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Consciousness and Cognition

Rebekah C White, Martin Davies, Anne M Aimola Davies
When attention is otherwise engaged, observers may experience inattentional blindness, failing to notice objects or events that are presented in plain sight. In an inattentional blindness experiment, an unexpectedstimulus ispresented alongside primary-task stimuli, and its detection is probed. We evaluate a criterion that is commonly used to exclude observers from the data analysis. On the final experimental trial, observers do not perform the primary task, but instead look for anything new. Observers who fail to report the unexpected stimulus on thisfull-attention trialare excluded...
January 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Maayan Avneon, Dominique Lamy
Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming...
January 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) involves the presentation of a rapidly changing Mondrian sequence to one eye and a static target in the other eye. Targets presented in this manner remain suppressed for several seconds at a time, and this has seen the prevalent use of CFS in studies of unconscious visual processes. However, the mechanisms behind CFS remain unclear, complicating its use and the comprehension of results obtained with the paradigm. For example, some studies report observations indicative of faster, visual masking processes whereas others suggest slower, rivalry processes...
January 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Dalila Burin, Maria Pyasik, Irene Ronga, Marco Cavallo, Adriana Salatino, Lorenzo Pia
We investigated whether agency triggered by body ownership shares similar temporal constraints with agency induced by actual movements. We compared agency over the movements of the own hand, a fake hand and an embodied fake hand when they pressed a button delivering a stimulus to the participant's body after 500, 1000 or 2000 ms. In the first two delays, the movement of the embodied fake hand was misattributed to the participant's own will and the stimulus intensity was attenuated, as it happened when the own hand delivered the stimulus...
January 2, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
David B Mitchell, Corwin L Kelly, Alan S Brown
We endeavored to replicate Mitchell's (2006) finding of 17-year implicit memory priming. Subjects saw word and picture stimuli in 1999-2000 (M age = 18.9) and were retested after 11-14 years (M = 13.2; M age = 32.1). Via the internet, they completed four implicit memory tasks: picture fragment identification, word fragment completion, word stem completion, and category exemplar generation. Relative to control subjects (matched on stimuli, age, and education), longitudinal subjects revealed priming on picture and word fragment identification (perceptual tasks), but no priming on word stem completion or category exemplar generation (conceptual tasks)...
December 23, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Stefan Huijser, Marieke K van Vugt, Niels A Taatgen
We investigated how self-referential processing (SRP) affected self-generated thought in a complex working memory task (CWM) to test the predictions of a computational cognitive model. This model described self-generated thought as resulting from competition between task- and distracting processes, and predicted that self-generated thought interferes with rehearsal, reducing memory performance. SRP was hypothesized to influence this goal competition process by encouraging distracting self-generated thinking...
December 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Silvia Zocchi, Francesca Borasio, Davide Rivolta, Luana Rositano, Ilaria Scotti, Davide Liccione
The aim of the current study was to analyze the role of affective engagement during social interaction on the emergence of a temporally extended self (TES). A Delayed Self Recognition task was administered in two different social contexts: in presence of the mother ("Mother condition") or in presence of an unfamiliar person ("Experimenter condition"). The same sample of 71 tree-year-olds was tested twice in these two treatment conditions. Results showed higher self-recognition scores in the "Mother condition"...
December 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Daniel D Sadler, Sharon M Sodmont, Lucas A Keefer
We examined whether the DRM false memory effect can occur when list words are presented below the perceptual identification threshold. In four experiments, subjects showed robust veridical memory for studied words and false memory for critical lures when masked list words were presented at exposure durations of 43 ms per word. Shortening the exposure duration to 29 ms virtually eliminated veridical recognition of studied words and completely eliminated false recognition of critical lures. Subjective visibility ratings in Experiments 3a and 3b support the assumption that words presented at 29 ms were subliminal for most participants, but were occasionally experienced with partial awareness by participants with higher perceptual awareness...
December 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
N Karsh, O Goldstein, B Eitam
Pain is an integral part of our lives. Although the effect of 'control' on sensed pain has been extensively studied and discussed, recent findings seem to be at odds with the substantial evidence for a robust motor-based sensory attenuation effect - an indirect marker for one's sense of agency. The goal of the current study was to re-examine whether there is evidence for such an effect in the context of pain. In three experiments, human participants were aversively stimulated and the sensitivity of self-reported pain to factors previously shown to modulate the sensory attenuation effect was tested (control over parameters of the stimulation; temporal contiguity and predictability, and stimulation intensity)...
December 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Ivan I Ivanchei, Nadezhda V Moroshkina
Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none...
December 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Lieve Filbrich, Monika Halicka, Andrea Alamia, Valéry Legrain
The present study investigated the influence of nociceptive stimuli on visual stimuli processing according to the relative spatial congruence between the two stimuli of different sensory modalities. Participants performed temporal order judgments on pairs of visual stimuli, one presented near the hand on which nociceptive stimuli were occasionally applied, the other one either to its left or to its right. The visual hemifield in which the stimulated hand and the near visual stimulus appeared was manipulated by changing gaze direction...
December 2, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Hsuan-Fu Chao
Single-prime negative priming refers to a phenomenon whereby repeating a single prime as a probe target slows responses to that target. This phenomenon is modulated by cognitive control when the contingency between the prime and probe target is higher than chance. The present study investigated the role of prime awareness and awareness of the contingency within the control mechanism during single-prime negative priming. Results showed that while single-prime negative priming occurred regardless of participant awareness, the control mechanism was modulated by prime awareness and perceived contingency...
November 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Yonghui Wang, Yongchun Wang, Peng Liu, Junni Wang, Yanyan Gong, Meilin Di, Ya Li
The present study investigated the roles of bottom-up mask-triggered inhibition and top-down inhibition in semantic categorization using the single negative priming (NP) paradigm. The masking (bottom-up) and ignore instructions (top-down, i.e., instructing participants to ignore the primes) were manipulated in Experiments 1-3 and Experiment 4, respectively. No priming was observed when only the masking was manipulated (Experiments 2 and 3), but NP was observed when a possible top-down ignore strategy (Experiment 1) or an ignore instruction (Experiment 4) was added...
November 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Myron Tsikandilakis, Peter Chapman, Jonathan Peirce
Much heated debate surrounds the extent to which we can process emotional stimuli without awareness. In particular the extent to which masked emotional faces can elicit changes in physiology measurements, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, has produced controversial findings. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether briefly presented faces can elicit physiological changes and, specifically, whether this is due to unconscious processing. We measured and adjusted for individual differences in the detection threshold using both receiver operating characteristics and hit rates...
November 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Chui-De Chiu
While clinical studies showed paradoxical memory phenomena, including the intrusion and amnesia of stressful experiences that are features of dissociation, the results of laboratory studies on dissociative individuals' forgetting of experimental stimuli through cognitive control varied. Some studies demonstrated ineffective inhibition, and others found that dissociative individuals could remember fewer trauma words in a divided-attention context. Dissociative individuals may utilize superior cognitive disengagement to forget the representations...
November 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Emma V Ward
Older adults often show greater implicit/unconscious memory than young adults for incidental information that was task-irrelevant during its acquisition. Shallow/perceptual encoding by older adults may boost performance on implicit tasks that reinstate this type of processing, whereas deeper/conceptual encoding by young adults may support greater explicit/conscious memory. To test this, young and older participants were exposed to incidental words in a text color identification task before the trial-by-trial capture of priming and recognition...
November 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Ryan Smith, Sahil Bajaj, Natalie S Dailey, Anna Alkozei, Courtney Smith, Anna Sanova, Richard D Lane, William D S Killgore
Previous studies of trait emotional awareness (EA) have not yet examined whether differences in cortical structure might account for differences in EA. Based on previous research on the relationship between EA and both emotion conceptualization and visceromotor control processes, we tested two hypotheses in a sample of 26 healthy participants: that higher EA would be predicted by greater cortical thickness within (1) regions of the default mode network (DMN; linked with conceptualization processes), and/or (2) regions of the limbic network (linked with affect generation and visceromotor control processes)...
November 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Poppy L A Schoenberg, Andrea Ruf, John Churchill, Daniel P Brown, Judson A Brewer
Specific mental training cultivates diminished self-reference, encompassing non-duality, emptiness, awakened-awareness, and compassionate experiences. We aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of four distinct, interdependent Essence-of-Mind states: (1) timelessness, (2) non-preference, non-duality, non-conceptualization, (3) the view of luminosity and limitlessness, (4) unified compassionate experience of oneness (stable awakened-awareness). EEG data were collected from 30 advanced meditators concomitant to eyes-open/eyes-closed resting baseline, followed by 60-min of instructed practice...
November 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
E R Palser, A Fotopoulou, J M Kilner
Correctly estimating the confidence we should have in our decisions has traditionally been viewed as a perceptual judgement based solely on the strength or quality of sensory information. However, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the motor system contributes to judgements of perceptual confidence. Here, we manipulated the speed at which participants' moved using a behavioural priming task and showed that increasing movement speed above participants' baseline measures disrupts their ability to form accurate confidence judgements about their performance...
November 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Vanessa M Loaiza, Borislava M Borovanska
Much research has investigated the qualitative experience of retrieving events from episodic memory (EM). The present study investigated whether covert retrieval in WM increases the phenomenological characteristics that participants find memorable in EM using tasks that distract attention from the maintenance of memoranda (i.e., complex span; Experiment 1) relative to tasks that do not (i.e., short or long list lengths of simple span; Experiments 1 and 2). Participants rated the quality of the phonological, semantic, and temporal-contextual characteristics remembered during a delayed memory characteristics questionnaire (MCQ)...
November 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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