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José Leal, Stefania Manetti, James Buchanan
BACKGROUND: Several methods exist to cost hospital contacts when estimating the cost effectiveness of a new intervention. However, the implications of choosing a particular approach remain unclear. We compare the use of the three main diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based national unit costs in England to determine whether choice of approach can impact on economic evaluation results. METHODS: A cost-utility model was developed to compare secondary fracture prevention models of care for hip fracture patients, using data from large primary and hospital care administrative datasets in England...
May 22, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Arthur E Attema, Werner B F Brouwer, Karl Claxton
Appropriate discounting rules in economic evaluations have received considerable attention in the literature and in national guidelines for economic evaluations. Rightfully so, as discounting can be quite influential on the outcomes of economic evaluations. The most prominent controversies regarding discounting involve the basis for and height of the discount rate, whether costs and effects should be discounted at the same rate, and whether discount rates should decline or stay constant over time. Moreover, the choice for discount rules depends on the decision context one adopts as the most relevant...
May 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Max J Korman, Kjetil Retterstøl, Ivar Sønbø Kristiansen, Torbjørn Wisløff
The objective of this study was to review available health economic evaluations of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors. These drugs reduce low-density lipid cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk, but their cost effectiveness has been questioned. We searched Medline and Embase for economic evaluations in any language at any time. Studies were included if they analysed any PCSK9 inhibitor compared with either statin alone or in combination with ezetimibe or any other therapy considered standard prior to the introduction of PCSK9 inhibitors...
May 18, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Jesse Elliott, Bláthnaid McCoy, Tammy Clifford, George A Wells, Doug Coyle
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic form of pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy with few effective treatment options. Stiripentol is approved for use in Canada for treatment of Dravet syndrome, but the associated long-term costs and benefits have not been well-studied and its cost effectiveness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of stiripentol as an adjunctive treatment to clobazam and valproate for treatment of Dravet syndrome from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare payer...
May 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
T Joseph Mattingly, Joseph F Levy, Julia F Slejko, Nneka C Onwudiwe, Eleanor M Perfetto
BACKGROUND: Drug costs are frequently estimated in economic analyses using wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), but what is the best approach to develop these estimates? Pharmaceutical manufacturers recently released transparency reports disclosing net price increases after accounting for rebates and other discounts. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether manufacturer net prices (MNPs) could approximate the discounted prices observed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...
May 12, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Stavros Petrou, Joseph Kwon, Jason Madan
Economic analysts are increasingly likely to rely on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of health state utility values to inform the parameter inputs of decision-analytic modelling-based economic evaluations. Beyond the context of economic evaluation, evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of health state utility values can be used to inform broader health policy decisions. This paper provides practical guidance on how to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of health state utility values...
May 10, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Nancy Devlin, John Brazier, A Simon Pickard, Elly Stolk
The article 3L, 5L, What the L? A NICE Conundrum Written by Nancy Devlin, John Brazier, A. Simon Pickard, Elly Stolk was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently Springer Link) on (26th February, 2018) without open access.
May 10, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Feng Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
R Brett McQueen, Danielle N Sheehan, Melanie D Whittington, Job F M van Boven, Jonathan D Campbell
BACKGROUND: Recently developed asthma biological therapies have been shown to provide relief for severe asthma patients not controlled by inhaled treatment. Given the relatively high costs of biological therapies, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) may be required as a prerequisite for coverage and reimbursement. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review published literature on the economic impact of biological asthma therapies and to identify key drivers that impact cost-effectiveness in order to provide recommendations for future economic evaluations...
May 8, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Becky Pennington, Alex Filby, Lesley Owen, Matthew Taylor
BACKGROUND: Most economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions have used cohort state-transition models. Discrete event simulations (DESs) have been proposed as a superior approach. OBJECTIVE: We developed a state-transition model and a DES using the discretely integrated condition event (DICE) framework and compared the cost-effectiveness results. We performed scenario analysis using the DES to explore the impact of alternative assumptions. METHODS: The models estimated the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the intervention and comparator from the perspective of the UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services over a lifetime horizon...
May 8, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Ena Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Sonya J Snedecor
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom-driven condition with economic burden estimated to be on the order of several hundred dollars or euros per patient in some North American and European countries. This work reviews recently published economic models to evaluate how health states are defined, what cost components are considered, and what utility values are used to estimate the cost effectiveness of OAB pharmacotherapies, botulinum toxin, or sacral neuromodulation. It was found that no clear standard exists for determining OAB health states, although most were defined by some measure of incontinence frequency...
May 4, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Hui Shao, Vivian Fonseca, Charles Stoecker, Shuqian Liu, Lizheng Shi
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to update diabetes prediction, which has relied on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) that dates back to 1970 s' European populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a risk engine with multiple risk equations using a recent patient cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus reflective of the US population. METHODS: A total of 17 risk equations for predicting diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular events, hypoglycemia, mortality, and progression of diabetes risk factors were estimated using the data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial (n = 10,251)...
May 3, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Verin Lertjanyakun, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Susumu Kunisawa, Yuichi Imanaka
BACKGROUND: Exemestane (EXE), exemestane + everolimus (EXE + EVE), toremifene (TOR), and fulvestrant (FUL) are second-line endocrine therapies for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive (HR +)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2 -) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in Japan. Although the efficacy of these therapies has been shown in recent studies, cost-effectiveness has not yet been determined in Japan. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of second-line endocrine therapies for the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR + and HER2 - mBC...
April 30, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Mark Pennington, Paul McCrone
INTRODUCTION: Medication non-adherence is a serious barrier to treatment of schizophrenia. Understanding the impact of non-adherence on costs is essential to the assessment of the cost effectiveness of interventions in which adherence to treatment is a concern. OBJECTIVES: We undertook a comprehensive review of the available literature on the impact on costs of non-adherence to antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: We performed a search on multiple databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Health Management Information Consortium) for any study reporting the impact of adherence to antipsychotics on costs in patients with schizophrenia up to February 2018...
April 26, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Micah Rose, Jonathan Shepherd, Petra Harris, Karen Pickett, Joanne Lord
The manufacturer of the calcimimetic drug etelcalcetide was invited to make an evidence submission as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal (STA) programme. Within this submission, they reported evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of etelcalcetide for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on haemodialysis. The Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre (SHTAC), part of the Wessex Institute at the University of Southampton, was the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG) commissioned to appraise the company's submission...
April 25, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Chan Shen, Arvind Dasari, Dian Gu, Yiyi Chu, Shouhao Zhou, Ying Xu, Daniel Halperin, Shuangshuang Fu, James C Yao, Ya-Chen Tina Shih
BACKGROUND: The incidence and prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have been steadily rising. NETs can arise in various parts of the body and have distinct pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and survival compared to other neoplasms. The magnitude of the economic burden of NETs is largely unknown. This study aimed to estimate the cost of illness for NETs among elderly patients based on a large amount of observational data. METHODS: We estimated the direct medical costs by phase of care using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, including claims from January 1, 2002 through to December 31, 2012...
April 23, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Baptiste Leurent, Manuel Gomes, Rita Faria, Stephen Morris, Richard Grieve, James R Carpenter
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) of randomised controlled trials are a key source of information for health care decision makers. Missing data are, however, a common issue that can seriously undermine their validity. A major concern is that the chance of data being missing may be directly linked to the unobserved value itself [missing not at random (MNAR)]. For example, patients with poorer health may be less likely to complete quality-of-life questionnaires. However, the extent to which this occurs cannot be ascertained from the data at hand...
April 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Didik Setiawan, Abrham Wondimu, KohJun Ong, Albert Jan van Hoek, Maarten J Postma
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men require special attention for human papillomavirus vaccination given elevated infection risks and the development of, in particular, anal cancer. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to review the cost effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for both currently vaccine-eligible and non-eligible individuals, particularly the men-who-have-sex-with-men population, and synthesize the available evidence. METHODS: We systematically searched for published articles in two main databases (PubMed and EMBASE)...
April 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Brendan Mulhern, Yan Feng, Koonal Shah, Mathieu F Janssen, Michael Herdman, Ben van Hout, Nancy Devlin
The article Comparing the UK EQ-5D-3L and English EQ-5D-5L Value Sets, written by Brendan Mulhern, Yan Feng, Koonal Shah, Mathieu F. Janssen, Michael Herdman, Ben van Hout, Nancy Devlin was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on February 23, 2018 without open access.
April 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
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