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Consciousness and Cognition

Edgar Altszyler, Sidarta Ribeiro, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak
Computer-based dreams content analysis relies on word frequencies within predefined categories in order to identify different elements in text. As a complementary approach, we explored the capabilities and limitations of word-embedding techniques to identify word usage patterns among dream reports. These tools allow us to quantify words associations in text and to identify the meaning of target words. Word-embeddings have been extensively studied in large datasets, but only a few studies analyze semantic representations in small corpora...
September 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Yuru Wang, Tom G E Damen, Henk Aarts
The sense of agency refers to feelings of causing one's own action and resulting effect. Previous research indicates that voluntary action selection is an important factor in shaping the sense of agency. Whereas the volitional nature of the sense of agency is well documented, the present study examined whether agency is modulated when action selection shifts from self-control to a more automatic stimulus-driven process. Seventy-two participants performed an auditory Simon task including congruent and incongruent trials to generate automatic stimulus-driven vs...
September 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Corrado Caudek, Martina Lorenzino, Rosita Liperoti
The role of response inhibition in lying is debated. By using the delta-plot method applied to the Sheffield Lie Test, Debey, Ridderinkhof, De Houwer, De Schryver, and Verschuere (2015) provided evidence supporting the role of inhibition in lying. In the study of Debey et al., inhibitory skill was measured in terms of the size of the lie effect. However, to provide convincing evidence that delta plots highlight the role of response inhibition in lying, inhibitory ability must be evaluated independently from the size of the lie effect...
September 18, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
George A Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task...
September 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Eunhee Ji, Kyung Min Lee, Min-Shik Kim
Implicit working memory (WM) has been known to operate non-consciously and unintentionally. The current study investigated whether implicit WM is a discrete mechanism from explicit WM in terms of cognitive resource. To induce cognitive resource competition, we used a conjunction search task (Experiment 1) and imposed spatial WM load (Experiment 2a and 2b). Each trial was composed of a set of five consecutive search displays. The location of the first four displays appeared as per pre-determined patterns, but the fifth display could follow the same pattern or not...
September 7, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Xing Yang, Yafang Yang, Mengying Xue, Pengpeng Fang, Guomin Shen, Kejin Zhang, Xiaocai Gao, Rongjun Yu, Pingyuan Gong
Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol...
September 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Richard A Bryant, Iris Chan
Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images...
September 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino
A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall)...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Hui Zhang, Congcong Yan, Xingli Zhang, Jiannong Shi, Beiling Zhu
Previous researches have shown that people with higher fluid intelligence are more likely to detect the unexpected stimuli. The current study systematically explored the relationship between fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness in children. In Experiment 1, we measured one hundred and seventy-nine 7-to-14-year-old children's fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness. The results showed that fluid intelligence was negatively related to sustained inattentional blindness only in 7-to-8-year-old children...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Jean-Baptiste Légal, Peggy Chekroun, Viviane Coiffard, Fabrice Gabarrot
When people's attention is engaged in a visual task, they often are blind to unexpected events occurring in their environment. This phenomenon is known as inattentional blindness. In this study, we examine inattentional blindness with regard to goal priming, a technique allowing to unconsciously influence goal pursuit. After being primed with a detection goal, the name of the target to detect, or no prime, participants watched a short sequence in which they had to count passes made by basketball players. An unexpected event occurred during the video...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
C Ferrari, T Vecchi, L B Merabet, Z Cattaneo
Investigating the impact of early visual deprivation on evaluations related to social trust has received little attention to date. This is despite consistent evidence suggesting that early onset blindness may interfere with the normal development of social skills. In this study, we investigated whether early blindness affects judgments of trustworthiness regarding the actions of an agent, with trustworthiness representing the fundamental dimension in the social evaluation. Specifically, we compared performance between a group of early blind individuals with that of sighted controls in their evaluation of trustworthiness of an agent after hearing a pair of two positive or two negative social behaviors (impression formation)...
September 1, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Giuseppe Riva, Santino Gaudio
In his recent paper "Distorted body representations in anorexia nervosa" Gadsby (2017) discussed empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients' distorted body representations. In particular, he interpreted them using the O'Shaughnessy's long-term body image (LTB) hypothesis (O'Shaughnessy, 1998): individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a distorted LTB that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this distorted content to other body representations. Even if we agree on the involvement of body memory in the distorted body representation, an open issue not fully addressed in the paper is: why AN patients do not update their LTBs to reflect their true dimensions? Our correspondence tries to answer to this question using a new neuropsychological and neurobiological theory: the Allocentric Lock Theory - ALT...
August 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Antonino Naro, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
The deterioration of sensory-motor integration within the pain matrix in patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) is one of the principal mechanisms responsible for non-conscious pain perception. The present study aimed to assess whether the variability in the inter-peak interval (IPI) between the N2 and P2 components of laser evoked potentials (LEP) could represent an objective marker of the behavioral responsiveness to nociceptive stimulation, as measured by the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R), and regardless of the sensory part of pain processing...
August 30, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Enzo Tagliazucchi
Conscious awareness refers to information processing in the brain that is accompanied by subjective, reportable experiences. Current models of conscious access propose that sufficiently strong sensory stimuli ignite a global network of regions allowing further processing. The immense number of possible experiences indicates that activity associated with conscious awareness must be highly differentiated. However, information must also be integrated to account for the unitary nature of consciousness. We present a computational model that identifies conscious access with self-sustained percolation in an anatomical network...
August 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that priming of performance-related concerns would (1) increase the frequency of task-related mind-wandering (i.e., task-related interference; TRI) and (2) decrease task performance. In each experiment, sixty female participants completed an operation span task (OSPAN) containing thought content probes. The task was framed as a math task for those in a condition primed for math-related stereotype threat and as a memory task for those in a control condition. In both studies, women whose performance-related concerns were primed via stereotype threat reported more TRI than women in the control...
August 18, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Peter Krøjgaard, Osman S Kingo, Toril S Jensen, Dorthe Berntsen
Most parents have experienced their preschool child having spontaneous episodic memories, that is, verbally reported memories of past events that come to the child almost out of the blue. Until recently such memories had only been observed outside the lab. By means of a new paradigm we report experimentally induced spontaneous memories of a unique event experienced one week earlier in 35- and 46-month-old children (N=110). At the first visit, half of the children experienced a Teddy event and the other half experienced a Game event...
August 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Marek Binder, Krzysztof Gociewicz, Bert Windey, Marcin Koculak, Karolina Finc, Jan Nikadon, Monika Derda, Axel Cleeremans
According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements manipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high-level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale...
August 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Peter Carruthers, Bénédicte Veillet
This paper revisits the debate about cognitive phenomenology. It elaborates, defends, and improves on our earlier proposal for resolving that debate, according to which the test for irreducible phenomenology is the presence of explanatory gaps. After showing how proposals like ours have been misunderstood or misused by others, we deploy our operationalization to argue that the correct way to align the debate over cognitive phenomenology is not between sensory and (alleged) cognitive phenomenology, but rather between non-conceptual and (alleged) conceptual or propositional phenomenology...
August 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Elke B Lange, Fabian Zweck, Petra Sinn
The power of music is a literary topos, which can be attributed to intense and personally significant experiences, one of them being the state of absorption. Such phenomenal states are difficult to grasp objectively. We investigated the state of musical absorption by using eye tracking. We utilized a load related definition of state absorption: multimodal resources are committed to create a unified representation of music. Resource allocation was measured indirectly by microsaccade rate, known to indicate cognitive processing load...
August 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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