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Journal of AOAC International

Jianye Yan, Yuanqing Wang, Hongnian Wu, Zhicheng Sun, Shihan Tan, Wei Wang, Limin Gong, Xinhua Xia, Shunxiang Li
Background : Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (named Huzhang in China) is a traditional and popular Chinese medicinal herb used in removing jaundice, clearing heat-toxin, improving blood circulation, expelling stasis, dispelling wind and dampness, repelling phlegm, and suppressing cough. It is widely used in drug and functional food fields and distributed throughout the world, including in China, Japan, and North America. Objective : To control the quality of Polygonum cuspidatum , an effective, reliable, and simple method for simultaneous determination of two stilbenes (polydatin, resveratrol) and four anthraquinones (emodin, physcion, rhein, and anthraglycoside B) was developed and validated for the first time in this study by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Shahla Shameh, Bahman Hosseini, Abolfazl Alirezalu, Ramin Maleki
Background: The petals of Rosa species are used in the food industry and various traditional medicinal products, but few studies exist on the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of petals of Rosa L. species grown in Iran. Objective: Phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity and some phenolic compounds of petals of six Rosa L. species were studied. Methods: Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, aluminum chloride method, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively...
July 13, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Cortlandt P Thienes, Jongkit Masiri, Lora A Benoit, Brianda Barrios-Lopez, Santosh A Samuel, Mahzad A Meshgi, David P Cox, Anatoly P Dobritsa, Cesar Nadala, Mansour Samadpour
Background : Concerns about the contamination of meat products with undeclared meats and new regulations for the declaration of meat adulterants have established the need for a rapid test to detect chicken and turkey adulteration. Objective : To address this need, Microbiologique, Inc. has developed an ELISA that can quantify the presence of chicken and turkey down to 0.1% (w/w) in cooked pork, horse, beef, goat, and lamb meats. Results : This chicken/turkey authentication ELISA has an analytical sensitivity of 0...
July 13, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Brenda R Gonçalves, Anna K M S Machado, Paulo R Oliveira, Thiago Barth, Maximiliano S Sangoi, Vítor Todeschini
Background : The combination of delapril (DEL) and indapamide (IND) may be regarded as an optimal drug treatment for hypertensive patients. However, there is no published study concerning the suitable stability conditions and evaluation of drugs in the raw material and commercial product. Objective : The aim of the present study was to develop an innovative, high-throughput, and stability-indicating LC method for the simultaneous analysis of DEL and IND in combined dosage form. Methods : Analyses were performed using a core-shell C18 column (100 mm × 4...
July 11, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Youngsil Ha, Cortlandt P Thienes, Alexander A Agapov, Amanda V Laznicka, Sukkyun Han, Cesar Nadala, Mansour Samadpour
Background: Concerns about the contamination of meat products with undeclared meats and new regulations for the declaration of meat adulterants have established the need for a sensitive test to detect meat adulteration. To address this need, Microbiologique, Inc. has developed ELISA assays that can detect the presence of pork, horse, beef, chicken, turkey, and goat meat adulterants to 0.1% (w/w) and a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lateral flow assay for pork, horse, beef, chicken, turkey, goat, and lamb adulterants to 0...
July 6, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Elba Veronica Arias-Rios, Kristina Tenney, Tam Mai, Sam Anderson, Ruth Marie Cantera, Lourdes M Nadala, Sukkyun Han, Harish Janagama, Jasmine M Pando, Brandon Selover, Shao Lei Sung, Cesar Nadala, Mansour Samadpour
> Background: Listeria contamination is a major concern in the ice cream industry; therefore, early and accurate detection is vital. Current detection methods require about a 24 h enrichment period for detection. Objective: Enhance the early detection of Listeria in ice cream using the highly sensitive isothermal ribosomal RNA-based Roka/Atlas Listeria Detection Assay. Methods: The R2 Medium was developed for Listeria enrichment by Molecular Epidemiology, Inc. (Seattle, WA). Comparative growth curve studies were performed on the new R2 Medium for Listeria and the currently validated media for the Roka Listeria Detection Assay...
July 2, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Yunus Emre Unsal, Mustafa Tuzen, Mustafa Soylak
> Background: A rapid and new ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (UA-IL-DLLME) was presented for the determination of curcumin by spectrophotometry. Objective: To determine trace levels of curcumin in food samples by using green and low-cost method development. Methods: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used to extract curcumin from sample solutions with the aid of sonication. Optimum extraction efficiency was determined by examining extraction solvents, pH, centrifugation speed, time, sonication period, and temperature...
July 2, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Abderrahmane Tighrine, Edgar Pinto, Armindo Melo, Isabel M P L V O Ferreira, Marzouk Mamou, Youcef Amir
> Background : Food additives are widely used in industries. Overall, these additives have a beneficial role, but if their concentration exceeds certain limits, they may have an adverse effect on human health. Objective : This study outlines the determination of benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in juices using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC-diode-array detection. Methods : Different parameters that significantly affect the extraction efficiency were optimized...
June 28, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Ji-Cai Fan, Quan Jin, Hua-Li He, Ren Ren, Shu-Ting Wang
> Background: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of chemical compounds widely used as plasticizers to increase the flexibility of plastics that are used in the manufacturing of kitchen utensils and food containers. Objective: In this study, a simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of 20 PAEs in different kinds of food packaging materials has been developed. Methods: Samples injected with five internal standards were extracted with acetonitrile saturated with n -hexane and then detected by GC-MS/MS without a purification step...
June 28, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Hongjian Miao, Yue Huang, Chao Ma, Jingguang Li, Yunfeng Zhao, Yongning Wu
> Background : A multitude of biomonitoring analytical methods are applied in urinary detection, but few are applicable to phthalate metabolites in human serum, and those that are invariably involve complex operation. Objective : To develop a novel method for the determination of phthalate monoesters in human serum using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry for multiple human serum sample determination. Method : Analytes in serum samples were extracted and purified with a novel SPE cartridge named Prime HLB and then directly injected and analyzed without eluent redissolution...
June 28, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Yuehong Zhang, Zhichao Bao, Xiaoyan Ye, Zhaoyang Xie, Kan He, Bill Mergens, Wenjie Li, Mike Yatcilla, Qunyi Zheng
> Background: There are a substantial number of papers in the scientific literature reporting on the chemical composition of the Aloe vera plant. None of these investigations are truly comprehensive nor address the differences in composition that occur through processing variations in fresh leaves and commercially available product forms. Objectives: This work was to analytically examine a range of these forms and compile the findings. Methods: Fresh A. vera leaves and a number of commercial aloe juice powders were investigated for their major chemical constituents...
June 28, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Kan He, Bill Mergens, Mike Yatcilla, Qunyi Zheng, Zhichao Bao, Yuehong Zhang, Xu Li, Zhaoyang Xie
> Background : Size exclusion chromatography (SEC)/refractive index (RI) were used to determine molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distributions (MWD) of polysaccharides. In aloe product research and quality control, commercially available pullulan and dextran are most commonly employed as calibration standards. Significant difference in the MW and MWD were found in literature when different methods were used. Objectives: This study was to investigate the traditional methods and more recent technologies used to determine the MW and MWD of Aloe vera polysaccharides...
June 28, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Lingyun Chen, Alemu Eshetie Molla, Kassa Metsehet Getu, Ande Ma, Chengsong Wan
Background: Aflatoxin (AF) ingestion through contaminated foodstuffs causes at least 250000 deaths every year from hepatocellular carcinoma in China and sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The main objective of the study was to determine the aflatoxin levels of oils in South Gondar, Ethiopia, and oils purchased from retail markets in Guangzhou, China. Methods: We used a rapid, sensitive, and selective HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of aflatoxins in edible oils from China and Ethiopia using immunoaffinity column cleaning...
June 26, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Satyanshu Kumar, Raghuraj Singh, Narendra Gajbhiye, Tushar Dhanani
Background : Both the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera are products of commerce. They contain active compounds of therapeutic value and mostly different withanolides. Several pharmacological activities of W. somnifera have links to one or more withanolides. The presence of phenolic compounds in extracts could play a vital role in the reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic subjects. Objective : The present study was carried out for the selection of a solvent to prepare extracts rich in phenolics, withaferin A (WA), 12-deoxywithastromonolide (12WD), and withanolide A (WDA)...
June 26, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Stig Valdersnes, Berit Solli, Veronika Sele, Kåre Julshamn
Organotin compounds are anthropogenic metal species with multiple uses as pesticides, preservatives, antifouling agents, biocides, and catalysts. Butyltins are the main organotin compounds found in biota, and the highest levels are found in marine foodstuffs. In this paper, we present the figures of merit for an in-house validated method for routine analysis of butyltins in seafood using GC inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution MS. The working range of the method spanned several orders of magnitude from 3...
June 26, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Xinghua Fan, Cariton Kubwabo, Fang Wu, Pat E Rasmussen
Background: Ingestion of house dust has been demonstrated to be an important exposure pathway to several contaminants in young children. These compounds include bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs), and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs). Analysis of these compounds in house dust is challenging because of the complex composition of the sample matrix. Objective: The objective was to develop a simple and sensitive method to measure BPA, APs, and APEOs in indoor house dust. Methods: An integrated method that involved solvent extraction using sonication, sample cleanup by solid-phase extraction, derivatization by 2,2,2-trifluoro- N -methyl- N -(trimethylsilyl)acetamide, and analysis by GC coupled with tandem MS was developed for the simultaneous determination of BPA, APs, and APEOs in NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2585 (Organic contaminants in house dust) and in settled house dust samples...
June 26, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Heba Shaaban, Ahmed Mostafa
Background: Green analytical chemistry (GAC) aims to eliminate or minimize the amount ofhazardous solvents consumed and generated daily worldwide. Considering the environmental impact of all analytical procedures and replacing the polluting methodologies with clean ones is of a paramount interest. Objective: This work aims to develop and validate a sustainable, fast, and economic ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of methylxanthines in commercial tea samples as well as to evaluate the greenness profile of the proposed method using two greenness assessment tools: National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) and analytical Eco-scale...
June 12, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Steve Kupina, Chris Fields, Mark C Roman, Sharon Brunelle
A single-laboratory validation of a method using Folin & Ciocalteu's phenol reagent (Folin-C reagent) fordetermination of total phenolic content of selected dietary supplement extracts was performed. The method is composed of a water extraction of dried extracts with sonication followed by reaction with the Folin-C reagent. The resulting colorimetric reaction is measured at 765 nm and compared with a standard curve generated with gallic acid standard solutions. The validation results were compared with Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR® ) 2015...
June 12, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Rafael Minjares-Fuentes, Antoni Femenia, Francesca Comas-Serra, Victor Manuel Rodríguez-González
Aloe vera ( A . barbadensis Miller) is probably one of the most popular plants, widely studied because of numerous properties associated with the polysaccharides present in its gel. In particular, two main types of bioactive polysaccharides can be distinguished in the A . vera gel: an acetylated mannose-rich polymer that functions as storage polysaccharide, and a galacturonic acid-rich polymer as the main component comprising the cell walls of the parenchymatous tissue. Interestingly, most of the beneficial properties related to the aloe plant have been associated with the acetylated mannose-rich polysaccharide, also known as acemannan...
June 12, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Louise I Ahl, Olwen M Grace, Henriette L Pedersen, William G T Willats, Bodil Jørgensen, Nina Rønsted
Background: As the popularity of Aloe vera extracts continues to rise, a desire to fully understand the individual polymer components of the leaf mesophyll, their relation to one another, and the effects they have on the human body are increasing. Polysaccharides present in the leaf mesophyll have been identified as the components responsible for the biological activities of A. vera, and they have been widely studied in the past decades. However, the commonly used methods do not provide the desired platform to conduct large comparative studies of polysaccharide compositions, as most of them require a complete or near-complete fractionation of the polymers...
June 12, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
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