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Faraday Discussions

A Robert Hillman, Karl S Ryder, Hani K Ismail, Asuman Unal, Annelies Voorhaar
Electroactive films based on conducting polymers have numerous potential applications, but practical devices frequently require a combination of properties not met by a single component. This has prompted an extension to composite materials, notably those in which particulates are immobilised within a polymer film. Irrespective of the polymer and the intended application, film wetting is important: by various means, it facilitates transport processes - of electronic charge, charge-balancing counter ions ("dopant") and analyte/reactant molecules - and motion of polymer segments...
May 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Leif Hammarström, Jose Martinez, Richard Cogdell, Kristine Rodulfo Tolod, Alexander Kibler, Haruo Inoue, Devens Gust, Flavia Cassiola, Daniel Nocera, Osamu Ishitani, Fabio Di Fonzo, Kazunari Domen, Tohru Setoyama, Akihiko Kudo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Vincent Artero, Leif Hammarström, Fengtao Fan, Dong Ryeol Whang, Jose Martinez, Anthony Harriman, Takumi Noguchi, Joshua Karlsson, Peter Summers, Shigeru Itoh, Richard Cogdell, Alexander Kibler, Johannes Ehrmaier, Hitoshi Tamiaki, Etsuko Fujita, Seigo Shima, Shunya Yoshino, Haruo Inoue, Michael Wasielewski, Thomas Corry, Devens Gust, Flavia Cassiola, Hitoshi Ishida, Katsuhiko Takagi, Sang Ook Kang, Can Li, Licheng Sun, Hyunwoong Park, Hideki Hashimoto, Yutaka Amao, Eun Jin Son, Nobuo Kamiya, Jian-Ren Shen, Kizashi Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Mei Wang, Vincent Artero, Leif Hammarström, Jose Martinez, Joshua Karlsson, Devens Gust, Peter Summers, Charles Machan, Peter Brueggeller, Christopher D Windle, Yosuke Kageshima, Richard Cogdell, Kristine Rodulfo Tolod, Alexander Kibler, Dogukan Hazar Apaydin, Etsuko Fujita, Johannes Ehrmaier, Seigo Shima, Elizabeth Gibson, Ferdi Karadas, Anthony Harriman, Haruo Inoue, Akihiko Kudo, Tomoaki Takayama, Michael Wasielewski, Flavia Cassiola, Masayuki Yagi, Hitoshi Ishida, Federico Franco, Sang Ook Kang, Daniel Nocera, Can Li, Fabio Di Fonzo, Hyunwoong Park, Licheng Sun, Tohru Setoyama, Young Soo Kang, Osamu Ishitani, Jian-Ren Shen, Ho-Jin Son, Shigeyuki Masaoka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Hiromu Kumagai, Leif Hammarström, Dong Ryeol Whang, Yuki Shinohara, Jose Martinez, Joshua Karlsson, Peter Summers, Christopher D Windle, Masanori Kodera, Richard Cogdell, Kristine Rodulfo Tolod, Dogukan Hazar Apaydin, Etsuko Fujita, Alexander Kibler, Fengtao Fan, Elizabeth A Gibson, Hisanao Usami, Akihide Iwase, Haruo Inoue, Akihiko Kudo, Devens Gust, Kazunari Domen, Flavia Cassiola, Katsuhiko Takagi, Sang Ook Kang, Akira Yamakata, Can Li, Licheng Sun, Hyunwoong Park, Young Soo Kang, Rengui Li, Fabio Di Fonzo, Tohru Setoyama, Osamu Ishitani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Leif Hammarström
This paper derives from my closing remarks lecture at the 198(th) Faraday Discussion meeting on Artificial Photosynthesis, Kyoto, Japan, February 28-March 2. The meeting had sessions on biological approaches and fundamental processes, molecular catalysts, inorganic assembly catalysts, and integration of systems for demonstrating realistic devices. The field has had much progress since the previous Faraday Discussion on Artificial Photosynthesis in Edinburgh, UK, in 2011. This paper is a personal account of recent discussions and developments in the field, as reflected in and discussed during the meeting...
May 19, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Nico E A Cousens, Anthony R J Kucernak
Electrowetting-on-dielectric devices typically have operating voltages of 10-20 V. A reduction in the operating voltage could greatly reduce the energy consumption of these devices. Herein, fully reversible one-electrolyte electrowetting of a droplet on a solid metal surface is reported for the first time. A reversible change of 29° for an 800 mV step is achieved. The effects of surface roughness, electrolyte composition, electrolyte concentration and droplet composition are investigated. It was found that there is a dramatic dependence of the reversibility and hysteresis of the system on these parameters, contrary to theoretical predictions...
May 5, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Kelsey B Hatzell, Jens Eller, Samantha L Morelly, Maureen H Tang, Nicolas J Alvarez, Yury Gogotsi
Understanding electrical percolation and charging mechanisms in electrochemically active biphasic flowable electrodes is critical for enabling scalable deionization (desalination) and energy storage. Flowable electrodes are dynamic material systems which store charge (remove ions) and have the ability to flow. This flow process can induce structural changes in the underlying material arrangement and result in transient and non-uniform material properties. Carbon-based suspensions are opaque, multi-phase, and three dimensional, and thus prior characterization of the structural properties has been limited to indirect methods (electrochemical and rheology)...
May 5, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Rodolfo Ostilla-Mónico, Alpha A Lee
Reversible in operando control of friction is an unsolved challenge that is crucial to industrial tribology. Recent studies show that at low sliding velocities, this control can be achieved by applying an electric field across electrolyte lubricants. However, the phenomenology at high sliding velocities is yet unknown. In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic friction across electrolytes under shear beyond the transition to turbulence. We develop a novel, highly parallelised numerical method for solving the coupled Navier-Stokes Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation...
May 4, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Elisabeth Smela
The field of soft robots would benefit from electrically controlled contractile actuators in the form of fibers that achieve a strain of 20% in less than a second while exerting high force. This work explores possible designs for achieving this goal using self-contained electroosmotic fluid pumping within a tube-shaped structure. The most promising configuration is a combination of a bellows and a McKibben-type muscle, since pumping fluid from the former to the latter results in contraction of both portions...
May 4, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Alpha A Lee, Carla S Perez-Martinez, Alexander M Smith, Susan Perkin
Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes...
May 3, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Grégoire C Gschwend, Evgeny Smirnov, Pekka Peljo, Hubert H Girault
Control over the physical properties of nanoparticle assemblies at a liquid-liquid interface is a key technological advancement to realize the dream of smart electrovariable nanosystems. Electrified interfaces, such as the interface between two immiscible electrolytes solutions (ITIES), are almost an ideal platform for realizing this dream. Here, we show that the Galvani potential difference across soft interfaces can be effectively used to manipulate: (i) the reactivity of gold nanoparticle assemblies through varying the Fermi level (both chemically and electrochemically); (ii) the location distribution of the nanoparticles at the liquid-liquid interface...
May 3, 2017: Faraday Discussions
V Sénéchal, H Saadaoui, J Rodriguez-Hernandez, C Drummond
The anchoring of polymer chains at solid surfaces is an efficient way to modify interfacial properties like the stability and rheology of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biocompatibility. Polyelectrolytes are good candidates for the building of smart materials, as the polyion chain conformation can often be tuned by manipulation of different physico-chemical variables. However, achieving efficient and reversible control of this process represents an important technological challenge. In this regard, the application of an external electrical stimulus on polyelectrolytes seems to be a convenient control strategy, for several reasons...
April 28, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Maryana I Nave, Yu Gu, Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jun Wang, Konstantin G Kornev
We developed a special electrochemical cell enabling quantitative analysis and in situ X-ray nanotomography of metal/electrolyte interfaces subject to corrosion. Using this cell and applying the nodoid model to describe menisci formed on tungsten wires during anodization, the evolution of the electrolyte surface tension, the concentration of reaction products, and the meniscus contact angle were studied. In contrast to the electrowetting effect, where the applied electric field decreases the contact angle of electrolytes, anodization of the tungsten wires increases the contact angle of the meniscus...
April 28, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Rebecca L Gieseking, Mark A Ratner, George C Schatz
Nanoelectrochemical experiments using detection based on tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) show a broad distribution of single-molecule formal potentials E°' for large π-conjugated molecules; theoretical studies are needed to understand the origins of this distribution. In this paper, we present a theoretical approach to determine E°' for electrochemical reactions involving a single molecule interacting with an electrode represented as a metal nanocluster and apply this method to the Ag20-pyridine system...
April 26, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Tsung-Hsing Hsu, J A Taylor, T N Krupenkin
Mechanical energy harvesting can provide a promising alternative to electrochemical batteries, which are currently widely utilized to power mobile electronics. In this work we present a theoretical analysis of a recently proposed method of mechanical energy harvesting, which combines a reverse electrowetting phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse. We investigate the details of the bubble dynamics and analyze the dependence of the energy generation process on the system parameters...
April 26, 2017: Faraday Discussions
N V Brilliantov, Yu A Budkov, C Seidel
We analyze, theoretically and by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the generation of mechanical force by a polyelectrolyte (PE) chain grafted to a plane and exposed to an external electric field; the free end of the chain is linked to a deformable target body. Varying the field, one can alter the length of the non-adsorbed (bulk) part of the chain and hence the deformation of the target body and the arising force. We focus on the impact of added salt on the magnitude of the generated force, which is especially important for applications...
April 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Alessio David, Oscar Y Fajardo, Alexei A Kornyshev, Michael Urbakh, Fernando Bresme
The properties of ionic liquids can be modified by applying an external electrostatic potential, providing a route to control their performance in nanolubrication applications. Most computational studies to date have focused on the investigation of smooth surfaces. Real surfaces are generally inhomogeneous and feature roughness of different length scales. We report here a study of the possible effects that surface roughness may have on electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids, performed here by means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations...
April 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Ran Tivony, Jacob Klein
Combining direct surface force measurements with in situ regulation of surface potential provides an exceptional opportunity for investigating and manipulating interfacial phenomena. Recently, we studied the interaction between gold and mica surfaces in water with no added salt, while controlling the metal potential, and found that the surface charge at the metal may vary, and possibly even change its sign, as it progressively approaches the (constant-charge) mica surface [Langmuir, 2015, 31(47), 12845-12849]...
April 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Kontad Ounnunkad, Hollie V Patten, Matěj Velický, Anna K Farquhar, Paula A Brooksby, Alison J Downard, Robert A W Dryfe
We have recently reported that reversible electrowetting can be observed on the basal plane of graphite, without the presence of a dielectric layer, in both liquid/air and liquid/liquid configurations. The influence of carbon structure on the wetting phenomenon is investigated in more detail here. Specifically, it is shown that the adsorption of adventitious impurities on the graphite surface markedly suppresses the electrowetting response. Similarly, the use of pyrolysed carbon films, although exhibiting a roughness below the threshold previously identified as the barrier to wetting on basal plane graphite, does not give a noticeable electrowetting response, which leads us to conclude that specific interactions at the water-graphite interface as well as graphite crystallinity are responsible for the reversible response seen in the latter case...
April 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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