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PharmacoEconomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210864/pharmacy-benefit-management-companies-do-they-create-value-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#1
Alan Lyles
Pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) perform functions in the US market-based healthcare system that may be performed by public agencies or quasi-public institutions in other nations. By aggregating lives covered under their many individual contracts with payers, PBMs have formidable negotiating power. They influence pharmaceutical insurance coverage, design the terms of coverage in a plan's drug benefit, and create competition among providers for inclusion in a plan's network. PBMs have, through intermediation, the potential to secure lower drug prices and to improve rational prescribing...
February 16, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205150/the-potential-cost-effectiveness-of-different-dengue-vaccination-programmes-in-malaysia-a-value-based-pricing-assessment-using-dynamic-transmission-mathematical-modelling
#2
Asrul Akmal Shafie, Hui Yee Yeo, Laurent Coudeville, Lucas Steinberg, Balvinder Singh Gill, Rohani Jahis, Amar-Singh Hss
BACKGROUND: Dengue disease poses a great economic burden in Malaysia. METHODS: This study evaluated the cost effectiveness and impact of dengue vaccination in Malaysia from both provider and societal perspectives using a dynamic transmission mathematical model. The model incorporated sensitivity analyses, Malaysia-specific data, evidence from recent phase III studies and pooled efficacy and long-term safety data to refine the estimates from previous published studies...
February 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205149/making-implicit-assumptions-explicit-in-the-costing-of-informal-care-the-case-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-ireland
#3
Paul Hanly, Rebecca Maguire, Myles Balfe, Eleanor O'Sullivan, Linda Sharp
BACKGROUND: From a health service perspective, informal care is often viewed as a potentially cost-effective way of transferring costs out of the formal healthcare sector. However, informal care is not a free resource. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the impact of alternative valuation methods and key assumptions on the cost of informal care. METHODS: Informal carers who assisted in the care of a head and neck cancer survivor for at least 1 year were sent a postal questionnaire during January-June 2014 requesting information on time spent on caring tasks in the month prior to the survey...
February 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185212/economic-evaluations-of-new-oral-anticoagulants-for-the-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism-after-total-hip-or-knee-replacement-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
James Brockbank, Sorrel Wolowacz
BACKGROUND: Total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries are being performed with increasing regularity and are associated with a high risk of developing a venous thromboembolism (VTE). New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be more effective at preventing VTEs but are associated with more bleeding events versus traditional anticoagulants. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify published economic analyses of NOACs for primary VTE prophylaxis following THR and TKR surgeries, and to summarise the modelling techniques used and the cost-effectiveness results...
February 10, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176188/adalimumab-for-treating-moderate-to-severe-hidradenitis-suppurativa-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#5
REVIEW
Paul Tappenden, Christopher Carroll, John W Stevens, Andrew Rawdin, Sabine Grimm, Mark Clowes, Eva Kaltenthaler, John R Ingram, Fiona Collier, Mohammad Ghazavi
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of adalimumab (AbbVie) to submit evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adalimumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The appraisal assessed adalimumab as monotherapy in adult patients with an inadequate response to conventional systemic HS therapy. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
February 7, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110382/economic-evaluations-alongside-efficient-study-designs-using-large-observational-datasets-the-pleasant-trial-case-study
#6
Matthew Franklin, Sarah Davis, Michelle Horspool, Wei Sun Kua, Steven Julious
BACKGROUND: Large observational datasets such as Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) provide opportunities to conduct clinical studies and economic evaluations with efficient designs. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to report the economic evaluation methodology for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a UK NHS-delivered public health intervention for children with asthma that was evaluated using CPRD and describe the impact of this methodology on results...
January 21, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063084/methodological-issues-surrounding-the-use-of-baseline-health-related-quality-of-life-data-to-inform-trial-based-economic-evaluations-of-interventions-within-emergency-and-critical-care-settings-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Melina Dritsaki, Felix Achana, James Mason, Stavros Petrou
BACKGROUND: Trial-based cost-utility analyses require health-related quality of life data that generate utility values in order to express health outcomes in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Assessments of baseline health-related quality of life are problematic where trial participants are incapacitated or critically ill at the time of randomisation. This review aims to identify and critique methods for handling non-availability of baseline health-related quality of life data in trial-based cost-utility analyses within emergency and critical illness settings...
January 6, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063083/can-mapping-algorithms-based-on-raw-scores-overestimate-qalys-gained-by-treatment-a-comparison-of-mappings-between-the-roland-morris-disability-questionnaire-and-the-eq-5d-3l-based-on-raw-and-differenced-score-data
#8
Jason Madan, Kamran A Khan, Stavros Petrou, Sarah E Lamb
INTRODUCTION: Mapping algorithms are increasingly being used to predict health-utility values based on responses or scores from non-preference-based measures, thereby informing economic evaluations. OBJECTIVES: We explored whether predictions in the EuroQol 5-dimension 3-level instrument (EQ-5D-3L) health-utility gains from mapping algorithms might differ if estimated using differenced versus raw scores, using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), a widely used health status measure for low back pain, as an example...
January 6, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039617/measuring-care-related-quality-of-life-of-caregivers-for-use-in-economic-evaluations-carerqol-tariffs-for-australia-germany-sweden-uk-and-us
#9
Renske J Hoefman, Job van Exel, Werner B F Brouwer
BACKGROUND: Informal care is often not included in economic evaluations in healthcare, while the impact of caregiving can be relevant for cost-effectiveness recommendations from a societal perspective. The impact of informal care can be measured and valued with the CarerQol instrument, which measures the impact of informal care on seven important burden dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and values this in terms of general quality of life (CarerQol-VAS). The CarerQol can be included at the effect side of multi-criteria analyses of patient interventions or in cost-effectiveness or utility analysis of interventions targeted at caregivers...
December 31, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039616/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-nintedanib-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-the-uk
#10
C Rinciog, M Watkins, S Chang, T M Maher, C LeReun, D Esser, A Diamantopoulos
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend nintedanib (OFEV(®)) as an option for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of nintedanib versus pirfenidone, N-acetylcysteine and best supportive care (BSC) for the treatment of IPF from a UK payer's perspective. METHODS: A Markov model was designed to capture the changes in the condition of adults with IPF...
December 31, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000158/a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-economic-evaluations-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-people-with-bipolar-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Ifigeneia Mavranezouli, Joran Lokkerbol
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mood disorder that causes substantial psychological and financial burden. Various pharmacological treatments are effective in the management and prevention of acute episodes of BD. In an era of tighter healthcare budgets and a need for more efficient use of resources, several economic evaluations have evaluated the cost effectiveness of treatments for BD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review and appraise published economic evaluations of pharmacological interventions for BD...
December 20, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975196/economic-studies-in-motor-neurone-disease-a-systematic-methodological-review
#12
REVIEW
Alan Moore, Carolyn A Young, Dyfrig A Hughes
BACKGROUND: Motor neurone disease (MND) is a devastating condition which greatly diminishes patients' quality of life and limits life expectancy. Health technology appraisals of future interventions in MND need robust data on costs and utilities. Existing economic evaluations have been noted to be limited and fraught with challenges. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and critique methodological aspects of all published economic evaluations, cost studies, and utility studies in MND...
December 14, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943135/degarelix-for-treating-advanced-hormone-dependent-prostate-cancer-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#13
REVIEW
Lesley Uttley, Sophie Whyte, Timothy Gomersall, Shijie Ren, Ruth Wong, Duncan Chambers, Paul Tappenden
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal Process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of degarelix (Ferring Pharmaceuticals) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of degarelix for the treatment of advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission to NICE...
December 10, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928760/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-prophylaxis-treatment-strategies-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-febrile-neutropenia-in-patients-with-early-stage-breast-cancer-or-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#14
Kelly Fust, Xiaoyan Li, Michael Maschio, Guillermo Villa, Anju Parthan, Richard Barron, Milton C Weinstein, Luc Somers, Caroline Hoefkens, Gary H Lyman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of no prophylaxis, primary prophylaxis (PP), or secondary prophylaxis (SP) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs), i.e., pegfilgrastim, lipegfilgrastim, filgrastim (6- and 11-day), or lenograstim (6- and 11-day), to reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with stage II breast cancer receiving TC (docetaxel, cyclophosphamide) and in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) receiving R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) over a lifetime horizon from a Belgian payer perspective...
December 7, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928758/mapping-chu9d-utility-scores-from-the-pedsql-tm-4-0-sf-15
#15
Christine Mpundu-Kaambwa, Gang Chen, Remo Russo, Katherine Stevens, Karin Dam Petersen, Julie Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Short Form 15 Generic Core Scales (hereafter the PedsQL) and the Child Health Utility-9 Dimensions (CHU9D) are two generic instruments designed to measure health-related quality of life in children and adolescents in the general population and paediatric patient groups living with specific health conditions. Although the PedsQL is widely used among paediatric patient populations, presently it is not possible to directly use the scores from the instrument to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for application in economic evaluation because it produces summary scores which are not preference-based...
December 7, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873225/how-consistent-is-the-relationship-between-improved-glucose-control-and-modelled-health-outcomes-for-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-%C3%A2-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Xinyang Hua, Thomas Wai-Chun Lung, Andrew Palmer, Lei Si, William H Herman, Philip Clarke
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of studies using simulation models to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses for type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between improvements in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and simulated health outcomes in type 2 diabetes cost-effectiveness studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE and EMBASE to collect cost-effectiveness studies using type 2 diabetes simulation models that reported modelled health outcomes of blood glucose-related interventions in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) or life expectancy (LE)...
March 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838912/emergent-challenges-in-determining-costs-for-economic-evaluations
#17
Josephine C Jacobs, Paul G Barnett
This paper describes methods of determining costs for economic evaluations of healthcare and considers how cost determination is being affected by recent developments in healthcare. The literature was reviewed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the four principal methods of cost determination: micro-costing, activity-based costing, charge-based costing, and gross costing. A scoping review was conducted to identify key trends in healthcare delivery and to identify costing issues associated with these changes...
February 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798809/a-review-of-us-drug-costs-relevant-to-medicare-medicaid-and-commercial-insurers-post-affordable-care-act-enactment-2010-2016
#18
REVIEW
Jacquelyn McRae, F Randy Vogenberg, Silky Webb Beaty, Elizabeth Mearns, Stefan Varga, Laura Pizzi
Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, US stakeholders are increasingly being held accountable for the value of healthcare services and drugs administered to patients. Pharmacoeconomic analyses offer one method of demonstrating a product's value, yet there is a lack of resources specific to US drug costs relevant to each stakeholder. The aim of this study was to review current US drug costs (post-ACA). A literature review aimed at finding evidence on outpatient prescription drug costs was performed using the following sources: PubMed, governmental agencies, news websites, the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) website, and Google Scholar...
February 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798808/economic-evaluation-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-model-frameworks-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#19
Erik Landfeldt, Lars Alfredsson, Volker Straub, Hanns Lochmüller, Katharine Bushby, Peter Lindgren
BACKGROUND: Several treatments are on the horizon for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a terminal orphan disease. In many jurisdictions, decisions regarding pricing and reimbursement of these health technologies comprise evidence of value for money. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a cost-effectiveness model based on the Duchenne muscular dystrophy Functional Ability Self-Assessment Tool (DMDSAT), a new rating scale created specifically to measure disease progression in clinical practice and trials and model DMD in economic evaluations, and compare it with two alternative model structures...
February 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787744/simulation-modelling-in-ophthalmology-application-to-cost-effectiveness-of-ranibizumab-and-aflibercept-for-the-treatment-of-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-the-united-kingdom
#20
Lindsay Claxton, Robert Hodgson, Matthew Taylor, Bill Malcolm, Ruth Pulikottil Jacob
BACKGROUND: Previously developed models in ophthalmology have generally used a Markovian structure. There are a number of limitations with this approach, most notably the ability to base patient outcomes on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in both eyes, which may be overcome using a different modelling structure. Simulation modelling allows for this to be modelled more precisely, and therefore may provide more accurate and relevant estimates of the cost effectiveness of ophthalmology interventions...
February 2017: PharmacoEconomics
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