Read by QxMD icon Read

Experimental Dermatology

Chisa Nakashima, Atsushi Otsuka, Kenji Kabashima
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by chronic, eczematous, severe pruritic skin lesions caused by skin barrier dysfunction and T helper (Th)2 cell-mediated immunity. Interleukin (IL)-31 is a potent pruritogenic cytokine primarily produced by Th2 cells. Both IL-31 transgenic mice and wild-type mice treated with IL-31 exhibit AD-like skin lesions and scratching behaviour. IL-31 receptor α-chain (IL-31RA) are also expressed in peripheral nerves and epidermal keratinocytes, and the roles of IL-31 on pruritus and skin barrier have been investigated...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Hanna Niehues, Joke A Bouwstra, Abdoel Waheb El Ghalbzouri, Johanna M Brandner, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Ellen H van den Bogaard
The skin barrier is an important shield regulating the outside-in as well as inside-out penetration of water, nutrients, ions and environmental stimuli. We can distinguish four different barrier compartments, the physical, chemical, immunological and microbial skin barrier. Well-functioning of those is needed to protect our body from the environment. To better understand the function and the contribution of barrier dysfunction in skin diseases, 3D skin or epidermal models are a valuable tool for in vitro studies...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Danyela Valero-Rubio, Karen Marcela Jiménez, Dora Janeth Fonseca, César Payán-Gomez, Paul Laissue
Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease which has been classified into two subtypes, depending on the severity of clinical signs and symptoms. Fucosidosis patients' skin abnormalities include angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, widespread telangiectasia, thick skin, hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis, acrocyanosis and distal transverse nail bands. It has been described that >50% of fucosidosis patients have angiokeratoma. At molecular level, fucosidosis is caused by lysosomal alpha-L-fucosidase (FUCA1) gene mutations...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
E Szlavicz, P Olah, K Szabo, F Pagani, Zs Bata-Csorgo, L Kemeny, M Szell
In our recent cDNA microarray experiment, three SR-rich splicing factors - SFRS18, PPIG and LUC7L3 - were shown to exert altered responsiveness upon T-lymphokine stimulation of psoriatic non-involved and healthy epidermis samples. We have also demonstrated that double silencing LUC7L3 and SFRS18 efficiently decreased production of the psoriasis-associated EDA+ fibronectin isoform. These findings prompted the further investigation of signaling pathways affected by LUC7L3 and SFRS18. To detect gene expression and splicing pattern alterations upon double silencing of LUC7L3 and SFRS18 in an HPV-immortalized keratinocyte cell culture, paired-end RNA-Sequencing was carried out...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Vishwanath Kumble Bhat, Corinna Krump, Eva Bernhart, Jürgen C Becker, Wolfgang Sattler, Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy
In vivo tumour models are essential for studying the biology of cancer, identifying tumour targets and evaluating anti-tumour drugs. Considering the request for the minimization of animal experiments and following the "3R"-rule ("replacement", "refinement", "reduction"), it has become crucial to develop alternative experimental models in cancer biology. Several studies have already described the avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model as an alternative to rodents, suitable to investigate growth, progression and metastasis of various types of cancer...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Sewon Kim, Seung Keun Back, Heung Sik Na, Sun-Ho Kee
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease featuring pruritic skin inflammation. Many animal models have been developed. In a rat model, subcutaneous capsaicin injection within 48 hours after birth induces AD-like skin manifestations of dermatitis and scratching behavior 3 weeks after the injection. When 2-4-week-old rats were injected with capsaicin, the lag period was shortened and the severity of skin manifestations was significantly reduced, suggesting influences of postnatal development. Lgr6 is an epidermal stem cell marker that is normally restricted to the isthmus area of hair follicles at postnatal 2 weeks...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Valerie E Vancollie, Inês Sequeira, Christopher J Lelliott, Fiona M Watt
Myosins are molecular motors that are well known for their role in cell movement and contractile functions. Although extensively studied in muscle physiology, little is known about the function of myosins in mammalian skin. As part of the Sanger Institute Mouse Genetic Project, we have identified a role for Myo10 in pigmentation, with a phenotype unlike those of Myo5a or Myo7a. Adult mice homozygous for a disrupted Myo10 allele on a C57BL/6N background displayed a high degree of penetrance for white patches on their abdomen and dorsal surface...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Walison N Silva, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Ana E Paiva, Luiza Lousado, Anaelise O M Turquetti, Rodrigo S N Barreto, Erika Costa de Alvarenga, Maria A Miglino, Ricardo Gonçalves, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Healing is a vital response important for the re-establishment of the skin integrity following injury. Delayed or aberrant dermal wound healing leads to morbidity in patients.The development of therapies to improve dermal healing would be useful. Currently, the design of efficient treatments is stalled by the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in wound healing. Recently, by using state-of-art technologies, it was revealed that macrophages signal via GPNMB to mesenchymal stem cells, accelerating skin healing...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Anne C Knol, Jean-Michel Nguyen, Marie-Christine Pandolfino, Marc G Denis, Amir Khammari, Brigitte Dréno
Prognostic biomarkers for melanoma patients after lymph node resection are of clinical relevance and could thus enable the identification of patients who therefore would most benefit from adjuvant treatment. The aim of this work was to determine, using an in vitro model, whether immune-related biomarkers such as MHC-class I and II, melanoma associated antigens, IDO1 and PD-L1, could also be relevant to predict the risk of relapse of stage III melanoma patients after lymph node resection. We established tumor cell lines from metastatic lymph nodes of 50 melanoma patients...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Hanna Niehues, Ellen van den Bogaard
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a significant socio-economic impact that can greatly affect the patients' quality of life. The prevailing dogma in the aetiology and pathophysiology of this complex disease is that skin cells, immune cells as wells as environmental factors contribute to psoriatic skin inflammation. For a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis, models are required that mimic the disease and which can be used to develop therapeutics. Over the last decades, in vitro human reconstructed skin models have been widely used in dermatological research and have also been developed to mimic psoriatic skin...
March 4, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Giuseppina Caiazzo, Roberta Di Caprio, Serena Lembo, Annunziata Raimondo, Emanuele Scala, Cataldo Patruno, Anna Balato
In this study, we investigated the role of IL-26 in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), highlighting its contribute in the cytotoxic mechanism responsible of the tissue injury. IL-26 is a signature Th17 cytokine, and immune cells are its predominant sources. Recently, it has shown that Th17 cell-derived-IL-26 functions like an antimicrobial peptide. Here, we hypothesized that IL-26 could be involved in cytotoxicity mechanism, that underlies ACD. Indeed, we have attributed a role to IL-26 in this context, through PBMC cytotoxicity assays versus Hacat...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Akihiko Sugimoto, Tatsuki R Kataoka, Chiyuki Ueshima, Yusuke Takei, Kyohei Kitamura, Masahiro Hirata, Takashi Nomura, Hironori Haga
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 8 (SLAMF8)/CD353 is a member of the CD2 family of proteins. Its ligand has not been identified. SLAMF8 is expressed by macrophages and suppresses cellular functions. No study has yet explored SLAMF8 expression or function in human mastocytosis, which features oncogenic KIT-mediated proliferation of human mast cells. SLAMF8 protein was expressed in human mastocytosis cells, immunohistochemically. SLAMF8 expression was also evident in the human mast cell lines, HMC1...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Aska Sonoki, Yuri Okano, Yuichiro Yoshitake
Photoaging of the skin is marked by obvious wrinkles and mainly depends on degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the dermis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 is one of the most important factors involved in degradation of the ECM, however, its mechanism of activation is not fully understood. It has been thought that MMP-1 is expressed by dermal fibroblasts as an inactive precursor protein that is activated by proteinases produced by keratinocytes in the epidermis. In this study, we constructed a 3D model of the dermis using collagen-embedded fibroblasts with or without ultraviolet (UV)-A exposure to mimic photoaging in the dermis...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Moamen Masalha, Yechezkel Sidi, Dror Avni
The present review describes in detail the existent data regarding feedback loops between miRNAs and cytokines or growth factors in the psoriatic inflammation. We have chosen to describe the roles of miR- 31, miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-197 and miR-99a in this process. This choice derives from the fact that among around 250 miRNAs being altered in the psoriatic lesion, the comprehensive functional role was described only in those detailed above. In addition, considering the molecular targets and the pathways, which may possibly be regulated by those miRNAs, it seems that they may be chosen as preferred targets for the therapy of psoriasis...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Motoki Nakamura, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, Jean Krutmann, Akimichi Morita
Increasing ethical concerns regarding animal experimentation have led to the development of various alternative methods based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, and Replacement), first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. Cosmetic and skin aging research are particularly susceptible to concerns related to animal testing. In addition to animal welfare reasons, there are scientific and economic reasons to reduce and avoid animal experiments. Importantly, animal experiments may not reflect findings in humans mainly because of the differences of architectures and immune responses between animal skin and human skin...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Richard A F Clark, Justine Fenner, Arielle Sasson, Steve A McClain, Adam J Singer, Marcia G Tonnesen
Other than radiation, caustic strong alkali insults, and massive over-reactive inflammation (pyoderma gangrenosum), injury progression after trauma is usually secondary to ischemia from decreased blood vessel perfusion. Impeded blood flow contributes to injury progression in a variety of disorders including venous stasis ulcers, arterial ulcers, diabetic ulcers, flap and graft necrosis, sickle cell disease, cryoglobulinemia and other vasculopathies, vasculitis, post-myocardial infarction, and post stroke. The cause of impeded blood flow in these disorders/diseases is well known...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Franziska Rademacher, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Although the role of the microbiota in skin homeostasis is still emerging there is growing evidence that an intact microbiota supports the skin barrier. The increasing number of research efforts that are trying to shed more light on the human skin-microbiota interaction require the use of suitable experimental models. Three-dimensional (3D) skin equivalents have been established as a valuable tool in dermatological research because they contain a fully differentiated epidermal barrier that reflects the morphological and molecular characteristics of normal human epidermis...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Stephan Alexander Braun, Erich Bünemann, Julia Baran, Bernhard Homey, Peter Arne Gerber
Recently, it has been reported that ingenol mebutate (IM) is an effective treatment option for anogenital warts (AGW), inducing fast wart necrosis within 24 hours in vivo. With regard to its mode of action, IM is thought to act both by direct cytotoxic effects and as an inducer of immunologic mechanisms. To distinguish, whether the wart necrosis is mainly caused by cytotoxic effects, or whether immune mechanisms are leading, we used time-lapse imaging to analyze IM-treated warts ex vivo over 24 hours. Ex vivo IM-treated warts, which have been detached from the immune system, did not show destructive necrosis, pointing towards a primarily immune-driven mode of action of IM in the treatment of AGW...
February 20, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Bridget P Kaufman, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Andrew F Alexis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects diverse ethnic groups with varying prevalence. Despite a predominance of studies in individuals of European ancestry, AD has been found to occur more frequently in Asian and black individuals than whites. Therefore, an understanding of the unique clinical features of AD in diverse ethnic groups, as well as the differences in genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to AD and response to current therapies, is paramount for management of an increasingly diverse patient population...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Marlon R Schneider, Christos C Zouboulis
Sebocytes, the major cell type in sebaceous glands (SGs), are differentiated epithelial cells that gradually accumulate lipids and eventually disrupt, releasing their content (sebum) in a secretory process known as holocrine secretion. Via the hair canal, sebum reaches the skin surface, where it has several known or postulated functions, including pheromonal, thermoregulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Altered sebum secretion and/or structural SG changes have also been involved in the pathogenesis of skin diseases, such as acne vulgaris and some forms of alopecia...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"