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Consciousness and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789209/all-is-not-lost-post-saccadic-contributions-to-the-perceptual-omission-of-intra-saccadic-streaks
#1
T Balsdon, R Schweitzer, T L Watson, M Rolfs
Saccades rapidly jerk the eye into new positions, yet we rarely experience the motion streaks imposed on the retinal image. Here we examined spatial and temporal properties of post-saccadic masking-one potential explanation of this perceptual omission. Observers judged the motion direction of a target stimulus, a Gaussian blob, that moved vertically upwards or downwards and then back to its initial position, just as observers made a saccade. We manipulated the onset and offset of the target and of distractors in various spatial relations to the target, and assessed their effect on performance and subjective confidence...
May 19, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784429/in-absence-of-an-explicit-judgment-action-specific-effects-still-influence-an-action-measure-of-perceived-speed
#2
Jessica K Witt
Action-specific effects, such as a fish appearing faster when it is harder to catch, have been primarily demonstrated using explicit perceptual judgments. These sorts of judgments rely on the cognitive or "what" visual pathway. An open question is whether action-specific effects also influence the action pathway. If fish look faster when the net is small, the net should be released earlier than when the net is big. Previously, this action measure was always paired with an explicit measure of fish speed, which is known to evoke the cognitive visual pathway...
May 18, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779844/towards-a-unified-perspective-of-object-shape-and-motion-processing-in-human-dorsal-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Gennady Erlikhman, Gideon P Caplovitz, Gennadiy Gurariy, Jared Medina, Jacqueline C Snow
Although object-related areas were discovered in human parietal cortex a decade ago, surprisingly little is known about the nature and purpose of these representations, and how they differ from those in the ventral processing stream. In this article, we review evidence for the unique contribution of object areas of dorsal cortex to three-dimensional (3-D) shape representation, the localization of objects in space, and in guiding reaching and grasping actions. We also highlight the role of dorsal cortex in form-motion interaction and spatiotemporal integration, possible functional relationships between 3-D shape and motion processing, and how these processes operate together in the service of supporting goal-directed actions with objects...
May 17, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776734/taking-into-consideration-explanations-of-perception-action-interactions-that-may-be-less-dramatic-but-more-reflective-of-what-happens-in-the-real-world
#4
Robert W Proctor, Aiping Xiong
Bruce Bridgeman and colleagues reported the first experiments providing evidence of two functionally distinct visual-processing systems. We summarize that work and subsequent research that resulted in modifications of this view. Then, we describe studies of stimulus-response correspondence effects that provide evidence for distinct representations of responses. More recently, Bridgeman and colleagues examined whether "action affects perception", concluding that the phenomena can be more accurately construed as "information affects memory"...
May 15, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773511/immobilization-does-not-disrupt-near-hand-attentional-biases
#5
Robert McManus, Laura E Thomas
Observers show biases in attention when viewing objects within versus outside of their hands' grasping space. While the hands' proximity to stimuli plays a key role in these effects, recent evidence suggests an observer's affordances for grasping actions also shape visual processing near the hands. The current study examined the relative contributions of proximity and affordances in introducing attentional biases in peripersonal space. Participants placed a single hand on a visual display and detected targets appearing near or far from the hand...
May 14, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754772/verbal-spatial-and-visuospatial-coding-of-power-space-interactions
#6
Qiang Dai, Lei Zhu
A power-space interaction, which denotes the phenomenon that people responded faster to powerful words when they are placed higher in a visual field and faster to powerless words when they are placed lower in a visual field, has been repeatedly found. The dominant explanation of this power-space interaction is that it results from a tight correspondence between the representation of power and visual space (i.e., a visuospatial coding account). In the present study, we demonstrated that the interaction between power and space could be also based on a verbal-spatial coding in absence of any vertical spatial information...
May 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753592/contingency-and-similarity-in-response-selection
#7
REVIEW
Wolfgang Prinz
This paper explores issues of task representation in choice reaction time tasks. How is it possible, and what does it take, to represent such a task in a way that enables a performer to do the task in line with the prescriptions entailed in the instructions? First, a framework for task representation is outlined which combines the implementation of task sets and their use for performance with different kinds of representational operations (pertaining to feature compounds for event codes and code assemblies for task sets, respectively)...
May 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747119/experiencing-meditation-evidence-for-differential-effects-of-three-contemplative-mental-practices-in-micro-phenomenological-interviews
#8
Marisa Przyrembel, Tania Singer
Despite increasing interest in effects of meditation, systematic in-depth research on how it qualitatively feels to engage in different kinds of contemplative practices is still missing. To fill this gap, we explore the validity of Micro-phenomenological Interviews (MpI) to assess experiences during breathing meditation (BM), observing-thought meditation (OTM), and loving-kindness meditation (LKM). We performed psycholinguistic analyses, quantitative ratings and qualitative explorations of 104 MpI (N = 57)...
May 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739723/how-bizarre-a-pluralist-approach-to-dream-content
#9
REVIEW
Melanie G Rosen
Are dreams bizarre, nonsensical experiences or real-world simulations? I introduce a pluralist approach to dream content that highlights the philosophical and empirical implications of treating dreaming as a highly varied experience that can be anywhere on a spectrum from truly bizarre and incoherent to wake-like and mundane. Here I discuss several explanations for why theorists disagree on whether dreams should be defined as primarily bizarre or convincing, real-world simulations. Rating scales can underestimate or overestimate bizarreness depending on the variables of the scale and interpretation of contextual factors...
May 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735213/feeling-but-not-seeing-the-hand-occluded-hand-position-reduces-the-hand-proximity-effect-in-erps
#10
Catherine L Reed, John P Garza, Daivik B Vyas
The hand proximity effect (nearby hands influence visual processing) reflects the integration of vision and proprioception for upcoming action; it is reduced when hand position is occluded. In an ERP study, we investigate whether hand proximity, without vision of the hand, accentuates the processing of stimuli requiring actions (targets) early (N1) and later (P3) in processing. In a go/no-go paradigm, participants viewed stimuli between two panels with hands placed near or far from stimuli. Occlusion of the hand eliminated near-hand target vs...
May 4, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734137/do-distinct-mind-wandering-differently-disrupt-drivers-interpretation-of-physiological-and-behavioral-pattern-with-a-data-triangulation-method
#11
Guillaume Pepin, Séverine Malin, Christophe Jallais, Fabien Moreau, Alexandra Fort, Jordan Navarro, Daniel Ndiaye, Catherine Gabaude
MW is damaging for tasks requiring sustained and divided attention, for example driving. Recent findings seem to be indicating that off-task thoughts differently disrupt drivers. The present paper delved into characteristics of off-task thoughts to assess their respective detrimental impact on driving. Twenty volunteers had to declare their MW thoughts and get intentionally involved in Problem-Solving Thoughts (PST) according to instructions. Heart rate and oculometric behavior were collected during the two sessions...
May 4, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731197/visual-masking-contributions-from-and-comments-on-bruce-bridgeman
#12
REVIEW
Talis Bachmann
When about half a century ago masking research emerged as one of the hot topics in psychophysics, cognitive psychology and psychophysiology, Bruce Bridgeman was among the leaders in this domain. His studies and papers on masking must not be overlooked also today. This article brings to the readers a brief review of Bridgeman's contributions to the field and directly related research from other laboratories, with an eye on the implications for consciousness studies.
May 3, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730400/the-experience-of-reading
#13
Alan Tonnies Moore, Eric Schwitzgebel
What do people consciously experience when they read? There has been almost no rigorous research on this question, and opinions diverge radically among both philosophers and psychologists. We describe three studies of the phenomenology of reading and its relationship to memory of textual detail and general cognitive abilities. We find three main results. First, there is substantial variability in reports about reading experience, both within and between participants. Second, reported reading experience varies with passage type: passages with dialogue prompted increased reports of inner speech, while passages with vivid visual detail prompted increased reports of visual imagery...
May 3, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730229/how-are-the-spatial-characteristics-of-the-body-represented-a-reply-to-pitron-de-vignemont
#14
LETTER
Stephen Gadsby
In their article, Pitron and de Vignemont (2017) provide an insightful and well overdue discussion of the relationship between long-term body representation models and Alice in Wonderland syndrome. Here, I supplement their discussion with a number of observations. First, I present a cautionary note regarding the interpretation of experiential changes in body size as reflective of changes in the content of body representations. Second, I show how their evidence contradicts an alternative model of body representation arising from research into anorexia nervosa-the "LTB" hypothesis...
May 2, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723711/implicit-sequence-learning-of-chunking-and-abstract-structures
#15
Qiufang Fu, Huiming Sun, Zoltán Dienes, Xiaolan Fu
The current study investigated whether people can simultaneously acquire knowledge about concrete chunks and abstract structures in implicit sequence learning; and whether the degree of abstraction determines the conscious status of the acquired knowledge. We adopted three types of stimuli in a serial reaction time task in three experiments. The RT results indicated that people could simultaneously acquire knowledge about concrete chunks and abstract structures of the temporal sequence. Generation performance revealed that ability to control was mainly based on abstract structures rather than concrete chunks...
April 30, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723710/on-a-failed-attempt-to-manipulate-visual-metacognition-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Eugene Ruby, Brian Maniscalco, Megan A K Peters
Rounis, Maniscalco, Rothwell, Passingham, and Lau (2010) reported that stimulation of prefrontal cortex impairs visual metacognition. Bor, Schwartzman, Barrett, and Seth (2017) attempted to replicate this result, but adopted an experimental design that reduced their chanceof obtaining positive findings. Despite that, their results appeared initially consistent with those of Rounis et al., but they subsequently claimed it was necessary to discard ∼30% of their subjects, after which they reported a null result...
April 30, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723709/aiding-the-search-examining-individual-differences-in-multiply-constrained-problem-solving
#17
Derek M Ellis, Gene A Brewer
Understanding and resolving complex problems is of vital importance in daily life. Problems can be defined by the limitations they place on the problem solver. Multiply-constrained problems are traditionally examined with the compound remote associates task (CRAT). Performance on the CRAT is partially dependent on an individual's working memory capacity (WMC). These findings suggest that executive processes are critical for problem solving and that there are reliable individual differences in multiply-constrained problem solving abilities...
April 27, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709666/involuntary-polymodal-imagery-involving-olfaction-audition-touch-taste-and-vision
#18
Wei Dou, Yanming Li, Mark W Geisler, Ezequiel Morsella
Percepts and urges often enter consciousness involuntarily. The Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) reveals how high-level cognitions, too, can enter consciousness involuntarily. In the task, the eliciting stimuli are visual (e.g., picture of a cat), and the involuntary imagery is verbal (e.g., the subvocalization "cat"). The generalizability of the RIT effect has been questioned because verbal imagery is an easily elicited form of imagery. Do such effects arise for other kinds of imagery? It is known that imagery is more elicitable in some senses (e...
April 27, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709438/bridgemanian-space-constancy-as-a-precursor-to-extended-cognition
#19
REVIEW
Michael J Spivey, Brandon J Batzloff
A few decades ago, cognitive psychologists generally took for granted that the reason we perceive our visual environment as one contiguous stable whole (i.e., space constancy) is because we have an internal mental representation of the visual environment as one contiguous stable whole. They supposed that the non-contiguous visual images that are gathered during the brief fixations that intervene between pairs of saccadic eye movements (a few times every second) are somehow stitched together to construct this contiguous internal mental representation...
April 27, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689492/on-my-right-or-on-your-left-spontaneous-spatial-perspective-taking-in-blind-people
#20
Carla Tinti, Silvia Chiesa, Roberta Cavaglià, Serena Dalmasso, Lorenzo Pia, Susanna Schmidt
Spatial perspective taking is a human ability that permits to assume another person's spatial viewpoint. Data show that spatial perspective taking might arise even spontaneously by the mere presence of another person in the environment. We investigated whether this phenomenon is observable also in blind people. Blind and blindfolded sighted participants explored a tridimensional tactile map and memorized the localization of different landmarks. Then, after the presentation of sounds coming from three landmarks-positioned on the right, on the left, and in front-participants had to indicate the reciprocal position of the two lateral landmarks...
April 21, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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