback of the hand was reported to lead to faster awareness of congruent hand images in a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm. Moreover, a vast literature suggests that spontaneous facial mimicry can improve emotion recognition, even without awareness of the stimulus face. However, integration of visual and proprioceptive information about the face to date has not been tested with CFS...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376373/mindfulness-and-mind-wandering-the-protective-effects-of-brief-meditation-in-anxious-individuals
#12
Mengran Xu, Christine Purdon, Paul Seli, Daniel Smilek
Mind wandering can be costly, especially when we are engaged in attentionally demanding tasks. Preliminary studies suggest that mindfulness can be a promising antidote for mind wandering, albeit the evidence is mixed. To better understand the exact impact of mindfulness on mind wandering, we had a sample of highly anxious undergraduate students complete a sustained-attention task during which off-task thoughts including mind wandering were assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to a meditation or control condition, after which the sustained-attention task was repeated...
April 1, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371688/what-did-you-have-in-mind-examining-the-content-of-intentional-and-unintentional-types-of-mind-wandering
#13
Paul Seli, Brandon C W Ralph, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel Smilek, Daniel L Schacter
It has recently been argued that researchers should distinguish between mind wandering (MW) that is engaged with and without intention. Supporting this argument, studies have found that intentional and unintentional MW have behavioral/neural differences, and that they are differentially associated with certain variables of theoretical interest. Although there have been considerable inroads made into the distinction between intentional/unintentional MW, possible differences in their content remain unexplored...
March 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342402/the-effects-of-mindful-learning-on-pro-environmental-behavior-a-self-expansion-perspective
#14
Yanmei Tang, Liuna Geng, P Wesley Schultz, Kexin Zhou, Peng Xiang
This current article explores the differential effects of mindful learning on pro-environmental behavior from the perspective of self-expansion. A total of 253 participants were recruited for four experiments. In Study 1, the mindful-learning group reported greater levels of pro-environmental behavioral intentions compared to a randomized control. In Study 2, we utilized different learning materials focusing on self, humans, or the biosphere in three sub-experiments. Study 2a manipulated mindsets by a self-related focus and revealed participants in a mindfulness condition had lower pro-environmental behavioral intentions than those in the mindlessness group...
March 22, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340399/metacognition-in-the-classroom-the-association-between-students-exam-predictions-and-their-desired-grades
#15
Gabriel D Saenz, Lisa Geraci, Tyler M Miller, Robert Tirso
Students are overconfident when making grade predictions, and worse, the lowest-performing students are generally the most overconfident. Because metacognitive accuracy is associated with academic performance, multiple studies have attempted to improve metacognitive accuracy with mixed results. However, these studies may be of limited use because we do not understand the types of information university students use to make performance predictions. The current studies examined the possibility that university students' predictions are associated with their desires-the grade they want to receive...
March 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329717/characteristics-of-memories-for-near-death-experiences
#16
Lauren E Moore, Bruce Greyson
Near-death experiences are vivid, life-changing experiences occurring to people who come close to death. Because some of their features, such as enhanced cognition despite compromised brain function, challenge our understanding of the mind-brain relationship, the question arises whether near-death experiences are imagined rather than real events. We administered the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire to 122 survivors of a close brush with death who reported near-death experiences. Participants completed Memory Characteristics Questionnaires for three different memories: that of their near-death experience, that of a real event around the same time, and that of an event they had imagined around the same time...
March 19, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327346/genuine-eye-contact-elicits-self-referential-processing
#17
Jonne O Hietanen, Jari K Hietanen
The effect of eye contact on self-awareness was investigated with implicit measures based on the use of first-person singular pronouns in sentences. The measures were proposed to tap into self-referential processing, that is, information processing associated with self-awareness. In addition, participants filled in a questionnaire measuring explicit self-awareness. In Experiment 1, the stimulus was a video clip showing another person and, in Experiment 2, the stimulus was a live person. In both experiments, participants were divided into two groups and presented with the stimulus person either making eye contact or gazing downward, depending on the group assignment...
March 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327347/compatibilism-can-be-natural
#18
John Turri
Compatibilism is the view that moral responsibility is compatible with determinism. Natural compatibilism is the view that in ordinary social cognition, people are compatibilists. Researchers have recently debated whether natural compatibilism is true. This paper presents six experiments (N=909) that advance this debate. The results provide the best evidence to date for natural compatibilism, avoiding the main methodological problems faced by previous work supporting the view. In response to simple scenarios about familiar activities, people judged that agents had moral responsibilities to perform actions that they were unable to perform (Experiment 1), were morally responsible for unavoidable outcomes (Experiment 2), were to blame for unavoidable outcomes (Experiments 3-4), deserved blame for unavoidable outcomes (Experiment 5), and should suffer consequences for unavoidable outcomes (Experiment 6)...
March 14, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288382/the-informative-value-of-type-of-repetition-perceptual-and-conceptual-fluency-influences-on-judgments-of-truth
#19
Rita R Silva, Teresa Garcia-Marques, Rolf Reber
We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements...
March 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285034/social-influence-and-mental-routes-to-the-production-of-authentic-false-memories-and-inauthentic-false-memories
#20
Michael F Wagner, John J Skowronski
Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered...
March 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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