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Current Topics in Membranes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863825/acknowledgments
#1
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863824/preface
#2
EDITORIAL
Irena Levitan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863823/the-role-of-cholesterol-in-the-activation-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#3
John E Baenziger, Jaimee A Domville, J P Daniel Therien
Cholesterol is a potent modulator of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo. Here, we review current understanding of the mechanisms underlying cholesterol-nAChR interactions in the context of increasingly available high-resolution structural and functional data. Cholesterol and other lipids influence function by conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of activatable vs nonactivatable conformations, as well as influencing the rates of transitions between conformational states...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863822/regulation-of-ca-2-sensitive-k-channels-by-cholesterol-and-bile-acids-via-distinct-channel-subunits-and-sites
#4
Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya
Cholesterol (CLR) conversion into bile acids (BAs) in the liver constitutes the major pathway for CLR elimination from the body. Moreover, these steroids regulate each other's metabolism. While the roles of CLR and BAs in regulating metabolism and tissue function are well known, research of the last two decades revealed the existence of specific protein receptors for CLR or BAs in tissues with minor contribution to lipid metabolism, raising the possibility that these lipids serve as signaling molecules throughout the body...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863821/relevance-of-carc-and-crac-cholesterol-recognition-motifs-in-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-other-membrane-bound-receptors
#5
Coralie Di Scala, Carlos J Baier, Luke S Evans, Philip T F Williamson, Jacques Fantini, Francisco J Barrantes
Cholesterol is a ubiquitous neutral lipid, which finely tunes the activity of a wide range of membrane proteins, including neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and ion channels. Given the scarcity of available X-ray crystallographic structures and the even fewer in which cholesterol sites have been directly visualized, application of in silico computational methods remains a valid alternative for the detection and thermodynamic characterization of cholesterol-specific sites in functionally important membrane proteins...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863820/sterol-regulation-of-voltage-gated-k-channels
#6
Andras Balajthy, Peter Hajdu, Gyorgy Panyi, Zoltan Varga
Cholesterol is an essential lipid building block of the cellular plasma membrane. In addition to its structural role, it regulates the fluidity and raft structure of the membrane and influences the course of numerous membrane-linked signaling pathways and the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels. This is supported by a vast body of scientific data, which demonstrates the modulation of ion channels with a great variety of ion selectivity, gating, and tissue distribution by changes in membrane cholesterol...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863819/differential-effects-of-sterols-on-ion-channels-stereospecific-binding-vs-stereospecific-response
#7
Nicolas Barbera, Manuela A A Ayee, Belinda S Akpa, Irena Levitan
Numerous ion channels have been shown to be regulated by the level of membrane cholesterol, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects are still not well understood. The key question in the field is how to discriminate between the contributions of the two central mechanisms that might be responsible for the sensitivity of ion channels to cholesterol: specific sterol-protein interactions or regulation of channels by the bilayer physical properties. Comparative analysis of cholesterol and its isomers on the function of an ion channel is a powerful tool to achieve this goal...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863818/depletion-of-membrane-cholesterol-suppresses-drosophila-transient-receptor-potential-like-trpl-channel-activity
#8
Maximilian Peters, Ben Katz, Shaya Lev, Rachel Zaguri, Rita Gutorov, Baruch Minke
Cholesterol is an essential compound of higher eukaryotic cell membranes and a known modulator of ion channel activity. Changes in phospholipids and cholesterol composition of cell membranes are known to alter the activity of ion channels. However, there is little knowledge on the effects of cholesterol on transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this study, we explore the effects of cholesterol depletion on the Drosophila photoreceptor channel TRP-like (TRPL), when expressed in tissue culture cells...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863817/regulation-of-p2x-purinergic-receptor-signaling-by-cholesterol
#9
Ruth D Murrell-Lagnado
P2X receptors are cation-selective channels that are activated by the binding of extracellular ATP. They have a high permeability to Ca(2+), Na(+), and K(+) and are expressed widely throughout the nervous, immune, cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine systems. Seven mammalian subtypes of P2X receptor subunits have been identified, P2X1-7, and those that function as homotrimeric receptors (P2X1, 2, 3, 4, and 7) are targeted to lipid rafts, although they show limited resistance to solubilization by Triton X-100...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863816/insights-into-the-molecular-requirements-for-cholesterol-binding-to-ion-channels
#10
Avia Rosenhouse-Dantsker
The concept that cholesterol binds to proteins via specific binding motifs, and thereby modulates their function, has emerged two decades ago. When we recently embarked on studies to uncover the putative binding region(s) of cholesterol in the Kir2.1 channel, we carried out an unbiased approach that combines computational and experimental methods. This approach resulted in the identification of novel cholesterol-binding regions distinct from known cholesterol-binding motifs. In recent years, a plethora of structures of proteins complexed with cholesterol have been determined revealing variegated cholesterol-binding regions that can provide invaluable insights into the prerequisites for cholesterol binding...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863815/direct-interactions-of-cholesterol-with-pentameric-ligand-gated-ion-channels-testable-hypotheses-from-computational-predictions
#11
Grace Brannigan
Several essential ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, including the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABAAr), belong to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). Function of these receptors is particularly sensitive to their lipid environment, including cholesterol and cholesterol-derived neurosteroids. Direct structural data investigating interactions between sterols and pLGICs, as well as their role in modulatory mechanisms, are largely unavailable...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863814/multiple-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-ion-channels-by-cholesterol
#12
Sara L Morales-Lázaro, Tamara Rosenbaum
The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels is constituted by several nonselective cation channels that are activated by diverse stimuli and that function as polymodal receptors. TRP ion channels are expressed in neural and nonneural tissues where they play important roles in cell physiology. The activation of these ion channels is achieved through changes in temperature, osmolarity, voltage, pH, pressure, and by some natural or synthetic chemical compounds that directly bind to these proteins to regulate their activity...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728826/preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Philip A Gottlieb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728825/genetic-diseases-of-piezo1-and-piezo2-dysfunction
#14
S L Alper
Mutations in the genes encoding the mechanosensitive cation channels PIEZO1 and PIEZO2 are responsible for multiple hereditary human diseases. Loss-of-function mutations in the human PIEZO1 gene cause autosomal recessive congenital lymphatic dysplasia. Gain-of-function mutations in the human PIEZO1 gene cause the autosomal dominant hemolytic anemia, hereditary xerocytosis (also known as dehydrated stomatocytosis). Loss-of-function mutations in the human PIEZO2 gene cause an autosomal recessive syndrome of muscular atrophy with perinatal respiratory distress, arthrogryposis, and scoliosis...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728824/origin-of-the-force-the-force-from-lipids-principle-applied-to-piezo-channels
#15
C D Cox, N Bavi, B Martinac
Piezo channels are a ubiquitously expressed, principal type of molecular force sensor in eukaryotes. They enable cells to decode a myriad of physical stimuli and are essential components of numerous mechanosensory processes. Central to their physiological role is the ability to change conformation in response to mechanical force. Here we discuss the evolutionary origin of Piezo in relation to other MS channels in addition to the force that gates Piezo channels. In particular, we discuss whether Piezo channels are inherently mechanosensitive in accordance with the force-from-lipid paradigm which has been firmly established for bacterial MS channels and two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channels...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728823/piezo1-channels-in-vascular-development-and-the-sensing-of-shear-stress
#16
A J Hyman, S Tumova, D J Beech
A critical point in mammalian development occurs before mid-embryogenesis when the heart starts to beat, pushing blood into the nascent endothelial lattice. This pushing force is a signal, detected by endothelial cells as a frictional force (shear stress) to trigger cellular changes that underlie the essential processes of vascular remodeling and expansion required for embryonic growth. The processes are complex and multifactorial and Piezo1 became a recognized player only 2years ago, 4years after Piezo1's initial discovery as a functional membrane protein...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728822/a-microfluidic-approach-for-studying-piezo-channels
#17
M M Maneshi, P A Gottlieb, S Z Hua
Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728821/the-kinetics-and-the-permeation-properties-of-piezo-channels
#18
R Gnanasambandam, P A Gottlieb, F Sachs
Piezo channels are eukaryotic, cation-selective mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which show rapid activation and voltage-dependent inactivation. The kinetics of these channels are largely consistent across multiple cell types and different stimulation paradigms with some minor variability. No accessory subunits that associate with Piezo channels have been reported. They are homotrimers and each ∼300kD monomer has an N-terminal propeller blade-like mechanosensing module, which can confer mechanosensing capabilities on ASIC-1 (the trimeric non-MSC, acid-sensing ion channel-1) and a C-terminal pore module, which influences conductance, selectivity, and channel inactivation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728820/role-of-piezo-channels-in-joint-health-and-injury
#19
W Lee, F Guilak, W Liedtke
Cartilage is an intrinsically mechanically sensitive tissue composed of chondrocytes as the only cell type. Chondrocyte mechanotransduction is not well understood, but recently we identified critical components of the mechanotransduction machinery demonstrating how mechanical stimulation of these cells can be converted into cellular calcium signals. Physiologic mechanical cues induce anabolic responses of (post-mitotic) chondrocytes via transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 ion channels, whereas injurious mechanical stress is transduced by Piezo1 jointly with Piezo2 ion channels...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728819/regulation-of-piezo-channels-by-cellular-signaling-pathways
#20
I Borbiro, T Rohacs
The recently identified mechanically activated Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels play major roles in various aspects of mechanosensation in mammals, and their mutations are associated with human diseases. Recent reports show that activation of cell surface receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gq proteins increase the sensitivity of Piezo2 channels to mechanical stimuli. Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway was also shown to potentiate Piezo2 channel activity. This phenomenon may play a role in mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia during inflammation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
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