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Brain Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752602/alterations-in-the-steroid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex-in-mood-disorders-a-postmortem-study
#1
Xin-Rui Qi, Sabina Luchetti, Ronald W H Verwer, Arja A Sluiter, Matthew R J Mason, Jiang-Ning Zhou, Dick F Swaab
Altered levels of steroids have been reported in the brain, cerebral spinal fluid and plasma of patients with mood disorders. Neuroimaging studies have reported both functional and structural alterations in mood disorders, for instance in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In order to determine whether the endogenous production of steroids is altered in the ACC and DLPFC of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD), quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect mRNA expression level of key enzymes in the steroid biosynthetic pathways...
July 27, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707765/tissue-microarray-methodology-identifies-complement-pathway-activation-and-dysregulation-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Sam Loveless, James W Neal, Owain W Howell, Katharine E Harding, Patrick Sarkies, Rhian Evans, Ryan J Bevan, Svetlana Hakobyan, Claire L Harris, Neil P Robertson, B Paul Morgan
BACKGROUND: The complement pathway has potential contributions to both white (WM) and grey matter (GM) pathology in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A quantitative assessment of complement involvement is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Tissue MicroArray methodology was used in conjunction with immunohistochemistry to investigate the localization of complement pathway proteins in progressive MS cortical GM and subcortical WM. METHODS: Antibodies targeting complement proteins C1q, C3b, regulatory proteins C1 inhibitor (C1INH), complement receptor 1 (CR1), clusterin, factor H (FH) and the C5a anaphylatoxin receptor (C5aR) were utilised alongside standard markers of tissue pathology...
July 14, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703923/autophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Fang Guo, Xinyao Liu, Huaibin Cai, Weidong Le
The most prevalent pathological features of many neurodegenerative diseases are the aggregation of misfolded proteins and the loss of certain neuronal populations. Autophagy, as major intracellular machinery for degrading aggregated proteins and damaged organelles, has been reported to be involved in the occurrence of pathological changes in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this review, we summarize most recent research progress in this topic and provide a new perspective regarding autophagy regulation on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
July 13, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557134/tgf%C3%AE-pathway-deregulation-and-abnormal-phospho-smad2-3-staining-in-hereditary-cerebral-hemorrhage-with-amyloidosis-dutch-type
#4
Laure Grand Moursel, Leon P Munting, Linda M van der Graaf, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Marie-Jose T H Goumans, Uwe Ueberham, Remco Natté, Mark A van Buchem, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Louise van der Weerd
Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) is an early onset hereditary form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) pathology, caused by the E22Q mutation in the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) is a key player in vascular fibrosis and in the formation of angiopathic vessels in transgenic mice. Therefore we investigated whether the TGFβ pathway is involved in HCHWA-D pathogenesis in human postmortem brain tissue from frontal and occipital lobes. Components of the TGFβ pathway were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR...
May 29, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557010/rapid-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-and-protofibril-accumulation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Sami Abu Hamdeh, Erik Rollman Waara, Christer Möller, Linda Söderberg, Hans Basun, Irina Alafuzoff, Lars Hillered, Lars Lannfelt, Martin Ingelsson, Niklas Marklund
OBJECTIVE: Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) is central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and associated with progressive neurodegeneration in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We analysed predisposing factors for Aβ deposition including monomeric Aβ40, Aβ42 and Aβ oligomers/protofibrils, Aβ species with pronounced neurotoxic properties, following human TBI. METHODS: Highly selective ELISAs were used to analyse N-terminally intact and truncated Aβ40 and Aβ42, as well as Aβ oligomers/protofibrils, in human brain tissue, surgically resected from severe TBI patients (n=12; mean age 49...
May 29, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805008/erratum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805007/a-42-year-old-male-with-diabetes-insipidus
#7
I Bremer Pais, C Bernreuther, T Minnemann, W Saeger, C Hagel, C Iking-Konert, J Aberle, J Flitsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805006/an-57-year-old-female-with-sudden-onset-of-transient-right-homonymous-hemianopsia
#8
Tara Jayde Nail, Julio M Araque, John Vender, Amyn M Rojiani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805005/a-42-year-old-man-with-aids-and-multiple-incomplete-ring-enhancing-lesions
#9
Peter Kang, Robert E Schmidt, Sonika Dahiya, Arun S Varadhachary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805004/society-news
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805003/protein-astrogliopathies-in-human-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-aging
#11
Gabor G Kovacs, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons associated with depositions of pathologically altered proteins showing hierarchical involvement of brain regions. The role of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is explored as contributors to neuronal degeneration or neuroprotection pathways, and also as potential mediators of the transcellular spreading of disease-associated proteins. Protein astrogliopathy (PAG), including deposition of amyloid-β, prion protein, tau, α-synuclein, and very rarely transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is not unprecedented or unusual in neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805002/stratification-of-astrocytes-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#12
Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec, Vladimir Parpura
Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cells, come in variety of forms and functions. However, overarching role of these cell is in the homeostasis of the brain, be that regulation of ions, neurotransmitters, metabolism or neuronal synaptic networks. Loss of homeostasis represents the underlying cause of all brain disorders. Thus, astrocytes are likely involved in most if not all of the brain pathologies. We tabulate astroglial homeostatic functions along with pathological condition that arise from dysfunction of these glial cells...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805001/introduction
#13
Gabor G Kovacs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805000/a-54-year-old-male-with-multiple-intracranial-and-extracranial-masses
#14
Diana Murro Lin, Aidnag Z Diaz, Robert D Aiken, Paolo Gattuso, Sukriti Nag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#15
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529406/ftdp-17-with-pick-body-like-inclusions-associated-with-a-novel-tau-mutation-p-e372g
#16
Pawel Tacik, Michael A DeTure, Yari Carlomagno, Wen-Lang Lin, Melissa E Murray, Matthew C Baker, Keith A Josephs, Bradley F Boeve, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Joseph E Parisi, Leonard Petrucelli, Rosa Rademakers, Richard S Isaacson, Kenneth M Heilman, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson, Naomi Kouri
Mutations in microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Here, we describe a patient with FTDP-17 and a novel missense mutation in exon 13 of MAPT, p.E372G. We compare clinicopathologic features of this patient to two previously unreported patients with another exon 13 mutation, p.G389R. The patient with the p.E372G mutation was a 40-year-old man with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), who subsequently developed agrammatic speech and parkinsonism...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585389/an-11-year-old-boy-with-a-leptomeningeal-tumor
#17
Cyril Habougit, Fabien Forest, Claire Boutet, Catherine Douchet, Jean-Louis Stephan, Marie-Laure Stachowicz, Francois Vassal, Michel Péoc'h
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585388/a-32-year-old-man-with-headache-and-visual-loss
#18
Fabio Rogerio, Luciano de Souza Queiroz, Fabiano Reis, Aya Fukuda, Nivaldo Adolfo Silva, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585387/a-53-year-old-woman-with-a-subfascial-mass-of-the-back-that-lasted-for-years
#19
Elia Guadagno, Domenico Solari, Gianpiero Iannuzzo, Eduardo Clery, Mararosaria Cervasio, Annarosaria De Chiara, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585386/understanding-neurodevelopmental-disorders-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#20
Claudia Tamburini, Meng Li
Research into psychiatric disorders has long been hindered by the lack of appropriate models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unlimited source of patient-specific cells, which in principle can be differentiated into all disease-relevant somatic cell types to create in vitro models of the disorder of interest. Here, neuronal differentiation protocols available for this purpose and the current progress on iPSCs-based models of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder were reviewed...
July 2017: Brain Pathology
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