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Salvatore Torrisi, Camilla L Nord, Nicholas L Balderston, Jonathan P Roiser, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The habenula, a portion of the epithalamus, is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevent standard human imaging from delineating its structure and connectivity with confidence. Resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping connections across the brain from a seed region of interest. The present study takes advantage of 7 T fMRI to map, for the first time, the habenula resting state network with very high spatial resolution in 32 healthy human participants...
October 22, 2016: NeuroImage
Jason S Nomi, Shruti Gopal Vij, Dina R Dajani, Rosa Steimke, Eswar Damaraju, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun, Lucina Q Uddin
Despite extensive research into executive function (EF), the precise relationship between brain dynamics and flexible cognition remains unknown. Using a large, publicly available dataset (189 participants), we find that functional connections measured throughout 56minutes of resting state fMRI data comprise five distinct connectivity states. Elevated EF performance as measured outside of the scanner was associated with greater episodes of more frequently occurring connectivity states, and fewer episodes of less frequently occurring connectivity states...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Dana S Poole, Nathalie Doorenweerd, Jaap J Plomp, Ahmed Mahfouz, Marcel J T Reinders, Louise van der Weerd
The ability to administer systemically high doses of manganese as contrast agent while circumventing its toxicity is of particular interest for exploratory MRI studies of the brain. Administering low doses either repeatedly or continuously over time has been shown to enable the acquisition of satisfactory MRI images of the mouse brain without apparent side effects. Here we have systematically compared the obtained MRI contrast and recorded potential systemic side effects such as stress response and muscle strength impairment in relation to the achieved contrast...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Michael Eickenberg, Alexandre Gramfort, Gaël Varoquaux, Bertrand Thirion
Convolutional networks used for computer vision represent candidate models for the computations performed in mammalian visual systems. We use them as a detailed model of human brain activity during the viewing of natural images by constructing predictive models based on their different layers and BOLD fMRI activations. Analyzing the predictive performance across layers yields characteristic fingerprints for each visual brain region: early visual areas are better described by lower level convolutional net layers and later visual areas by higher level net layers, exhibiting a progression across ventral and dorsal streams...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Gang Chen, Thomas E Nichols, Peter A Bandettini
Here we report an exploratory within-subject variance decomposition analysis conducted on a task-based fMRI dataset with an unusually large number of repeated measures (i.e., 500 trials in each of three different subjects) distributed across 100 functional scans and 9 to 10 different sessions. Within-subject variance was segregated into four primary components: variance across-sessions, variance across-runs within a session, variance across-blocks within a run, and residual measurement/modeling error. Our results reveal inhomogeneous and distinct spatial distributions of these variance components across significantly active voxels in grey matter...
October 20, 2016: NeuroImage
L M Rueda-Delgado, E Solesio-Jofre, D Mantini, P Dupont, A Daffertshofer, S P Swinnen
The neural network and the task-dependence of (local) activity changes involved in bimanual coordination are well documented. However, much less is known about the functional connectivity within this neural network and its modulation according to manipulations of task complexity. Here, we assessed neural activity via high-density electroencephalography, focussing on changes of activity in the beta frequency band (~15-30Hz) across the motor network in 26 young adult participants (19-29 years old). We investigated how network connectivity was modulated with task difficulty and errors of performance during a bimanual visuomotor movement consisting of dial rotation according to three different ratios of speed: an isofrequency movement (1:1), a non-isofrequency movement with the right hand keeping the fast pace (1:3), and the converse ratio with the left hand keeping the fast pace (3:1)...
October 19, 2016: NeuroImage
Nigel C Rogasch, Caley Sullivan, Richard H Thomson, Nathan S Rose, Neil W Bailey, Paul B Fitzgerald, Faranak Farzan, Julio C Hernandez-Pavon
The concurrent use of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is growing in popularity as a method for assessing various cortical properties such as excitability, oscillations and connectivity. However, this combination of methods is technically challenging, resulting in artifacts both during recording and following typical EEG analysis methods, which can distort the underlying neural signal. In this article, we review the causes of artifacts in EEG recordings resulting from TMS, as well as artifacts introduced during analysis (e...
October 19, 2016: NeuroImage
Ying Yang, Jing Wang, Cyntia Bailer, Vladimir Cherkassky, Marcel Adam Just
The aim of the study was to test the cross-language generative capability of a model that predicts neural activation patterns evoked by sentence reading, based on a semantic characterization of the sentence. In a previous study on English monolingual speakers (Wang, Cherkassky, & Just, submitted), a computational model performed a mapping from a set of 42 concept-level semantic features (Neurally Plausible Semantic Features, NPSFs) as well as 6 thematic role markers to neural activation patterns (assessed with fMRI), to predict activation levels in a network of brain locations...
October 19, 2016: NeuroImage
H Moriah Sokolowski, Wim Fias, Ahmad Mousa, Daniel Ansari
In recent years, there has been substantial growth in neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and non-symbolic (e.g. dot arrays) number processing. However, it remains contested whether number is represented abstractly, or if number representations in the brain are format-dependent. In order to quantitatively evaluate available evidence, we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct quantitative meta-analyses using 57 neuroimaging papers. Consistent with the existence of abstract representation of number in the brain, conjunction analyses revealed overlapping activation for symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers in frontal and parietal lobes...
October 18, 2016: NeuroImage
Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at
October 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Liangyan Gui, Xiaoying Tang, José M F Moura
We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD > MCI > HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Gang Chen, Paul A Taylor, Yong-Wook Shin, Richard C Reynolds, Robert W Cox
It has been argued that naturalistic conditions in FMRI studies provide a useful paradigm for investigating perception and cognition through a synchronization measure, inter-subject correlation (ISC). However, one analytical stumbling block has been the fact that the ISC values associated with each single subject are not independent, and our previous paper (Chen et al., 2016) used simulations and analyses of real data to show that the methodologies adopted in the literature do not have the proper control for false positives...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
J C Pang, P A Robinson, K M Aquino, N Vasan
The effects of astrocytic dynamics on the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response are modeled. The dynamics are represented via an astrocytic response function that approximates the effects of astrocytic activity, including delay between neural activity and hemodynamic response. The astrocytic response function is incorporated into a spatiotemporal hemodynamic model to predict the BOLD response measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Adding astrocytic dynamics is shown to significantly improve the ability of the model to robustly reproduce the spatiotemporal properties of the experimental data such as characteristic frequency and time-to-peak...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Jonathan D Power, Mark Plitt, Timothy O Laumann, Alex Martin
Whole-brain fMRI signals are a subject of intense interest: variance in the global fMRI signal (the spatial mean of all signals in the brain) indexes subject arousal, and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism have been characterized by differences in the global fMRI signal. Further, vigorous debates exist on whether global signals ought to be removed from fMRI data. However, surprisingly little research has focused on the empirical properties of whole-brain fMRI signals. Here we map the spatial and temporal properties of the global signal, individually, in 1000+ fMRI scans...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Lipeng Ning, Evren Özarslan, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Yogesh Rathi
Inferring the microstructure of complex media from the diffusive motion of molecules is a challenging problem in diffusion physics. In this paper, we introduce a novel representation of diffusion MRI (dMRI) signal from tissue with spatially-varying diffusivity using a diffusion disturbance function. This disturbance function contains information about the (intra-voxel) spatial fluctuations in diffusivity due to restrictions, hindrances and tissue heterogeneity of the underlying tissue substrate. We derive the short- and long-range disturbance coefficients from this disturbance function to characterize the tissue structure and organization...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Jae W Chung, Edward Ofori, Gaurav Misra, Christopher W Hess, David E Vaillancourt
: Accurate motor performance may depend on the scaling of distinct oscillatory activity within the motor cortex and effective neural communication between the motor cortex and other brain areas. Oscillatory activity within the beta-band (13-30Hz) has been suggested to provide distinct functional roles for attention and sensorimotor control, yet it remains unclear how beta-band and other oscillatory activity within and between cortical regions is coordinated to enhance motor performance...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Marco Reisert, Elias Kellner, Bibek Dhital, Jürgen Hennig, Valerij G Kiselev
Diffusion-sensitized magnetic resonance imaging probes the cellular structure of the human brain, but the primary microstructural information gets lost in averaging over higher-level, mesoscopic tissue organization such as different orientations of neuronal fibers. While such averaging is inevitable due to the limited imaging resolution, we propose a method for disentangling the microscopic cell properties from the effects of mesoscopic structure. We further avoid the classical fitting paradigm and use supervised machine learning in terms of a Bayesian estimator to estimate the microstructural properties...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Po-Chih Kuo, Yi-Ti Chen, Yong-Sheng Chen, Li-Fen Chen
Decoding the neural representations of pain is essential to obtaining an objective assessment as well as an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. The complexities involved in the subjective experience of pain make it difficult to obtain a quantitative assessment from the induced spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity of high dimensionality. Most previous studies have investigated the perception of pain by analyzing the amplitude or spatial patterns in the response of the brain to external stimulation...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Stephanie Noble, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Xenophon Papademetris, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen M Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, R Todd Constable
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exists on the stability of functional connectivity measurements across sites and sessions. In this study, we assess the influence of site and session on resting state functional connectivity measurements in a healthy cohort of traveling subjects (8 subjects scanned twice at each of 8 sites) scanned as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
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