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Yafei Tan, Jolien Vandeput, Jiang Qiu, Omer Van den Bergh, Andreas von Leupoldt
The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential in the electroencephalogram (EEG) observed within the first 100 ms after commission of an error. Increased ERN amplitudes have been observed in several psychological disorders characterized by high negative affect. While the ERN has extensively been studied in tasks using exteroceptive stimuli, its relation to interoceptive stimuli is unknown. Since errors related to interoception might be particularly relevant for survival and negative affect, this study aimed to explore the ERN for errors related to interoceptive, respiratory sensations (intERN)...
September 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Gi-Yeul Bae, Steven J Luck
The present study sought to determine whether scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) signals contain decodable information about the direction of motion in random dot kinematograms (RDKs), in which the motion information is spatially distributed and mixed with random noise. Any direction of motion from 0 to 360° was possible, and observers reported the precise direction of motion at the end of a 1500-ms stimulus display. We decoded the direction of motion separately during the motion period (during which motion information was being accumulated) and the report period (during which a shift of attention was necessary to make a fine-tuned direction report)...
September 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Alican Nalci, Bhaskar D Rao, Thomas T Liu
In resting-state fMRI, dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) measures are used to characterize temporal changes in the brain's intrinsic functional connectivity. A widely used approach for DFC estimation is the computation of the sliding window correlation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from different brain regions. Although the source of temporal fluctuations in DFC estimates remains largely unknown, there is growing evidence that they may reflect dynamic shifts between functional brain networks...
September 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Matthew Leming, Li Su, Shayanti Chattopadhyay, John Suckling
Functional connectivity is frequently derived from fMRI data to reduce a complex image of the brain to a graph, or "functional connectome". Often shortest-path algorithms are used to characterize and compare functional connectomes. Previous work on the identification and measurement of semi-metric (shortest circuitous) pathways in the functional connectome has discovered cross-sectional differences in major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and Alzheimer's disease. However, while measurements of shortest path length have been analyzed in functional connectomes, less work has been done to investigate the composition of the pathways themselves, or whether the edges composing pathways differ between individuals...
September 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Raphael Vallat, David Meunier, Alain Nicolas, Perrine Ruby
The first minutes following awakening from sleep are typically marked by reduced vigilance, increased sleepiness and impaired performance, a state referred to as sleep inertia. Although the behavioral aspects of sleep inertia are well documented, its cerebral correlates remain poorly understood. The present study aimed at filling this gap by measuring in 34 participants the changes in behavioral performance (descending subtraction task, DST), EEG spectral power, and resting-state fMRI functional connectivity across three time points: before an early-afternoon 45-min nap, 5 min after awakening from the nap and 25 min after awakening...
September 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Roy Amit, Dekel Abeles, Marisa Carrasco, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
The accurate extraction of signals out of noisy environments is a major challenge of the perceptual system. Forming temporal expectations and continuously matching them with perceptual input can facilitate this process. In humans, temporal expectations are typically assessed using behavioral measures, which provide only retrospective but no real-time estimates during target anticipation, or by using electrophysiological measures, which require extensive preprocessing and are difficult to interpret. Here we show a new correlate of temporal expectations based on oculomotor behavior...
September 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Ben R Dickie, Matthias Vandesquille, José Ulloa, Hervé Boutin, Laura M Parkes, Geoff J M Parker
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown has been hypothesized to play a key role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the question of whether AD itself contributes to loss of BBB integrity is still uncertain, as many in-vivo studies have failed to detect signs of AD-related BBB breakdown. We hypothesize AD-related BBB damage is subtle, and that these negative results arise from a lack of measurement sensitivity. With the aim of developing a more sensitive measure of BBB breakdown, we have designed a novel MRI scanning protocol to quantify the trans-BBB exchange of endogenous water...
September 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Yi Huang, Rongjun Yu
People often evaluate money based on its face value and overlook its real purchasing power, a phenomenon known as the money illusion. In the present study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with a gambling task, we examined the neural signatures of the money illusion in both win and loss domains. Behavioral results showed that self-reported satisfaction with outcomes was modulated by the face value but not the true value of money in both win and loss domains. At the neural level, activity in the posterior insula was associated with the true value of money in the win domain, but not in the loss domain...
September 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Rubi Hammer, Erick J Paul, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Aron K Barbey
Although analogical reasoning (AR) plays a central role in higher-level cognition and constitutes a key source of individual differences in intellectual ability, the neural mechanisms that account for individual differences in AR remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated individual differences in AR within a large sample (n = 229), using multivariate fMRI analysis (a simple multiple kernel learning machine). The individual AR capability was positively correlated with activation level in a prefrontal executive network and a visuospatial network...
September 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Julia W Y Kam, Sandon Griffin, Alan Shen, Shawn Patel, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Leon Y Deouell, Robert T Knight
Recent advances in dry electrodes technology have facilitated the recording of EEG in situations not previously possible, thanks to the relatively swift electrode preparation and avoidance of applying gel to subject's hair. However, to become a true alternative, these systems should be compared to state-of-the-art wet EEG systems commonly used in clinical or research applications. In our study, we conducted a systematic comparison of electrodes application speed, subject comfort, and most critically electrophysiological signal quality between the conventional and wired Biosemi EEG system using wet active electrodes and the compact and wireless F1 EEG system consisting of dry passive electrodes...
September 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Michael P Trevarrow, Max J Kurz, Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Mackenzie S Mills, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Julia M Stephen, Tony W Wilson
Numerous studies of motor control have confirmed beta and gamma oscillations in the primary motor cortices during basic movements. These responses include a robust beta decrease that precedes and extends through movement onset, a transient gamma response that coincides with the movement, and a post-movement beta rebound (PMBR) response that occurs after movement offset. While the existence of these responses has been confirmed by many studies, very few studies have examined their developmental trajectory. In the current study, we utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate age-related changes in sensorimotor cortical oscillations in a large cross-section of children and adolescents (n = 94; age range = 9 -15 years-old)...
September 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Frank A Fishburn, Ruth S Ludlum, Chandan J Vaidya, Andrei V Medvedev
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical neuroimaging technique of growing interest as a tool for investigation of cortical activity. Due to the on-head placement of optodes, artifacts arising from head motion are relatively less severe than for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is still necessary to remove motion artifacts. We present a novel motion correction procedure based on robust regression, which effectively removes baseline shift and spike artifacts without the need for any user-supplied parameters...
September 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Mai Nguyen, Tamara Vanderwal, Uri Hasson
Humans have a striking ability to infer meaning from even the sparsest and most abstract forms of narratives. At the same time, flexibility in the form of a narrative is matched by inherent ambiguity in its interpretation. How does the brain represent subtle, idiosyncratic differences in the interpretation of abstract and ambiguous narratives? In this fMRI study, subjects were scanned either watching a novel 7-min animation depicting a complex narrative through the movement of geometric shapes, or listening to a narration of the animation's social story...
September 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Frederik S Kamps, Ethan J Morris, Daniel D Dilks
What is a face? Intuition, along with abundant behavioral and neural evidence, indicates that internal features (e.g., eyes, nose, mouth) are critical for face recognition, yet some behavioral and neural findings suggest that external features (e.g., hair, head outline, neck and shoulders) may likewise be processed as a face. Here we directly test this hypothesis by investigating how external (and internal) features are represented in the brain. Using fMRI, we found highly selective responses to external features (relative to objects and scenes) within the face processing system in particular, rivaling that observed for internal features...
September 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Frank A Fishburn, Christina O Hlutkowsky, Lisa M Bemis, Theodore J Huppert, Lauren S Wakschlag, Susan B Perlman
Temperament, defined as individual variation in the reactivity and regulation of emotional, motor, and attentional processes, has been shown to influence emotional and cognitive development during the preschool period (ages 4-5). While relationships between temperament and neural activity have been investigated previously, these have typically investigated individual temperament dimensions selected ad hoc. Since significant correlations exist between various temperament dimensions, it remains unclear whether these findings would replicate while analyzing all temperament dimensions simultaneously...
September 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
A network of predominantly left-lateralized brain regions has been linked to verbal working memory (VWM) performance. However, the impact of memory load on the oscillatory dynamics serving VWM is far less understood. To further investigate this, we had 26 healthy adults perform a high-load (6 letter) and low-load (4 letter) variant of a VWM task while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were evaluated in the time-frequency domain and significant oscillatory responses spanning the encoding and maintenance phases were reconstructed using a beamformer...
September 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Lau M Andersen, Daniel Lundqvist
The brain builds up expectations to future events based on the patterns of past events. This function has been studied extensively in the auditory and visual domains using various oddball paradigms, but only little exploration of this phenomenon has been done in the somatosensory domain. In this study, we explore how expectations of somatosensory stimulations are established and expressed in neural activity as measured with magnetoencephalography. Using tactile stimulations to the index finger, we compared conditions with actual stimulation to conditions with omitted stimulations, both of which were either expected or unexpected...
September 10, 2018: NeuroImage
David M A Mehler, Angharad N Williams, Florian Krause, Michael Lührs, Richard G Wise, Duncan L Turner, David E J Linden, Joseph R Whittaker
There is increasing interest in exploring the use of functional MRI neurofeedback (fMRI-NF) as a therapeutic technique for a range of neurological conditions such as stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD). One main therapeutic potential of fMRI-NF is to enhance volitional control of damaged or dysfunctional neural nodes and networks via a closed-loop feedback model using mental imagery as the catalyst of self-regulation. The choice of target node/network and direction of regulation (increase or decrease activity) are central design considerations in fMRI-NF studies...
September 8, 2018: NeuroImage
P Mengotti, F Foroni, R I Rumiati
Previous research showed that human brain regions involved in reward and cognitive control are responsive to visually presented food stimuli, in particular high-energy foods. However, it is still to be determined whether the preference towards high-energy foods depends on their higher energy density (kcal/gram), or is based on the difference in energy content of the food items (total amount of kcal). Here we report the results of an fMRI study in which normal-weight healthy participants processed food images during a one-back task or were required to inhibit their response towards food stimuli during a Go/No-Go task...
September 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Florian Destoky, Morgane Philippe, Julie Bertels, Marie Verhasselt, Nicolas Coquelet, Marc Vander Ghinst, Vincent Wens, Xavier De Tiège, Mathieu Bourguignon
During connected speech listening, brain activity tracks speech rhythmicity at delta (∼0.5 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) frequencies. Here, we compared the potential of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and high-density electroencephalography (EEG) to uncover such speech brain tracking. Ten healthy right-handed adults listened to two different 5-min audio recordings, either without noise or mixed with a cocktail-party noise of equal loudness. Their brain activity was simultaneously recorded with MEG and EEG. We quantified speech brain tracking channel-by-channel using coherence, and with all channels at once by speech temporal envelope reconstruction accuracy...
September 8, 2018: NeuroImage
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