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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene

M Blanquet, S Leger, L Gerbaud, F Vendittelli
INTRODUCTION: Smoking tobacco during pregnancy is a preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of an information and training program implemented by the perinatal network of Auvergne, France, on smoking during pregnancy. METHODS: A multi-center before-and-after population-based study, based on two cross-sectional surveys, was carried out between July 2003 and June 2004, and between December 2008 and January 2010...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
D Mipatrini, A Mannocci, C Pizzi, G La Torre
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention for reducing tobacco consumption among physiotherapy students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This controlled trial involved two groups of physiotherapy students: a treatment group (A) and a control group (B). Treatment consisted of a seminar on smoking-related diseases (3 hours) and training (at least 10 months) in a respiratory diseases or thoracic surgery unit. The control group (B) did not undergo any treatment...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
O M Kolawole, K T Olatunji, K A Durowade
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as one of the principal causes of cervical cancer, which is the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at determining the presence of HPV DNA in abnormal cervical cytology of a group of women who were screened using Papanicolaou staining technique. METHODOLOGY: A total of 200 women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinic of the Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, were screened by means of conventional Pap smear screening, while positive samples underwent molecular analyses by means of DNA isolation techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Gholami, A Majidpour, M Talebi-Taher, M Boustanshenas, M Adabi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important lifethreatening nosocomial pathogen which plays a prominent role in wound infections in burns patients. We designed this study to identify the isolates of P. aeruginosa recovered from burns patients at the genus and species levels by means of primers targeting oprI and oprL genes. METHODS: During a 5-month period, wound samples were taken from burns patients and plated on MacConkey agar. All suspected colonies were screened for P...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M Maurici, L Paulon, C Carlino, A Campolongo, R Catapano, S Sgricia, E Franco, B Bagnato, M Benigni, C D'Anna, L Di Marzio, M Ferrante, A Fraioli, A Giordani, F Laudati, M L Mangia, C Marchetti, C Meleleo, R Papa, F Perrelli, S Pozzato, S Rabbiosi, S Rossi, L Seminara, L Serino, M T Sinopoli, D Sorbara
The aim of this study was the quality of service evaluation of two different organizational ways in delivering infant vaccination according to a Regional Vaccination Plan. Eleven vaccination centres were selected in two Local Health Units (ASLs) belonging to the Regional Health Service of the Lazio Region, Italy. The services offering paediatric vaccinations for children under three years of age, delivered without an appointment (VACP) or with the need for an appointment (VACL), were investigated. The quality aspects under evaluation were communicational efficiency, organisational efficiency and comfort...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M Campagna, F Argiolas, B Soggiu, N M Mereu, A Lai, M Galletta, R C Coppola
INTRODUCTION: Health care Workers are exposed to infectious diseases more than the general population. Many of these infections are preventable by vaccination. The objective in this study is to investigate whether, how, and which vaccination underwent Sardinia Health Care Workers (HCWs) and the variability of policies in different Hospital Health Managements of the whole region. METHODS: In March 2013, we enrolled the Hospital Health Management of all the 32 Sardinia hospitals...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
V Baldo, S Cocchio, T Gallo, P Furlan, E Clagnan, S Del Zotto, M Saia, C Bertoncello, A Buja, T Baldovin
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia remains a common reason for hospitalizing infants and the elderly worldwide, and streptococcal infection is often responsible. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of pneumonia in a large general population. METHODS: All pneumonia-related hospitalizations from 2004 to 2013 in north-east Italy were identified from the hospital records with a first-listed diagnosis on discharge of bacterial pneumonia, or a first-listed diagnosis on discharge of meningitis, septicemia or empyema associated with a secondary diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Bechini, M Levi, A Falla, A Ahmad, I Veldhuijzen, E Tiscione, P Bonanni
INTRODUCTION: Chronic viral hepatitis is still a major public health concern in the EU. In order to halt the progression of the disease and to prevent onward transmission, timely recognition and accurate clinical management are crucial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the general practitioner (GP) in the screening of persons at risk and in the clinical management of chronic viral hepatitis patients in six EU countries. METHODS: An online survey among GPs and secondary-care specialists was conducted in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Hungary, Italy and Spain...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
D Sossai, M Di Guardo, R Foscoli, R Pezzi, A Polimeni, L Ruzza, M Miele, L Ottaggio, V Fontana, F Copello, P Dellacà, M Doria, A Onesti, G Montecucco, F Risso, M Nelli, I Benvenuti, M Santacroce, L Giribaldi, G Picelli, S Simonini, P Venturini
Healthcare workers who use or may be exposed to needles are at risk of needlestick injuries, which can lead to serious infections by bloodborne pathogens. These injuries can be avoided by eliminating the unnecessary use of needles and using safety devices. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of a safety-engineered device, with passive fully automatic needlestick protection, on the rate of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. The setting of the study was a network of five public healthcare institutions situated in a Northern Italian Region...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
G Pesavento, M Ostuni, C Calonico, S Rossi, R Capei, A Lo Nostro
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Poscia, J Stojanovic, W Ricciardi
Influenza constitutes an annually recurring threat to society, from both the clinical and economic points of view. The impact of influenza is often underestimated, especially among frail elderly people, who are at increased risk of serious complications, including hospitalization and death. In Italy, around 10 million individuals aged 65 years and older are at risk of contracting influenza, and it can be estimated that the lack of a vaccination strategy would lead to more than 2 million cases and about 30,000 deaths...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
P L Lopalco
Influenza is a public health priority in Europe. The impact of influenza pandemics on public health is very high, but seasonal influenza also constitutes an important burden in terms of hospitalisation and excess deaths. Influenza vaccination is a fundamental pillar of disease prevention. In the absence of a clear decision-making process for vaccination policies, EU institutions have, in recent years, fostered collaboration among Member States. Such collaboration was closer during the 2009 pandemic, which constituted a clear cross-border threat to EU citizens' health...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Rosselli, M Martini, N L Bragazzi
The phenomenon known as vaccine hesitancy (a term that includes the concepts of indecision, uncertainty, delay and reluctance) is complex, closely linked to social contexts, and has different determinants: historical period, geographical area, political situation, complacency, convenience and confidence in vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that vaccine hesitancy and any proxy of it should be constantly monitored. Given the growing importance and pervasiveness of information and communication technologies (ICTs), the new media could be exploited in order to track lay-people's perceptions of vaccination in real time, thereby enabling health-care workers to actively engage citizens and to plan ad hoc communication strategies...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
I Barberis, M Martini, F Iavarone, A Orsi
The main public health strategy for containing influenza-related disease is annual vaccination, which is recommended for the elderly and others belonging to risk-factor categories, who present the highest morbidity and mortality, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) Recommendations. The availability of different influenza vaccine formulations makes the choice of the best immunization strategy a challenge for stakeholders and public health experts. Heterogeneity in at-risk categories included in national influenza vaccine recommendations still exists, in particular among European countries...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Pitrelli
Every year in Italy, the Ministry of Health (MoH) offers influenza vaccination free of charge to all subjects at risk and to all subjects aged ≥ 65 year old. Until 2014-2015 immunization campaign against Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (TIVs) were the only vaccines used in Italy. Traditional TIVs contain antigens from three viral strains: A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and one of the two B lineages: B(Victoria) or B(Yamagata). Each year, the World Health Organization (WHO) decides which viral strains should be included in the next seasonal influenza vaccine...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
V Tisa, I Barberis, V Faccio, C Paganino, C Trucchi, M Martini, F Ansaldi
Influenza illness is caused by influenza A and influenza B strains. Although influenza A viruses are perceived to carry greater risk because they account for the majority of influenza cases in most seasons and have been responsible for influenza pandemics, influenza B viruses also impose a substantial public health burden, particularly among children and at-risk subjects. Furthermore, since the 2001-2002 influenza season, both influenza B lineages, B/Victoria-like viruses and B/Yamagata-like viruses have co-circulated in Europe...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
C Rizzo, A Bella
We describe the burden of influenza B infections in Italy over a 12-year study period. Influenza A and B viruses co-circulated throughout the period, with numbers of influenza B cases approaching or exceeding those of influenza A during three influenza seasons. Influenza B virus infections led to fewer admissions to an intensive care unit (ICU) and a lower mortality rate than influenza A from 2010 to 2015. However, only 16% of those admitted to ICU with influenza B had been immunized. This highlights the need for consistent influenza vaccination for identified risk groups...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
V Baldo, C Bertoncello, S Cocchio, M Fonzo, P Pillon, A Buja, T Baldovin
In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a pandemic alert concerning the spread of an influenza A (H1N1) virus that showed distinctive genetic characteristics vis-à-vis both seasonal influenza strains and vaccine strains. The main mutation occurred in the gene coding for hemagglutinin (HA). Mathematical models were developed to calculate the transmissibility of the virus; the results indicated a significant overlap with the transmissibility of previous pandemic strains and seasonal strains...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
C Costantino, F Vitale
Influenza, an infectious respiratory disease, is one of the main causes of excess winter deaths (EWDs) in Europe. Annual flu epidemics are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, especially among the elderly, those with underlying health conditions and pregnant women. Health Care Workers (HCWs) are also considered at high risk of both contracting influenza and spreading the virus to vulnerable patients. During the 2014/2015 season, the excess winter mortality rates observed in countries of the northern hemisphere (EuroMOMO network) and in Italy (+13%) were strongly related to the intensity of influenza circulation...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Gasparini, D Amicizia, P L Lai, D Panatto
Influenza is a serious public health problem, since seasonal epidemics affect approximately 5-10% of the population and thus give rise to a heavy social and healthcare burden. The heavy burden of disease is due to several factors, one of which is the biological features of the pathogen. Indeed influenza viruses display high mutation rates and undergo frequent genetic reassortment. Minor variations cause seasonal epidemics and major variations, which result from the hybridization of viruses typical of different animal species, can lead to pandemics...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
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