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Matthias Guggenmos, Philipp Sterzer, Radoslaw Martin Cichy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Valentina Fiori, Lisa Kunz, Philipp Kuhnke, Paola Marangolo, Gesa Hartwigsen
Recent studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) plays a key role in language learning. Facilitatory stimulation over this region by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate linguistic abilities in healthy individuals and improve language performance in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Neuroimaging studies in healthy participants have suggested that anodal tDCS decreases task-related activity at the stimulated site when applied during different language tasks, and changes resting-state connectivity in a larger network of areas associated with language processing...
July 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Xiuyi Wang, Boris C Bernhardt, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Irene De Caso, Tirso Rene Del Jesus Gonzalez Alam, Zacharria Cotter, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic control allows us to shape our conceptual retrieval to suit the circumstances in a flexible way. Tasks requiring semantic control activate a large-scale network including left inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) - this network responds when retrieval is focussed on weak as opposed to dominant associations. However, little is known about the biological basis of individual differences in this cognitive capacity: regions that are commonly activated in task-based fMRI may not relate to variation in controlled retrieval...
July 17, 2018: NeuroImage
J C Pang, P A Robinson
An experimentally tested neural field theory of the corticothalamic system is used to model brain activity and resulting experimental EEG data, and to elucidate the neural mechanisms and physiological basis of alpha-BOLD anticorrelation observed in concurrent EEG and fMRI measurements. Several studies have proposed that the anticorrelation originates from a causal link between changes in the alpha power and BOLD signal. However, the results in this study reveal that fluctuations in alpha and BOLD power do not generate one another but instead respectively result from high- and low-frequency components of the same underlying cortical activity, and that they are inversely correlated via variations in the strengths of corticothalamic and intrathalamic feedback, thereby explaining their anticorrelation...
July 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Lena Trebaul, Pierre Deman, Viateur Tuyisenge, Maciej Jedynak, Etienne Hugues, David Rudrauf, Manik Bhattacharjee, François Tadel, Blandine Chanteloup-Foret, Carole Saubat, Gina Catalina Reyes Mejia, Claude Adam, Anca Nica, Martin Pail, François Dubeau, Sylvain Rheims, Agnès Trébuchon, Haixiang Wang, Sinclair Liu, Thomas Blauwblomme, Mercedes Garcés, Luca De Palma, Antonio Valentin, Eeva-Liisa Metsähonkala, Ana Maria Petrescu, Elizabeth Landré, William Szurhaj, Edouard Hirsch, Luc Valton, Rodrigo Rocamora, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ioana Mindruta, Stefano Francione, Louis Maillard, Delphine Taussig, Philippe Kahane, Olivier David
In patients with pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsies investigated with intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), direct electrical stimulations of a cortical region induce cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEP) in distant cerebral cortex, which properties can be used to infer large scale brain connectivity. In 2013, we proposed a new probabilistic functional tractography methodology to study human brain connectivity. We have now been revisiting this method in the F-TRACT project ( by developing a large multicenter CCEP database of several thousand stimulation runs performed in several hundred patients, and associated processing tools to create a probabilistic atlas of human cortico-cortical connections...
July 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Benjamin Straube, Adrian Worblewski, Andreas Jansen, Yifei He
Humans integrate information communicated by speech and gestures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) and adjacent gyri are relevant for multisensory integration. However, a connectivity model representing this essential combinatory process is still missing. Here, we used dynamic causal modeling for fMRI to analyze the effective connectivity pattern between middle temporal gyrus (MTG), occipital cortex (OC) and STS associated with auditory verbal, visual gesture-related, and integrative processing, respectively, to unveil the neural mechanisms underlying integration of intrinsically meaningful gestures (e...
July 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Romain Ligneul, Martial Mermillod, Tiffany Morisseau
Epistemic curiosity (EC) is a cornerstone of human cognition that contributes to the actualization of our cognitive potential by stimulating a myriad of information-seeking behaviors. Yet, its fundamental relationship with uncertainty remains poorly understood, which limits our ability to predict within- and between-individual variability in the willingness to acquire knowledge. Here, a two-step stochastic trivia quiz designed to induce curiosity and manipulate answer uncertainty provided behavioral and neural evidence for an integrative model of EC inspired from predictive coding...
July 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Tim M Tierney, Niall Holmes, Sofie S Meyer, Elena Boto, Gillian Roberts, James Leggett, Sarah Buck, Leonardo Duque-Muñoz, Vladimir Litvak, Sven Bestmann, Torsten Baldeweg, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes, Gareth R Barnes
Recent work has demonstrated that Optically Pumped Magnetometers (OPMs) can be utilised to create a wearable Magnetoencephalography (MEG) system that is motion robust. In this study, we use this system to map eloquent cortex using a clinically validated language lateralisation paradigm (covert verb generation: 120 trials, ∼10 min total duration) in healthy adults (n = 3). We show that it is possible to lateralise and localise language function on a case by case basis using this system. Specifically, we show that at a sensor and source level we can reliably detect a lateralising beta band (15-30 Hz) desynchronization in all subjects...
July 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Raphael Wallroth, Richard Höchenberger, Kathrin Ohla
The categorization of food via sensing nutrients or toxins is crucial to the survival of any organism. On ingestion, rapid responses within the gustatory system are required to identify the oral stimulus to guide immediate behaviour (swallowing or expulsion). The way in which the human brain accomplishes this task has so far remained unclear. Using multivariate analysis of 64-channel scalp EEG recordings obtained from 16 volunteers during tasting salty, sweet, sour, or bitter solutions, we found that activity in the delta-frequency range (1-4 Hz; delta power and phase) has information about taste identity in the human brain, with discriminable response patterns at the single-trial level within 130 ms of tasting...
July 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Bonnie Alexander, Claire E Kelly, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Diana Zannino, Jian Chen, Andrea L Murray, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Simon K Warfield, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Marc L Seal, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Deanne K Thompson
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with altered brain development, with younger gestational age (GA) at birth often associated with greater brain volume reduction. Such volume alterations at term equivalent age (TEA) have been found with differing magnitude across different brain regions, although this has mostly been investigated with regards to whole tissue volumes and large-scale subdivisions. In addition to degree of prematurity, many other perinatal factors have been found to influence brain structure and development in infants born preterm...
July 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Simon Little, James Bonaiuto, Sofie S Meyer, Jose Lopez, Sven Bestmann, Gareth Barnes
In magnetoencephalography (MEG) research there are a variety of inversion methods to transform sensor data into estimates of brain activity. Each new inversion scheme is generally justified against a specific simulated or task scenario. The choice of this scenario will however have a large impact on how well the scheme performs. We describe a method with minimal selection bias to quantify algorithm performance using human resting state data. These recordings provide a generic, heterogeneous, and plentiful functional substrate against which to test different MEG recording and reconstruction approaches...
July 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Kristina Denisova
The search for the brain-basis of atypical development in human infants is challenging because the process of imaging and the generation of the MR signal itself relies on assumptions that reflect biophysical properties of the brain tissue. These assumptions are not inviolate, have been questioned by recent empirical evidence from high risk infant-sibling studies, and to date remain largely under-examined at the between-group level. In particular, I consider recent work showing that infants at High vs. Low familial risk (HR vs...
July 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Alexander Opitz, Erin Yeagle, Axel Thielscher, Charles Schroeder, Ashesh D Mehta, Michael P Milham
Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an increasingly popular method for non-invasive modulation of brain activity and a potential treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there are concerns about the reliability of its application because of variability in TES-induced intracranial electric fields across individuals. While realistic computational models offer can help to alleviate these concerns, their direct empirical validation is sparse, and their practical implications are not always clear...
July 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Johannes Bloechle, Stefan Huber, Elise Klein, Julia Bahnmüller, Korbinian Moeller, Johannes Rennig
Recent neuroimaging studies identified posterior regions in the temporal and parietal lobes as neuro-functional correlates of subitizing and global Gestalt perception. Beyond notable overlap on a neuronal level both mechanisms are remarkably similar on a behavioral level representing both a specific form of visual top-down processing where single elements are integrated into a superordinate entity. In the present study, we investigated whether subitizing draws on principles of global Gestalt perception enabling rapid top-down processes of visual quantification...
July 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Gaspar Delso, Bradley Kemp, Sandeep Kaushik, Florian Wiesinger, Tetsuro Sekine
PURPOSE: The impact of MR-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation accuracy is an ongoing cause of concern for advanced brain research with PET/MR. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, template-enhanced zero-echo-time attenuation correction method for PET/MR scanners. METHODS: 30 subjects underwent a clinically-indicated 18 F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by PET/MR on a GE SIGNA PET/MR. For each patient, a 42-s zero echo time (ZTE) sequence was used to generate two attenuation maps: one with the standard ZTE segmentation-based method; and another with a modification of the method, wherein pre-registered anatomical templates and CT data were used to enhance the segmentation...
July 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Mona Farokhzadi, Gholam-Ali Hossein-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Exploring brain networks is an essential step towards understanding functional organization of the brain, which needs characterization of linear and nonlinear connections based on measurements like EEG or MEG. Conventional measures of connectivity are mostly linear and bivariate. This paper proposes an effective connectivity measure called Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Granger Causality (ANFISGC). The proposed measure is based on the symplectic geometry embedding dimension, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) predictor, and Granger Causality (GC)...
July 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Silvia Erika Kober, Matthias Witte, Sandra Grinschgl, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
It is still poorly understood how unspecific effects peripheral to the supposed action mechanism of neurofeedback (NF) influence the ability to self-regulate one's own brain signals. Recently, skeptical researchers have even attributed the lion's part of therapeutic outcomes of NF to placebo and other psychosocial factors. Here, we investigated whether and by which mechanisms unspecific factors influence neural self-regulation during NF. To manipulate the impact of unspecific influences on NF performance, we used a sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as active placebo intervention suggesting positive effects on NF performance...
July 12, 2018: NeuroImage
J Lebenberg, J-F Mangin, B Thirion, C Poupon, L Hertz-Pannier, F Leroy, P Adibpour, G Dehaene-Lambertz, J Dubois
While the main neural networks are in place at term birth, intense changes in cortical microstructure occur during early infancy with the development of dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis and fiber myelination. These maturational processes are thought to relate to behavioral acquisitions and the development of cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, in vivo investigations of such relationships are still lacking in healthy infants. To bridge this gap, we aimed to study the cortical maturation using non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging, over a largely unexplored period (1-5 post-natal months)...
July 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Ixavier A Higgins, Suprateek Kundu, Ying Guo
Recently, there has been increased interest in fusing multimodal imaging to better understand brain organization by integrating information on both brain structure and function. In particular, incorporating anatomical knowledge leads to desirable outcomes such as increased accuracy in brain network estimates and greater reproducibility of topological features across scanning sessions. Despite the clear advantages, major challenges persist in integrative analyses including an incomplete understanding of the structure-function relationship and inaccuracies in mapping anatomical structures due to inherent deficiencies in existing imaging technology...
July 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Ying Lin, Junji Ma, Yue Gu, Shen Yang, Liman Man Wai Li, Zhengjia Dai
A wealth of research on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) data has revealed modularity as a fundamental characteristic of the human brain functional network. The modular structure has recently been suggested to be overlapping, meaning that a brain region may engage in multiple modules. However, not only the overlapping modular structure remains inconclusive, the topological features and functional roles of overlapping regions are also poorly understood. To address these issues, the present work utilized the maximal-clique based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to explore the overlapping modular structure of the R-fMRI data obtained from 57 young healthy adults...
July 10, 2018: NeuroImage
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