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Neuroimaging Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985941/functional-connectivity
#1
EDITORIAL
Jay J Pillai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985940/functional-connectivity
#2
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985939/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Godfrey David Pearlson
Resting state studies in neuropsychiatric disorders have already provided much useful information, but the field is regarded as being at a relatively preliminary stage and subject to several design issues that set limits on the overall utility.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985938/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Barnett, Samantha Audrain, Mary Pat McAndrews
We discuss the value of resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) as an emerging technique to address questions about memory and language that are central in surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy, namely the identification and characterization of eloquent cortex to avoid surgical morbidity. The emergence of a robust set of data using rsfMR imaging has opened new avenues for exploring more direct relationships between neural networks and current cognitive function and prediction of postoperative change...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985937/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Thomas J O'Neill, Elizabeth M Davenport, Gowtham Murugesan, Albert Montillo, Joseph A Maldjian
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health issue. TBI includes a broad spectrum of injury severities and abnormalities. Functional MR imaging (fMR imaging), both resting state (rs) and task, has been used often in research to study the effects of TBI. Although rs-fMR imaging is not currently applicable in clinical diagnosis of TBI, computer-aided tools are making this a possibility for the future. Specifically, graph theory is being used to study the change in networks after TBI. Machine learning methods allow researchers to build models capable of predicting injury severity and recovery trajectories...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985936/applications-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-to-neurodegenerative-disease
#6
REVIEW
Juan Zhou, Siwei Liu, Kwun Kei Ng, Juan Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases target specific large-scale neuronal networks, leading to distinct behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMR imaging)-based functional connectivity method maps symptoms-associated functional network deterioration in vivo. This article summarizes accumulating functional connectivity findings supporting the network-based neurodegeneration hypothesis. Understanding of disease mechanism can further guide early detection and predictions of disease progression and inform development of more effective treatment...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985935/limitations-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-in-the-setting-of-focal-brain-lesions
#7
REVIEW
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Jay J Pillai
Methods of image acquisition and analysis for resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) are still evolving. Neurovascular uncoupling and susceptibility artifact are important confounds of rsfMR imaging in the setting of focal brain lesions such as brain tumors. This article reviews the detection of these confounds using rsfMR imaging metrics in the setting of focal brain lesions. In the near future, with the wide range of ongoing research in rsfMR imaging, these issues likely will be overcome and will open new windows into brain function and connectivity...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985934/application-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-presurgical-mapping-language-mapping
#8
REVIEW
Haris I Sair, Shruti Agarwal, Jay J Pillai
Resting state functional MR imaging (rs-fMR imaging) has become an indispensable tool for examining brain function. The greatest opportunity to translate rs-fMR imaging from the research domain into clinical use is as a tool for examining intrinsic brain networks for preoperative planning. Many studies have demonstrated concordance of intrinsic motor networks from rs-fMR imaging data with task-fMR imaging and direct cortical stimulation. Earlier reports show concordance of language networks as well, although more recent studies with larger numbers of subjects demonstrate subject-level variability that needs to be further investigated and addressed before widespread implementation of rs-fMR imaging for preoperative planning...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985933/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-presurgical-functional-mapping-sensorimotor-localization
#9
REVIEW
Donna Dierker, Jarod L Roland, Mudassar Kamran, Jerrel Rutlin, Carl D Hacker, Daniel S Marcus, Mikhail Milchenko, Michelle M Miller-Thomas, Tammie L Benzinger, Abraham Z Snyder, Eric C Leuthardt, Joshua S Shimony
This article compares resting-state functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging with task fMR imaging for presurgical functional mapping of the sensorimotor (SM) region. Before tumor resection, 38 patients were scanned using both methods. The SM area was anatomically defined using 2 different software tools. Overlap of anatomic regions of interest with task activation maps and resting-state networks was measured in the SM region. A paired t-test showed higher overlap between resting-state maps and anatomic references compared with task activation when using a maximal overlap criterion...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985932/machine-learning-applications-to-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-analysis
#10
REVIEW
John M Billings, Maxwell Eder, William C Flood, Devendra Singh Dhami, Sriraam Natarajan, Christopher T Whitlow
Machine learning is one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields within computer science. Academic and commercial research entities are investing in machine learning methods, especially in personalized medicine via patient-level classification. There is great promise that machine learning methods combined with resting state functional MR imaging will aid in diagnosis of disease and guide potential treatment for conditions thought to be impossible to identify based on imaging alone, such as psychiatric disorders...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985931/graph-theoretic-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging
#11
REVIEW
John D Medaglia
Graph theoretic analyses applied to examine the brain at rest have played a critical role in clarifying the foundations of the brain's intrinsic and task-related activity. There are many opportunities for clinical scientists to describe and predict dysfunction using a network perspective. This primer describes the theoretic basis and practical application of graph theoretic analysis to resting state functional MR imaging data. Major practices, concepts, and findings are concisely reviewed. The theoretic and practical frontiers of resting state functional MR imaging are highlighted with observations about major avenues for conceptual advances and clinical translation...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985930/a-review-of-resting-state-analysis-methods
#12
REVIEW
Azeezat K Azeez, Bharat B Biswal
Resting-state functional connectivity is the synchronization of brain regions with each another. Alterations are suggestive of neurologic or psychological disorders. This article discusses methods and approaches used to describe resting-state brain connectivity and the results in neurotypical and diseased brains.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985929/ten-key-observations-on-the-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-data-using-independent-component-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Vince D Calhoun, Nina de Lacy
For more than 20 years, the powerful, flexible family of independent component analysis (ICA) techniques has been used to examine spatial, temporal, and subject variation in functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging data. This article provides an overview of 10 key principles in the basic and advanced application of ICA to resting-state fMR imaging. ICA's core advantages include robustness to artifact; false-positives and autocorrelation; adaptability to variant study designs; agnosticism to the temporal evolution of fMR imaging signals; and ability to extract, identify, and analyze neural networks...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985928/methods-and-considerations-for-dynamic-analysis-of-functional-mr-imaging-data
#14
REVIEW
Jingyuan E Chen, Mikail Rubinov, Catie Chang
Functional MR imaging (fMR imaging) studies have recently begun to examine spontaneous changes in interregional interactions (functional connectivity) over seconds to minutes, and their relation to natural shifts in cognitive and physiologic states. This practice opens the potential for uncovering structured, transient configurations of coordinated brain activity whose features may provide novel cognitive and clinical biomarkers. However, analysis of these time-varying phenomena requires careful differentiation between neural and nonneural contributions to the fMR imaging signal and thorough validation and statistical testing...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711213/dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-neuroradiology-and-head-and-neck-imaging-state-of-the-art
#15
EDITORIAL
Reza Forghani, Hillary R Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711212/dual-energy-computed-tomography-applications-in-neurologic-head-and-neck-imaging
#16
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711211/advanced-tissue-characterization-and-texture-analysis-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-horizons-and-emerging-applications
#17
REVIEW
Reza Forghani, Ashok Srinivasan, Behzad Forghani
In the last article of this issue, advanced analysis capabilities of DECT is reviewed, including spectral Hounsfield unit attenuation curves, virtual monochromatic images, material decomposition maps, tissue effective Z determination, and other advanced post-processing DECT tools, followed by different methods of analysis of the attenuation curves generated using DECT. The article concludes with exciting future horizons and potential applications, such as the use of the rich quantitative data in dual energy CT scans for texture or radiomic analysis and the use of machine learning methods for generation of prediction models using spectral data...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711210/routine-dual-energy-computed-tomography-scanning-of-the-neck-in-clinical-practice-a-single-institution-experience
#18
REVIEW
Almudena Pérez-Lara, Mark Levental, Lorne Rosenbloom, Gary Wing, Reza Forghani
There is increasing use and popularity of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in many subspecialties in radiology. This article reviews the practical workflow implications of routine DECT scanning based on the experience at a single institution where a large percentage of elective neck CTs are acquired in DECT mode. The article reviews factors both on the production (technologist) and on the interpretation (radiologist) side, focusing on challenges posed and potential solutions for seamless workflow implementation...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711209/dual-energy-computed-tomography-of-the-neck-a-pictorial-review-of-normal-anatomy-variants-and-pathologic-entities-using-different-energy-reconstructions-and-material-decomposition-maps
#19
REVIEW
Almudena Pérez-Lara, Reza Forghani
There is increasing use of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the evaluation of head and neck pathologic entities. Optimal DECT utilization requires familiarity with the appearance of normal tissues variants, and pathologic entities on different DECT reconstructions that may be used in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical, pictorial review of the appearance of normal anatomic structures and different neoplastic and nonneoplastic head and neck pathologic entities on commonly used DECT reconstructions...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711208/applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-artifact-reduction-in-the-head-neck-and-spine
#20
REVIEW
Eric Liao, Ashok Srinivasan
Conventional computed tomography (CT) uses a polychromatic energy beam to offer superb anatomic detail of the head and spine. However, technical challenges remain that can degrade the diagnostic image quality of these examinations. Dual-energy CT analyzes the changes in attenuation of soft tissues at different energy levels, from which different reconstructions can be made to yield the optimal contrast-to-noise ratio, reduce beam-hardening artifact, or evaluate tissue composition. In this article, selective applications of the dual energy CT technique are discussed, highlighting a powerful tool in the diagnostic CT evaluation of the head, neck, and spine...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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