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Journal of AOAC International

Naoto Hieda, Mariko Nagatoshi, Yoshihiro Ikeuchi, Yoshinori Iga, Tetsuhisa Goto
AOAC Official Method2015.06 is not applicable for infant formula without selenium addition because of lack of sensitivity. In addition, Method 2015.06 specifies hydrogen gas as the cell gas of inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS instruments. There are only a few manufacturers who have formally adopted hydrogen gas. To expand the applicability of Method 2015.06 for infant formulas with lower selenium content and for ICP-MS instruments that do not use hydrogen gas as the cell gas, we modified the conditions of Method 2015...
December 13, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Abdullah A Alyousef
The bacterium originally named Bacillus difficilis was later renamed Clostridium difficile because of the difficulty associated with its isolation in the laboratory. C. difficile causes human-associated diarrhea, which is now known as C. difficile infection (CDI), a major cause of nosocomial infection mainly occurring in developed countries. Changes in antibiotic patterns in its strains produce toxins that are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with CDI; therefore, the epidemiology and severity of CDI have recently changed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Angela T Nguyen, Sandra M Tallent
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of causing a wide array of infections. Generally a commensal organism, S. aureus encodes several virulence mechanisms that contribute to disease progression. This review highlights toxins as a secreted virulence factor by S. aureus, the diseases that manifest as a result, and the methods used to detect them. In particular, the advantages and limitations of current toxin detection methods are discussed.
December 8, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Mamdouh R Rezk, Abd El-Aziz B Abd El-Aleem, Shaban M Khalile, Omneya K El-Naggar
An accurate, sensitive, and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of diazinon and chlorpyrifos. These pesticides were subjected to different stress conditions, such as acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal, and photolytic hydrolysis. The proposed method used a C18 Eclipse Plus column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm) and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile–water (70 + 30, v/v) in an isocratic separation mode. The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min, with UV detection at 247 and 230 nm for diazinon and chlorpyrifos, respectively...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Kristen Spotz
Food Allergy Awareness Week was created with the purpose of placing a spotlight on the seriousness of food allergies. Recognized in the United States in mid-May every year, Food Allergy Awareness Week serves as a reminder of the over 15 million Americans who suffer from food allergies. The importance of allergies and allergen labeling can be seen when looking at U.S. Food and Drug Administration recall data: of the 764 recalls in 2016, 305 (representing more than 40%) were due to undeclared allergens. However, recalls for undeclared allergens are a complex issue with numerous factors...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Lee Sun New, Andre Schreiber, Jianru Stahl-Zeng, Hua-Fen Liu
There is currently no cure for food allergies, and sufferers can only rely on the correct labeling of foods toavoid allergens. Hence, it is important that analytical methods are sensitive and accurate enough to screen for the presence of multiple allergens in food products. In this study, we developed an LC-tandem MS method that is able to simultaneously screen or quantify the signature tryptic peptides of multiple allergen commodities. This method is capable of screening and identifying egg white, skim milk, peanut, soy, and tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, hazelnut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut) at a detection limit of 10 ppm in incurred bread and cookies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Eva-Maria Ladenburger, Markus Dehmer, Ruben Grünberg, Hans-Ulrich Waiblinger, Dieter Stoll, Jörg Bergemann
The development of two competitive real-time PCR assays for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of twomajor food allergens, peanut and soybean, is reported. In order to achieve very low detection levels for both allergens, we established PCR primers and probes targeting mitochondrial DNA sequences. We were able to demonstrate that this approach led to an increase in detection sensitivity in the range of at least 1 order of magnitude compared with published assays targeting nuclear DNA. Furthermore, we generated corresponding competitor molecules, which were used as internal standards to compete with matrix effects that are evident during DNA extraction and PCR amplification in heterogeneous analytical matrixes like food...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Melanie L Downs, Philip Johnson
The detection and quantitation of allergens as contaminants in foods using MS is challenging largely due to the requirement to detect proteins in complex, mixed, and often processed matrixes. Such methods necessarily rely on the use of proteotypic peptides as indicators of the presence and amount of allergenic foods. These peptides should represent the allergenic food in question in such a way that their use is both sensitive (no false-negatives) and specific (no false-positives). Choosing such peptides to represent food allergens is beset with issues, including, but not limited to, separated ingredients (e...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Bert Popping, Laura Allred, François Bourdichon, Kurt Brunner, Carmen Diaz-Amigo, Patricia Galan-Malo, Markus Lacorn, Jennifer North, Salvatore Parisi, Adrian Rogers, Jennifer Sealy-Voyksner, Tricia Thompson, Jupiter Yeung
Until recently, analytical tests for food were performed primarily in laboratories, but technical developmentsnow enable consumers to use devices to test their food at home or when dining out. Current consumer devices for food can determine nutritional values, freshness, and, most recently, the presence of food allergens and substances that cause food intolerances. The demand for such products is driven by an increase in the incidence of food allergies, as well as consumer desire for more information about what is in their food...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Michael J Walker, Malcolm Burns, Milena Quaglia, Gavin Nixon, Christopher J Hopley, Kirstin M Gray, Victoria Moore, Malvinder Singh, Simon Cowen
It is now well known that an incident investigated in the United Kingdom in 2015 of cumin alleged to be contaminated with almond, a risk for people with almond allergy, was caused by the Prunus species, Prunus mahaleb. In the United Kingdom, the Government Chemist offers a route of technical appeal from official findings in the food control system. Findings of almond in two official samples, cumin and paprika, which had prompted action to exclude the consignments from the food chain, were so referred. Herein are described the approaches deployed to resolve the analytical issues during the investigation of the incidents...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Ewa Slotwinski, Dave Almy, Ryan Viator, Mohamed Abouzied, Frank Klein, Jennifer Rice
Neogen Corp. has developed Veratox for Almond Allergen for use in the quantitative analysis and screening of almond protein residues in food products, such as cookies, crackers, chocolate bars, cereals, beverages, and clean-in-place rinses. Quantitation with Veratox for Almond Allergen ranges from 2.5 to 25 ppm and, with dilution, it can be extended for highly positive samples. This paper describes the findings of internal testing and validation studies designed to establish product claims for the assay of Veratox for Almond Allergen...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Laura K Allred, Cynthia Kupper, Channon Quinn
Obtaining representative test samples for antibody-based testing is challenging when analyzing whole grains for gluten. When whole grains are ground into flour for testing, confocal microscopy studies have shown that gluten tends to exist as aggregates within the starch background, making single-sample testing inaccurate and complicating the ability to arrive at an accurate average from multiple samples. In addition, whole-grain products present a unique risk to gluten free consumers, in that any contamination is localized to specific servings rather than being distributed across the product lot...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Jens Brockmeyer
The prevalence of allergic reactions to food is believed to be increasing in industrialized countries worldwide. One of the major tasks in risk management is, therefore, the analytical surveillance of allergen contamination in food and targeted proteomics using MS, which is of hugely growing interest due to its specificity and sensitivity and the possibility to analyze multiple allergens in parallel. Though approximately 200 different foods have been described as having the potential to elicit allergic reactions, current regional labeling requirements are focused on the 5-14 priority allergens that elicit the vast majority of severe reactions or that pose a risk as hidden allergens in food production...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Chiara Nitride, Victoria Lee, Ivona Baricevic-Jones, Karine Adel-Patient, Sabine Baumgartner, E N Clare Mills
Allergen analysis is central to implementing and monitoring food allergen risk assessment and management processes by the food industry, but current methods for the determination of allergens in foods give highly variable results. The European Union-funded "Integrated Approaches to Food Allergen and Allergy Risk Management" (iFAAM) project has been working to address gaps in knowledge regarding food allergen management and analysis, including the development of novel MS and immuno-based allergen determination methods...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
René R W Crevel, Stefan Ronsmans, Cyril F M Marsaux, Diána Bánáti
The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe Food Allergy Task Force was founded in response to early public concerns about the growing impact of food allergies almost coincidentally with the publication of the 1995 Food and Agriculture Organization-World Health Organization Technical Consultation on Food Allergies. In line with ILSI principles aimed to foster collaboration between stakeholders to promote consensus on science-based approaches to food safety and nutrition, the task force has played a central role since then in the development of risk assessment for food allergens...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Matthew Daly, Parisa Ansari, Georg Häubl, Adrian Rogers, Kurt Brunner
With an ever-increasing allergic population and an emerging market for allergen-free foods, accurate detectionof allergens in foods has never been more important. Although ELISA-based methods are the most widely used for detection of allergens in food, there is a need for the development of orthogonal approaches. A commercial ELISA detected a relatively high concentration of peanut and almond in an allergen-free product. However, another commercial ELISA declared a low peanut concentration and was negative for almond...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Simon Brooke Taylor, Georgina Christensen, Kirsten Grinter, Robin Sherlock, Lisa Warren
This paper sets out the role of the Allergen Bureau and the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) Program from its origin in 2007 to its current iteration, VITAL 2. Herewith are outlined the scientific principles that support the program; the program's application in the food chain; and the benefits of the program's use to the food industry, clinicians, and the allergic consumer. VITAL was developed by the Australian and New Zealand food industry in consultation with multiple stakeholders, including consumer organizations, industry bodies, regulators, and retailers, to provide a standardized, science-based risk assessment process for the investigation of the potential presence of food allergens due to cross-contact and to determine whether, for cases in which the allergen is unable to be removed or controlled consistently, precautionary statements are required...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Chelsea C Boo, Christine H Parker, Lauren S Jackson
Food allergy is a growing public health concern, with many individuals reporting allergies to multiple food sources. Compliance with food labeling regulations and prevention of inadvertent cross-contact in manufacturing requires the use of reliable methods for the detection and quantitation of allergens in processed foods. In this work, a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiple-reaction monitoring method for multiallergen detection and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut was developed and evaluated in an allergen-incurred baked sugar cookie matrix...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Markus Lacorn, Stella Lindeke, Susanne Siebeneicher, Thomas Weiss
During the last decade, results from ELISA test kits have often been criticized as being flawed. Therefore, itmay appear counterintuitive that ELISAs are used for most food allergen and gluten analytical needs. One reason, in addition to the nonavailability of comparable alternative methods, is the fact that the methods used underwent a long validation and learning period in the market. This publication presents several case studies on interference, cross-reactivity issues, calibrators, fragmented allergens and gluten, matrix influences, and misunderstood intended-use statements...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Masahiro Shoji, Reiko Adachi, Hiroshi Akiyama
The Japanese food allergen labeling regulation was designed to match real Japanese food allergy circumstancesand also to be enforced effectively; thus, (1) regulated food allergens were selected by prevalence and seriousness according to food allergy surveys in Japan; (2) the detection criterion for ELISA monitoring, 10 μg food allergen protein/g (or mL) food, was set up as the threshold value to regulate commercial prepackaged foods; and (3) official food allergen analytical methods, which can determine the threshold value accurately, were developed...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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