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Molecular Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427103/putatively-adaptive-genetic-variation-in-the-giant-california-sea-cucumber-parastichopus-californicus-as-revealed-by-environmental-association-analysis-of-radseq-data
#1
Amanda Xuereb, Christopher M Kimber, Janelle Mr Curtis, Louis Bernatchez, Marie-Josée Fortin
Understanding the spatial scale of local adaptation and the factors associated with adaptive diversity are important objectives for ecology and evolutionary biology, and have significant implications for effective conservation and management of wild populations and natural resources. In this study, we used an environmental association analysis (EAA) to identify important bioclimatic variables correlated with putatively adaptive genetic variation in a benthic marine invertebrate - the giant California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) - spanning coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427102/fungal-adaptation-to-plant-defenses-through-convergent-assembly-of-metabolic-modules
#2
Emile Gluck-Thaler, Vinod Vijayakumar, Jason C Slot
The ongoing diversification of plant defense compounds exerts dynamic selection pressures on the microorganisms that colonize plant tissues. Evolutionary processes that generate resistance towards these compounds increase microbial fitness by giving access to plant resources and increasing pathogen virulence. These processes entail sequence-based mechanisms that result in adaptive gene functions, and combinatorial mechanisms that result in novel syntheses of existing gene functions. However, the priority and interactions among these processes in adaptive resistance remains poorly understood...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427096/holobiont-suture-zones-parasite-evidence-across-the-european-house-mouse-hybrid-zone
#3
Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq, Wasim Uddin, Alexis Ribas, Josef Bryja, Jaroslav Piálek, Stuart J E Baird
Parasite hybrid zones resulting from host secondary contact have never been described in nature although parasite hybridization is well known and secondary contact should affect them similarly to free-living organisms. When host populations are isolated, diverge, and re-contact, intimate parasites (host specific, direct life cycle) carried during isolation will also meet and so may form parasite hybrid zones. If so, we hypothesize these should be narrower than the host's hybrid zone as shorter parasite generation time allows potentially higher divergence...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427089/elevational-patterns-and-hierarchical-determinants-of-biodiversity-across-microbial-taxonomic-scales
#4
Chih-Fu Yeh, Janne Soininen, Anette Teittinen, Jianjun Wang
Microbial biogeography is gaining increasing attention due to recent molecular methodological advance. However, the diversity patterns and their environmental determinants across taxonomic scales are still poorly studied. By sampling along an extensive elevational gradient in subarctic ponds of Finland and Norway, we examined the diversity patterns of aquatic bacteria and fungi from whole community to individual taxa across taxonomic coverage and taxonomic resolutions. We further quantified cross-phylum congruence in multiple biodiversity metrics and evaluated the relative importance of climate, catchment and local pond variables as the hierarchical drivers of biodiversity across taxonomic scales...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427088/the-role-of-parasite-dispersal-in-shaping-a-host-parasite-system-at-multiple-evolutionary-scales
#5
Andrew D Sweet, Kevin P Johnson
Parasite dispersal can shape host-parasite interactions at both deep and shallow timescales. One approach to understanding the effects of dispersal is to study parasite lineages that differ in dispersal capability but are from the same group of hosts. We compared phylogenetic and population genetic patterns of wing and body lice from ground-doves. Wing lice are more capable of dispersal than body lice. We sequenced full genomes of individual lice for multiple representatives of several wing and body louse species...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427085/genetic-diversity-mirrors-trophic-ecology-in-coral-reef-fish-feeding-guilds
#6
Laura Gajdzik, Giacomo Bernardi, Gilles Lepoint, Bruno Frédérich
Genetic diversity is essential for species persistence because it provides the raw material for evolution. For marine organisms, short pelagic larval duration (PLD) and small population size are characteristics generally assumed to associate with low genetic diversity. The ecological diversity of organisms may also affect genetic diversity, with an expected corollary that more restricted habitat and dietary requirements could lead to a reduced genetic diversity because of pronounced genetic structuring. Here, we tested whether groups of species with narrower trophic niches displayed lower genetic diversity than those with broader niches...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427084/mycorrhizal-divergence-and-selection-against-immigrant-seeds-in-forest-and-dune-populations-of-the-partially-mycoheterotrophic-pyrola-rotundifolia
#7
Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Rein Brys
Plant populations occupying different habitats may diverge from each other over time and gradually accumulate genetic and morphological differences, ultimately resulting in ecotype or even species formation. In plant species that critically rely on mycorrhizal fungi, differences in mycorrhizal communities can contribute to ecological isolation by reducing or even inhibiting germination of immigrant seeds. In this study, we investigated whether the mycorrhizal communities available in the soil and associating with the roots of seedlings and adult plants of the partially mycoheterotrophic Pyrola rotundifolia differed between populations growing in sand dunes and forests...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427083/seeds-in-motion-genetic-assignment-and-hydrodynamic-models-demonstrate-concordant-patterns-of-seagrass-dispersal
#8
Elizabeth A Sinclair, Leonardo Ruiz-Montoya, Siegfried L Krauss, Janet M Anthony, Renae K Hovey, Ryan J Lowe, Gary A Kendrick
Movement is fundamental to the ecology and evolutionary dynamics within species. Understanding movement through seed dispersal in the marine environment can be difficult due to the high spatial and temporal variability of ocean currents. We employed a mutually enriching approach of population genetic assignment procedures and dispersal predictions from a hydrodynamic model to overcome this difficulty and quantify the movement of dispersing floating fruit of the temperate seagrass Posidonia australis Hook.f...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427082/approaches-to-integrating-genetic-data-into-ecological-networks
#9
Elizabeth L Clare, Aron J Fazekas, Natalia V Ivanova, Robin M Floyd, Paul D N Hebert, Amanda M Adams, Juliet Nagel, Rebecca Girton, Steven G Newmaster, M Brock Fenton
As molecular tools for assessing trophic interactions become common, research is increasingly focused on the construction of interaction networks. Here we demonstrate three key methods for incorporating DNA data into network ecology and discuss analytical considerations using a model consisting of plants, insects, bats and their parasites from the Costa Rican dry forest. The simplest method involves the use of Sanger sequencing to acquire long sequences to validate or refine field identifications, for example of bats and their parasites, where one specimen yields one sequence and one identification...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418699/flower-visitor-communities-of-an-arcto-alpine-plant-global-patterns-in-species-richness-phylogenetic-diversity-and-ecological-functioning
#10
Mikko Tiusanen, Tea Huotari, Paul D N Hebert, Tommi Andersson, Ashley Asmus, Joël Bêty, Emma Davis, Jennifer Gale, Bess Hardwick, David Hik, Christian Körner, Richard B Lanctot, Maarten J J E Loonen, Rauni Partanen, Karissa Reischke, Sarah T Saalfeld, Fanny Senez-Gagnon, Paul A Smith, Ján Šulavík, Ilkka Syvänperä, Christine Urbanowicz, Sian Williams, Paul Woodard, Yulia Zaika, Tomas Roslin
Pollination is an ecosystem function of global importance. Yet, who visits the flower of specific plants, how the composition of these visitors varies in space and time, and how such variation translates into pollination services is hard to establish. The use of DNA barcodes allows us to address ecological patterns involving thousands of taxa that are difficult to identify. To clarify the regional variation in the visitor community of a wide-spread flower resource, we compared the composition of the arthropod community visiting species in the genus Dryas (mountain avens, family Rosaceae), throughout Arctic and high-alpine areas...
November 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415505/mutational-load-inbreeding-depression-and-heterosis-in-subdivided-populations
#11
Brian Charlesworth
This paper examines the extent to which empirical estimates of inbreeding depression and inter-population heterosis in subdivided populations, as well as the effects of local population size on mean fitness, can be explained in terms of current estimates of mutation rates, and the distribution of selection coefficients against deleterious mutations provided by population genomics data. Using population genetics models, numerical predictions of the genetic load, inbreeding depression and heterosis were obtained for a broad range of selection coefficients and mutation rates...
November 11, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411843/a-fast-evolving-x-linked-duplicate-of-importin-%C3%AE-2-is-overexpressed-in-sex-ratio-drive-in-drosophila-neotestacea
#12
Kathleen E Pieper, Robert L Unckless, Kelly A Dyer
Selfish genetic elements that manipulate gametogenesis to achieve a transmission advantage are known as meiotic drivers. Sex-ratio X-chromosomes (SR) are meiotic drivers that prevent the maturation of Y-bearing sperm in male carriers to result in the production of mainly female progeny. The spread of an SR chromosome can affect host genetic diversity and genome evolution, and can even cause host extinction if it reaches sufficiently high prevalence. Meiotic drivers have evolved independently many times, though only in a few cases is the underlying genetic mechanism known...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411828/the-genomic-basis-of-adaptation-to-calcareous-and-siliceous-soils-in-arabidopsis-lyrata
#13
Alessia Guggisberg, Xuanyu Liu, Léonie Suter, Guilhem Mansion, Martin C Fischer, Simone Fior, Marie Roumet, Ruben Kretzschmar, Marcus A Koch, Alex Widmer
Edaphic conditions are important determinants of plant fitness. While much has been learnt in recent years about plant adaptation to heavy-metal contaminated soils, the genomic basis underlying adaptation to calcareous and siliceous substrates remains largely unknown. We performed a reciprocal germination experiment and whole-genome re-sequencing in natural calcareous and siliceous populations of diploid Arabidopsis lyrata to test for edaphic adaptation and detect signatures of selection at loci associated with soil-mediated divergence...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411823/genomic-and-transcriptomic-signals-of-thermal-tolerance-in-heat-tolerant-corals-platygyra-daedalea-of-the-arabian-persian-gulf
#14
Nathan L Kirk, Emily J Howells, David Abrego, John A Burt, Eli Meyer
Scleractinian corals occur in tropical regions near their upper thermal limits and are severely threatened by rising ocean temperatures. However, several recent studies have shown coral populations can harbor genetic variation in thermal tolerance. Here we have extended these approaches to study heat tolerance of corals in the Persian/Arabian Gulf, where heat-tolerant local populations experience extreme summer temperatures (up to 36°C). To evaluate whether selection has depleted genetic variation in thermal tolerance, estimate potential future adaptive responses and understand the functional basis for these corals' unusual heat tolerance, we conducted controlled crosses in the Gulf coral Platygyra daedalea...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411822/quantifying-long-term-recurrence-in-planktonic-microbial-eukaryotes
#15
Caterina R Giner, Vanessa Balagué, Anders K Krabberød, Isabel Ferrera, Albert Reñé, Esther Garcés, Josep M Gasol, Ramiro Logares, Ramon Massana
How much temporal recurrence is present in microbial assemblages is still an unanswered ecological question. Even though marked seasonal changes have been reported for whole microbial communities, less is known on the dynamics and seasonality of individual taxa. Here, we aim at understanding microbial recurrence at three different levels: community, taxonomic group and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). For that, we focused on a model microbial eukaryotic community populating a long-term marine microbial observatory using 18S rRNA-gene data from two organismal size-fractions: the picoplankton (0...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411820/the-evolution-of-abdominal-microbiomes-in-fungus-growing-ants
#16
Panagiotis Sapountzis, David R Nash, Morten Schiøtt, Jacobus J Boomsma
The attine ants are a monophyletic lineage that switched to fungus-farming ca. 55-60 MYA. They have become a model for the study of complex symbioses after additional fungal and bacterial symbionts were discovered, but their abdominal endosymbiotic bacteria remain largely unknown. Here we present a comparative microbiome analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria spanning the entire phylogenetic tree. We show that, across 17 representative sympatric species from eight genera sampled in Panama, abdominal microbiomes are dominated by Mollicutes, α- and γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408260/how-quantitative-is-metabarcoding-a-meta-analytical-approach
#17
Philip D Lamb, Ewan Hunter, John K Pinnegar, Simon Creer, Richard G Davies, Martin I Taylor
Metabarcoding has been used in a range of ecological applications such as taxonomic assignment, dietary analysis, and the analysis of environmental DNA. However, after a decade of use in these applications there is little consensus on the extent to which proportions of reads generated corresponds to the original proportions of species in a community. To quantify our current understanding we conducted a structured review and meta-analysis. The analysis suggests that a weak quantitative relationship may exist between the biomass and sequences produced (slope = 0...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403423/non-random-association-patterns-in-a-plant-mycorrhizal-fungal-network-reveal-host-symbiont-specificity
#18
Siim-Kaarel Sepp, John Davison, Teele Jairus, Martti Vasar, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Maarja Öpik
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate plant symbionts that have important functions in most terrestrial ecosystems, but there remains an incomplete understanding of host-fungus specificity and the relationships between species or functional groups of plants and AM fungi. Here, we aimed to provide a comprehensive description of plant-AM fungal interactions in a biodiverse semi-natural grassland. We sampled all plant species in a 1000 m2 homogeneous plot of dry calcareous grassland in two seasons (summer and autumn) and identified root-colonizing AM fungi by SSU rDNA sequencing...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403421/diet-and-trophic-interactions-of-a-circumglobally-significant-gelatinous-marine-zooplankter-dolioletta-gegenbauri-uljanin-1884
#19
Tina L Walters, Lauren M Lamboley, Natalia B López-Figueroa, Áurea E Rodríguez-Santiago, Deidre M Gibson, Marc E Frischer
Gelatinous zooplankton play a crucial role in marine planktonic food webs. However, primarily due to methodological challenges, the in situ diet of zooplankton remains poorly investigated and little is known about their trophic interactions including feeding behavior, prey selection, and in situ feeding rates. This is particularly true for gelatinous zooplankton including the marine pelagic tunicate, Dolioletta gegenbauri. In this study, we applied an 18S rRNA amplicon metabarcoding approach to identify the diet of captive-fed and wild-caught D...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403418/genome-wide-snp-markers-breathe-new-life-into-phylogeography-and-species-delimitation-for-the-problematic-short-necked-turtles-chelidae-emydura-of-eastern-australia
#20
A Georges, B Gruber, G B Pauly, D White, M Adams, M J Young, A Kilian, X Zhang, H B Shaffer, P J Unmack
Understanding the evolutionary history of diversifying lineages and the delineation of evolutionarily significant units and species remain major challenges for evolutionary biology. Low cost representational sampling of the genome for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows great potential at the temporal scales that are typically the focus of species delimitation and phylogeography. We apply these markers to a case study of a freshwater turtle, Emydura macquarii, whose systematics has so far defied resolution, to bring to light a dynamic system of substantive allopatric lineages diverging on independent evolutionary trajectories, but held back in the process of speciation by low level and episodic exchange of alleles across drainage divides on various timescales...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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