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Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society

Matthew S Beyersdorf, Ria Sircar, Daniel B Lookadoo, Cory Bottone, Michael J Lynch, Brian R Crane, Christopher J Halkides
Phosphorylation of CheY promotes association with the flagellar motor and ultimately controls the directional bias of the motor. However, biochemical studies of activated CheY-phosphate have been challenging due to the rapid hydrolysis of the aspartyl-phosphate in vitro. An inert analog of Tm CheY-phosphate, phosphono-CheY, was synthesized by chemical modification and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Changes in HPLC retention times, chemical assays for phosphate and free thiol, and mass spectrometry experiments demonstrate modification of Cys54 with a phosphonomethyl group...
April 25, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Erik J Alred, Michael Nguyen, Maggie Martin, Ulrich Hansmann
The rate-limiting step in prion diseases is the initial transition of a prion protein from its native form into a mis-folded state in which the protein not only forms cell-toxic aggregates but also becomes infectious. Recent experiments implicate polyadenosine RNA as a possible agent for generating the initial seed. In order to understand the mechanism of RNA-mediated mis-folding and aggregation of prions, we dock polyadenosine RNA to mouse and human prion models. Changes in stability and secondary structure of the prions upon binding to polyadenosine RNA are evaluated by comparing molecular dynamics simulations of these complexes with that of the unbound prions...
April 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Wenlin Pan, Frederick W Dahlquist, Gerald L Hazelbauer
Autophosphorylating histidine kinase CheA is central to signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. The kinase donates its phosphoryl group to two response regulators, CheY that controls flagellar rotation and thus motility and CheB, crucial for sensory adaptation. As measured by coupled CheY phosphorylation, incorporation into signaling complexes activates the kinase ∼1,000-fold and places it under control of chemoreceptors. By the same assay, receptors modulate kinase activity ∼100-fold as a function of receptor ligand occupancy and adaptational modification...
April 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Ekaterine Kartvelishvili, Dmitry Tworowski, Hilary Vernon, Nina Moor, Jing Wang, Lee-Jun Wong, Zofia Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Mark Safro
Mutations in the mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtaaRSs) can cause profound clinical presentations, and have manifested as diseases with very selective tissue specificity. To date most of the mtaaRS mutations could be phenotypically recognized, such that clinicians could identify the affected mtaaRS from the symptoms alone. Among the recently reported pathogenic variants are point mutations in FARS2 gene, encoding the human mitochondrial PheRS. Patient symptoms range from spastic paraplegia to fatal infantile Alpers encephalopathy...
April 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Kathryn M Schultz, Tanner J Lundquist, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the periplasmic protein LptA are two essential components of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS, also known as endotoxin, is found asymmetrically distributed in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and plays a role in the organism's natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptA is a member of the lipopolysaccharide transport protein (Lpt) family, which also includes LptC, LptDE, and LptBFG2 , that functions to transport LPS through the periplasm to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane after MsbA flips LPS across the inner membrane...
April 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Ryohei Nakada, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-LP protein is a transcriptional coactivator of EBNA2. Efficient nuclear localization of EBNA-LP is essential for cooperation with EBNA2. Here, we report the crystal structure of the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 bound to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA-LP that shows EBNA-LP residues 44-RRVRRR-49 binding to the major NLS-binding site at the P0-P5 positions. In contrast to previously characterized classical NLSs that invariably have a basic residue [either lysine (in the vast majority of cases) or arginine] at the P2 position, the EBNA-LP NLS is unique in that it has valine at the P2 position...
April 6, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Todd A Naumann, Erica L Bakota, Neil P J Price
Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific peptide bond but select one of many Gly-Gly bonds within the polyglycine region. Some Gly-Gly bonds are cleaved frequently while others are never cleaved. Moreover, we have previously shown that PGHs from different fungal pathogens prefer to cleave different Gly-Gly peptide bonds...
April 6, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Yi Jin, Reyal S Hoxie, Timothy O Street
Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone that undergoes an essential and highly regulated open-to-closed-to-open conformational cycle upon ATP binding and hydrolysis. Although it has been established that a large energy barrier to closure is responsible for Hsp90's low ATP hydrolysis rate, the specific molecular contacts that create this energy barrier are not known. Here we discover that bacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) has a pH-dependent ATPase activity that is unique among other Hsp90 homologs. The underlying mechanism is a conformation-specific electrostatic interaction between a single histidine, H255, and bound ATP...
April 6, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Simon S Terzyan, Paul F Cook, Annie Heroux, Marie H Hanigan
Intense efforts are underway to identify inhibitors of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (GGT1) which cleaves extracellular gamma-glutamyl compounds and contributes to the pathology of asthma, reperfusion injury and cancer. The glutamate analog, 6-diazo-5-oxo-norleucine (DON), inhibits GGT1. DON also inhibits many essential glutamine metabolizing enzymes rendering it too toxic for use in the clinic as a GGT1 inhibitor. We investigated the molecular mechanism of human GGT1 (hGGT1) inhibition by DON to determine possible strategies for increasing its specificity for hGGT1...
April 5, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Pooja Sadana, Manuel Mönnich, Carlo Unverzagt, Andrea Scrima
Enteropathogenic Yersinia expresses several invasins that are fundamental virulence factors required for adherence and colonization of tissues in the host. Within the invasin-family of Yersinia adhesins, to date only Invasin has been extensively studied at both structural and functional levels. In this work, we structurally characterize the recently identified inverse autotransporter InvasinE from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (formerly InvasinD from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP31758) that belongs to the invasin-family of proteins...
March 31, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Yazan Alhadid, SangYoon Chung, Eitan Lerner, Dylan J Taatjes, Sergei Borukhov, Shimon Weiss
Over the past decade, fluorescence-based single-molecule studies significantly contributed to characterizing the mechanism of RNA polymerase at different steps in transcription, especially in transcription initiation. Transcription by bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is a multistep process that uses genomic DNA to synthesize complementary RNA molecules. Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step in E. coli, but it has been challenging to study its mechanism because of its stochasticity and complexity...
March 29, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Gabriel Žoldák, Daniel Jancura, Erik Sedlák
Monitoring the fluorescence of proteins, particularly the fluorescence of intrinsic tryptophan residues, is a popular method often used in the analysis of unfolding transitions (induced by temperature, chemical denaturant, and pH) in proteins. The tryptophan fluorescence provides several suitable parameters, such as steady-state fluorescence intensity, apparent quantum yield, mean fluorescence lifetime, position of emission maximum that are often utilized for the observation of the conformational/unfolding transitions of proteins...
March 28, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Alisha D Caliman, Yinglong Miao, J Andrew McCammon
Activation of the first sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR1 ) promotes permeability of the blood brain barrier, astrocyte and neuronal protection, and lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues. Although an agonist often activates the S1PR1 , the receptor exhibits high levels of basal activity. In this study, we performed long-timescale molecular dynamics and accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations to investigate activation mechanisms of the ligand-free (apo) S1PR1 . In the aMD enhanced sampling simulations, we observed four independent events of activation, which is characterized by close interaction between Y311(7...
March 28, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Grishma Vadlamani, Keith A Stubbs, Jérôme Désiré, Yves Blériot, David J Vocadlo, Brian L Mark
NagZ is a N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase that participates in the peptidoglycan (PG) recycling pathway of Gram-negative bacteria by removing N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) from PG fragments that have been excised from the cell wall during growth. The 1,6-anhydromuramoyl-peptide products generated by NagZ activate β-lactam resistance in many Gram-negative bacteria by inducing the expression of AmpC β-lactamase. Blocking NagZ activity can thereby suppress β-lactam antibiotic resistance in these bacteria. The NagZ active site is dynamic and it accommodates distortion of the glycan substrate during catalysis using a mobile catalytic loop that carries a histidine residue which serves as the active site general acid/base catalyst...
March 28, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Jimin Wang
Partial charges of atoms in a molecule and electrostatic potential (ESP) density for that molecule are known to bear a strong correlation. In order to generate a set of point-field force field parameters for molecular dynamics, Kollman and colleagues have extracted atomic partial charges for each of all 20 amino acids using restrained partial charge-fitting procedures from theoretical ESP density obtained from condensed-state quantum mechanics. The magnitude of atomic partial charges for neutral peptide backbone they have obtained is similar to that of partial atomic charges for ionized carboxylate side chain atoms...
March 28, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Tatiana A Konnova, Christopher M Singer, Irina V Nesmelova
DNA transposons can be employed for stable gene transfer in vertebrates. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) DNA transposon has been recently adapted for human application and is being evaluated in clinical trials, however its molecular mechanism is not clear. SB transposition is catalyzed by the transposase enzyme, which is a multi-domain protein containing the catalytic and the DNA-binding domains. The DNA-binding domain of the SB transposase contains two structurally independent subdomains, PAI and RED. Recently, the structures of the catalytic domain and the PAI subdomain have been determined, however no structural information on the RED subdomain and its interactions with DNA has been available...
March 27, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Mario J Avellaneda, Eline J Koers, Mohsin M Naqvi, Sander J Tans
Protein folding is well known to be supervised by a dedicated class of proteins called chaperones. However, the core mode of action of these molecular machines has remained elusive due to several reasons including the promiscuous nature of the interactions between chaperones and their many clients, as well as the dynamics and heterogeneity of chaperone conformations and the folding process itself. While troublesome for traditional bulk techniques, these properties make an excellent case for the use of single-molecule approaches...
March 25, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Evzen Boura, Adriana Baumlova, Dominika Chalupska, Anna Dubankova, Martin Klima
Phage T4 lysozyme is a well folded and highly soluble protein that is widely used as an insertion tag to improve solubility and crystallization properties of poorly behaved recombinant proteins. It has been used in the fusion protein strategy to facilitate crystallization of various proteins including multiple G protein-coupled receptors, lipid kinases, or sterol binding proteins. Here, we present a structural and biochemical characterization of its novel, metal ions-binding mutant (mbT4L). We demonstrate that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag in the immobilized-metal affinity chromatography and that, in many respects, it is superior to the conventional hexahistidine tag...
March 25, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Lingyun Wang, Di Pan, Qi Yan, Yuhua Song
Integrin αVβ3 plays an important role in regulating cellular activities and in human diseases. Although the structure of αVβ3 has been studied by crystallography and electron microscopy, the detailed activation mechanism of integrin αVβ3 induced by fibronectin (Fn) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the conformational and dynamical motion changes of Mn(2+) -bound integrin αVβ3 by binding to Fn with molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that Fn binding to integrin αVβ3 caused the changes of the conformational flexibility of αVβ3 domains, the essential mode of motion for the domains of αV subunit and β3 subunit and the degrees of correlated motion of residues between the domains of αV subunit and β3 subunit of integrin αVβ3...
March 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Jose C Martínez, Sandra Villegas
ScFv-h3D6 is a single chain variable fragment that precludes Aβ peptide-induced cytotoxicity by withdrawing Aβ oligomers from the amyloid pathway to the worm-like pathway. Production of scFv molecules is not a straightforward procedure because of the occurrence of disulphide scrambled conformations generated in the refolding process. Here, we separately removed the disulphide bond of each domain and solved the scrambling problem; and then, we intended to compensate the loss of thermodynamic stability by adding three C-terminal elongation mutations previously described to stabilize the native fold of scFv-h3D6...
March 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
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