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Consciousness and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622585/the-fading-affect-bias-shows-positive-outcomes-at-the-general-but-not-the-individual-level-of-analysis-in-the-context-of-social-media
#1
Jeffrey A Gibbons, Kyle A Horowitz, Spencer M Dunlap
Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences...
June 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618282/global-shape-integration-and-illusory-form-perception-in-the-absence-of-awareness
#2
Mikel Jimenez, Pedro R Montoro, Dolores Luna
Previous research on perceptual organization operations still provides contradictory evidence on whether the integration of sparse local elements into coherently unified shapes and the construction of the illusory form are accomplished without the need of awareness. In the present study, three experiments were conducted in which participants were presented with masked (Experiment 1, SOA=27ms; Experiment 2; SOA=53ms) and unmasked (Experiment 3) primes consisting of geometric shapes (a square or a diamond) that could be congruent or incongruent with a subsequent probe stimuli (square vs...
June 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609702/the-effect-of-facial-feedback-on-the-evaluation-of-statements-describing-everyday-situations-and-the-role-of-awareness
#3
Jakob Kaiser, Graham C L Davey
According to theories of embodiment enacting a smile or a frown can positively or negatively influence one's evaluations, even without awareness of one's facial activity. While some previous studies found evidence for facial feedback effects, recent replication attempts could not confirm these findings. Are our decisions throughout the day amenable to the state of our facial muscles? We tested the effect of smiling and frowning on the evaluation of emotional sentences describing everyday situations. While most previous studies based their assessment of awareness on verbal debriefing interviews without explicitly defined criteria, we employed a written debriefing questionnaire in order to avoid potential bias when identifying participants' awareness...
June 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606359/opposite-erp-effects-for-conscious-and-unconscious-semantic-processing-under-continuous-flash-suppression
#4
Yung-Hao Yang, Jifan Zhou, Kuei-An Li, Tifan Hung, Alan J Pegna, Su-Ling Yeh
We examined whether semantic processing occurs without awareness using continuous flash suppression (CFS). In two priming tasks, participants were required to judge whether a target was a word or a non-word, and to report whether the masked prime was visible. Experiment 1 manipulated the lexical congruency between the prime-target pairs and Experiment 2 manipulated their semantic relatedness. Despite the absence of behavioral priming effects (Experiment 1), the ERP results revealed that an N4 component was sensitive to the prime-target lexical congruency (Experiment 1) and semantic relatedness (Experiment 2) when the prime was rendered invisible under CFS...
June 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595114/the-tendency-of-unconscious-thought-toward-global-processing-style
#5
Jiansheng Li, Fan Wang, Mowei Shen, Gang Fan
This study explored whether unconscious thought has a tendency to process information globally. In three experiments, a Navon task was used to activate global or local processing styles. Findings showed that in the unconscious-thought groups, those performing the local Navon task presented a poorer decision-making performance when compared to those performing the global Navon task (Experiment 1); participants reported that their judgments were made based on partial attributes (Experiment 2), and evaluated a target individual mainly based on information consistent with stereotypes (Experiment 3)...
June 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558307/electrophysiological-signals-associated-with-fluency-of-different-levels-of-processing-reveal-multiple-contributions-to-recognition-memory
#6
Bingbing Li, Jason R Taylor, Wei Wang, Chuanji Gao, Chunyan Guo
Processing fluency appears to influence recognition memory judgements, and the manipulation of fluency, if misattributed to an effect of prior exposure, can result in illusory memory. Although it is well established that fluency induced by masked repetition priming leads to increased familiarity, manipulations of conceptual fluency have produced conflicting results, variously affecting familiarity or recollection. Some recent studies have found that masked conceptual priming increases correct recollection (Taylor & Henson, 2012), and the magnitude of this behavioural effect correlates with analogous fMRI BOLD priming effects in brain regions associated with recollection (Taylor, Buratto, & Henson, 2013)...
May 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554797/juxtaposing-the-real-time-unfolding-of-subjective-experience-and-erp-neuromarker-dynamics
#7
Renate Rutiku, Talis Bachmann
Electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials have remained a valuable source of data and theories concerning neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). The EEG based methods are far from being exhausted and are continually valuable in the quest for the markers of NCC. To set the background for the research presented in this issue, we review the published work on EEG-based markers of NCC. The article is organized according to the principle of the time-course aspect of brain potentials with regard to the stimuli for which subject's awareness is experimentally measured and/or manipulated...
May 26, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506434/erp-signatures-of-conscious-and-unconscious-word-and-letter-perception-in-an-inattentional-blindness-paradigm
#8
Kathryn Schelonka, Christian Graulty, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez, Michael A Pitts
A three-phase inattentional blindness paradigm was combined with ERPs. While participants performed a distracter task, line segments in the background formed words or consonant-strings. Nearly half of the participants failed to notice these word-forms and were deemed inattentionally blind. All participants noticed the word-forms in phase 2 of the experiment while they performed the same distracter task. In the final phase, participants performed a task on the word-forms. In all phases, including during inattentional blindness, word-forms elicited distinct ERPs during early latencies (∼200-280ms) suggesting unconscious orthographic processing...
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506433/awareness-in-the-crowd-beta-power-and-alpha-phase-of-prestimulus-oscillations-predict-object-discrimination-in-visual-crowding
#9
Luca Ronconi, Rosilari Bellacosa Marotti
Visual crowding is among the factors that most hamper conscious object perception. However, we currently ignore the neural states that predispose to an accurate perception within different crowding regimes. Here, we performed single-trial analyses of the electroencephalographical (EEG) oscillations, evaluating the prestimulus power and phase differences between correct and incorrect discrimination during a letter-crowding task, where irrelevant letters were placed nearby (strong crowding) or far (mid crowding) relative to the target...
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501698/sensorimotor-experience-in-virtual-reality-enhances-sense-of-agency-associated-with-an-avatar
#10
Gaiqing Kong, Kang He, Kunlin Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500871/the-ability-to-tickle-oneself-is-associated-with-level-of-psychometric-schizotypy-in-non-clinical-individuals
#11
Thomas J Whitford, Amelia M Mitchell, Damien J Mannion
A recent study (Lemaitre et al., 2016, Consciousness and Cognition, 41, 64-71) found that non-clinical individuals who scored highly on a psychometric scale of schizotypy were able to tickle themselves. The present study aimed to extend this finding by investigating whether the ability to tickle oneself was associated with level of psychometric schizotypy considered as a continuous variable. One hundred and eleven students completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). A mechanical device delivered tactile stimulation to participants' palms...
May 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460273/eye-movements-provide-insights-into-the-conscious-use-of-context-in-prospective-memory
#12
Vanessa K Bowden, Rebekah E Smith, Shayne Loft
Prior research examining the impact of context on prospective memory (PM) has produced mixed results. Our study aimed to determine whether providing progressive context information could increase PM accuracy and reduce costs to ongoing tasks. Seventy-two participants made ongoing true/false judgements for simple sentences while maintaining a PM intention to respond differently to four memorised words. The context condition were informed of the trial numbers where PM targets could appear, and eye-tracking recorded trial number fixation frequency...
April 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460272/mind-wandering-and-task-stimuli-stimulus-dependent-thoughts-influence-performance-on-memory-tasks-and-are-more-often-past-versus-future-oriented
#13
David Maillet, Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter
Although many studies have indicated that participants frequently mind-wander during experimental tasks, relatively little research has examined the extent to which such thoughts are triggered by task stimuli (stimulus-dependent thoughts; SDTs) versus internally triggered (stimulus-independent thoughts; SITs). In the current experiment, we assessed differences in the frequency and characteristics of SDTs and SITs, as well as their associations with subsequent memory in young adults. Whereas frequency of SDTs (but not SITs) increased in a task with more meaningful stimuli, frequency of SITs (but not SDTs) increased in an easier task...
April 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460271/transcranial-parenchymal-sonography-in-patients-with-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-association-with-neuroimaging-data-and-beyond
#14
Antonino Chillura, Antonino Naro, Alberto Cacciola, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Differential diagnosis of patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) is rather challenging, owing to the lack of objective approaches highlighting residual awareness. Sophisticated functional neuroimaging have provided high diagnostic value, but their application in the clinical setting is limited due to their relative complexity, cost, availability and poor collaboration of persons with DoC. By using a specific ultrasound-based methodology, namely Transcranial B-mode Parenchymal Sonography (TCS), it is possible to obtain images of the main parenchymal brain structures...
April 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458093/working-memory-capacity-and-mind-wandering-during-low-demand-cognitive-tasks
#15
Matthew K Robison, Nash Unsworth
Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) typically predict reduced rates of mind-wandering during laboratory tasks (Randall, Oswald, & Beier, 2014). However, some studies have shown a positive relationship between WMC and mind-wandering during particularly low-demand tasks (Levinson, Smallwood, & Davidson, 2012; Rummel & Boywitt, 2014; Zavagnin, Borella, & De Beni, 2014). More specifically, Baird, Smallwood, and Schooler (2011) found that when individuals with greater WMC do mind-wander, they tend entertain more future-oriented thoughts...
April 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458092/sleep-does-not-cause-false-memories-on-a-story-based-test-of-suggestibility
#16
Elaine van Rijn, Neil Carter, Hazel McMurtrie, Paul Willner, Mark T Blagrove
Sleep contributes to the consolidation of memories. This process may involve extracting the gist of learned material at the expense of details. It has thus been proposed that sleep might lead to false memory formation. Previous research examined the effect of sleep on false memory using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Mixed results were found, including increases and decreases in false memory after sleep relative to wake. It has been questioned whether DRM false memories occur by the same processes as real-world false memories...
April 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454059/outcome-focused-judgements-of-moral-dilemmas-in-schizophrenia
#17
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a population characterised by social-cognitive deficits and interpersonal difficulties. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls judged high-conflict moral dilemmas in response to 3rd-person (i.e. "Is it morally okay to [perform X]?") and 1st-person (i...
April 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411473/adaptive-attunement-of-selective-covert-attention-to-evolutionary-relevant-emotional-visual-scenes
#18
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Aída Gutiérrez-García, Juan Capafons, Manuel G Calvo
We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing...
April 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448792/imagining-possible-selves-across-time-characteristics-of-self-images-and-episodic-thoughts
#19
J Hamilton, S N Cole
Thinking about our possible selves can entail thinking about self-related imagined future events. When remembering and imagining, individuals can use both 1st person (field) and 3rd person (observer) perspectives. There is currently a paucity of research examining the visual perspectives of episodic future thoughts that represent possible selves. We hypothesised that temporally distant self-images would elicit more observer perspectives in episodic thoughts than temporally near self-images and current self-images...
April 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448791/self-grounding-visual-auditory-and-olfactory-autobiographical-memories
#20
Igor Knez, Louise Ljunglöf, Artin Arshamian, Johan Willander
Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self...
April 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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