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Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818466/significant-contribution-of-trpc6-channel-mediated-ca-2-influx-to-the-pathogenesis-of-crohn-s-disease-fibrotic-stenosis
#1
Lin Hai Kurahara, Keizo Hiraishi, Miho Sumiyoshi, Mayumi Doi, Yaopeng Hu, Kunihiko Aoyagi, Yuwen Jian, Ryuji Inoue
Intestinal fibrosis is an intractable complication of Crohn's disease (CD), and, when occurring excessively, causes severe intestinal obstruction that often necessitates surgical resection. The fibrosis is characterized by an imbalance in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, where intestinal fibroblasts/myofibroblasts play active roles in ECM production, fibrogenesis and tissue remodeling, which eventually leads to the formation of stenotic lesions. There is however a great paucity of knowledge about how intestinal fibrosis initiates and progresses, which hampers the development of effective pharmacotherapies against CD...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725371/mypt1-isoforms-expressed-in-hek293t-cells-are-differentially-phosphorylated-after-gtp%C3%AE-s-treatment
#2
Simon Lin, Frank V Brozovich
Agonist stimulation of smooth muscle is known to activate RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and Rho kinase phosphorylates the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase at Thr696 and Thr853, which inhibits the activity of MLC phosphatase to produce a Ca(2+) independent increase in MLC phosphorylation and force (Ca(2+) sensitization). Alternative mRNA splicing produces four MYPT1 isoforms, which differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and leucine zipper (LZ). This study was designed to determine if Rho kinase differentially phosphorylates MYPT1 isoforms...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558952/influence-of-amino-acids-on-gastric-adaptive-relaxation-accommodation-in-rats-as-evaluated-with-a-barostat
#3
Masayuki Uchida, Chizuru Iwamoto
AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of selected straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric adaptive relaxation, as these have previously been shown to have differing effects on gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric adaptive relaxation was evaluated using a barostat in rats under urethane anesthesia. The pressure within the balloon, introduced from the mouth to the stomach, was changed stepwise from 1 to 8 mmHg...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375035/highly-sensitive-myosin-phosphorylation-analysis-in-the-renal-afferent-arteriole
#4
Kosuke Takeya
The regulation of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation involves phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of regulatory proteins, particularly myosin. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms, analyzing the phosphorylation signal transduction is crucial. Although a pharmacological approach with selective inhibitors is sensitive and a useful technique, it leads to speculation regarding a signaling pathway but does not provide direct evidence of changes at a molecular level. We developed a highly sensitive biochemical technique to analyze phosphorylation by adapting Phos-tag SDS-PAGE...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169776/effects-of-straight-alkyl-chain-extra-hydroxylated-alkyl-chain-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-gastric-emptying-evaluated-using-a-non-invasive-breath-test-in-conscious-rats
#5
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Kaori Iwasawa, Kimiko Shimizu
AIM: Some amino acids been known to influence gastric emptying. Thus we have evaluated the effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric emptying was evaluated in rats after feeding with Racol (nutrient formulae) containing [1-(13)C] acetic acid. Using a breath test, the content of (13)CO2 in their expired air was measured by infrared analyzers. Rats were orally administered with test amino acids, while control rats were administered orally with distilled water...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936000/resveratrol-can-both-enhance-and-relax-adrenergic-contractions-of-the-rat-tail-artery
#6
Sayra M Stom, Laura E Phelps, Jacob D Peuler
Our aims were to determine 1) if resveratrol's vasorelaxant action is greater in the distal (resistance) versus proximal (conductance) portion of the rat tail artery, and 2) if it can be blocked by agents known to block different potassium (K) channels in arterial smooth muscle. We found that its half-maximally effective concentration values were essentially identical (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μM) for relaxing adrenergically-precontracted rings prepared from distal versus proximal tissues. This does not confirm a previous report of greater relaxation in resistance versus conductance arteries...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935999/trpa1-dependent-regulation-of-bladder-detrusor-smooth-muscle-contractility-in-normal-and-type-i-diabetic-rats
#7
Igor B Philyppov, Oksana N Paduraru, Kseniya L Gulak, Roman Skryma, Natalia Prevarskaya, Yaroslav M Shuba
TRPA1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel that is activated by painful low temperatures (<17°C), irritating chemicals, reactive metabolites and mediators of inflammation. In the bladder TRPA1 is predominantly expressed in sensory afferent nerve endings, where it mediates sensory transduction. The contractile effect of its activation on detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is explained by the release from sensory afferents of inflammatory factors - tachykinins and prostaglandins, which cause smooth muscle cell contraction...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935878/the-vascular-clock-system-generates-the-intrinsic-circadian-rhythm-of-vascular-contractility
#8
Toshiro Saito
Many of the cardiovascular parameters or incidences of coronary artery diseases display circadian variations. These day/night time variances may be attributable to the diurnal change in vascular contractility. However, the molecular mechanism of the vascular clock system which generates the circadian variation of vascular contractility has remained largely unknown. Recently we found the existence of the intrinsic circadian rhythm in vascular contractility. A clock gene Rorα in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) provokes the diurnal oscillatory change in the expression of Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2), which induces the time-of-day-dependent variation in the agonist-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727727/sildenafil-does-not-enhance-but-rather-attenuates-vasorelaxant-effects-of-antidiabetic-agents
#9
Jacob D Peuler, Laura E Phelps
Type 2 diabetic men commonly experience erectile dysfunction for which phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors like sildenafil (Viagra) are often recommended. By preventing degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in vascular smooth muscle, these inhibitors also enhance arterial vasorelaxant effects of nitric oxide donors (which stimulate cGMP synthesis). In the present work, we confirmed this enhancing effect after co-administration of sildenafil with nitroprusside to freshly-isolated rat tail arterial tissues...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727726/force-inhibiting-effect-of-ser-thr-protein-phosphatase-2a-inhibitors-on-bovine-ciliary-muscle
#10
Minori Ishida, Kosuke Takeya, Motoi Miyazu, Akitoshi Yoshida, Akira Takai
Ciliary muscle is a smooth muscle characterized by a rapid response to muscarinic receptor stimulation and sustained contraction. Although it is evident that these contractions are Ca2+-dependent, detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. In order to elucidate the role of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ciliary muscle contraction, we examined the effects of okadaic acid and other PP2A inhibitors on contractions induced by carbachol (CCh) and ionomycin in bovine ciliary muscle strips (BCM). Okadaic acid inhibited ionomycin-induced contraction, while it did not cause significant changes in CCh-induced contraction...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727725/existence-of-c-kit-negative-cells-with-ultrastructural-features-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-subserosal-layer-of-the-w-wv-mutant-mouse-colon
#11
Hiromi Tamada, Hiroshi Kiyama
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are mesenchymal cells that are distributed along the gastrointestinal tract and function as pacemaker cells or intermediary cells between nerves and smooth muscle cells. ICC express a receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit, which is an established marker for ICC. The c-kit gene is allelic with the murine white-spotting locus (W), and some ICC subsets were reported to be missing in heterozygous mutant W/Wv mice carrying W and Wv mutated alleles. In this study, the characterization of interstitial cells in the subserosal layer of W/Wv mice was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26658112/activation-of-5-ht4-receptors-facilitates-neurogenesis-of-injured-enteric-neurons-at-an-anastomosis-in-the-lower-gut
#12
REVIEW
Miyako Takaki, Kei Goto, Isao Kawahara, Junich Nabekura
Two-photon microscopy (2PM) can enable high-resolution deep imaging of thick tissue by exciting a fluorescent dye and protein at anastomotic sites in the mouse small intestine in vivo. We performed gut surgery and transplanted neural stem cells (NSC) from the embryonic central nervous system after marking them with the fluorescent cell linker, PKH26. We found that neurons differentiated from transplanted NSC (PKH [+]) and newborn enteric neurons differentiated from mobilized (host) NSC (YFP [+]) could be localized within the granulation tissue of anastomoses...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26497013/intensity-of-swimming-exercise-influences-tracheal-reactivity-in-rats
#13
Aline F Brito, Alexandre S Silva, Iara L L Souza, Joedna C Pereira, Italo R R Martins, Bagnólia A Silva
Studies that evaluate the mechanisms for increased airway responsiveness are very sparse, although there are reports of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Therefore, we have evaluated the tracheal reactivity and the rate of lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Thus, male Wistar rats (age 8 weeks; 250-300 g) underwent a forced swimming exercise for 1h whilst carrying attached loads of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8% of their body weight (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each)...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447104/ca2-dependent-but-pkc-independent-signalling-mediates-utp-induced-contraction-of-rat-mesenteric-arteries
#14
Fouzia Panhwar, Richard D Rainbow, Robert Jackson, Noel W Davies
Uridine triphosphate (UTP) can be released from damaged cells to cause vasoconstriction. Although UTP is known to act through P2Y receptors and PLC activation in vascular smooth muscle, the role of PKC in generating the response is somewhat unclear. Here we have used Tat-linked membrane permeable peptide inhibitors of PKC to assess the general role of PKC and also of specific isoforms of PKC in the UTP induced contraction of rat mesenteric artery. We examined the effect of PKC inhibition on UTP induced contraction, increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and reduction of K(+) currents and found that PKC inhibition caused a relatively small attenuation of contraction but had little effect on changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+)...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447103/gastric-myoelectrical-activity-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Purnima Sharma, Govind Makharia, Rajeev Yadav, Sada Nand Dwivedi, Kishore Kumar Deepak
AIM: Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by the presence of gastrointestinal motility disturbances; however alterations in the gastric myoelectrical activity have not been characterized. In this study we have recorded the gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) during their clinical remission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric activity was assessed using electrogastrography (EGG) in patients with UC (n = 60), CD (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 40)...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447102/g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-and-endothelial-dysfunction-molecular-insights-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Kumiko Taguchi, Takayuki Matsumoto, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells are the major cell types in blood vessels. The principal function of vascular SMC in the body is to regulate blood flow and pressure through contraction and relaxation. The endothelium performs a crucial role in maintaining vascular integrity by achieving whole-organ metabolic homeostasis via the production of factors associated with vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. In this review, we have focused on the production of nitric oxide (NO), a vasorelaxation factor...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26004378/sildenafil-does-not-enhance-but-rather-attenuates-vasorelaxant-effects-of-antidiabetic-agents
#17
Jacob D Peuler, Laura E Phelps
Type 2 diabetic men commonly experience erectile dysfunction for which phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors like sildenafil (Viagra) are often recommended. By preventing degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in vascular smooth muscle, these inhibitors also enhance arterial vasorelaxant effects of nitric oxide donors (which stimulate cGMP synthesis). In the present work, we confirmed this enhancing effect after co-administration of sildenafil with nitroprusside to freshly-isolated rat tail arterial tissues...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26004377/force-inhibiting-effect-of-ser-thr-protein-phosphatase-2a-inhibitors-on-bovine-ciliary-muscle
#18
Minori Ishida, Kosuke Takeya, Motoi Miyazu, Akitoshi Yoshida, Akira Takai
Ciliary muscle is a smooth muscle characterized by a rapid response to muscarinic receptor stimulation and sustained contraction. Although it is evident that these contractions are Ca(2+)-dependent, detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. In order to elucidate the role of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ciliary muscle contraction, we examined the effects of okadaic acid and other PP2A inhibitors on contractions induced by carbachol (CCh) and ionomycin in bovine ciliary muscle strips (BCM)...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26004376/existence-of-c-kit-negative-cells-with-ultrastructural-features-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-subserosal-layer-of-the-w-w-v-mutant-mouse-colon
#19
Hiromi Tamada, Hiroshi Kiyama
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are mesenchymal cells that are distributed along the gastrointestinal tract and function as pacemaker cells or intermediary cells between nerves and smooth muscle cells. ICC express a receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit, which is an established marker for ICC. The c-kit gene is allelic with the murine white-spotting locus (W), and some ICC subsets were reported to be missing in heterozygous mutant W/W(v) mice carrying W and W(v) mutated alleles. In this study, the characterization of interstitial cells in the subserosal layer of W/W(v) mice was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy...
2015: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26081371/orchidectomy-enhances-the-expression-of-endothelin-1-and-etb-receptors-in-rat-portal-vein
#20
Patrícia de S Rossignoli, Roger W De Labio, Spencer L M Payão, Oduvaldo C M Pereira, Agnaldo B Chies
Functional studies have shown that orchidectomy increases the effects of phenylephrine on rat portal veins, but that it is completely prevented in the presence of both ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Although it suggests the involvement of endothelin-1 (ET-1), the local production of this vasoactive peptide has not been directly quantified in portal veins. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify if orchidectomy increases the local expression of ET-1 as well as ETA and ETB receptors in the rat portal vein...
2014: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
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