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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515635/changing-the-smoking-habit-prevalence-knowledge-and-attitudes-among-umbrian-hospital-healthcare-professionals
#1
REVIEW
D Pianori, A Gili, G Masanotti
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515634/difference-in-quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-among-the-elderly-in-rural-vietnam
#2
REVIEW
T Van Nguyen, H Van Nguyen, T Duc Nguyen, T Van Nguyen, T The Nguyen
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam today, many generations remain living together in a family. With escalating urbanization and population aging, mental health disorders and the quality of life (QoL) among the elderly are gradually presenting themselves as of great concern. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in QoL and some associated factors among the elderly in rural Vietnam using the QoL scale of WHO (WHOQOL-BREF). METHODS: A cross-sectional study using quantitative methods...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515633/association-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-anthropometric-measurements-a-case-control-study-in-south-india
#3
REVIEW
A Awasthi, C R Rao, D S Hegde, K Rao N
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical evidence indicates a stronger association of diabetes with central obesity than general obesity. The present study aimed to compare the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and different anthropometric measurements and evaluate the usefulness of these measurements in clinical practice. METHODS: A case-control study was done among 102 individuals; of whom 51 cases included diagnosed T2DM (≥ 20 years age) patients attending the Medicine out-patient consultation of a tertiary care hospital and 51 controls who were screen negative for T2DM and recruited from the local community...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515632/effectiveness-of-hand-hygiene-education-among-a-random-sample-of-women-from-the-community
#4
REVIEW
J Ubheeram, S D Biranjia-Hurdoyal
OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. METHODS: Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. RESULTS: Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial growth and absence of potential pathogen (p < 0...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515631/water-and-air-ozone-treatment-as-an-alternative-sanitizing-technology
#5
REVIEW
M Martinelli, F Giovannangeli, S Rotunno, C M Trombetta, E Montomoli
AIMS: We investigated the effectiveness of ozone (aqueous and gaseous) treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology to common conventional disinfectants in reducing the microbial contamination of both water and air. METHODS: Ozone was added for 20 minutes to a well-defined volume of water and air by the system named "Ozonomatic(®)". The effectiveness of ozonation was determined by counting CFU/ m3 or ml of bacteria present in samples of air or water collected before (T0) and after (T1) the addition of ozone and comparing the microbial load of different bacteria present in ozonized and nonozonized samples...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515630/an-exception-to-the-rule-no-association-between-antibiotic-resistance-and-decreased-disinfectant-microbicidal-efficacy-orthophthalaldehyde-opa-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-icu-and-paraplegic-patients
#6
REVIEW
R Herruzo, M J Vizcaíno, I Herruzo
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance and decreased susceptibility to disinfectants are not usually associated in microorganisms, but we have found an exception to this rule: P. aeruginosa versus orthophthalaldehyde (OPA). METHODS: Bactericidal effect of OPA was measured at 10 minutes on endodoncy files contaminated with an ATCC strain (control) or 206 strains of P. aeruginosa recently isolated from 206 ICU and paraplegic patients in a tertiary university hospital, in two consecutive years...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515629/microbial-competition-in-environmental-nosocomial-reservoirs-and-diffusion-capacity-of-oxa48-klebsiella-pneumoniae-potential-impact-on-patients-and-possible-control-methods
#7
REVIEW
R Herruzo, G Ruiz, M J Vizcaino, L Rivas, V Pérez-Blanco, M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: We have found clusters of Klebsiella pneumoniae with OXA48-carbepenemase cases in some hospital rooms, and decided to investigate whether bathroom siphons could be a reservoir for OXA48 bacteria, as occurs with K. oxytoca with other types of carbepenemases. METHODS: We evaluated the microbial competition between strains with OXA48 and VIM carbepenemases, in diluted nutrient-broth, on a slime germ-carrier. We compared the number of colonies at 5 and 10 days on the contaminated carriers with one or two strains...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515628/epidemiology-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-2-in-italy-a-seroprevalence-study-from-2000-to-2014
#8
REVIEW
S Marchi, C M Trombetta, R Gasparini, N Temperton, E Montomoli
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are among the most widespread causative agents of human viral infections. HSV-2 is one of the commonest causes of genital disease, while HSV-1 is associated primarily with orolabial ulceration; however, recent changes in HSV epidemiology showed an increase in genital and neonatal herpes particularly caused by HSV-1. The main purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in a random population in Siena (central Italy) in 2000, 2005 and 2013-2014 and in Bari (southern Italy) in 2005...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#9
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515626/the-history-of-tuberculosis-from-the-first-historical-records-to-the-isolation-of-koch-s-bacillus
#10
REVIEW
I Barberis, N L Bragazzi, L Galluzzo, M Martini
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, infectious disease, due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) that has always been a permanent challenge over the course of human history, because of its severe social implications. It has been hypothesized that the genus Mycobacterium originated more than 150 million years ago. In the Middle Ages, scrofula, a disease affecting cervical lymph nodes, was described as a new clinical form of TB. The illness was known in England and France as "king's evil", and it was widely believed that persons affected could heal after a royal touch...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#11
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167859/observational-study-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-internet-reminders-for-gps-on-colorectal-cancer-screening-uptake-in-northern-italy-in-2013
#12
E Gabrielli, A J Bastiampillai, M Pontello, G Beghi, P Ceresa, M E Pirola, D Cereda
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and CRC-related mortality can be effectively reduced by population-based screening. Screening uptake is a key indicator of performance, susceptible of several implementation methods. Participation in ASL Milano 1 area (northern Italy) is increasing thanks to reminder invitation sent to non-responders. Here we evaluate the implementation of another strategy among those proved to be effective. METHODS: In the years 2013-2014 we conducted an observational study in patients non-responder to first invitation and subsequent mailed reminder...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167858/relationship-between-lead-exposure-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
C Fenga, S Gangemi, A Alibrandi, C Costa, E Micali
INTRODUCTION: Since it is still controversial whether-low-to moderate long-term lead below current threshold values causes neurobehavioural deficits in adults. METHODS: Forty lead-exposed workers subjects with a mean blood lead (PbB) level of 56.4 μg/dL and 40 non-lead-exposed aged matched subjects (PbB: 15.4 μg/dL) with the same socio-economic background were investigated. Participants were administered a neuropsychological tests consisting of BAMT (Branches Alternate Movements Task), FT (Finger Tapping Speed), DS (Digit Span) POMS (Profile of Mood States)...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167857/high-frequency-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-children-an-alarming-concern
#14
F Sabouni, Z Movahedi, S Mahmoudi, B Pourakbari, S Keshavarz Valian, S Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus spp. is considered as important etiological agents of nosocomial infections. However, a little is known about the epidemiology of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF). The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of VREF and detecting of two prevalent resistance genes (vanA, vanB) at Children Medical Center Hospital, an Iranian referral pediatric Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During January 2013 to December 2013, 180 E...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167856/prevalence-of-high-level-gentamicin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-an-iranian-hospital
#15
M Emaneini, B Khoramian, F Jabalameli, R Beigverdi, K Asadollahi, M Taherikalani, A R Lari
This study was designed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of enterococcal strains isolated from patients admitted to an Iranian Hospital. Enterococcal strains were isolated from the burn patients. All strains were screened for genes encoding resistance to aminoglycoside [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia, aph (3'), ant (4')], resistance to vancomycin (vanA, vanB), resistance to tetracycline (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO), and resistance to erythromycin (ermA, ermB, ermC) by PCR and multiplex PCR-based methods...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167855/caregivers-vector-control-methods-and-their-impact-on-malaria-outcome-in-under-five-presenting-in-tertiary-health-institution-in-nigeria
#16
D U Nwaneri, O A Oladipo, A E Sadoh, M O Ibadin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Integrated vector control especially use of insecticide-treated bed nets have been reported as effective malaria preventive strategies. This study aimed at documenting factors that influence regular use of insecticide-treated nets in under-fives and impact of vector control methods on malaria outcome (severe malaria prevalence and mortality) in under-fives presenting in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out from June 2012 and July 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167854/estimation-of-mean-number-of-daily-hand-hygiene-procedures-per-patient-can-represent-an-effective-and-easy-understandable-method-to-evaluate-adherence-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospital-of-northern-italy
#17
P Tatarelli, I Lorenzi, I Caviglia, R A Sacco, D LA Masa, E Castagnola
INTRODUCTION: Hand decontamination with alcohol-based antiseptic agents is considered the best practise to reduce healthcare associated infections. We present a new method to monitor hand hygiene, introduced in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Northern Italy, which estimates the mean number of daily hand decontamination procedures performed per patient. METHODS: The total amount of isopropyl alcohol and chlorhexidine solution supplied in a trimester to each hospital ward was put in relation with the number of hospitalization days, and expressed as litres/1000 hospitalization-days (World Health Organization standard method)...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980383/using-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-to-evaluate-chromosomal-dna-damage-in-chronic-renal-patients-undergoing-bicarbonate-haemodialysis-and-haemodiafiltration
#18
REVIEW
M Guido, A Zizza, M R Tumolo, G Stefanelli, M D'Alba, A Idolo, F Bagordo, F Serio, T Grassi, A DE Donno
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) patients are considered to show genomic instability and are associated with a high risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancer. We explored DNA damage due to two dialysis treatments in 20 patients undergoing bicarbonate haemodialysis (BD), 20 undergoing haemodiafiltration (HDF) and 40 healthy subjects. METHODS: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes to evaluate genetic damage...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980382/factors-associated-with-regular-sunscreen-use-by-medical-students-of-a-peruvian-university
#19
REVIEW
P Rodríguez-Gambetta, M G Moscoso-Porras, A Taype-Rondan
INTRODUCTION: Use of sunscreen is encouraged to reduce the risk of skin pathologies caused by radiation. It is important to acknowledge the associated factors that promote or hinder sunscreen use in young populations as to design better prevention policies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with regular sunscreen use among first year medical students from a Peruvian university. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980381/prevalence-and-predictors-of-risk-factors-for-brucellosis-transmission-by-meat-handlers-and-traditional-healers-risk-practices-in-ibadan-nigeria
#20
REVIEW
H K Adesokan, P I Alabi, M A Ogundipe
INTRODUCTION: Brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria and risk factors enhancing its transmission are prevalent. METHODS: Following serological evidence of brucellosis and isolation of B. abortus from slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria, we administered a semi-structured questionnaire to determine the prevalence and predictors of eating and selling bovine gravid uterus among 350 meat handlers from five major meat processing facilities. We conducted key informant interview for five leading traditional healers to document its use...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
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