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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene

D Amicizia, F Zangrillo, P L Lai, M Iovine, D Panatto
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). JEV is transmitted by mosquitoes to a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including birds and mammals. Domestic animals, especially pigs, are generally implicated as reservoirs of the virus, while humans are not part of the natural transmission cycle and cannot pass the virus to other hosts. Although JEV infection is very common in endemic areas (many countries in Asia), less than 1% of people affected develop clinical disease, and severe disease affects about 1 case per 250 JEV infections...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Z Mohamad Azfar, S Mohd Nazri, A Mohamed Rusli, O Maizurah, W M Zahiruddin, Y N Azwany, I Nabilah, H Siti Asma, B D Aziah
Introduction: Many efforts have been done to reduce leptospirosis infections in Malaysia especially among high risk groups including town service workers. Town service workers are more likely to be exposed to the leptospiral infection resulting from their occupational activities. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in northeastern Malaysia involving 321 town service workers who were subjected to answer an interviewer-guided validated questionnaire which consists of sociodemographic, knowledge, attitude and practice information...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F NISTICò, G Troiano, N Nante, S Dei, P Piacentini
Introduction: A lot of drug groups are associated with preventable drug-related admissions. Coumarin derivatives, prescribed for the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism or prevention of systemic embolism or stroke in patients with prosthetic heart valves or atrial fibrillation, are often associated with bleeding. The aim of our study was to analyze how the anticoagulant therapy with VKAs could affects the hospitalizations and the visits to emergency room in the elderly population (> 65 years old)...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
F Petrelli, I Grappasonni, D Evangelista, P Pompei, G Broglia, P Cioffi, L Kracmarova, S Scuri
Introduction: The primary consumers of energy drinks were athletes, to combat fatigue, but in reality, thanks to their fast expansion and economic growth, young adults and teenagers represent the new target market. Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years, though they are often unaware of what is being ingested, believing to improve their physical and psychological performance. The literature shows contradictions about the capacity of energy drinks to enhance psychophysical results...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Scuri, F Petrelli, M Tesauro, F Carrozzo, L Kracmarova, I Grappasonni
Introduction: Energy drinks represent an emerging health problem among young people. Energy drinks generally refer to a class of beverages containing sugars and various combinations of bioactive ingredients such as caffeine, taurine etc. Also the mix of energy drinks with alcohol is fairly frequent among young people and could be associated with dangerous effects. Methods: In 2016-2017, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1581 students attending eight high school in the Marche Region...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Majori, S Pilati, D Gazzani, J Paiano, S Ferrari, A Sannino, E Checchin
Introduction: The consumption of energy drinks (ED) and ginseng by young people to enhance their mental and physical performance has become widespread. Reported side-effects of ED have raised doubts regarding their safety. This cross-sectional study investigates the phenomenon. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of Verona university students. The resulting data were analyzed with Excel 2013, STATA 13 software. Results: ED and ginseng consumption was reported by 38...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
J Hazart, M Blanquet, A Debost-Legrand, A Perreve, S Leger, V Martoia, S Maurice, G Brousse, L Gerbaud
Introduction: Students overestimate alcohol consumption of those around them and underestimate their own, so that quantitative approach may not be the most relevant to assess students' drinking. The main objective was to provide an appropriate tool for screening for students with potential drinking problems. Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was conducted by internet between February and June, 2013 in France. Thirteen questions explored alcohol consumption, including 8 concerning after-effects of drinking episodes (4 items of the AUDIT) and alcohol behaviour (CAGE test)...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
K D Tambalis, D B Panagiotakos, G Psarra, L S Sidossis
Introduction: The aim of the study is to present the most recent estimates of obesity (total and central) prevalence in Greek children and associated risk factors. Methods: Population data are derived from a yearly, school-based health survey polled in 2015 on 336,014 (51% boys) children aged 4 to 17 years old from almost 40% of all schools of primary and secondary education in Greece. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Gamaoun
Introduction: Epidemiological and biological arguments put papillomavirus infection (HPV) as a determining factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HPV prevention and cervical cancer screening among women living in the city of Sousse, Tunisia. Methods: Five hundred Tunisian women were interviewed face to face between May and June 2016. The questionnaire consisted in 14 questions relating participants' socio-demographic information, their awareness level, attitudes and practices regarding HPV and cervical cancer, including their understanding of the underlying cervical cancer etiology and preventive actions such as the Pap Smear test, and finally their acceptability and willingness to receive the anti-HPV vaccine under certain circumstances...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S B Abdel-Aziz, T Tawfik Amin, M Baqir Al-Gadeeb, A I Alhassar, A Al-Ramadan, M Al-Helal, M Bu-Mejdad, L Abdulaziz Al-Hamad, E Hussain Alkhalaf
Introduction: Screening for breast cancer (BC) is of low rate in Saudi Arabia; although it is provided in the country free of charge to the population. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the perceived barriers towards BC screening in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants and methods . A total of 816 adult Saudi women aged ≥ 30 years attending for routine primary health services or accompanying patients at the selected primary health care centers (PHCs) were randomly selected from 12 PHCs (8 urban and four rural) using multi-stage sampling method...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
V Gianfredi, D Nucci, T Salvatori, F Orlacchio, M Villarini, M Moretti
Vaccines recommendations are available for both healthcare professionals and the general public, but although the vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infectious diseases, the coverage is still behind the recommended rate. In Italy, according to a recent study, the anti-flu vaccination rate among healthcare worker range between 9% to 30%. The aim of our study was to identify knowledge, attitude and behaviours regarding influenza vaccination among community pharmacists in order to increase the coverage rate among healthcare professional...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M A Palamara, G Visalli, I Picerno, A DI Pietro, G Puglisi, F Marano, G D'Andrea, A FACCIOLà
Introduction: Measles continues to be a major public health issue worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality rates. The disease remains endemic in 14 European countries, including Italy where, from 2013 to 2016, over 5,000 cases have been reported. In 2017, many Italian regions, including Sicily, have reported many cases of measles. In this study, we described the latest measles outbreak in the city of Messina, from 1st February to 31st August 2017. Methods: We considered all reported measles cases that came to the "Public Health, Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine" Operative Unit of the Messina Provincial Health Agency Prevention Department, which receives all reported cases of measles in the Messina province...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
C M Trombetta, C Ulivieri, R J Cox, E J Remarque, C Centi, D Perini, G Piccini, S Rossi, S Marchi, E Montomoli
The influenza viruses have the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes by binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell. Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid linked to galactose by α 2.6 linkage, while avian influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid linked to Gal by α 2.3 linkage. There is a close correlation between the ability of influenza A viruses to agglutinate erythrocytes from different animal species and their receptor specificity. The haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition assays are influenced by the species of erythrocytes...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
A Adesewa, O Morenikeji
Waste generation is inevitable because humans continue to generate waste due to increase in population, urbanization and advancement in technology. This generation of waste is of public health concern especially when the waste materials are deposited on dumpsites. This study assessed the helminths and heavy metal content of Awotan dumpsite in Ibadan city. Surface soils (0-15cm depth) of the dumpsite were randomly sampled at different dumpsite areas with the aid of a quadrat. Helminth content was determined using the zinc floatation method and the heavy metal concentrations of the soil were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS)...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
H A Tegegne, H W W Phyo
A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 91 meat handlers by using structured questionnaire to determine the food safety knowledge, attitude and practices in abattoir and retail meat shops of Jigjiga Town. The result shows that majority of the meat handlers were illiterate (30.8%) and primary school leaver (52.7%), and no one went through any food safety training except one meat inspector. The food-handlers' knowledge and safety practices were below acceptable level with the mean score of 13.12 ± 2.33 and 7...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
M Sisti, G F Schiavano, M DE Santi, G Brandi
We investigated the effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVI) from a low-pressure mercury lamp on several pathogenic Aspergillus spp. including A. flavipes, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus and A. versicolor suspended in tap water under laboratory-scale conditions. It was shown that within 10 s of exposure, time species such as A. glaucus, A. niudulans and A. ustus were completely inactivated, while 40 s were needed for the elimination of all the species tested...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Ahmadrajabi, S Layegh-Khavidaki, D Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Y Fasihi
Introduction: Resistance to antibiotics and presence of virulence factors play an important role in increased mortality associated with infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we determine antibiotic resistance pattern, presence of the icaADBC locus as well as biofilm formation and distribution and diversity the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes in clinical isolate of S. aureus from Kerman, Iran. Materials and methods: During 15 months, 100 clinical isolates S...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
R Herruzo, G Ruiz, S Gallego, J Diez, A Sarria, F Omeñaca
Objective: We describe an outbreak of VIM-carbapenemase Klebsiella oxytoca (VIM-Kox) in a NICU. Materials and methods: Prospective Epidemiological Surveillance:Systematically (weekly screening cultures) or on admission, if the patient had a history of previous colonization by VIM-Kox.Clinical cultures, done if infection was suspected.Other possible microorganism sources were investigated: their mothers (rectal microbiota), milk packages and preparation apparata in the lactodietary section, echocardiagram transductors, cribs, the sinks (faucets and drains), washing bowls, etc...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
B Cohen, J Liu, E Larson
Introduction: National efforts to curtail healthcare-associated infections (HAI) proliferated recently, though data detailing progress over time are limited. This retrospective cohort study aims to describe changes in incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of HAI in four New York City hospitals over seven years. Methods: Electronic data were collected retrospectively for all patients discharged from 2006 through 2012. Previously validated computerized algorithms based on National Healthcare Safety Network criteria detected bloodstream infections, pneumonia, surgical site infections, and urinary tract infections with Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
S Pati, A S Chauhan, S Mahapatra, R Sinha, S Pati
Introduction: Health promotion is an integral part of routine clinical practice. The physicians' role in improving the health status of the general population, through effective understanding and delivery of health promotion practice, is evident throughout the international literature. Data from India suggest that physicians have limited skills in delivering specific health promotion services. However, the data available on this is scarce. This study was planned to document the current health promotion knowledge, perception and practices of local primary care physicians in Odisha...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
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