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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene

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[This corrects the article on p. E128-E131 in vol. 59, PMID: 30083619.].
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M Martini, G Besozzi, I Barberis
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humanity, and is still a major public health problem. It is caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), isolated in 1882 by Robert Koch. Until the 1950s, X rays were used as a cheap method of diagnostic screening together with the tuberculin skin sensitivity test. In the diagnosis and treatment of TB, an important role was also played by surgery. The late Nineteenth century saw the introduction of the tuberculosis sanatorium, which proved to be one of the first useful measures against TB...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Mohammadbeigi, A Asgarian, E Moshir, H Heidari, S Afrashteh, S Khazaei, H Ansari
Nowadays, the prevalence of both fast food consumption and overweight/obesity has been increased. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of fast food consumption and to assess its association with abdominal and general obesity. In an analytical cross-sectional study, 300 students were selected randomly from two largest universities in Qom, center of Iran, studying in medical and basic sciences fields in 2015. Data collection was conducted by a modified version of NELSON's fast food questionnaire and anthropometric measures including Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Body Mass Index (BMI)...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F Petrelli, S Scuri, E Tanzi, T T C Nguyễn, I Grappasonni
Introduction: The 40.3% of the Romanian youth population is at risk of poverty or social exclusion, and, in addition, the abuse of substances increases. It was interesting to evaluate the attitudes shared by pupils as well as their knowledge of these substances with a view to analyzing causes and types of risky behaviour in young people. Methods: This is an observational study on the harassment influence in the lifestyle of a sample of Craiova high-school students The Fagerström Test was applied to evaluate the degree of nicotine dependence, and the data processed to assess the Odds Ratio...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Briancesco, S Paduano, M Semproni, L Bonadonna
Introduction: Sanitary tampons have been in existence for over 60 years. Their use may present certain health risks, potentially associated with an abnormal change of microbial flora in the vagina (e.g., toxic shock syndrome). Tampon production and marketing are regulated differently in different countries. In Australia, Canada and the USA, tampons are classified as Class-II medical devices and their marketing requires pre-clinical and clinical studies, including microbiological trials...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A B Belachew, M B Abrha, Z A Gebrezgi, D Y Tekle
Introduction: Despite concerted efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations, water and adequate sanitation still remain a challenge worldwide. Therefore, this study assessed the availability and utilization of sanitation facilities in Enderta district of Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2016. An interview and observation were conducted in a total of 450 households. An interviewer administered questionnaire and observation checklist were used to collect the data...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Cadmus, V Akinseye, A Adegbulu, N Ovwighose, M Ayoola, J Ogugua, H Adesokan, E Cadmus
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa coupled with dearth of information about the disease among livestock workers at risk of infection. We determined the prevalence of pulmonary TB infection and factors associated with its occurrence among livestock workers in south-western Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using active case-finding among livestock workers with sub-clinical pulmonary TB between August 2014 and March 2015...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M Riccò, L Vezzosi, G Gualerzi
Background: We assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide handling and related health problems among pesticide applicators (PAs) from the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in spring 2016, involving 260 PAs. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with a safer use of pesticides. Results: The mean age of participants was 48...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
C Genovese, V LA Fauci, A Squeri, G Trimarchi, R Squeri
Background: In the literature conflicting opinions are detectable on the onset of adverse events as autoimmune disease post HPV vaccine and often case reports describes the onset of one of these events, but don't emerge a clear relationship and we don't have data to support it. Methods: We carried out a systematic review to identify all scientific publications dealing with the correlation between vaccine anti-papillomavirus and new onset of autoimmune diseases. We searched the main scientific databases (PubMed, Sciverse Scopus, Web of knowledge and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials) for the following search terms: "vaccine"; "anti-papillomavirus"; "autoimmune"; "disease"; "disorder"...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Bechini, D Paolini, F Pieralli, L Baggiani, G Mereu, M G Santini, T Brocca, S Gostinicchi, E Gori, S Boccalini, P Bonanni, G Bonaccorsi
Objectives: Tuscany region (Italy) recorded a rise in the number of meningococcal disease cases between January 2015 and February 2016, (52 cases) compared to 2014 (16 cases). The aim of this study was to describe the emergency meningococcal C (MenC) vaccination programme in Tuscany and the population's adherence to the activities performed in the Local Health Unit (LHU) of Florence. Methods: The MenC vaccination programme and the planning of the prevention and communication activities were analysed in the LHU of Florence...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Esposito
Pertussis, a highly contagious infective disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, was in the past very common among newborns and children, causing significant medical, social and economic issues burden, also due to frequent need of hospitalization and high mortality. Following the introduction of vaccines against pertussis, the burden of the disease dramatically decreased, although nowadays, this disease it is still the most widespread among the vaccine preventable ones. First vaccine formulations were composed with whole cell antigen of Bordetella pertussis and were followed by formulations with acellular antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, FIM), that showed to have similar efficacy and less reactogenicity...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M Martini, F Paluan
Between nineteenth and twentieth centuries, medicine knew the beginning of an incessant development: the birth of new medical specialties (radiology, for instance), the introduction of new devices in medical and surgical wards, and the discovery of bacteria represented important milestones in that first historical period. The Medical School of the University of Genoa, head by Edoardo Maragliano, full professor of internal medicine, took on a relevant role in the battle against tuberculosis, through the experimental demonstration of the existence of an immune response against M...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Giustino, P Stefanizzi, A Ballini, D Renzetti, M A De Salvia, C Finelli, M F Coscia, S Tafuri, D De Vito
Introduction: Alcohol is recognized as one of four major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Exposure to alcoholic beverages during the adolescence has been linked to increased heavier drinking habits: obviously, the age of alcohol initiation resulted an important determinant of alcohol dependence. The aim of this study is to analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices in alcohol habit of adolescent population. Methods: 943 students from 13 schools (middle and upper secondary schools) of the Bari district were enrolled in the study: in each school one class for each age was randomly selected...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F Besharati, A Karimi-Shahanjarini, S M M Hazavehie, S Bashirian, J Faradmal
Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer among adults in Iran. CRC screening is an effective way in reducing mortality rate from this cancer. However, the screening rate of CRC is very low among Iranian adults. This study investigated predictors of Iranian average-risk adults ' intention to take up CRC screening with fecal occult blood test using a mediator model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional study comprised of 477 average-risk adults who were selected using a national sampling frame in Hamadan city, west of Iran...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
G La Torre, R A Cocchiara, E Lo Sordo, M Chiarini, R Siliquini, A Firenze, M Maurici, L Agati, R Saulle, A Mannocci
Background: In the light of diagnostic and therapeutic advances, patients with a previous myocardial infarction or with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are vulnerable and need continuous monitoring over time. These pathological frameworks have a strong impact on the economy and on the status of the population and require effective and low-cost solutions. Aims: The objective of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy in the short term of a telephone counseling intervention to modify the lifestyles of these two patient populations...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Ragusa, G Giorgianni, L Lupo, A Sciacca, S Rametta, M La Verde, S Mulè, M Marranzano
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhea with increasing incidence and severity in recent years. The main cause of hospital's acquired cross infections can be attributed to incorrect hand hygiene. We described the epidemiology of CD infection (CDI) in a teaching hospital in Southern Italy during a two years surveillance period and evaluated the health-care workers compliance to hand hygiene. Methods: CDI Incidence rates were calculated as the number of patients with positive C...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
P Antonioli, A Formaglio, D Gamberoni, L Bertoni, P Perrone, A Stefanati, M Libanore, R Cultrera, G Gabutti
Introduction: The appropriate use of antibiotics is a global priority in order to avoid antibiotic resistance. Up to 50% of antibiotics usage in hospital is inappropriate (e.g. prolonged surgical prophylaxis, "defensive medicine" approach). In 2015, at the Ferrara University Hospital, an antimicrobial stewardship intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescription at the time of hospital discharge in patients at risk of surgical site infection was implemented. This programme included: update meetings for health professionals, focused meetings for critical wards, reviews of some surgical prophylaxis protocols, recommendations to reduce broad-spectrum antimicrobials use, and planning of an audit...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A M Spagnolo, M Sartini, A Battistella, B Casini, G Lo Pinto, E Schinca, M L Cristina
Introduction: We described an outbreak of C. difficile that occurred in the Internal Medicine department of an Italian hospital and assessed the efficacy of the measures adopted to manage the outbreak. Methods: The outbreak involved 15 patients and was identified by means of continuous integrated microbiological surveillance, starting with laboratory data (alert organism surveillance). Diarrheal fecal samples from patients with suspected infection by C. difficile underwent rapid membrane immuno-enzymatic testing, which detects both the presence of the glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and the presence of the A and B toxins...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Gramegna, S Dellafiore, M Contarini, F Blasi, S Aliberti, R Tosatto, M Mantero
Introduction: Influenza epidemics are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza vaccination is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent seasonal influenza infection. European health authority policies focus on patient protection by vaccinating both these subjects and their care-givers, including health-care workers (HCWs). The aim of this survey is to investigate knowledge about influenza vaccination and intention to get vaccinated among Italian HCWs who take care patients with respiratory disease...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Bechini, M Chellini, E Pellegrino, E Tiscione, C Lorini, G Bonaccorsi, P Bonanni, S Boccalini
The World Health Organization (WHO) has established specific targets for control, elimination or eradication of some vaccine preventable infectious diseases, which were periodically updated. In Italy, WHO recommendations have been endorsed and implemented over time, through the national and regional health prevention plans. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the immunization practices against measles, varicella and Neisseria meningitidis type C (Men C) in Italy and in Tuscany Region, during the last decades, by analyzing national and regional surveillance databases...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
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