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Molecular Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517033/high-throughput-sequencing-of-transposable-element-insertions-suggests-adaptive-evolution-of-the-invasive-asian-tiger-mosquito-towards-temperate-environments
#1
Clément Goubert, Hélène Henri, Guillaume Minard, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Cristina Vieira, Matthieu Boulesteix
Invasive species represent unique opportunities to evaluate the role of local adaptation during colonization of new environments. Among these species, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a threatening vector of several human viral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, and raises concerns about the Zika fever. Its broad presence in both temperate and tropical environments has been considered the reflection of great "ecological plasticity". However, no study has been conducted to assess the role of adaptive evolution in the ecological success of Ae...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503905/widespread-hybridization-within-mound-building-wood-ants-in-southern-finland-results-in-cytonuclear-mismatches-and-potential-for-sex-specific-hybrid-breakdown
#2
J Beresford, M Elias, L Pluckrose, L Sundström, R K Butlin, P Pamilo, J Kulmuni
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this species pair, and analyze 647 worker samples from 16 localities in Finland using microsatellite markers and a 1200 bp mitochondrial sequence...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503829/unravelling-seed-dispersal-through-fragmented-landscapes-frugivore-species-operate-unevenly-as-mobile-links
#3
Juan P González-Varo, Carolina S Carvalho, Juan M Arroyo, Pedro Jordano
Seed dispersal constitutes a pivotal process in an increasingly fragmented world, promoting population connectivity, colonization and range shifts in plants. Unveiling how multiple frugivore species disperse seeds through fragmented landscapes, operating as mobile links, has remained elusive owing to methodological constraints for monitoring seed dispersal events. We combine for the first time DNA barcoding and DNA microsatellites to identify, respectively, the frugivore species and the source trees of animal-dispersed seeds in forest and matrix of a fragmented landscape...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502098/-fix-me-another-marguerite-species-delimitation-in-a-group-of-intensively-hybridising-lineages-of-ox-eye-daisies-leucanthemum-mill-compositae-anthemideae
#4
Florian Wagner, Sabine Härtl, Robert Vogt, Christoph Oberprieler
Delineating species boundaries in the framework of the multi-species coalescent (MSC) proves to be a reliable, objective, and reproducible method in an increasing number of studies. However, the underlying model assumes the lack of gene flow after speciation; an assumption which may be frequently violated in plant evolution. The present study evaluates the robustness of currently available species delimitation methods implemented in beast (BFD, BFD*, and dissect) in the closely-knit ox-eye daisy group around Leucanthemum ageratifolium Pau...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500794/rapid-broad-scale-gene-expression-evolution-in-experimentally-harvested-fish-populations
#5
Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Tiina Sävilammi, Erica Leder, Robert Arlinghaus, Craig R Primmer
Gene expression changes potentially play an important role in adaptive evolution under human-induced selection pressures but this has been challenging to demonstrate in natural populations. Fishing exhibits strong selection pressure against large body size, thus potentially inducing evolutionary changes in life-history and other traits that may be slowly reversible once fishing ceases. However, there is a lack of convincing examples regarding the speed and magnitude of fisheries-induced evolution and thus the relevant underlying molecular-level effects remain elusive...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500774/the-transcriptional-landscape-of-seasonal-coat-colour-moult-in-the-snowshoe-hare
#6
Mafalda S Ferreira, Paulo C Alves, Colin M Callahan, João P Marques, L Scott Mills, Jeffrey M Good, José Melo-Ferreira
Seasonal coat colour change is an important adaptation to seasonally changing environments but the evolution of this and other circannual traits remains poorly understood. In this study we use gene expression to understand seasonal coat colour moulting in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). We used hair colour to follow the progression of the moult, simultaneously sampling skin from three moulting stages in hares collected during the peak of the spring moult from white winter to brown summer pelage. Using RNA-sequencing, we tested if patterns of expression were consistent with predictions based on the established phases of the hair growth cycle...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500772/a-test-of-genomic-modularity-among-life-history-adaptations-promoting-speciation-with-gene-flow
#7
Gregory J Ragland, Meredith M Doellman, Peter Meyers, Glen R Hood, Scott P Egan, Thomas H Q Powell, Daniel A Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L Feder
Speciation-with-gene-flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or 'modularity' among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between sympatric hawthorn and apple-infesting host races of the fly Rhagoletis pomonella through analysis of 10,256 SNPs measured via Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS)...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493321/local-genes-for-local-bacteria-evidence-of-allopatry-in-the-genomes-of-transatlantic-campylobacter-populations
#8
Ben Pascoe, Guillaume Méric, Koji Yahara, Helen Wimalarathna, Susan Murray, Matthew D Hitchings, Emma L Sproston, Catherine D Carrillo, Eduardo N Taboada, Kerry K Cooper, Steven Huynh, Alison J Cody, Keith A Jolley, Martin C J Maiden, Noel D McCarthy, Xavier Didelot, Craig T Parker, Samuel K Sheppard
The genetic structure of bacterial populations can be related to geographical locations of isolation. In some species, there is a strong correlation between geographical distance and genetic distance, which can be caused by different evolutionary mechanisms. Patterns of ancient admixture in Helicobacter pylori can be reconstructed in concordance with past human migration, whereas in Mycobacterium tuberculosis it is the lack of recombination that causes allopatric clusters. In Campylobacter, analyses of genomic data and molecular typing have been successful in determining the reservoir host species, but not geographical origin...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489329/differential-responses-of-soil-bacteria-fungi-archaea-and-protists-to-plant-species-richness-and-plant-functional-group-identity
#9
Sigrid Dassen, Roeland Cortois, Henk Martens, Mattias de Hollander, George A Kowalchuk, Wim H van der Putten, Gerlinde B De Deyn
Plants are known to influence belowground microbial community structure along their roots, but the impacts of plant species richness and plant functional group (FG) identity on microbial communities in the bulk soil are still not well understood. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing to analyse the soil microbial community composition in a long-term biodiversity experiment at Jena, Germany. We examined responses of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists to plant species richness (communities varying from 1-60 sown species) and plant FG identity (grasses, legumes, small herbs, tall herbs) in bulk soil...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488335/climate-change-and-human-colonization-triggered-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-in-madagascar
#10
Jordi Salmona, Rasmus Heller, Erwan Quéméré, Lounès Chikhi
The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hotspots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4-5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates that cohabited with humans is yet unresolved. The prevailing narrative holds that Madagascar was covered with forest before human arrival, and that the expansion of grasslands was the result of human driven deforestation...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488293/the-challenges-of-detecting-subtle-population-structure-and-its-importance-for-the-conservation-of-emperor-penguins
#11
Jane L Younger, Gemma V Clucas, Damian Kao, Alex D Rogers, Karim Gharbi, Tom Hart, Karen J Miller
Understanding the boundaries of breeding populations is of great importance for conservation efforts and estimates of extinction risk for threatened species. However, determining these boundaries can be difficult when population structure is subtle. Emperor penguins are highly reliant on sea ice, and some populations may be in jeopardy as climate change alters sea ice extent and quality. An understanding of emperor penguin population structure is therefore urgently needed. Two previous studies have differed in their conclusions, particularly whether the Ross Sea, a major stronghold for the species, is isolated or not...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488269/sex-specific-graphs-relating-group-specific-topology-to-demographic-and-landscape-data
#12
Philip Bertrand, Jeff Bowman, Rodney J Dyer, Micheline Manseau, Paul J Wilson
Sex-specific genetic structure is a commonly observed pattern among vertebrate species. Facing differential selective pressures, individuals may adopt sex-specific life history traits that ultimately shape genetic variation among populations. Although differential dispersal dynamics are commonly detected in the literature, few studies have used genetic structure to investigate sex-specific functional connectivity. The recent use of graph theoretic approaches in landscape genetics has demonstrated network capacities to describe complex system behaviors where network topology represents genetic interaction among sub-units...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477434/genomic-analysis-of-a-cardinalfish-with-larval-homing-potential-reveals-genetic-admixture-in-the-okinawa-islands
#13
A L Gould, P V Dunlap
Discrepancies between potential and observed dispersal distances of reef fish indicate the need for a better understanding of the influence of larval behavior on recruitment and dispersal. Population genetic studies can reveal the degree to which populations are connected, providing insight on these patterns, and the development of restriction site associated sequencing (RAD-Seq) methods has made the study of non-model organisms more accessible. We applied double digest RAD-Seq methods to test for population differentiation in the coral reef-dwelling cardinalfish, Siphamia tubifer, which based on behavioral studies, have the potential to use navigational cues to return to natal reefs...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475270/fire-coral-clones-demonstrate-phenotypic-plasticity-among-reef-habitats
#14
Caroline E Dubé, Emilie Boissin, Jeffrey A Maynard, Serge Planes
Clonal populations are often characterised by reduced levels of genotypic diversity, which can translate into lower numbers of functional phenotypes, both of which impede adaptation. Study of partially clonal animals enables examination of the environmental settings under which clonal reproduction is favoured. Here, we gathered genotypic and phenotypic information from 3651 georeferenced colonies of the fire coral Millepora platyphylla in five habitats with different hydrodynamic regimes in Moorea, French Polynesia...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475225/the-adaptive-genomic-landscape-of-beak-morphology-in-darwin-s-finches
#15
Lucinda P Lawson, Kenneth Petren
Beak shape in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza) is emblematic of natural selection and adaptive radiation, yet our understanding of the genetic basis of beak shape variation, and thus the genetic target of natural selection, is still evolving. Here we reveal the genomic architecture of beak shape variation using genome-wide comparisons of four closely related and hybridizing species across 13 islands subject to parallel natural selection. Pairwise contrasts among species were used to identify a large number of genomic loci that are consistently related to species differences across a complex landscape...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467676/impacts-of-temperature-and-lunar-day-on-gene-expression-profiles-during-a-monthly-reproductive-cycle-in-the-brooding-coral-pocillopora-damicornis
#16
Camerron M Crowder, Eli Meyer, Tung-Yung Fan, Virginia M Weis
Reproductive timing in brooding corals has been correlated to temperature and lunar irradiance, but the mechanisms by which corals transduce these environmental variables into molecular signals is unknown. To gain insight into these processes, global gene expression profiles in the coral Pocillopora damicornis were examined (via RNA-Seq) across lunar phases and between temperature treatments, during a monthly planulation cycle. The interaction of temperature and lunar day together had the largest influence on gene expression...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464440/symbiont-strain-is-the-main-determinant-of-variation-in-wolbachia-mediated-protection-against-viruses-across-drosophila-species
#17
Julien Martinez, Ignacio Tolosana, Suzan Ok, Sophie Smith, Kiana Snoeck, Jonathan P Day, Frank Jiggins
Wolbachia is a common heritable bacterial symbiont in insects. Its evolutionary success lies in the diverse phenotypic effects it has on its hosts coupled to its propensity to move between host species over evolutionary timescales. In a survey of natural host-symbiont associations in a range of Drosophila species, we found that 10 of 16 Wolbachia strains protected their hosts against viral infection. By moving Wolbachia strains between host species, we found that the symbiont genome had a much greater influence on the level of antiviral protection than the host genome...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452089/congruent-population-structure-across-paralogous-and-non-paralogous-loci-in-salish-sea-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#18
R K Waples, J E Seeb, L W Seeb
Whole genome duplications are major evolutionary events with a lasting impact on genome structure. Duplication events complicate genetic analyses as paralogous sequences are difficult to distinguish; consequently paralogs are often excluded from studies. The effects of an ancient whole genome duplication (approximately 88MYA) are still evident in salmonids through the persistence of numerous paralogous gene sequences and partial tetrasomic inheritance. We use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) on ten collections of chum salmon from the Salish Sea in the USA and Canada to investigate genetic diversity and population structure in both tetrasomic and re-diploidized regions of the genome...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437594/a-mesoamerican-origin-of-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-implications-for-the-conservation-of-plant-genetic-resources
#19
N Larranaga, F J Albertazzi, G Fontecha, M Palmieri, H Rainer, M van Zonneveld, J I Hormaza
Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect in order to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from 6 different countries across the American continent and amplified with 9 highly informative microsatellite markers...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437593/tabula-rasa-in-the-patagonian-channels-the-phylogeography-of-oreobolus-obtusangulus-cyperaceae
#20
Simon Pfanzelt, Dirk C Albach, Klaus Bernhard von Hagen
The extent of the Pleistocene glaciations in the Patagonian Channel region (southwesternmost South America) and their impact on the vegetation there is largely unknown. Whether the regional flora was wiped out completely (tabula rasa) or survived in ice-free pockets (in situ survival) is still an open question. The molecular imprint of either scenario should still be visible in extant populations. Therefore, DNA sequence data of Oreobolus obtusangulus Gaudich. (Cyperaceae) were analyzed. This species is an abundant constitutent of Patagonian cushion peat bogs, one of the Patagonian Channel region's major vegetation types...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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