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Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666146/intraleaflet-hemorrhages-are-a-common-finding-in-symptomatic-aortic-and-mitral-valves
#1
Olga C G Stam, Mat J A P Daemen, Jan Willem van Rijswijk, Bas A J M de Mol, Allard C van der Wal
INTRODUCTION: Intraleaflet hemorrhage (ILH) has been reported to occur in calcified degenerated aortic valves. At present, no such information is available for mitral valves or for other types of valvular disease. We examined the prevalence, age, and potential source of ILH in a consecutive series of surgically removed aortic and mitral valves, and related the findings to specific types of heart valve pathology. METHODS: A total of 105 aortic (n=85) and mitral (n=20) valves were retrieved from 100 symptomatic patients...
June 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666147/sudden-unexpected-death-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-neurogenic-or-cardiac-death
#2
Naoki Nishida, Koji Yoshida, Yukiko Hata
We present two cases of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in elderly individuals in whom autopsy unexpectedly showed Lewy pathology, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Both individuals were 68-year-old men who were found dead in their homes without lethal trauma or poisoning. Inquests into their deaths suggested that nonmotor cardiovascular signs of Parkinson's disease might have appeared just before their deaths, although few typical motor signs were present. Autopsy showed Lewy pathology in the heart and peripheral autonomic nervous system in addition to lesser involvement of the brainstem that was consistent with Braak stage 3...
June 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646716/histopathologic-differences-partially-distinguish-syndromic-aortic-diseases
#3
Kevin M Waters, Lisa M Rooper, Andrew Guajardo, Marc K Halushka
A variety of syndromic diseases such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysm along with risk factors of smoking and hypertension result in ascending aortic aneurysms and dissections. Historically, a complicated variety of terms have been used to describe a range of histopathologies that are present in resected specimens. As a result, no consistent patterns of histopathology have been reported. We used the recent Society for Cardiovascular Pathology/Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology consensus statement on nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for noninflammatory aortic disease to blindly evaluate 148 surgically resected specimens...
June 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623706/primary-inferior-vena-cava-smooth-muscle-tumor-with-diffuse-bizarre-giant-nuclei-and-low-mitotic-rate-a-nomenclatural-conundrum
#4
Runjan Chetty, Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Hanna-Riikka Heinonen
A male patient with obstructive jaundice was found to have an incidental nodule within the inferior vena cava (IVC), below the level of the renal vein, on abdominal imaging. At the time of the Whipple's procedure for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the IVC mass measuring 3.4×2.7×2.2 cm was also removed. Histologically, the lesion was well circumscribed, composed focally of spindle-shaped cells with cigar-shaped nuclei reminiscent of smooth muscle and a dominant pervasive, pleomorphic, bizarre giant cell component...
June 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622581/assessment-of-atherosclerotic-luminal-narrowing-of-coronary-arteries-based-on-morphometrically-generated-visual-guides
#5
Rolf F Barth, David A Kellough, Patricia Allenby, Luke E Blower, Scott H Hammond, Greg M Allenby, L Maximilian Buja
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Determination of the degree of stenosis of atherosclerotic coronary arteries is an important part of postmortem examination of the heart, but, unfortunately, estimation of the degree of luminal narrowing can be imprecise and tends to be approximations. Visual guides can be useful to assess this, but earlier attempts to develop such guides did not employ digital technology. Using this approach, we have developed two computer-generated morphometric guides to estimate the degree of luminal narrowing of atherosclerotic coronary arteries...
May 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601673/histopathological-and-biomechanical-properties-of-the-aortic-wall-in-2-patients-with-chronic-type-a-aortic-dissection
#6
Alexander Emmott, Ismaïl El-Hamamsy, Richard L Leask
Type A aortic dissection is an acute condition that requires urgent surgical intervention. However, in a subset of patients, aortic dissections go undiagnosed and become chronic, thereby allowing the dissected wall to undergo a distinct remodeling process from that of the surrounding intact wall. Here, we observe the biomechanical and histological changes in the aortic wall of two patients with chronic Type A aortic dissection. Partial or complete disruption of the elastic structure of the medial layer was observed in the dissected wall of both patients; however, aortic stiffness in the region of dissection covaried with a change in collagen content...
May 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550760/exercise-training-ameliorates-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-messenger-rna-expression-and-mitigates-adverse-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#7
Flávio S Silva, Raul H Bortolin, Diego N Araújo, Dáfiny E S Marques, João Paulo M S Lima, Adriana A Rezende, Wouber H B Vieira, Naisandra B Silva, Karina C P Medeiros, Paul W Ackermann, Bento J Abreu, Fernando A L Dias
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether exercise training (ExT) would ameliorate expression of key genes for myocardial morphostructure and mitigate adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in experimental type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC, n=9), trained control (TC, n=13), sedentary diabetic (SD, n=20), and trained diabetic (TD, n=17). T1D was induced by 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (single dose, i...
May 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575717/recurrent-pulmonary-emboli-with-characteristic-histopathology
#8
Sadahiro Hijikata, Takamichi Miyamoto, Junji Yamaguchi, Takamasa Iwai, Keita Watanabe, Yuichiro Sagawa, Ryo Masuda, Ryoichi Miyazaki, Naoyuki Miwa, Masahiro Sekigawa, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro Hara, Yasutoshi Nagata, Toshihiro Nozato, Urara Sakurai, Kenzo Hirao
We report a unique case of recurrent thromboembolism and its histological findings that were revealed in an autopsy. Although it is well known that repeating thrombosis presents organization and recanalization, we also observed rare findings of thickening of the bronchial artery and fixation of the valve of the lower extremity vein in this case.
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527820/adventitial-cystic-disease-of-radial-artery-apropos-of-a-case-and-review-of-literature
#9
Álvaro Torres-Blanco, Luis Ariel Pepén-Moquete, Vicente Molina-Nácher, Francisco Gómez-Palonés
Adventitial cystic disease is an uncommon condition that is characterized by the collection of mucinous material that accumulates in the adventitial layer of the artery. Predominantly, this entity affects the popliteal artery, whereas it is extremely rare in the radial artery. We report a 72-year-old female patient that underwent surgical treatment of an adventitial cyst of the right radial artery. The involved arterial segment was resected, and reconstruction by means of the interposition of a saphenous vein graft was performed...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453968/association-of-altered-collagen-content-and-lysyl-oxidase-expression-in-degenerative-mitral-valve-disease
#10
K-Raman Purushothaman, Meerarani Purushothaman, Irene C Turnbull, David H Adams, Anelechi Anyanwu, Prakash Krishnan, Annapoorna Kini, Samin K Sharma, William N O'Connor, Pedro R Moreno
BACKGROUND: Collagen cross-linking is mediated by lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of mitral valve leaflets. Alterations in collagen content and LOX protein expression in the ECM of degenerative mitral valve may enhance leaflet expansion and disease severity. METHODS: Twenty posterior degenerative mitral valve leaflets from patients with severe mitral regurgitation were obtained at surgery. Five normal posterior mitral valve leaflets procured during autopsy served as controls...
July 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395201/syndecan-4-deficiency-accelerates-the-transition-from-compensated-hypertrophy-to-heart-failure-following-pressure-overload
#11
Guannan Li, Jun Xie, Jianzhou Chen, Ran Li, Han Wu, Xinlin Zhang, Qinhua Chen, Rong Gu, Biao Xu
Increasing evidence suggests that a mismatch between angiogenesis and myocardial growth contributes to the transition from adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure following pressure overload. Syndecan-4 is a transmembrane proteoglycan that binds to growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins and is critical in focal adhesion formation. However, its effects on coronary angiogenesis during pressure overload-induced heart failure have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that syndecan-4 modulates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload through its ability to regulate adaptive angiogenesis...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376415/corynebacterium-propinquum-endocarditis-a-confounding-presentation-of-a-rare-entity
#12
Bryan Rea, Jaleah Hawkins, Htun Min, Richard Maniglia, Naasha Talati, Laurel Glaser
Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Corynebacterium species. We report a unique case of Corynebacterium propinquum endocarditis in an otherwise healthy individual, and it is the first example of this organism causing culture-negative endocarditis. Conflicting clinical and microbiological data led to the use of sequencing to confirm the causative organism. This case illustrates C. propinquum as a cause of infective endocarditis, and it demonstrates the utility of ancillary molecular diagnostic techniques to identify etiologic agents in difficult cases of infective endocarditis...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340470/calcifying-giant-cell-cardiomyopathy-a-possible-new-entity-images-in-cardiovascular-pathology
#13
Ke-Yong Wang, Sohsuke Yamada, Shohei Shimajiri, Ryuji Nakano, Naoki Yamashita, Tetsuya So, Akihide Tanimoto
We demonstrated an extremely unusual case of an 83-year-old male's sudden death secondary to characteristic myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with calcification and multinucleated giant cells infiltration, possibly due to sepsis and Stage IV pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma-induced cachexia after postmortem study. We propose that this calcifying giant cell cardiomyopathy (CGC) would be a new entity especially from the pathological viewpoints and should be considered in the classification of noninfectious myocarditis...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334597/intramyocardial-bronchogenic-cyst-histological-appearance-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Naoki Nishida, Yukiko Hata, Kazuhiro Nomoto
We report histological appearance of a bronchogenic cyst that was incidentally found in a 78-year-old man who died from drowning related to a traumatic accident. The cyst was found in the posterior edge of the interventricular septum and was monolocular with a 5-mm diameter. The cystic wall was not associated with cartilage or the smooth muscle layer, and was lined by ciliated respiratory epithelium. Immunohistochemistry showed that many of these epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor-1...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334596/lymphocyte-rich-capillary-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-mitral-valve-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
J Fernando Val-Bernal, Nuria Terán-Villagrá, Olga García-Diego, José A Sarralde
Valvular hemangioma incidence is extremely low. In this report, we describe a 62-year-old man who presented with mild edema of the lower limbs. An echocardiogram revealed an incidental 1.3-cm diameter mass on the anterior mitral valve leaflet for which he underwent surgical resection and mitral valve replacement. Histopathological examination showed a lymphocyte-rich capillary-cavernous hemangioma. The exuberant lymphoid stroma is unusual for hemangioma and represents an undescribed pattern of cardiac hemangioma...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319834/molecular-mechanisms-in-the-pathogenesis-of-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey E Saffitz
The article is based on work presented in the Distinguished Achievement Award lecture at the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology meeting in Seattle, WA, in March 2016. It reviews our current understanding of mechanisms responsible for a highly arrhythmogenic, nonischemic cardiomyopathy. It highlights the armamentarium of powerful methods available to the experimental pathologist in efforts to define how complex cardiovascular diseases work. It concludes with acknowledgment of the need for a far more detailed approach as to how we categorize human disease, a task for which pathologists are especially well positioned...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319833/aortic-calcified-particles-modulate-valvular-endothelial-and-interstitial-cells
#17
Nicole C A van Engeland, Sergio Bertazzo, Padmini Sarathchandra, Ann McCormack, Carlijn V C Bouten, Magdi H Yacoub, Adrian H Chester, Najma Latif
BACKGROUND: Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. METHOD AND RESULTS: Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs)...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314213/primary-intracardiac-leiomyoma-arising-from-cardiomyocyte-progenitors-at-the-right-ventriculoseptal-interface-case-report-with-literature-review
#18
Kavita Gaur, Kaushik Majumdar, Navnita Kisku, Ranjana Gondal, Puja Sakhuja, Deepak Kumar Satsangi
Primary cardiac neoplasms are rare and are usually benign myxomas and rhabdomyomas. Cardiac leiomyomas are usually seen as a part of the spectrum of intravenous leiomyomatosis or benign metastasizing leiomyoma. De novo occurrence of primary intracardiac leiomyomas (PICL) is a rarity. Herein we describe a 14-year-old boy presenting with intermittent dyspnea for 2 years, with a large right ventricular mass suggestive of myxoma on transthoracic echocardiography, without any extracardiac lesions. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the tumor excised under cardiopulmonary bypass confirmed a PICL arising at the cardiomyocyte-smooth muscle septal interface...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288410/coronary-fat-embolism-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-an-experimental-study
#19
Ednan Bayram, Canan Atalay, Ender Altaş, Yavuzer Koza, Eşref Kabalar, Mahmut Açıkel, Mehmet Dumlu Aydın
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), and chylomicron metabolism may be altered unfavorably in acute lung injury. This study aimed to investigate the possible effect of NPE on the development of coronary fat embolism. METHODS: This study was conducted on 27 rabbits, 5 of which were used as the control (n=5). Experimental SAH was induced in 15 of the animals by injecting homologous blood into the cisterna magna, and the remaining 7 animals were administered only isotonic saline solution (Sham, n=7) in the same manner under general anesthesia...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288409/zygomycotic-infective-endocarditis-in-pregnancy
#20
Pradeep Vaideeswar, Rushabh Shah
Under the circumstances of cardiovascular adaptations and immunomodulation, an uncommon but disastrous complication of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in pregnancy. Almost all the cases reported earlier were caused by bacteria. We report a fatal case of zygomycotic valvular and mural endocarditis in a young non-diabetic primigravida with a positive hepatitis B serology.
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
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