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Anxiety, Stress, and Coping

Amanda J Desnoyers, Nancy L Kocovski, Jan E Fleming, Martin M Antony
BACKGROUND: Self-focused attention (SFA) and safety behaviors are two variables implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). DESIGN: The present study examined SFA and safety behaviors across two therapies for SAD, cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). METHOD: Participants with symptoms meeting criteria for SAD (N = 137) were randomly assigned to the 12-week-treatment groups (n = 53 for each condition) or a waitlist control (n = 31)...
October 12, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Katja Winzeler, Annette Voellmin, Evelin Hug, Ursula Kirmse, Simone Helmig, Mary Princip, Christian Cajochen, Klaus Bader, Frank H Wilhelm
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: After a previous report demonstrated blunted heart rate (HR) reactivity in association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) [Voellmin, A., Winzeler, K., Hug, E., Wilhelm, F. H., Schaefer, V., Gaab, J., … Bader, K. (2015). Blunted endocrine and cardiovascular reactivity in young healthy women reporting a history of childhood adversity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 51, 58-67. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.008 ], the present analysis aimed at clarifying the role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system in this relationship...
October 1, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Maryhope Howland, Stephen Armeli, Richard Feinn, Howard Tennen
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Emotional reactivity to stress is associated with both mental and physical health and has been assumed to be a stable feature of the person. However, recent evidence suggests that the within-person association between stress and negative affect (i.e., affective stress-reactivity) may increase over time and in times of high stress, at least in older adult populations. The objective of the current study was to examine the across-time stability of stress-reactivity in a younger sample - emerging adulthood - and examine neuroticism, overall stress, social support and life events as potential moderators of stability...
October 1, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Rebecca A Blackie, Nancy L Kocovski
BACKGROUND: Post-event processing (PEP) refers to negative and prolonged rumination following anxiety-provoking social situations. Although there are scales to assess PEP, they are situation-specific, some targeting only public-speaking situations. Furthermore, there are no trait measures to assess the tendency to engage in PEP. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to create a new measure of PEP, the Post-Event Processing Inventory (PEPI), which can be employed following all types of social situations and includes both trait and state forms...
September 19, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Benjamin Jonas, Fabian Leuschner, Peter Tossmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Internet-based interventions are a viable treatment option for various mental problems. However, their effects on the burnout syndrome yielded mixed results. In this paper we examine the efficacy of a structured and therapist-guided internet intervention, based on solution-focused and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for individuals with symptoms of burnout. DESIGN: Two-arm, Internet-based, randomized, wait-list controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: Participants were recruited through in-house events and online advertising...
September 7, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Paul A Dennis, Nora M Dennis, Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Involvement in wartime combat often conveys a number of deleterious outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, hostility aggression, and suicidal ideation. Less studied is the effect of engagement in wartime atrocities, including witnessing and perpetrating abusive violence. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed path analysis to examine the direct effects of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation independent of combat exposure, as well as the indirect effects via guilt and PTSD symptom severity among 603 help-seeking male Vietnam War veterans...
August 31, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Julia D Buckner, Kimberlye E Dean
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. DESIGN: We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African-American (AA; n = 127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U...
August 31, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Nerina L Jimmieson, Michelle K Tucker, Alexandra J Walsh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Simultaneous exposure to time, cognitive, and emotional demands is a feature of the work environment for healthcare workers, yet effects of these common stressors in combination are not well-established. DESIGN: Survey data were collected from 125 hospital employees (Sample 1, Study 1), 93 ambulance service employees (Sample 2, Study 1), and 380 aged care/disability workers (Study 2). METHODS: Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Maarten C Eisma, Paul A Boelen, Henk A W Schut, Margaret S Stroebe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Repetitive thought is a trans-diagnostic risk factor for development of psychopathology. Research on repetitive thought in bereaved individuals has focused primarily on clarifying the role of rumination, repetitive thinking about past negative events and/or negative emotions. While detrimental effects of rumination have been demonstrated following bereavement, surprisingly few studies have aimed to clarify the role of worry, repetitive thinking about potential future negative events, in adjustment to loss...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Alyson K Zalta, James Gerhart, Brian Hall, Kumar B Rajan, Catalina Vechiu, Daphna Canetti, Stevan E Hobfoll
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Nicole H Weiss, Clinesha D Johnson, Ateka Contractor, Courtney Peasant, Suzanne C Swan, Tami P Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Past research underscores the key role of coping strategies in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The goal of the current study was to extend existing literature by examining whether race/ethnicity moderates the relations among coping strategies (social support, problem-solving, avoidance) and PTSD symptom clusters (intrusion, avoidance, numbing, arousal). METHODS: Participants were 369 community women (134 African Americans, 131 Latinas, 104 Whites) who reported bidirectional aggression with a current male partner...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Virginia Martín, Roser Granero, Josep Maria Domènech, Lourdes Ezpeleta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to identify factors related to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (AD). DESIGN: A sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at 3 and 5 years of age. METHODS: At baseline, there were 310 boys (49.8%), most participants were of Caucasian-white-ethnicity (89.1%) and attended to public school (64.0%), and families' socioeconomic status was 64.3% medium-high, 14...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Leigh van den Heuvel, Sharain Suliman, Stefanie Malan-Müller, Sian Hemmings, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and release may play a role in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN: This study evaluated road traffic accident (RTA) survivors to determine whether PTSD and trauma-related factors were associated with plasma BDNF levels and BDNF Val66Met carrier status following RTA exposure. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-three RTA survivors (mean age 33...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Lindsey M Matt, David M Fresco, Karin G Coifman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Describing emotional experiences using distinct terms, or affect differentiation, has been associated with emotion regulation and adaptive behavior under stress. There is little data, however, examining the association between differentiation and dispositional factors underlying psychopathology. The current study examines the association between differentiation and trait anxiety (TA) given prior evidence of cognitive biases in TA relevant to higher order processing of emotional experiences...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Miguel Ángel Cano, Yessenia Castro, Marcel A de Dios, Seth J Schwartz, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Angelica M Roncancio, Marcos J Martinez, Diana M Sheehan, Rehab Auf, Brandy Piña-Watson, Que-Lam Huynh, Byron L Zamboanga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging adulthood is often marked with elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression. Hispanic emerging adults may face cultural stressors such as ethnic discrimination that further increase levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. The study aims were to examine if (a) self-esteem mediated effects of ethnic discrimination on symptoms of anxiety and depression, and (b) if gender moderated the indirect effects of discrimination. DESIGN: The study design was cross-sectional self-report...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Channing A Sofko, Joseph M Currier, Kent D Drescher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined prospective associations between changes in mental health symptoms (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression) and health-related quality of life (physical health, psychological well-being) for veterans with PTSD. DESIGN: This study focused on 139 patients who completed a residential treatment program for PTSD in the Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: Patients completed the veteran-specific, 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form, PTSD Checklist - Military version, and Beck Depression Inventory at pre-treatment, discharge, and a four-month follow-up...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Sylvia Helbig-Lang, Vanja Poels, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive approaches to social anxiety suggest that an excessive brooding about one's performance in a social situation (post-event processing; PEP) is involved in the maintenance of anxiety. To date, most studies investigating PEP were conducted in laboratory settings. The present study sought to replicate previous findings on predictors of PEP after a naturalistic social performance situation. METHODS: Sixty-five students, who had to give an evaluated presentation for credits, completed measures of trait social anxiety...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Suzanne B Johnson, Page L Anderson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent to which social anxiety treatment studies report the demographic characteristics of their participants. One hundred and 56 treatment studies published in English between 2001 and 2012 articles were collected. METHODS: Each study was evaluated on whether or not it reported information on gender, age, race, relationship status, education, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and disability and also the extent to which the racial composition of the sample was described...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Chen Goren, Efrat Neter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The negative impact of exposure to terror on mental health, as well as on the perceptions of each side of the conflict toward the other, is well-documented. However, the association between stereotyping, concomitant with perceived threat, and anxiety, was rarely investigated. The current study examined information processing attributes and exposure to terror as predictors of PTSD symptoms among youth at inter-group conflict, with stereotypical thinking toward a threatening out-group as a possible mediator...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Elizabeth J Pawluk, Naomi Koerner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: GAD symptoms are associated with greater negative urgency, a dimension of impulsivity defined as the tendency to act rashly when distressed. This study examined the degree to which intolerance of negative emotional states and intolerance of uncertainty account for the association between negative urgency and GAD symptoms. DESIGN: An analysis of indirect effects evaluated whether intolerance of negative emotions and intolerance of uncertainty uniquely account for the association between negative urgency and GAD symptom severity...
November 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
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