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Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867718/role-of-mast-cells-in-bronchial-contraction-in-nonallergic-obstructive-lung-pathology
#1
Nataliya A Kuzubova, Elena S Lebedeva, Olga N Titova, Anatoliy N Fedin, Ivetta V Dvorakovskaya
The role of mast cells in contractile bronchial smooth muscle activity has been evaluated in a model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced in rats that were intermittently exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 60 days. Starting from the 31st day, one group of rats inhaled sodium cromoglycate before exposure to NO2 to stabilize mast cell membranes. The second group (control) was not treated. Isometric smooth muscle contraction was analysed in isolated bronchial samples in response to nerve and smooth muscle stimulation...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652518/the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-myometrial-contractility-changes-during-ex-situ-culture-of-pregnant-human-uterine-smooth-muscle-tissue
#2
Marina Ilicic, Trent Butler, Tamas Zakar, Jonathan W Paul
BACKGROUND: Ex situ analyses of human myometrial tissue has been used to investigate the regulation of uterine quiescence and transition to a contractile phenotype. Following concerns about the validity of cultured primary cells, we examined whether myometrial tissue undergoes culture-induced changes ex situ that may affect the validity of in vitro models. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether human myometrial tissue undergoes culture-induced changes ex situ in Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) expression...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652517/role-of-prostatic-interstitial-cells-in-prostate-motility
#3
Richard J Lang, Hikaru Hashitani
The prostate is a gland whose secretions contribute to the seminal fluids ejaculated upon activation of autonomic sympathetic nerves. In elder males, the prostate undergoes an increase in stroma mass and myogenic tone, leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia that occludes the proximal urethra and the presentation of various lower urinary tract symptoms that decrease their quality of life. This review summarises the role of prostatic interstitial cells (PICs) in the generation of the spontaneous tone in the prostate...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652516/gastric-emptying-after-artificial-ulceration-in-rats-differences-due-to-the-site-of-the-ulcer-and-the-effects-of-prokinetic-drugs
#4
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Kimiko Shimizu
Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the position of an acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer and the effects of prokinetic drugs on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Acetic acid ulcers were induced either in the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall of the stomach or in the glandular region on the greater curvature of the stomach to determine whether there were regional differences in the effect of the ulcers. Gastric emptying was evaluated with a breath test using [1-(13)C] acetic acid...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484126/mechanisms-underlying-the-pathogenesis-of-hyper-contractility-of-bronchial-smooth-muscle-in-allergic-asthma
#5
Hiroyasu Sakai, Wataru Suto, Yuki Kai, Yoshihiko Chiba
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation are key pathophysiological features of asthma. Enhanced contraction of bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) is one of the causes of the AHR. It is thus important for development of asthma therapy to understand the change in the contractile signaling of airway smooth muscle cells associated with the AHR. In addition to the Ca(2+)-mediated phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC), contractile agonists also enhance MLC phosphorylation level, Ca(2+)-independently, by inactivating MLC phosphatase (MLCP), called Ca(2+) sensitization of contraction, in smooth muscle cells including airways...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260706/synthetic-smooth-muscle-in-the-outer-blood-plexus-of-the-rhinarium-skin-of-lemur-catta-l
#6
Rolf Elofsson, Ronald H H Kröger
The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260705/changes-in-renal-vessels-associated-with-long-term-administration-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-in-zucker-fatty-rats
#7
Kazushige Nakanishi, Yohko Nagai, Tatsuo Akimoto, Nobuaki Yamanaka
Background Recently, we showed that long-term angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) administration induced unusual proliferative changes in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of afferent arterioles of the kidneys of Zucker fatty rats (ZFRs). In this study, we investigated renal afferent arteriolar changes induced by the long-term administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in ZFRs. Materials and Methods Fourteen 6-week-old male ZFRs were divided into two groups (n=14): the ZFR+ACEI group (n=6) was fed a standard diet containing ACEI (Enalapril, 2 mg/kg/day), and the ZFR control group (n=8) for 12 weeks...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260704/diversity-and-plasticity-in-signaling-pathways-that-regulate-smooth-muscle-responsiveness-paradigms-and-paradoxes-for-the-myosin-phosphatase-the-master-regulator-of-smooth-muscle-contraction
#8
Masumi Eto, Toshio Kitazawa
A hallmark of smooth muscle cells is their ability to adapt their functions to meet temporal and chronic fluctuations in their demands. These functions include force development and growth. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the functional plasticity of smooth muscles, the major constituent of organ walls, is fundamental to elucidating pathophysiological rationales of failures of organ functions. Also, the knowledge is expected to facilitate devising innovative strategies that more precisely monitor and normalize organ functions by targeting individual smooth muscles...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025466/deterioration-of-epithelium-mediated-mechanisms-in-diabetic-antigen-sensitized-airways-of-guinea-pigs
#9
Saidullah Bano, Omanwar Swati, Muralidhar Kambadur, Fahim Mohammad
BACKGROUND: The onset of diabetes causes disruption of respiratory epithelial mediators. The present study investigates whether diabetes modifies the epithelium mediated bronchial responses in hyper-reactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) primarily through nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), and epithelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF) pathways. METHODS: Experimental model of guinea pigs having hyper-reactive airways with or without diabetes were developed...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818466/significant-contribution-of-trpc6-channel-mediated-ca-2-influx-to-the-pathogenesis-of-crohn-s-disease-fibrotic-stenosis
#10
REVIEW
Lin Hai Kurahara, Keizo Hiraishi, Miho Sumiyoshi, Mayumi Doi, Yaopeng Hu, Kunihiko Aoyagi, Yuwen Jian, Ryuji Inoue
Intestinal fibrosis is an intractable complication of Crohn's disease (CD), and, when occurring excessively, causes severe intestinal obstruction that often necessitates surgical resection. The fibrosis is characterized by an imbalance in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, where intestinal fibroblasts/myofibroblasts play active roles in ECM production, fibrogenesis and tissue remodeling, which eventually leads to the formation of stenotic lesions. There is however a great paucity of knowledge about how intestinal fibrosis initiates and progresses, which hampers the development of effective pharmacotherapies against CD...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725371/mypt1-isoforms-expressed-in-hek293t-cells-are-differentially-phosphorylated-after-gtp%C3%AE-s-treatment
#11
Simon Lin, Frank V Brozovich
Agonist stimulation of smooth muscle is known to activate RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and Rho kinase phosphorylates the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase at Thr696 and Thr853, which inhibits the activity of MLC phosphatase to produce a Ca(2+) independent increase in MLC phosphorylation and force (Ca(2+) sensitization). Alternative mRNA splicing produces four MYPT1 isoforms, which differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and leucine zipper (LZ). This study was designed to determine if Rho kinase differentially phosphorylates MYPT1 isoforms...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558952/influence-of-amino-acids-on-gastric-adaptive-relaxation-accommodation-in-rats-as-evaluated-with-a-barostat
#12
Masayuki Uchida, Chizuru Iwamoto
AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of selected straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation, as these have previously been shown to have differing effects on gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric adaptive relaxation was evaluated using a barostat in rats under urethane anesthesia. The pressure within the balloon, introduced from the mouth to the stomach, was changed stepwise from 1 to 8 mmHg...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375035/highly-sensitive-myosin-phosphorylation-analysis-in-the-renal-afferent-arteriole
#13
REVIEW
Kosuke Takeya
The regulation of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation involves phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of regulatory proteins, particularly myosin. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms, analyzing the phosphorylation signal transduction is crucial. Although a pharmacological approach with selective inhibitors is sensitive and a useful technique, it leads to speculation regarding a signaling pathway but does not provide direct evidence of changes at a molecular level. We developed a highly sensitive biochemical technique to analyze phosphorylation by adapting Phos-tag SDS-PAGE...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169776/effects-of-straight-alkyl-chain-extra-hydroxylated-alkyl-chain-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-gastric-emptying-evaluated-using-a-non-invasive-breath-test-in-conscious-rats
#14
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Kaori Iwasawa, Kimiko Shimizu
AIM: Some amino acids been known to influence gastric emptying. Thus we have evaluated the effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric emptying was evaluated in rats after feeding with Racol (nutrient formulae) containing [1-(13)C] acetic acid. Using a breath test, the content of (13)CO2 in their expired air was measured by infrared analyzers. Rats were orally administered with test amino acids, while control rats were administered orally with distilled water...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936000/resveratrol-can-both-enhance-and-relax-adrenergic-contractions-of-the-rat-tail-artery
#15
Sayra M Stom, Laura E Phelps, Jacob D Peuler
Our aims were to determine 1) if resveratrol's vasorelaxant action is greater in the distal (resistance) versus proximal (conductance) portion of the rat tail artery, and 2) if it can be blocked by agents known to block different potassium (K) channels in arterial smooth muscle. We found that its half-maximally effective concentration values were essentially identical (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μM) for relaxing adrenergically-precontracted rings prepared from distal versus proximal tissues. This does not confirm a previous report of greater relaxation in resistance versus conductance arteries...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935999/trpa1-dependent-regulation-of-bladder-detrusor-smooth-muscle-contractility-in-normal-and-type-i-diabetic-rats
#16
Igor B Philyppov, Oksana N Paduraru, Kseniya L Gulak, Roman Skryma, Natalia Prevarskaya, Yaroslav M Shuba
TRPA1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel that is activated by painful low temperatures (<17°C), irritating chemicals, reactive metabolites and mediators of inflammation. In the bladder TRPA1 is predominantly expressed in sensory afferent nerve endings, where it mediates sensory transduction. The contractile effect of its activation on detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is explained by the release from sensory afferents of inflammatory factors - tachykinins and prostaglandins, which cause smooth muscle cell contraction...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935878/the-vascular-clock-system-generates-the-intrinsic-circadian-rhythm-of-vascular-contractility
#17
REVIEW
Toshiro Saito
Many of the cardiovascular parameters or incidences of coronary artery diseases display circadian variations. These day/night time variances may be attributable to the diurnal change in vascular contractility. However, the molecular mechanism of the vascular clock system which generates the circadian variation of vascular contractility has remained largely unknown. Recently we found the existence of the intrinsic circadian rhythm in vascular contractility. A clock gene Rorα in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) provokes the diurnal oscillatory change in the expression of Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2), which induces the time-of-day-dependent variation in the agonist-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727727/sildenafil-does-not-enhance-but-rather-attenuates-vasorelaxant-effects-of-antidiabetic-agents
#18
Jacob D Peuler, Laura E Phelps
Type 2 diabetic men commonly experience erectile dysfunction for which phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors like sildenafil (Viagra) are often recommended. By preventing degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in vascular smooth muscle, these inhibitors also enhance arterial vasorelaxant effects of nitric oxide donors (which stimulate cGMP synthesis). In the present work, we confirmed this enhancing effect after co-administration of sildenafil with nitroprusside to freshly-isolated rat tail arterial tissues...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727726/force-inhibiting-effect-of-ser-thr-protein-phosphatase-2a-inhibitors-on-bovine-ciliary-muscle
#19
Minori Ishida, Kosuke Takeya, Motoi Miyazu, Akitoshi Yoshida, Akira Takai
Ciliary muscle is a smooth muscle characterized by a rapid response to muscarinic receptor stimulation and sustained contraction. Although it is evident that these contractions are Ca2+-dependent, detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. In order to elucidate the role of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ciliary muscle contraction, we examined the effects of okadaic acid and other PP2A inhibitors on contractions induced by carbachol (CCh) and ionomycin in bovine ciliary muscle strips (BCM). Okadaic acid inhibited ionomycin-induced contraction, while it did not cause significant changes in CCh-induced contraction...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727725/existence-of-c-kit-negative-cells-with-ultrastructural-features-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-subserosal-layer-of-the-w-wv-mutant-mouse-colon
#20
Hiromi Tamada, Hiroshi Kiyama
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are mesenchymal cells that are distributed along the gastrointestinal tract and function as pacemaker cells or intermediary cells between nerves and smooth muscle cells. ICC express a receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit, which is an established marker for ICC. The c-kit gene is allelic with the murine white-spotting locus (W), and some ICC subsets were reported to be missing in heterozygous mutant W/Wv mice carrying W and Wv mutated alleles. In this study, the characterization of interstitial cells in the subserosal layer of W/Wv mice was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
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