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Consciousness and Cognition

Paul Seli, Roger E Beaty, James Allan Cheyne, Daniel Smilek, Jonathan Oakman, Daniel L Schacter
Recent claims that people spend 30-50% of their waking lives mind wandering (Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010; Kane et al., 2007) have become widely accepted and frequently cited. While acknowledging attention to be inconstant and wavering, and mind wandering to be ubiquitous, we argue and present evidence that such simple quantitative estimates are misleading and potentially meaningless without serious qualification. Mind-wandering estimates requiring dichotomous judgments of inner experience rely on questionable assumptions about how such judgments are made, and the resulting data do not permit straightforward interpretation...
November 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Jonne O Hietanen, Aleksi H Syrjämäki, Patrick K Zilliacus, Jari K Hietanen
The perception of watching eyes has been found to reduce dishonest behavior. This effect, however, has only been shown in situations where it can be explained by increased adherence to rules and norms, and thus a watching-eyes effect on dishonesty per se has not been demonstrated. Moreover, the effect has been investigated only with images of watching eyes, not in an interactive situation with a live person, which may arguably have different effects on behavior. In the present study, the effect of watching eyes on dishonesty was investigated with an interactive computer game of lying...
November 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Jonas Gouraud, Arnaud Delorme, Bruno Berberian
There is accumulating evidence which shows that mind wandering may be increased within automated environments. This is particularly concerning when considering the negative effect of mind wandering on short-term performance. Seventeen participants performed an obstacle avoidance task under two conditions, manual and automated, each lasting 40 min. Subjects perceived the manual condition as more demanding than the automated one. We noted a significant increase of mind wandering frequency after only approximately 20 min under the automated condition...
November 2, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Márton Nagy, Ildikó Király
Eye movements indicate relational memory retrieval by disproportional viewing of a matching stimulus compared to non-matching stimuli after a pair learning study phase (the REME). Experiment 1 showed that the magnitude of the eye movement effect is linked to the subjective confidence level of the responses and we could not find evidence of the REME in incorrect responses, where participants lack conscious recollection. In experiment 2 we used a no-choice task, where participants were instructed to learn the test displays after they have completed a pair learning study phase...
November 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Alexandra Ernst, Frederick L Philippe, Arnaud D'Argembeau
While it is established that goal processing is a central component of episodic future thinking, how personal goals shape future event representations is not fully understood. Here, we explored the influence of the source of motivation underlying goal pursuit. Personal goals differ in their degree of self-concordance, which depends on the primary motives underlying goal pursuit. We distinguished between self-concordant (what one wants to achieve) and non-self-concordant (what one has to achieve) goals. Participants were asked to imagine specific future events associated with each type of goals...
November 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Yuru Wang, Tom G E Damen, Henk Aarts
Previous research shows that agency experiences are reduced when response selection is dysfluent. Expanding on this work, we report two experiments addressing the influence of Simon response conflict on agency. Participants responded to congruent and incongruent Simon task trials and indicated their experienced agency after each response. Results show that incongruent trials were related to reduced agency experiences, thus replicating earlier work on the response-selection agency-link. Furthermore, the data further showed an interesting sequence effect: The congruency effect on experienced agency mainly emerged when a trial was preceded by a congruent trial...
October 31, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
David L R Maij, Michiel van Elk
Previous work demonstrated that placebo brain stimulation can function as an experimental tool to elicit mystical and quasi-mystical (i.e., extraordinary) experiences. However, it has not yet been investigated whether these effects result from mere sensory deprivation and individual differences in suggestibility, or whether expectancy manipulations are crucial in eliciting these effects. In this study, we showed that extraordinary experiences could be systematically manipulated by means of an expectancy manipulation using a within-subjects design, while controlling for suggestibility effects...
October 21, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Charlotte L Rae, Dennis E O Larsson, Jessica A Eccles, Jamie Ward, Hugo D Critchley
In Tourette Syndrome, the expression of tics and commonly preceding premonitory sensations is associated with perturbed subjective feelings of self-control and agency. We compared responses to the Rubber Hand Illusion in 23 adults with TS and 22 controls. Both TS and control participants reported equivalent subjective embodiment of the artificial hand: feelings of ownership, location, and agency were greater during synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation, compared to asynchronous. However, individuals with TS did not manifest greater proprioceptive drift, an objective marker of embodiment observed in controls...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
A Xu, B H Cullen, C Penner, C Zimmerman, C E Kerr, L Schmalzl
One assessment of embodiment is the rubber hand illusion (RHI), a visuo-tactile illusion in which individuals attribute a sense of ownership to a rubber hand and disownership to their real hand. Interestingly, interoception seems to influence RHI susceptibility. In this study, we administered the RHI and the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) to examine embodiment experiences and interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators (n = 15) and non-meditators (n = 15). We found that meditators reported less intensity in rubber hand ownership, but there was no significant difference between groups with respect to disownership of their real hand or drift in finger proprioception...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Bartosz Majchrowicz, Michał Wierzchoń
Sense of agency (SoA) is the feeling of being the author of given actions and their effects. Recent works have investigated the cue integration approach to agency, according to which different predictive and inferential cues form SoA. In the current research we focus on how two such cues, i.e. accuracy of sensorimotor prediction and prior causal belief, influence SoA measured by temporal binding (TB) and questionnaires. Our results show that whereas learnt action effects produce normal TB and explicit agency, unexpected oddball effects produce enhanced TB but diminished explicit agency...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Katharina A Schwarz, Sebastian Burger, David Dignath, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
The sense of agency is a pervasive phenomenon that accompanies conscious acting and extends to the consequences of one's actions in the environment. Subjective feelings of agency are typically explained in terms of predictive processes, based on internal forward models inherent to the sensorimotor system, and postdictive processes, i.e., explicit, retrospective judgments by the agent. Only recently, research has begun to elucidate the link between sense of agency and more basic processes of human action control...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ya Zhang, Yan Wang, Yixuan Ku
Previous studies have shown that the speed of identifying emotional words is affected by pre-cues of up or down arrows, called the space-valence congruency effect (Zhang, Hu, Zhang, & Wang, 2015). In the present study, we investigate whether this effect is influenced by hypnotic or non-hypnotic suggestions to ignore pre-cues in highly hypnotizable individuals (HHIs). In all conditions, target words (including positive words, negative words and neutral words) primed by up or down arrows were presented to pre-screened HHIs...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Emma J Cox, Irene Sperandio, Robin Laycock, Philippe A Chouinard
We investigated if the subliminal processing of threatening animal (snakes and spiders) and neutral object (cars and houses) stimuli can influence the discrimination of a subsequent visible stimulus. The prime and target pair were either identical, of the same category but with different physical features, or different in category and physical features. In two experiments, participants discriminated the basic level category (e.g. snake vs. spider) of a visible target stimulus that had been preceded by a visible or perceptually invisible prime stimulus...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Victor Pitron, Adrian Alsmith, Frédérique de Vignemont
Despite their differences, body schema and the body image representations are not only consistent in everyday life, but also sometimes consistent in pathological disorders, such as in Alice in Wonderland syndrome and anorexia nervosa. The challenge is to understand how they achieve such consistency. Recently, we suggested that these two representations were co-constructed (Pitron & Vignemont, 2017). In his reply, Gadsby (2018) invited us to clarify how this co-construction works and to what extent the body schema and the body image can reshape each other...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Dana A Hayward, Can Fenerci, Jelena Ristic
Although individuals with an autism spectrum disorder display impaired function across several social and behavioral domains, they possess intact, and often superior visual processing abilities for local relative to global aspects of their visual environment. To address whether differences in visual processing similarly vary within typical individuals as a function of their level of social competence, using the Navon hierarchical figures task, here we examined the relationship between global-local visual processing style and the number of autism-like traits in a large sample of 434 typically developed persons...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Francesca Ferri, Agnese Venskus, Francesca Fotia, Jason Cooke, Vincenzo Romei
A coherent sense of self, typically altered in schizophrenia, is accompanied by a coherent ability to integrate sensory information. According to the idea of a psychosis continuum, high schizotypal traits in the general population may be associated to higher proneness to multisensory illusions, akin to schizophrenia. We directly tested this hypothesis by means of the double-flash illusion in participants with low and high schizotypal scores. We confirmed the higher proneness to illusions in the high-schizotypal group...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Paul Seli, Mahiko Konishi, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
Recent research has indicated that reducing the difficulty of a task by increasing the predictability of critical stimuli produces increases in intentional mind wandering, but, contrary to theoretical expectations, decreases in unintentional mind wandering. Here, we sought to determine whether reducing task difficulty by reducing working-memory load would yield similar results. Participants completed an easy (Choice Response Time; CRT) task and a relatively difficult (Working Memory; WM) task, and intermittently responded to thought probes asking about intentional and unintentional mind wandering...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Richard Ramsey
Humans unintentionally copy other people's gestures, postures and speech patterns. This behaviour has been termed 'automatic imitation', and is thought to play a crucial role in the development of social relationships by building affiliation and rapport between interaction partners. The current paper critically evaluates reaction time measures of automatic imitation and demonstrates that it is currently unclear what reaction time indices measure, due to a lack of research assessing dimensions of validity and domain-specificity...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Sophie Sowden, Sofia Koletsi, Eva Lymberopoulos, Elisabeta Militaru, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Social conformity is a class of social influence whereby exposure to the attitudes and beliefs of a group causes an individual to alter their own attitudes and beliefs towards those of the group. Compliance and acceptance are varieties of social influence distinguished on the basis of the attitude change brought about. Compliance involves public, but not private conformity, while acceptance occurs when group norms are internalised and conformity is demonstrated both in public and in private. Most contemporary paradigms measuring conformity conflate compliance and acceptance, while the few studies to have addressed this issue have done so using between-subjects designs, decreasing their sensitivity...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Kyungmi Kim, Youngbin A Jeon, Alexis M Banquer, Danielle J Rothschild
Co-presenting an item with self-relevant vs. other-relevant information under a non-self-referential encoding context can produce a memory advantage. The present study examined the relative contributions of conscious vs. unconscious processing of self-cues to this incidental self-memory advantage. During encoding, the participant's own or another person's name was presented supraliminally or subliminally prior to the presentation of each target word. Consistent across two experiments, we found better memory for words preceded by the own name vs...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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