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Brain Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437246/early-movement-restriction-leads-to-enduring-disorders-in-muscle-and-locomotion
#1
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396893/aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-artag-not-only-tau-phosphorylation-in-astrocytes
#2
Isidro Ferrer, Meritxell Aguiló García, Irene López González, Daniela Diaz Lucena, Aina Roig Villalonga, Margarita Carmona Tech, Franc Llorens, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Alejandra Martinez-Maldonado, Margalida Frau Mendez, Benjamín Torrejón Escribano, Joan Josep Bech Serra, Eduard Sabido, Carolina de la Torre Gómez, José Antonio Del Rio
Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) is defined by the presence of two types of tau-bearing astrocytes: thorn-shaped astrocytes (TSAs) and granular/fuzzy astrocytes in the brain of old-aged individuals. The present study is focused on TSAs in rare forms of ARTAG with no neuronal tau pathology or restricted to entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices, to avoid bias from associated tauopathies. TSAs show 4Rtau phosphorylation at several specific sites and abnormal tau conformation, but they lack ubiquitin and they are not immunostained with tau-C3 antibodies which recognize truncated tau at Asp421...
February 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363833/purine-related-metabolites-and-their-converting-enzymes-are-altered-in-frontal-parietal-and-temporal-cortex-at-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#3
Patricia Alonso-Andrés, José Luis Albasanz, Isidro Ferrer, Mairena Martín
Adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanosine, and inosine levels were assessed by HPLC, and the activity of related enzymes 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) measured in frontal (FC), parietal (PC) and temporal (TC) cortices at different stages of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in age-matched controls. Significantly decreased levels of adenosine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine, and apparently less inosine, are found in FC from the early stages of AD; PC and TC show an opposing pattern, as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine are significantly increased at least at determinate stages of AD whereas hypoxanthine and xanthine levels remain unaltered...
January 24, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341299/autonomous-purkinje-cell-axonal-dystrophy-causes-ataxia-in-peroxisomal-multifunctional-protein-2-deficiency
#4
Stephanie De Munter, Dorien Bamps, Ana Rita Malheiro, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Pedro Brites, Myriam Baes
BACKGROUND: Peroxisomes play a crucial role in normal neurodevelopment and in the maintenance of the adult brain. This depends largely on intact peroxisomal β-oxidation given the similarities in pathologies between peroxisome biogenesis disorders and deficiency of multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), the central enzyme of this pathway. Recently, adult patients diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia were shown to have mild mutations in the MFP2 gene, hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (17 beta) type 4 (HSD17B4)...
January 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330884/synapsin-iii-is-a-key-component-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-in-lewy-bodies-of-pd-brains
#5
Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Tatiana Varanita, Michela Zaltieri, Vanessa Porrini, Isabella Tessari, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Cristina Missale, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Luigi Bubacco, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Lewy bodies (LB) and Lewy neurites (LN), which are primarily composed of α-synuclein (α-syn), are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We recently found that the neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (syn III) controls dopamine release via cooperation with α-syn and modulates α-syn aggregation. Here, we observed that LB and LN, in the substantia nigra of PD patients and hippocampus of one subject with DLB, displayed a marked immunopositivity for syn III...
January 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226988/cns-high-grade-neuroepithelial-tumor-with-bcor-internal-tandem-duplication-a-comparison-with-its-counterparts-in-the-kidney-and-soft-tissue
#6
Yuka Yoshida, Sumihito Nobusawa, Satoshi Nakata, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Yoshiki Arakawa, Yohei Mineharu, Yasuo Sugita, Takako Yoshioka, Asuka Araki, Yuichiro Sato, Hideo Takeshima, Masahiko Okada, Akira Nishi, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Kenichi Kohashi, Yoshinao Oda, Junko Hirato, Hideaki Yokoo
Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR) are a recently reported rare entity, identified as a small fraction of tumors previously institutionally diagnosed as so-called CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Their genetic characteristic is a somatic internal tandem duplication in the 3' end of BCOR (BCOR ITD), which has also been found in clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) and soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcomas/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumors of infancy (URCS/PMMTI), and these BCOR ITD-positive tumors have been reported to share similar pathological features...
December 11, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222823/dominant-role-of-microglial-and-macrophage-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ischemic-infarcts
#7
Tobias Zrzavy, Joana Machado-Santos, Sheren Christine, Christoph Baumgartner, Howard L Weiner, Oleg Butovsky, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory mechanisms, involving granulocytes, T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and activated microglia, have been suggested to play a pathogenic role in experimental models of stroke and may be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, knowledge on the inflammatory response in human stroke lesions is limited. Here, we performed a quantitative study on the inflammatory reaction in human ischemic infarct lesions. We found increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, mainly CD8+ cells, but not of B-lymphocytes. Their number was very low in comparison to that seen in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and they did not show signs of activation...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222813/reln-signaling-modulates-glioblastoma-growth-and-substrate-dependent-migration
#8
Markus Schulze, Christ Violonchi, Stefan Swoboda, Tobias Welz, Eugen Kerkhoff, Sabine Hoja, Susanne Brüggemann, Johann Simbürger, Jörg Reinders, Markus J Riemenschneider
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and most malignant type of primary brain tumor and significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. Invasion into the healthy brain parenchyma is a major feature of glioblastoma aggressiveness. Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain and sustains functionality in the adult brain. We here show that both RELN and its main downstream effector DAB1 are silenced in glioblastoma as compared to non-neoplastic tissue and mRNA expression is inversely correlated with malignancy grade...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265635/a-68-year-old-woman-with-a-left-orbital-and-temporal-mass
#9
Luca Bertero, Francesco Zenga, Francesca Maletta, Rebecca Senetta, Paola Cassoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265634/a-72-year-old-male-with-a-slow-growing-pineal-region-tumor
#10
Michele M Kameda-Smith, Boleslaw Lach, Kesava Srinath Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265633/a-62-year-old-woman-with-a-history-of-muscle-pain-and-skin-rash-for-1-month
#11
Jantima Tanboon, Akinori Uruha, Kohei Hamanaka, Juri Hasegawa, Ichizo Nishino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265632/a-44-year-old-female-with-familial-mediterranean-fever-cardiomyopathy-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
Shino Magaki, Robyn Parks, Harry V Vinters, Negar Khanlou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265631/acknowledgment-to-reviewers-1st-october-2016-30th-september-2017
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265630/a-60-year-old-woman-with-multifocal-subcortical-infarcts
#14
Katherine E Schwetye, David Rodriguez, Robert E Schmidt, Sonika Dahiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265629/a-31-year-old-man-with-slowly-progressive-limb-muscle-weakness-and-respiratory-insufficiency
#15
Akinori Uruha, Yukiko K Hayashi, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yasushi Oya, Masahiro Kanai, Miho Murata, Ichizo Nishino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265627/an-8-year-old-girl-with-a-supratentorial-mass
#16
Katherine E Schwetye, Karen Gauvain, David Rodriguez, Catherine Cottrell, David D Limbrick, Robert E Schmidt, Sonika Dahiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265626/a-39-year-old-woman-with-progressive-vision-impairment
#17
Grzegorz Zielinski, Andrzej Podgorski, Maria Maksymowicz, Przemyslaw Witek, Andrzej Koziarski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105198/braf-v600e-tert-promoter-mutations-and-cdkn2a-b-homozygous-deletions-are-frequent-in-epithelioid-glioblastomas-a-histological-and-molecular-analysis-focusing-on-intratumoral-heterogeneity
#18
Nozomi Nakajima, Sumihito Nobusawa, Satoshi Nakata, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Nozomi Matsumura, Kenichi Harada, Hadzki Matsuda, Nobuaki Funata, Shoichi Nagai, Hideo Nakamura, Atsushi Sasaki, Jiro Akimoto, Junko Hirato, Hideaki Yokoo
Epithelioid glioblastoma (E-GBM) is a rare aggressive variant of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma newly recognized in the 2016 World Health Organization classification, composed predominantly of monotonous, patternless sheets of round cells with laterally positioned nuclei and plump eosinophilic cytoplasm. Approximately 50% of E-GBM harbor BRAF V600E, which is much less frequently found in other types of glioblastomas. Most E-GBM are recognized as primary/de novo lesions; however, several E-GBM with co- or pre-existing lower-grade lesions have been reported...
November 4, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076287/corrigendum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378357/h3-k27m-mutation-in-gangliogliomas-can-be-associated-with-poor-prognosis
#20
LETTER
B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Andrew Donson, Nicholas K Foreman, Kathleen Dorris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Brain Pathology
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