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Experimental Dermatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345004/epidermal-permeability-barrier-function-and-sphingolipid-content-in-the-skin-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-2-deficient-mice
#1
Koji Nomoto, Yurina Itaya, Ken Watanabe, Tadashi Yamashita, Toshiro Okazaki, Yoshihiro Tokudome
BACKGROUND: Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is an enzyme that generates sphingomyelin (SM) from ceramide (CER) and phosphatidylcholine. SM in the epidermis is a precursor of CER, an important lipid for epidermal permeability barrier function. However, the physiological role of SMS in skin is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To uncover the function of SMS in skin, we investigated sphingolipid metabolism enzyme activity in skin, SM content in the epidermis, CER content in the stratum corneum (SC) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an indicator of barrier function in SMS2-knockout (KO) mice...
January 17, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341265/cicatricial-alopecia-research-foundation-meeting-may-2016-progress-towards-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-cure-of-primary-cicatricial-alopecias
#2
John P Sundberg, Maria K Hordinsky, Wilma Bergfeld, Yolanda M Lenzy, Amy J McMichael, Angela M Christiano, Tracy McGregor, Kurt S Stenn, Raja K Sivamani, C Herbert Pratt, Lloyd E King
Primary Cicatricial Alopecias (PCAs) are a group of skin diseases in which there is progressive and permanent destruction of hair follicles followed by replacement with fibrous tissue. Unfortunately, by the time patients seek clinical evaluation of their hair loss, the skin is already inflamed and/or scarred, so there is little hope for a return to their normal hair growth pattern. Clinical and basic science investigations are now focusing on three forms of human PCA, lichen planopilaris (LPP), frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA)...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341262/reversine-inhibits-mmp-1-and-3-expressions-by-suppressing-of-ros-mapk-ap-1-activation-in-uv-stimulated-human-keratinocytes-and-dermal-fibroblasts
#3
Jeong-Mi Kim, Sun Young Kim, Eun-Mi Noh, Hyun-Kyung Song, Guem-San Lee, Kang-Beom Kwon, Young-Rae Lee
UVB has been shown to stimulate the generation of ROS, which subsequently results in activation of various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors (AP-1, NF-κB), These transcription factors are regulated by MAPKs, which increase cytokine and MMP expression. We examined the preventive effects of reversine on MMP-1 and -3 expressions in NHEKs and NHDFs exposed to UVB irradiation. Also, we confirmed that reversine decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in NHEKs. The mechanism underlying the MMP-inhibitory effects of reversine occurred via the suppression of UVB-induced ROS generation and MAPK/AP-1 activation...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283461/a-pathway-based-association-analysis-identified-fmnl1-map3k14-as-susceptibility-genes-for-leprosy
#4
Huimin Zhang, Zhenzhen Wang, Xi'an Fu, Yonghu Sun, Zihao Mi, Gongqi Yu, Lele Sun, Na Wang, Chuan Wang, Qing Zhao, Qing Pan, Zhenhua Yue, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
The nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a pivotal role in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the expressions of many immunological mediators. Abundant evidences have showed that the importance of NF-κB pathway in the host immune responses against Mycobacterium leprae in the development of leprosy. However, no particular association study between leprosy and NF-κB pathway related gene polymorphisms was reported. Here, we performed a large scale and two-stage candidate association study to investigate the association between 94 NF-κB pathway related genes and leprosy...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283459/characterization-of-the-facial-microbiome-in-twins-discordant-for-rosacea
#5
Asifa K Zaidi, Katrina Spaunhurst, Daniel Sprockett, Y Thomason, M W Mann, P Fu, C Ammons, M Gerstenblith, M S Tuttle, D L Popkin
Previously, we determined that genetic and environmental factors contributed equally towards rosacea in twins. To assess an environmental factor, we characterized the malar cheek bacterial microbiome from twins discordant for rosacea. We found no significant difference in facial microbiome alpha and beta diversity between related twins discordant for rosacea. However, the relative percentage abundance of Gordonia and Geobacillus, low abundant genera, was positively and negatively associated with rosacea severity, respectively...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280518/a-new-tool-to-test-active-ingredient-using-acid-lactic-in-vitro-a-help-to-understand-cellular-mechanism-involved-in-stinging-test-an-example-using-a-bacterial-polysaccharide-fucogel%C3%A2
#6
Mehdi Sakka, Raphael Leschiera, Christelle Le Gall, Olivier Gouin, Killian L'herondelle, Paul Buscaglia, Olivier Mignen, Jean-Luc Philbé, Thibaut Saguet, Jean-Luc Carré, Laurent Misery, Nicolas Lebonvallet
The stinging test is an in vivo protocol that evaluates sensitive skin using lactic acid (LA). A soothing sensation of cosmetics or ingredients can be also appreciated through a decrease of stinging score. To predict the soothing sensation of a product before in vivo testing, we developed a model based on an LA test and substance P (SP) release using a co-culture of human keratinocytes and NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. A bacterial fucose-rich polysaccharide present in Fucogel® was evaluated as the soothing molecule in the in vivo stinging test and our in vitro model...
December 27, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280517/uva1-impairs-the-repair-of-uvb-induced-dna-damage-in-normal-human-melanocytes
#7
Susanne Kimeswenger, Ruth Dingelmaier-Hovorka, Dagmar Foedinger, Christian Jantschitsch
The exact correlation between melanoma and sun light is still a controversially debated issue. Although natural sunlight contains various ratios of UVA and UVB, most investigators so far focused on the effects of single solar wavebands and neglected possible interactions. Therefore, in the present study primary human melanocytes of three donors were simultaneously exposed to physiologic doses of UVA1 and UVB. Effects on apoptosis were analyzed using Annexin V assays and cell death ELISAs, effects on DNA damage were investigated using Southwestern slot blots...
December 27, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278440/a-novel-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-anti-dsg3-igg-serum-autoantibodies-in-pemphigus-vulgaris
#8
Thomas Schmidt, Susanne Mauracher, Lena Bender, Brandon Greene, Jonas Kurzhals, Rüdiger Eming, Ralf Dostatni, Michael Hertl
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. As autoantibodies play an essential role in the disease pathogenesis, the serological detection of anti-desmoglein 3 IgG represents a central tool in the diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we show the validation of a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) which rapidly detects anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) IgG in human serum. In contrast to other diagnostic procedures, the assay is compact and simple to perform and delivers a fast "yes" or "no" answer within 10 min without additional hardware requirements for test evaluation...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274094/folliculotropism-in-pigmented-facial-macules-differential-diagnosis-with-reflectance-confocal-microscopy
#9
F Persechino, N De Carvalho, S Ciardo, B De Pace, A Casari, J Chester, S Kaleci, I Stanganelli, C Longo, F Farnetani, G Pellacani
Pigmented facial macules are common on sun damage skin. The diagnosis of early stage lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) is challenging. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been proven to increase diagnostic accuracy of facial lesions. A total 154 pigmented facial macules, retrospectively collected, were evaluate for the presence of already described RCM features and new parameters depicting aspects of the follicle . Melanocytic nests, roundish pagetoid cells, follicular infiltration, bulgings from the follicles and many bright dendrites, and infiltration of the hair follicle (i...
December 22, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247486/high-fat-diet-exacerbates-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-dermatitis-in-mice
#10
Yuko Higashi, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Tomoko Fukushige, Atsuko Ibusuki, Teruto Hashiguchi, Takuro Kanekura
Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is closely related to systemic metabolism. An elevated body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for psoriasis; inflammasomes are activated by adipose tissue macrophages in obese subjects. We hypothesized that hyperlipidemia is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and examined the role of a high fat diet (HFD) in the development of psoriasis in imiquimod (IMQ)-treated mice. The body weight and serum level of cholesterol were significantly higher in mice fed an HFD than a regular diet (RD)...
December 16, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230879/microrna-143-5p-regulates-alpaca-melanocyte-migration-proliferation-and-melanogenesis
#11
Kaiyuan Ji, Pengqian Zhang, Junzhen Zhang, Ruiwen Fan, Yu Liu, Shanshan Yang, Shuaipeng Hu, Xuexian Liu, Changsheng Dong
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be closely involved in the control of melanogenesis and hair colour in mammals. Previous data also indicate that miR-143 regulates cell growth in melanoma. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-143-5p in alpaca melanocytes. We found that miR-143-5p was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of alpaca melanocytes as demonstrated by an in situ hybridization assay. Prediction analysis revealed that miR-143-5p could regulate TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) expression, which we confirmed by luciferase reporter assay, indicating that miR-143-5p controls TAK1 expression by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region (UTR)...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227563/expression-and-enzyme-activity-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-cyp3a4-and-cyp3a5-in-human-skin-and-tissue-engineered-skin-equivalents
#12
Sarah A Smith, Helen E Colley, Parveen Sharma, Klaudia M Slowik, Rowena Sison-Young, Andrew Sneddon, Steven D Webb, Craig Murdoch
CYP3A4 and CYP4A5 share specificity for a wide range of xenobiotics with the CYP3 subfamily collectively involved in the biotransformation of approximately 30% of all drugs. CYP3A4/5 mRNA transcripts have been reported in the skin yet knowledge of their protein expression and function is lacking. In this study, we observed gene and protein expression of CYP3A4/5 in both human skin and tissue-engineered skin equivalents (TESE), and enzyme activity was detected using the model substrate benzyl-O-methyl-cyanocoumarin...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222824/elevated-levels-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-are-associated-with-a-th1-th17-immune-response
#13
R Thomi, C Schlapbach, N Yawalkar, D Simon, D Yerly, R E Hunger
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disease with poorly understood immunopathogenic mechanisms. LL-37 is an antimicrobial peptide, which is transcribed from the CAMP (cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide) gene. Previous reports showed upregulated levels of CAMP and LL-37 in HS lesions and therefore the aim of this study was to compare levels of LL-37 in HS to other inflammatory skin diseases and to establish immunomodulatory functions of LL-37 in HS. We confirm an upregulation of the LL-37 peptide in lesional HS skin with comparable levels as in psoriasis patients and are able to positively correlate the presence of LL-37 in HS with the presence of T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, IFNγ, IL-17, IL-23, TNFα, IL-32 and IL-1β...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220875/interleukin-21-receptor-signaling-is-not-critically-required-for-imiquimod-induced-psoriasiform-dermatitis-in-mice
#14
Hee Joo Kim, Sung Hee Kim, Tae-Gyun Kim, Je Yun Park, Minseok Lee, Dae Suk Kim, Min-Geol Lee
Psoriasis is largely mediated by interleukin (IL)-23/ T helper (Th) 17 axis, and IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed by Th17 cells. Despite previously reported possible pathogenic roles of IL-21 in human psoriasis, we found that IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling was not crucial for imiquimod-induced psoriatic inflammation, using IL-21R-/- mice. The severity of imiquimod-induced psoriatic manifestation and pro-inflammatory Th17 cytokine levels, IL-17A-producing γδ T cells and CD4+ T cells, and in vitro IL-17A production by γδ T cells after IL-23 stimulation was comparable between wild-type and IL-21R-/- mice...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215761/in-vivo-differentiation-of-common-basal-cell-carcinoma-subtypes-by-microvascular-and-structural-imaging-using-dynamic-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Lotte Themstrup, Nathalie De Carvalho, Sabrina Mai Nielsen, Jonas Olsen, Silvana Ciardo, Sandra Schuh, Birgit Meinecke-Hansen Nørnberg, Julia Welzel, Martina Ulrich, Giovanni Pellacani, Gregor B E Jemec
BACKGROUND: The subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) influences the choice of treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool and recent development of angiographic version of OCT has extended the application of OCT to image the cutaneous microvasculature (so called dynamic OCT, D-OCT). This study explores D-OCT's ability to differentiate the common BCC subtypes by microvascular and structural imaging. METHODS: 81 patients with 98 BCC lesions, consisting of three subtypes: 27 superficial BCC (sBCC), 55 nodular BCC (nBCC) and 16 infiltrative BCC (iBCC), were D-OCT scanned at three European dermatology centres...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211928/effect-of-tannic-acid-on-skin-barrier-function
#16
Tomoya Nakamura, Naoki Yoshida, Mitsue Yasoshima, Yoshihiko Kojima
In this study, we investigated how tannic acid (TA) protects the skin from inflammation caused by external irritation. The effects of TA were evaluated by using a mouse 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation model and a reconstructed human epidermal model (RHEM). We then used Lucifer Yellow for visual confirmation of TA's suppression effect at the SC surface. TA treatment of the skin prevented Lucifer Yellow from permeating the skin. This result suggests that TA acts as a barrier against external stimulants such as TPA and artificial sweat on the SC surface...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205518/therapeutic-and-prognostic-significance-of-parp-1-in-advanced-mycosis-fungoides-and-sezary-syndrome
#17
David Lemchak, Swati Banerjee, Shaunak S Digambar, Brian L Hood, Thomas P Conrads, Jaroslav Jedrych, Larisa Geskin, Oleg E Akilov
While mycosis fungoides (MF) is typically an indolent malignancy, it may infrequently undertake an aggressive course. We used proteomic analyses to identify a biomarker of the aggressive course of MF. Results of this investigation demonstrated that PARP-1, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like (HSAP1L), Hsp70 member 1A (HSPA1A), ATP-depending RNA-helicase (DDX17), and the α isoform of lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (TMPO) had higher expression in aggressive disease versus non-aggressive. Moreover, PARP-1 was overexpressed in patients with early stage of MF who developed later an aggressive disease...
December 5, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197132/small-animal-pet-imaging-analysis-with-18-f-fhbg-in-a-mouse-model-of-hsv1-tk-gene-expression-in-melanoma
#18
Onseok Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Chilhwan Oh
The purpose of this study was to establish a small animal model for molecular imaging and to acquire basic data on assessing the efficacy of candidate melanoma drugs using small-animal PET imaging analysis with [18 F]FHBG for herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression in a melanoma mouse model. The B16 melanoma cell line was transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector containing the HSV1-tk gene and inoculated into the back skin of C57BL/6J mice. [18 F]FHBG PET imaging showed better contrast for HSV1-tk(+) melanomas compared to brain, heart, gall bladder, intestine, and kidney than did [18 F]FDG PET imaging...
December 2, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197123/what-is-the-role-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skin-photoageing
#19
Khimara Naidoo, Rebecca Hanna, Mark A Birch-Machin
Skin ageing is a complex process involving both internal and external factors, which leads to a progressive loss of cutaneous function and structure. Solar radiation is the primary environmental factor implicated in the development of skin ageing and the term photoageing describes the distinct clinical, histological and structural features of chronically sun-exposed skin. The changes that accompany photoageing are undesirable for aesthetic reasons and can compromise the skin and make it more susceptible to a number of dermatological disorders...
December 2, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178328/mineralocorticoid-receptor-blockade-improves-glucocorticoid-induced-skin-atrophy-but-partially-ameliorates-anti-inflammatory-actions-in-an-irritative-model-in-human-skin-explants
#20
Julia Boix, Van Tuan Nguyen, Nicolette Farman, Sélim Aractingi, Paloma Pérez
We recently demonstrated that blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) effectively ameliorated GC-induced skin atrophy in healthy human skin explants and epidermal MR knock-out mice. However, whether MR blockade improves the therapeutic index of GCs in skin pathology was not investigated. We assessed the effects of GCs, MR antagonists (MRA), or both, in SDS-treated human skin explants. All treatments restored SDS-augmented epidermal thickness but only GC plus MRA restored the expression of COL1A1. However, MRA alone or in combination with GCs may exert a dual role in regulating inflammatory cytokines...
November 27, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
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