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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene

M Martini, F Paluan
Between nineteenth and twentieth centuries, medicine knew the beginning of an incessant development: the birth of new medical specialties (radiology, for instance), the introduction of new devices in medical and surgical wards, and the discovery of bacteria represented important milestones in that first historical period. The Medical School of the University of Genoa, head by Edoardo Maragliano, full professor of internal medicine, took on a relevant role in the battle against tuberculosis, through the experimental demonstration of the existence of an immune response against M...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Giustino, P Stefanizzi, A Ballini, D Renzetti, M A De Salvia, C Finelli, M F Coscia, S Tafuri, D De Vito
Introduction: Alcohol is recognized as one of four major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Exposure to alcoholic beverages during the adolescence has been linked to increased heavier drinking habits: obviously, the age of alcohol initiation resulted an important determinant of alcohol dependence. The aim of this study is to analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices in alcohol habit of adolescent population. Methods: 943 students from 13 schools (middle and upper secondary schools) of the Bari district were enrolled in the study: in each school one class for each age was randomly selected...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F Besharati, A Karimi-Shahanjarini, S M M Hazavehie, S Bashirian, J Faradmal
Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer among adults in Iran. CRC screening is an effective way in reducing mortality rate from this cancer. However, the screening rate of CRC is very low among Iranian adults. This study investigated predictors of Iranian average-risk adults ' intention to take up CRC screening with fecal occult blood test using a mediator model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional study comprised of 477 average-risk adults who were selected using a national sampling frame in Hamadan city, west of Iran...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
G La Torre, R A Cocchiara, E Lo Sordo, M Chiarini, R Siliquini, A Firenze, M Maurici, L Agati, R Saulle, A Mannocci
Background: In the light of diagnostic and therapeutic advances, patients with a previous myocardial infarction or with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are vulnerable and need continuous monitoring over time. These pathological frameworks have a strong impact on the economy and on the status of the population and require effective and low-cost solutions. Aims: The objective of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy in the short term of a telephone counseling intervention to modify the lifestyles of these two patient populations...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Ragusa, G Giorgianni, L Lupo, A Sciacca, S Rametta, M La Verde, S Mulè, M Marranzano
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhea with increasing incidence and severity in recent years. The main cause of hospital's acquired cross infections can be attributed to incorrect hand hygiene. We described the epidemiology of CD infection (CDI) in a teaching hospital in Southern Italy during a two years surveillance period and evaluated the health-care workers compliance to hand hygiene. Methods: CDI Incidence rates were calculated as the number of patients with positive C...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
P Antonioli, A Formaglio, D Gamberoni, L Bertoni, P Perrone, A Stefanati, M Libanore, R Cultrera, G Gabutti
Introduction: The appropriate use of antibiotics is a global priority in order to avoid antibiotic resistance. Up to 50% of antibiotics usage in hospital is inappropriate (e.g. prolonged surgical prophylaxis, "defensive medicine" approach). In 2015, at the Ferrara University Hospital, an antimicrobial stewardship intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescription at the time of hospital discharge in patients at risk of surgical site infection was implemented. This programme included: update meetings for health professionals, focused meetings for critical wards, reviews of some surgical prophylaxis protocols, recommendations to reduce broad-spectrum antimicrobials use, and planning of an audit...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A M Spagnolo, M Sartini, A Battistella, B Casini, G Lo Pinto, E Schinca, M L Cristina
Introduction: We described an outbreak of C. difficile that occurred in the Internal Medicine department of an Italian hospital and assessed the efficacy of the measures adopted to manage the outbreak. Methods: The outbreak involved 15 patients and was identified by means of continuous integrated microbiological surveillance, starting with laboratory data (alert organism surveillance). Diarrheal fecal samples from patients with suspected infection by C. difficile underwent rapid membrane immuno-enzymatic testing, which detects both the presence of the glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and the presence of the A and B toxins...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Gramegna, S Dellafiore, M Contarini, F Blasi, S Aliberti, R Tosatto, M Mantero
Introduction: Influenza epidemics are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza vaccination is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent seasonal influenza infection. European health authority policies focus on patient protection by vaccinating both these subjects and their care-givers, including health-care workers (HCWs). The aim of this survey is to investigate knowledge about influenza vaccination and intention to get vaccinated among Italian HCWs who take care patients with respiratory disease...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Bechini, M Chellini, E Pellegrino, E Tiscione, C Lorini, G Bonaccorsi, P Bonanni, S Boccalini
The World Health Organization (WHO) has established specific targets for control, elimination or eradication of some vaccine preventable infectious diseases, which were periodically updated. In Italy, WHO recommendations have been endorsed and implemented over time, through the national and regional health prevention plans. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the immunization practices against measles, varicella and Neisseria meningitidis type C (Men C) in Italy and in Tuscany Region, during the last decades, by analyzing national and regional surveillance databases...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Orsi, C Azzari, E Bozzola, G Chiamenti, G Chirico, S Esposito, F Francia, P Lopalco, R Prato, R Russo, A Villani, E Franco
Combination vaccines represent a valuable technological innovation in the field of infectious disease prevention and public health, because of their great health and economic value from the individual, societal, and healthcare system perspectives. In order to increase parents' and healthcare professionals' confidence in the vaccination programs and maintain their benefits to society, more information about the benefits of innovative vaccination tools such as combination vaccines is needed. Purpose of this work is an examination of available hexavalent vaccines, that protect against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b infections...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
D Amicizia, F Zangrillo, P L Lai, M Iovine, D Panatto
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). JEV is transmitted by mosquitoes to a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including birds and mammals. Domestic animals, especially pigs, are generally implicated as reservoirs of the virus, while humans are not part of the natural transmission cycle and cannot pass the virus to other hosts. Although JEV infection is very common in endemic areas (many countries in Asia), less than 1% of people affected develop clinical disease, and severe disease affects about 1 case per 250 JEV infections...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Z Mohamad Azfar, S Mohd Nazri, A Mohamed Rusli, O Maizurah, W M Zahiruddin, Y N Azwany, I Nabilah, H Siti Asma, B D Aziah
Introduction: Many efforts have been done to reduce leptospirosis infections in Malaysia especially among high risk groups including town service workers. Town service workers are more likely to be exposed to the leptospiral infection resulting from their occupational activities. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in northeastern Malaysia involving 321 town service workers who were subjected to answer an interviewer-guided validated questionnaire which consists of sociodemographic, knowledge, attitude and practice information...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F NISTICò, G Troiano, N Nante, S Dei, P Piacentini
Introduction: A lot of drug groups are associated with preventable drug-related admissions. Coumarin derivatives, prescribed for the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism or prevention of systemic embolism or stroke in patients with prosthetic heart valves or atrial fibrillation, are often associated with bleeding. The aim of our study was to analyze how the anticoagulant therapy with VKAs could affects the hospitalizations and the visits to emergency room in the elderly population (> 65 years old)...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F Petrelli, I Grappasonni, D Evangelista, P Pompei, G Broglia, P Cioffi, L Kracmarova, S Scuri
Introduction: The primary consumers of energy drinks were athletes, to combat fatigue, but in reality, thanks to their fast expansion and economic growth, young adults and teenagers represent the new target market. Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years, though they are often unaware of what is being ingested, believing to improve their physical and psychological performance. The literature shows contradictions about the capacity of energy drinks to enhance psychophysical results...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Scuri, F Petrelli, M Tesauro, F Carrozzo, L Kracmarova, I Grappasonni
Introduction: Energy drinks represent an emerging health problem among young people. Energy drinks generally refer to a class of beverages containing sugars and various combinations of bioactive ingredients such as caffeine, taurine etc. Also the mix of energy drinks with alcohol is fairly frequent among young people and could be associated with dangerous effects. Methods: In 2016-2017, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1581 students attending eight high school in the Marche Region...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Majori, S Pilati, D Gazzani, J Paiano, S Ferrari, A Sannino, E Checchin
Introduction: The consumption of energy drinks (ED) and ginseng by young people to enhance their mental and physical performance has become widespread. Reported side-effects of ED have raised doubts regarding their safety. This cross-sectional study investigates the phenomenon. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of Verona university students. The resulting data were analyzed with Excel 2013, STATA 13 software. Results: ED and ginseng consumption was reported by 38...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
J Hazart, M Blanquet, A Debost-Legrand, A Perreve, S Leger, V Martoia, S Maurice, G Brousse, L Gerbaud
Introduction: Students overestimate alcohol consumption of those around them and underestimate their own, so that quantitative approach may not be the most relevant to assess students' drinking. The main objective was to provide an appropriate tool for screening for students with potential drinking problems. Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was conducted by internet between February and June, 2013 in France. Thirteen questions explored alcohol consumption, including 8 concerning after-effects of drinking episodes (4 items of the AUDIT) and alcohol behaviour (CAGE test)...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
K D Tambalis, D B Panagiotakos, G Psarra, L S Sidossis
Introduction: The aim of the study is to present the most recent estimates of obesity (total and central) prevalence in Greek children and associated risk factors. Methods: Population data are derived from a yearly, school-based health survey polled in 2015 on 336,014 (51% boys) children aged 4 to 17 years old from almost 40% of all schools of primary and secondary education in Greece. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Gamaoun
Introduction: Epidemiological and biological arguments put papillomavirus infection (HPV) as a determining factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HPV prevention and cervical cancer screening among women living in the city of Sousse, Tunisia. Methods: Five hundred Tunisian women were interviewed face to face between May and June 2016. The questionnaire consisted in 14 questions relating participants' socio-demographic information, their awareness level, attitudes and practices regarding HPV and cervical cancer, including their understanding of the underlying cervical cancer etiology and preventive actions such as the Pap Smear test, and finally their acceptability and willingness to receive the anti-HPV vaccine under certain circumstances...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S B Abdel-Aziz, T Tawfik Amin, M Baqir Al-Gadeeb, A I Alhassar, A Al-Ramadan, M Al-Helal, M Bu-Mejdad, L Abdulaziz Al-Hamad, E Hussain Alkhalaf
Introduction: Screening for breast cancer (BC) is of low rate in Saudi Arabia; although it is provided in the country free of charge to the population. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the perceived barriers towards BC screening in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants and methods . A total of 816 adult Saudi women aged ≥ 30 years attending for routine primary health services or accompanying patients at the selected primary health care centers (PHCs) were randomly selected from 12 PHCs (8 urban and four rural) using multi-stage sampling method...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
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