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Journal of Glaucoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462016/diurnal-variations-of-peripapillary-and-macular-vessel-density-in-glaucomatous-eyes-using-ocular-coherence-tomography-angiography
#1
Kaweh Mansouri, Harsha L Rao, Kirsten Hoskens, Elisa D'Alessandro, Elsa M Flores-Reyes, André Mermoud, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To investigate the diurnal variation in peripapillary and macular vessel density (VD) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and its correlation to intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in glaucoma patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational cross-sectional study including 37 patients (74 eyes; age, 63.8±12.9▒y) with open angle glaucoma. OCT-A imaging and IOP measurements were performed at 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, and 16:00 on a single day...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462015/macular-vessel-density-in-glaucomatous-eyes-with-focal-lamina-cribrosa-defects
#2
Elham Ghahari, Christopher Bowd, Linda M Zangwill, Min Hee Suh, Takuhei Shoji, Kyle A Hasenstab, Luke J Saunders, Sasan Moghimi, Huiyuan Hou, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Rafaella C Penteado, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measured macular vessel density and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) measured macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with and without focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, case-control study of patients with POAG, 46 eyes of 46 patients with LC defects and 54 eyes of 54 patients without observable LC defects were included...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462014/surgical-outcome-of-replacing-a-failed-ahmed-glaucoma-valve-by-a-baerveldt-glaucoma-implant-in-the-same-quadrant-in-refractory-glaucoma
#3
Wenzhen Zuo, Mark R Lesk
PURPOSE: To describe the surgical technique and outcomes in eyes that underwent surgery to replace a failed Ahmed valve by a Baerveldt glaucoma implant in the same quadrant. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series of 9 patients. Parameters analyzed include age, glaucoma type, prior surgery, complications, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, and number of glaucoma medications before and after the surgery. Surgical success was defined as having either an IOP below 21▒mm Hg or a 20% IOP reduction, with or without hypotensive agent...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462013/patient-acceptance-of-sustained-glaucoma-treatment-strategies
#4
Varshini Varadaraj, Malik Y Kahook, Pradeep Y Ramulu, Ian F Pitha
PURPOSE: To assess patient acceptance of different methods for delivering sustained-release, intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering medications METHODS:: Electronic surveys were administered to 150 patients at two glaucoma clinics. Participants were questioned on their willingness to accept: (1) drug-eluting contact lenses, (2) ring inserts (3) punctal plugs, and (4) sub-conjunctival injections as alternatives to IOP-lowering eye drops based on various success levels. Multivariable logistic regression models determined the association between device type and treatment acceptance adjusting for age, gender, study site, cost burden of drops, and previous contact lens use...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432335/extracellular-matrix-regulation-and-dysregulation-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#5
Matthias Zenkel
Several lines of evidence, such as ultrastructural signs for activated fibrillogenesis and excessive production of elastic microfibrillar components in the anterior segment of the eye and throughout the body, indicate that exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an elastic microfibrillopathy, leading to the accumulation of an abnormal extracellular fibrillar material (XFM). The upregulation of elastic microfibrillar components is paralleled by the selective upregulation of the cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) in the early phase of the disease, suggesting that LOXL1 participates in the stabilization of newly synthesized elastic proteins and finally in the stable accumulation of XFM...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432334/mechanisms-of-glaucoma-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#6
Mineo Ozaki
The most important characteristic of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is that it involves a greater risk of developing glaucoma. In comparison with other forms of open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) is more resistant to medical therapy and progresses faster. Possible pathological mechanisms of glaucoma development in XFS comprise: (1) elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) caused by functional impairment of aqueous humor outflow due to deposition of exfoliation material (XFM) in the trabecular meshwork and trabecular cell dysfunction, (2) XFS-associated connective tissue elastosis leading to structural and functional alterations of the lamina cribrosa which increases the vulnerability toward elevated IOP and development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, (3) elevated IOP due to closure of the anterior chamber angle accompanied by forward displacement of the crystalline lens due to zonular weakness, (4) presumable primary functional impairment of retinal ganglion cells...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419649/molecular-biology-of-exfoliation-syndrome
#7
Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common age-related matrix process resulting from excessive production and disordered assembly of elastic microfibrillar components into highly cross-linked fibrillary aggregates throughout the anterior eye segment and various organ systems. The underlying molecular pathophysiology involves a complex interplay of pro-fibrotic protagonists including growth factors, proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chaperones, and dysregulated stress response pathways including insufficient autophagy...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419648/vascular-dysfunction-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#8
Gábor Holló
Both exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) are associated with systemic vascular diseases and abnormalities. Though no uniform relationship between XFS/XFG and clinical systemic vascular diseases has been established across various populations, vascular dysfunction with or without clinically significant consequences has been repeatedly detected with both epidemiological and pathophysiological methods. Elevated plasma homocysteine, reduced cutaneous capillary flow reactions, damaged conduit artery dysfunction, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, parasympathetic cardiovascular neuropathy, and pathological heart rate variability indices have all been shown in XFS and XFG...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419647/update-on-animal-models-of-exfoliation-syndrome
#9
Michael G Anderson, Kacie J Meyer, Adam Hedberg-Buenz, John H Fingert
Animal models are powerful tools for studying diseases that affect the eye, such as exfoliation syndrome (XFS). Two types of animal models have been used to investigate the pathophysiology of XFS and glaucoma. One class of models is engineered to have key features of a disease by alteration of their genome (genotype-driven animal models). LOXL1 is the first gene known to increase the risk for developing XFS in humans. Two transgenic mouse models with altered Loxl1 genes have been generated to study XFS. One strain of mice, Loxl1 deficient mice, also known as Loxl1 knock-out mice, have had the Loxl1 gene removed from their genomes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419646/lysyl-oxidases-functions-and-disorders
#10
Fernando Rodriguez-Pascual, Tamara Rosell-Garcia
Lysyl oxidases (LOX) are copper-dependent enzymes that oxidize lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues in collagen and elastin, as a first step in the stabilization of these extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through the formation of covalent cross-linkages, an essential process for connective tissue maturation. Five different LOX enzymes have been identified in mammals, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) 1 to 4, being genetically different protein products with a high degree of homology in the catalytic carboxy terminal end and a more variable amino terminal pro-region...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419645/current-concepts-in-true-exfoliation-syndrome
#11
Chaiwat Teekhasaenee
True exfoliation syndrome (TEX, capsular delamination or schisis) is a unique condition in which characteristic lamellar separation of the anterior lens capsule occurs. Because the delaminated membrane is remarkably thin and translucent, and initial detachment occurs peripherally along the zonular insertions, the condition tends to be overlooked on routine examination with inadequate mydriasis. The condition increases with age and despite the classic association with occupations involving intense heat, most cases are idiopathic...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419644/laser-management-of-glaucoma-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#12
Simrenjeet Sandhu, Karim F Damji
Argon laser trabeculoplasty as well as selective laser trabeculoplasty can be used in patients with exfoliation syndrome with similar safety and efficacy. However, treatment effect may abruptly reverse and patients need to be followed regularly to monitor IOP control. Newer laser treatment modalities including micropulse laser trabeculoplasty, titanium sapphire laser trabeculoplasty and pattern scanning trabeculoplasty show promising results but need to be studied in exfoliation patients. For exfoliation patients with angle closure, peripheral iridectomy, iridoplasty or cataract extraction can be very helpful...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419643/exfoliation-syndrome-a-historical-perspective
#13
Ahti Tarkkanen
The discoverer of exfoliation was John Lindberg of Helsinki, Finland. He conducted his research as a young ophthalmology resident with the aim of elucidating two types of age-related degenerations of the iris and presenting it as an academic thesis. To this end, he had to construct a slitlamp, because they were not commercially available. During this investigation, he paid attention to greyish flakes and fringes on the anterior lens capsule and the pupillary border, which had not been previously described. His material consisted of 202 patients...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419642/reduced-retinal-vessel-density-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-a-quantitative-study-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#14
Li Zhu, Yuan Zong, Jian Yu, Chunhui Jiang, Yi He, Yali Jia, David Huang, Xinghuai Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in the retinal vasculature in different parts of the fundus in eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). METHODS: Healthy subjects and those with PACG were enrolled. Optical coherence tomography and a split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm were used to quantify the retinal vessel densities in the parafoveal and peripapillary areas. RESULTS: Thirty-nine eyes from 24 PACG patients and 39 eyes from 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419641/epidemiology-of-exfoliation-syndrome
#15
Anastasios G P Konstas, Amund Ringvold
BACKGROUND: From a historical standpoint the epidemiology of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is one of the most controversial subjects in ophthalmic literature. Current literature abounds with studies on the prevalence of XFS in various ethnic populations and clearly XFS is a common condition, but its true prevalence is difficult to ascertain. Overall, XFS is considered to be the most common identifiable cause of glaucoma worldwide. PURPOSE: This review critically examines the published literature documenting the epidemiological features of XFS and attempts to provide a unified concept concerning existing controversy...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401160/meibomian-gland-features-and-conjunctival-goblet-cell-density-in-glaucomatous-patients-controlled-with-prostaglandin-timolol-fixed-combinations-a-case-control-cross-sectional-study
#16
Luca Agnifili, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Vincenzo Fasanella, Lorenza Brescia, Barbara Scatena, Francesco Oddone, Leonardo Mastropasqua
PURPOSE: To investigate, using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), the Meibomian gland (MG) features and conjunctival goblet cell density (GCD) in glaucomatous patients controlled with prostaglandin/timolol fixed combinations (PTFCs). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, sixty Caucasian patients treated with PTFCs, fifteen with latanoprost+timolol (L+T) unfixed combination, and fifteen controls were enrolled. Patients underwent the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film break-up time (BUT), corneal staining, Schirmer test I (STI), and IVCM of MGs and goblet cells (GCs)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401159/late-spontaneous-dislocation-of-an-ab-interno-gelatin-microstent
#17
Erin A Boese, Manjool Shah
PURPOSE: To report a case of spontaneous dislocation of a gelatin microstent six months after the initial uncomplicated surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe a 73-year-old male with a history of advanced primary open angle glaucoma who had previously undergone an unsuccessful micropulse transcleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) of the left eye. He underwent an uncomplicated combined phacoemulsification with an ab interno gelatin microstent, but was noted to have a spontaneous dislocation of the microstent six months post-operatively...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401158/neuro-vascular-changes-associated-with-the-water-drinking-test
#18
Gustavo Gameiro, Pedro Monsalve, Iuri Golubev, Lori Ventura, Vittorio Porciatti
PURPOSE: The Water Drinking Test (WDT) is currently used to temporarily elevate intraocular pressure (IOP) and predict peak IOP in glaucoma. This study investigates neurovascular changes associated with WDT in normal subjects. METHODS: The effect of WDT (1 liter in 5▒min) on IOP, mean brachial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was assessed within the next hour in 16 healthy subjects (mean age 33.5±7.9▒y). As a control, testing was repeated in the same subjects without WDT one week later...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401157/supraciliary-implant-placement-and-postoperative-suprachoroidal-hemorrhage-after-nonpenetrating-deep-sclerectomy
#19
Gema Rebolleda, Alberto Martínez Compadre, Jose Manuel Navero, Alfonso Antón
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of three eyes (3 patients), with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), in whom a postoperative supra-choroidal hemorrhage (SCH) occurred after a previous non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) augmented with a supra-ciliary non-absorbable implant placement. METHODS AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Report of three-cases of the three cases who underwent NPDS in three different centers, by three experienced surgeons, and were the only ones to develop postoperative SCH in the last 10 years...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401156/growth-factors-oxidative-damage-and-inflammation-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#20
Teresa Borrás
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) produces deleterious ocular aging and has protean systemic manifestations. Local ocular production of TGFβ1 is of central importance in XFS. TGFβ1 appears to induce the expression of LOXL1 and the production of other extracellular matrix components which are known to be present in exfoliation material. Furthermore, results from several studies find that the aqueous humor of exfoliation glaucoma patients exhibits a decreased antioxidant defense and increased oxidative stress systems...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
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