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Consciousness and Cognition

Mark Schram Christensen, Thor Grünbaum
In this paper, we argue that the comparator model is not a satisfactory model of sense of agency (SoA). We present a theoretical argument and experimental studies. We show (1) most studies of SoA neglect a distinction between SoA associated with movements (narrow SoA) and SoA associated with environmental events (broad SoA); (2) the comparator model emerges from experimental studies of sensory consequences narrowly associated with movements; (3) narrow SoA can be explained by a comparator model, but a motor signal model is simpler and explain narrow SoA equally well; and (4) standard experimental paradigms study only broad SoA...
July 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Tomáš Dominik, Daniel Dostál, Martin Zielina, Jan Šmahaj, Zuzana Sedláčková, Roman Procházka
Libet's experiment is an influential classical study, which does not stop provoking heated debates. However, a full-scale replication has not been carried out to this day. Libet-style studies have usually focused on isolated ideas and concepts and never on the whole experiment in all its complexity. This paper presents detailed methodological description and results of a complex replication study. The methodology follows Libet's directions closely in most cases; when it does not, the differences are described and elaborated...
July 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Amirali Shirazibeheshti, Jennifer Cooke, Srivas Chennu, Ram Adapa, David K Menon, Seyed Ali Hojjatoleslami, Adrien Witon, Ling Li, Tristan Bekinschtein, Howard Bowman
While many studies have linked prediction errors and event related potentials at a single processing level, few consider how these responses interact across levels. In response, we present a factorial analysis of a multi-level oddball task - the local-global task - and we explore it when participants are sedated versus recovered. We found that the local and global levels in fact interact. This is of considerable current interest, since it has recently been argued that the MEEG response evoked by the global effect corresponds to a distinct processing mode that moves beyond predictive coding...
July 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Russell T Hurlburt
Moore and Schwitzgebel (this issue) reported that readers report innerly speak the text about 59% of the time. Brouwers et al. (2018) reported that readers innerly speak the text only about 3% of the time. I use this huge discrepancy as a case study to discuss important issues in the investigation of inner experience, including: the training of participants; ambiguity in the time being considered; ambiguity in the phenomenon; the desirability of investigating the phenomenon itself, not merely its frequency; bracketing presuppositions; the advantages and disadvantages of large and small sample sizes; influence by the investigator; and the slide from phenomena to reports of phenomena...
July 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer
In this article, we show that lay people's beliefs about how minds relate to bodies are more complex than past research suggests, and that treating them as a multidimensional construct helps explain inconclusive findings from the literature regarding their relation to beliefs about whether humans possess a free will. In two studies, we found that items previously used to assess a unidimensional belief in how minds relate to bodies indeed capture two distinguishable constructs (belief in substance dualism and reductive physicalism) that differently predict belief in free will and two types of determinism (Studies 1 and 2)...
July 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Eric Schwitzgebel, Alan T Moore
Hurlburt (2018) states that Brouwers et al. (2018) find a much lower frequency of reported inner speech while reading than we find in Moore and Schwitzgebel (2018), and he attributes the difference to methodological shortcomings in Moore and Schwitzgebel's method. However, the method in Brouwers et al. has complementary shortcomings, and an apples-to-apples comparison of the data between the two studies shows a considerably smaller difference in results than the top-line percentages that Hurlburt emphasizes...
July 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Fábio Silva, Joana Dias, Samuel Silva, Pedro Bem-Haja, Carlos F Silva, Sandra C Soares
Executive control and its modulation of attentional mechanisms allow us to detect and adapt to conflicting information. According to recent studies, executive control functions may be modulated by unconsciously perceived information, although the available evidence is not consistent. In this study, we used a Flanker Task and employed Chromatic Flicker Fusion, a suppression technique that has been proposed as more adequate to elicit executive control functions, to assess conflict and conflict adaptation effects...
July 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Sven Thönes, Stefan Arnau, Edmund Wascher
Our understanding of (altered) time perception may benefit from investigating its potential effects upon other psychological and physiological parameters. To date, however, only a few rather isolated studies have experimentally manipulated the subjective passage of time or the amount of apparently elapsed duration in order to investigate such effects. Based on our review of these studies, first, altered time perception can be induced effectively by means of rigged (accelerated or decelerated) external clocks, second, these clock-speed manipulations remain unnoticed by most participants, and third, several psychological, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological variables can be affected, e...
June 29, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Brittany M Tausen, Lynden K Miles, Louisa Lawrie, C Neil Macrae
Perceiving oneself as agentic is dependent upon the integration of conscious intention, a corresponding outcome, and body-congruent sensorimotor information. Altering these critical cues, such as the vantage point from which an event is viewed, can have a notable impact on one's sense of agency, including an increased sense of ownership over another person's actions or a reduced sense of responsibility (or control) over one's own actions. In three studies, we investigated whether mentally simulated and written perspectives could have similar effects...
June 29, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
S Oliver Daum, Heiko Hecht
Hills often appear to be steeper than they are. The unusual magnitude of this error has prompted extensive experimentation. The judgment mode, such as verbal vs. action-based measures, the state of the observer - whether exhausted or well rested - all can influence perceived geographical slant. We hold that slant perception is inherently shaky as soon as the slope in question is no longer palpable, that is if it is outside our personal space. To make this point, we have added symmetry, texture, and depression to the list of factors that might modulate slant perception...
June 27, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Gregory Sparrow, Ryan Hurd, Ralph Carlson, Ana Molina
An experimental home study examined the impact of a pre-sleep protocol for enhancing self-awareness, lucidity, and responsiveness in dreams. It included ingesting the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine--which is widely reported to increase the frequency of lucid dreaming--prior to engaging in middle-of-the-night meditation and the imaginary reliving of a distressing dream while exercising new responses. Thirty-five participants completed an eight-night study, which included pre- and post-baseline nights and six conditions: waking for 40 min before returning to bed, called Wake-Back-to-Bed (WBTB); Wake-Back-to-Bed plus placebo (WBTB + P); Wake-Back-to-Bed plus galantamine (WBTB + G); meditation and dream reliving (MDR); meditation and dream reliving plus placebo (MDR + P); and meditation and dream reliving plus galantamine (MDR + G)...
June 27, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Gianluca Finotti, Daniele Migliorati, Marcello Costantini
Multisensory stimuli are integrated over a delimited window of temporal asynchronies. This window is highly variable across individuals, but the origins of this variability are still not clear. We hypothesized that immune system functioning could partially account for this variability. In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between key aspects of multisensory integration in allergic participants and healthy controls. First, we tested the temporal constraint of multisensory integration, as measured by the temporal binding window...
June 25, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Peter Carruthers
The goal of this paper is to establish the truth of the following conditional: if a global workspace theory of phenomenal consciousness is correct, and is fully reductive in nature, then we should stop asking questions about consciousness in nonhuman animals-not because those questions are too hard to answer, but because there are no substantive facts to discover. The argument in support of this conditional turns on the idea that while global broadcasting is all-or-nothing in the human mind, it is framed in terms that imply gradations across species...
June 22, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Hayley Dewe, Derrick G Watson, Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
Depersonalization and Derealization are characterised by feelings of detachment from one's bodily self/surroundings and a general emotional numbness. We explored predisposition to trait-based experiences of depersonalization/derealization-type experiences and autonomic arousal toward simulated body-threats, which were delivered to the participant's own body (i.e. Self) and when observed being delivered to another individual (i.e. Other). Ninety participants took part in an "Implied Body-Threat Illusion" task (Dewe, Watson, & Braithwaite, 2016) and autonomic arousal was recorded via standardised skin conductance responses and finger temperature...
June 18, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Michael Weigl, Axel Mecklinger, Timm Rosburg
Illusory correlations (IC) are the perception of covariation, where none exists. For example, people associate majorities with frequent behavior and minorities with infrequent behavior even in the absence of such an association. According to the information loss account, ICs result from greater fading of infrequent group-behavior combinations in memory. We conducted computer simulations based on this account which showed that ICs are expected under standard conditions with skewed category frequencies (i.e. 2:1 ratio for positive and negative descriptions), but not under conditions with equated category frequencies (i...
June 14, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Yu-Jeng Ju, Yunn-Wen Lien
We proposed an integration hypothesis of mind wandering in which the tendency of mind wandering is only related to working memory capacity (WMC) when a self-regulation process is required (i.e., under a high task load); however, this tendency is related to mindfulness regardless of task load. A within-group experiment with 160 participants was conducted. Task load was manipulated as high or low using modified 0-back and 2-back tasks, during which participants' self-caught mind wanderings and the types of mind wandering (aware vs...
June 13, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ariel S Cecchi
Cognitive and affective penetration of perception refers to the influence that higher mental states such as beliefs and emotions have on perceptual systems. Psychological and neuroscientific studies appear to show that these states modulate the visual system at the visuomotor, attentional, and late levels of processing. However, empirical evidence showing that similar consequences occur in early stages of visual processing seems to be scarce. In this paper, I argue that psychological evidence does not seem to be either sufficient or necessary to argue in favour of or against the cognitive penetration of perception in either late or early vision...
June 13, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Shira Cohen-Zimerman, Ran R Hassin
It is widely accepted that while controlled processes (e.g., working memory and executive functions) decline with age, implicit (automatic) processes are not affected by age. In this paper we challenge this view by arguing that high-level automatic processes (e.g., recruiting motivation) decline with age, and that this decline plays an unappreciated role in cognitive aging. Specifically, we hypothesized that due to their decline, automatic motivational processes are less likely to be spontaneously activated in old age; thus, implicit external activation of them should have stronger effects on older (vs...
June 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Boris M Velichkovsky, Olga A Krotkova, Artemy A Kotov, Vyacheslav A Orlov, Vitaly M Verkhlyutov, Vadim L Ushakov, Maxim G Sharaev
By taking into account Bruce Bridgeman's interest in an evolutionary framing of human cognition, we examine effective (cause-and-effect) connectivity among cortical structures related to different parts of the triune phylogenetic stratification: archicortex, paleocortex and neocortex. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 25 healthy subjects and spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling, we report interactions among 10 symmetrical left and right brain areas. Our results testify to general rightward and top-down biases in excitatory interactions of these structures during resting state, when self-related contemplation prevails over more objectified conceptual thinking...
June 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Paul A Bloom, David Friedman, Judy Xu, Matti Vuorre, Janet Metcalfe
This article investigates the relations among the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state, event related potentials (ERPs) to correct feedback to questions, and subsequent memory. ERPs were used to investigate neurocognitive responses to feedback to general information questions for which participants had expressed either being or not being in a TOT state. For questions in which participants were unable to answer within 3 s, they indicated whether they were experiencing a TOT state and then were immediately provided with the correct answer...
June 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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