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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110090/spatiotemporal-reconstruction-of-auditory-steady-state-responses-to-acoustic-amplitude-modulations-potential-sources-beyond-the-auditory-pathway
#1
Ehsan Darestani Farahani, Tine Goossens, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
Investigating the neural generators of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), i.e., auditory evoked brain responses, with a wide range of screening and diagnostic applications, has been the focus of various studies for many years. Most of these studies employed a priori assumptions regarding the number and location of neural generators. The aim of this study is to reconstruct ASSR sources with minimal assumptions in order to gain in-depth insight into the number and location of brain regions that are activated in response to low- as well as high-frequency acoustically amplitude modulated signals...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110089/causal-evidence-of-the-involvement-of-the-right-occipital-face-area-in-face-identity-acquisition
#2
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Fabienne Windel, A Mike Burton, Gyula Kovács
There is growing evidence that the occipital face area (OFA), originally thought to be involved in the construction of a low-level representation of the physical features of a face, is also taking part in higher-level face processing. To test whether the OFA is causally involved in the learning of novel face identities, we have used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) together with a sequential sorting - face matching paradigm (Andrews et al. 2015). First, participants sorted images of two unknown persons during the initial learning phase while either their right OFA or the Vertex was stimulated using TMS...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110088/regional-and-source-based-patterns-of-11-c-phno-binding-potential-reveal-concurrent-alterations-in-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptor-availability-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#3
Patrick D Worhunsky, David Matuskey, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Edward C Gaiser, Nabeel Nabulsi, Gustavo A Angarita, Vince D Calhoun, Robert T Malison, Marc N Potenza, Richard E Carson
Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D2R/D3R) appear critical to addictive disorders. Cocaine-use disorder (CUD) is associated with lower D2R availability and greater D3R availability in regions primarily expressing D2R or D3R concentrations, respectively. However, these CUD-related alterations in D2R and D3R have not been concurrently detected using available dopaminergic radioligands. Furthermore, receptor availability in regions of mixed D2R/D3R concentration in CUD remains unclear. The current study aimed to extend investigations of CUD-related alterations in D2R and D3R availability using regional and source-based analyses of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography (PET) of 26 individuals with CUD and 26 matched healthy comparison (HC) participants...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110087/internal-and-external-attention-and-the-default-mode-network
#4
Hannah J Scheibner, Carsten Bogler, Tobias Gleich, John-Dylan Haynes, Felix Bermpohl
Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110086/different-mechanisms-in-learning-different-second-languages-evidence-from-english-speakers-learning-chinese-and-spanish
#5
Fan Cao, Bethany L Sussman, Valeria Rios, Xin Yan, Zhao Wang, Gregory J Spray, Ryan M Mack
Word reading has been found to be associated with different neural networks in different languages, with greater involvement of the lexical pathway for opaque languages and greater invovlement of the sub-lexical pathway for transparent langauges. However, we do not know whether this language divergence can be demonstrated in second langauge learners, how learner's metalinguistic ability would modulate the langauge divergence, or whether learning method would interact with the language divergence. In this study, we attempted to answer these questions by comparing brain activations of Chinese and Spanish word reading in native English-speaking adults who learned Chinese and Spanish over a 2 week period under three learning conditions: phonological, handwriting, and passive viewing...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110085/encoding-preparation-and-implementation-of-novel-complex-verbal-instructions
#6
Carlos González-García, Juan E Arco, Ana F Palenciano, Javier Ramírez, María Ruz
Verbal instructions allow humans to acquire and implement complex novel rules in few seconds. A major question that remains elusive is how the brain represents this information prior to successful task execution. In this experiment, we studied the brain regions involved in representing categorical stimulus information during the encoding of novel instructions, their preparation and also their implementation, as well as the relation of the fidelity of these representations to observable behavior. To do so, we devised a novel instructions paradigm to delimitate these three stages...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108395/temporal-orienting-precedes-intersensory-attention-and-has-opposing-effects-on-early-evoked-brain-activity
#7
Julian Keil, Ulrich Pomper, Nele Feuerbach, Daniel Senkowski
Intersensory attention (IA) describes the process of directing attention to a specific modality. Temporal orienting (TO) characterizes directing attention to a specific moment in time. Previously, studies indicated that these two processes could have opposite effects on early evoked brain activity. The exact time-course and processing stages of both processes are still unknown. In this human electroencephalography study, we investigated the effects of IA and TO on visuo-tactile stimulus processing within one paradigm...
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108394/unsmoothed-functional-mri-of-the-human-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-processing-of-emotional-faces
#8
Ronald Sladky, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M Pfabigan, Christoph Kraus, Martin Tik, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Thomas Vanicek, Bastian Auer, Georg S Kranz, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger
Functional neuroimaging of the human amygdala has been of great interest to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotions, mood, motivation, social cognition, and decision making, as well as their dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Yet, several factors limit in vivo imaging of amygdalar function, most importantly its location deep within the temporal lobe adjacent to air-filled cavities that cause magnetic field inhomogeneities entailing signal dropouts. Additionally, the amygdala and the extended amygdalar region consist of several substructures, which have been assigned different functions and have important implications for functional and effective connectivity studies...
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108393/introduction-to-the-special-issue-using-neuroimaging-to-probe-mechanisms-of-behavior-change
#9
EDITORIAL
Tammy Chung, Marc Tittgemeyer, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093360/ultra-high-field-mri-advancing-systems-neuroscience-towards-mesoscopic-human-brain-function
#10
Serge O Dumoulin, Alessio Fracasso, Wietske van der Zwaag, Jeroen C W Siero, Natalia Petridou
Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image quality. This opens a new set of opportunities for neuroscience, allowing investigators to map the human cortex at an unprecedented level of detail. In this review, we present recent work that capitalizes on the increased signal-to-noise ratio available at ultra-high field and discuss the theoretical advances with a focus on sensory and motor systems neuroscience...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093359/fmri-characterisation-of-widespread-brain-networks-relevant-for-behavioural-variability-in-fine-hand-motor-control-with-and-without-visual-feedback
#11
Stephen D Mayhew, Camillo Porcaro, Franca Tecchio, Andrew P Bagshaw
A bilateral visuo-parietal-motor network is responsible for fine control of hand movements. However, the sub-regions which are devoted to maintenance of contraction stability and how these processes fluctuate with trial-quality of task execution and in the presence/absence of visual feedback remains unclear. We addressed this by integrating behavioural and fMRI measurements during right-hand isometric compression of a compliant rubber bulb, at 10% and 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, both with and without visual feedback of the applied force...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#12
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089904/retuning-brain-circuitry-to-treat-mental-illness-the-role-of-functional-neuroimaging-commentary-for-the-special-issue-mechanisms-of-change
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089903/advances-in-mr-angiography-with-7t-mri-from-microvascular-imaging-to-functional-angiography
#14
Chan-A Park, Chang-Ki Kang, Young-Bo Kim, Zang-Hee Cho
Over the past few decades, vascular flow-dependent imaging techniques have proven to be effective for the visualization of large vessel diseases. However, these approaches are unlikely to be efficacious for small vessels because the affected small vessels cannot always be visualized directly, owing to a lack of detection sensitivity. Recently, many researchers have introduced state-of-the-art imaging techniques to visualize cerebral microvessels using ultra-high-field (UHF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
January 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088485/semantic-attributes-are-encoded-in-human-electrocorticographic-signals-during-visual-object-recognition
#15
Kyle Rupp, Matthew Roos, Griffin Milsap, Carlos Caceres, Christopher Ratto, Mark Chevillet, Nathan E Crone, Michael Wolmetz
Non-invasive neuroimaging studies have shown that semantic category and attribute information are encoded in neural population activity. Electrocorticography (ECoG) offers several advantages over non-invasive approaches, but the degree to which semantic attribute information is encoded in ECoG responses is not known. We recorded ECoG while patients named objects from 12 semantic categories and then trained high-dimensional encoding models to map semantic attributes to spectral-temporal features of the task-related neural responses...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#16
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088483/physiology-recording-with-magnetic-field-probes-for-fmri-denoising
#17
Simon Gross, Laetitia Vionnet, Lars Kasper, Benjamin E Dietrich, Klaas P Pruessmann
Physiological noise originating in cardiovascular and respiratory processes is a substantial confound in BOLD fMRI. When unaccounted for it reduces the temporal SNR and causes error in inferred brain activity and connectivity. Physiology correction typically relies on auxiliary measurements with peripheral devices such as ECG, pulse oximeters, and breathing belts. These require direct skin contact or at least a tight fit, impairing subject comfort and adding to the setup time. In this work, we explore a touch-free alternative for physiology recording, using magnetic detection with NMR field probes...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#18
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087490/longitudinal-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-segmentation-resource-and-challenge
#19
Aaron Carass, Snehashis Roy, Amod Jog, Jennifer L Cuzzocreo, Elizabeth Magrath, Adrian Gherman, Julia Button, James Nguyen, Ferran Prados, Carole H Sudre, Manuel Jorge Cardoso, Niamh Cawley, Olga Ciccarelli, Claudia A M Wheeler-Kingshott, Sébastien Ourselin, Laurence Catanese, Hrishikesh Deshpande, Pierre Maurel, Olivier Commowick, Christian Barillot, Xavier Tomas-Fernandez, Simon K Warfield, Suthirth Vaidya, Abhijith Chunduru, Ramanathan Muthuganapathy, Ganapathy Krishnamurthi, Andrew Jesson, Tal Arbel, Oskar Maier, Heinz Handels, Leonardo O Iheme, Devrim Unay, Saurabh Jain, Diana M Sima, Dirk Smeets, Mohsen Ghafoorian, Bram Platel, Ariel Birenbaum, Hayit Greenspan, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Peter A Calabresi, Ciprian M Crainiceanu, Lotta M Ellingsen, Daniel S Reich, Jerry L Prince, Dzung L Pham
In conjunction with the ISBI 2015 conference, we organized a longitudinal lesion segmentation challenge providing training and test data to registered participants. The training data consisted of five subjects with a mean of 4.4 time-points, and test data of fourteen subjects with a mean of 4.4 time-points. All 82 data sets had the white matter lesions associated with multiple sclerosis delineated by two human expert raters. Eleven teams submitted results using state-of-the-art lesion segmentation algorithms to the challenge, with ten teams presenting their results at the conference...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089678/reduced-effects-of-age-on-dopamine-d2-receptor-levels-in-physically-active-adults
#20
Linh C Dang, Jaime J Castrellon, Scott F Perkins, Nam T Le, Ronald L Cowan, David H Zald, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Physical activity has been shown to ameliorate dopaminergic degeneration in non-human animal models. However, the effects of regular physical activity on normal age-related changes in dopamine function in humans are unknown. Here we present cross-sectional data from forty-four healthy human subjects between 23 and 80 years old, showing that typical age-related dopamine D2 receptor loss, assessed with PET [18F]fallypride, was significantly reduced in physically active adults compared to less active adults.
January 10, 2017: NeuroImage
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