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Neuroimaging Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157858/imaging-of-cerebral-concussion-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#1
EDITORIAL
Eliana Bonfante, Roy Riascos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157857/imaging-of-brain-concussion
#2
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157856/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-concussion
#3
REVIEW
Ivan I Kirov, Christopher T Whitlow, Carlos Zamora
Although susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) studies have suggested an increased number of microhemorrhages in concussion, most show no significant differences compared with controls. There have been mixed results on using SWI to predict neurologic outcomes. Drawbacks include inability to time microhemorrhages and difficulty in attributing them to the concussion. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in concussion can identify metabolic abnormalities, with many studies showing correlations with clinical outcome...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157855/imaging-the-role-of-myelin-in-concussion
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Mark Weber, Carlos Torres, Alexander Rauscher
Myelin water imaging (MWI) provides mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) researchers with a specific myelin biomarker and helps to further elucidate microstructural and microarchitectural changes of white matter after mTBI. Improvement of scanner hardware and software with the implementation of MWI across scanner platforms will likely result in increased research regarding the role of myelin in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Future research should include detailed investigation of myelin between 2 weeks and 2 months after injury, the use of MWI in moderate and severe TBI, and investigation of the role of myelin in chronic TBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157854/pet-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-brain-concussion
#5
REVIEW
Cyrus A Raji, Theodore A Henderson
This article offers an overview of the application of PET and single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging to concussion, a type of mild traumatic brain injury and traumatic brain injury, in general. The article reviews the application of these neuronuclear imaging modalities in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Additionally, this article frames the current literature with an overview of the basic physics and radiation exposure risks of each modality.
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157853/perfusion-imaging-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
David B Douglas, Ruchir Chaudhari, Jason M Zhao, James Gullo, Jared Kirkland, Pamela K Douglas, Ely Wolin, James Walroth, Max Wintermark
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem worldwide and neuroimaging plays a critical role in diagnosis and management. Recently, perfusion neuroimaging techniques have been explored in TBI to determine and characterize potential perfusion neuroimaging biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In this article, computed tomography (CT) bolus perfusion, MR imaging bolus perfusion, MR imaging arterial spin labeling perfusion, and xenon CT are reviewed with a focus on their applications in acute TBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157852/imaging-of-concussion-in-young-athletes
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Guenette, Martha E Shenton, Inga K Koerte
Conventional neuroimaging examinations are typically normal in concussed young athletes. A current focus of research is the characterization of subtle abnormalities after concussion using advanced neuroimaging techniques. These techniques have the potential to identify biomarkers of concussion. In the future, such biomarkers will likely provide important clinical information regarding the appropriate time interval before return to play, as well as the risk for prolonged postconcussive symptoms and long-term cognitive impairment...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157851/multimodal-advanced-imaging-for-concussion
#8
REVIEW
Khader M Hasan, Zafer Keser, Paul E Schulz, Elisabeth A Wilde
In the United States alone, 1.6 to 3.8 million people have sports-related concussions yearly. The patho-mechanisms of concussions may not be directly measured by conventional neuroimaging; advanced models may be needed to address the shortcomings of the current clinical protocols. Multimodal advanced imaging may provide more accurate diagnosis and predict the clinical course of concussion, assessing the efficacy of existing and emerging multifaceted therapies. In this article, the authors present an overview and pictorial display of conventional and advanced multimodal MR imaging methods that have been applied to identify the brain structures affected in traumatic brain injuries...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157850/conventional-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-in-brain-concussion
#9
REVIEW
Juan Nicolas Useche, Sonia Bermudez
Conventional neuroimaging is still the mainstay in the assessment of the acute, follow-up, and chronic settings of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Computed tomography (CT) is preferred for the initial assessment of acute mTBI, repeat evaluation in acute mTBI with neurologic deterioration, and cautious use in children with mTBI. Clinical rules have been developed to identify pediatric and adult patients with mTBI who can safely forego CT. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is mostly used in patients with acute mTBI when initial or follow-up CT is normal and there are persistent neurologic findings and in subacute or chronic mTBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157849/imaging-of-chronic-concussion
#10
REVIEW
Eliana Bonfante, Roy Riascos, Octavio Arevalo
Conventional imaging findings in patients with cerebral concussion and chronic traumatic encephalopathy are absent or subtle in the majority of cases. The most common abnormalities include cerebral volume loss, enlargement of the cavum of the septum pellucidum, cerebral microhemorrhages, and white matter signal abnormalities, all of which have poor sensitivity and specificity. Advanced imaging modalities, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), blood oxygen level dependent functional MR Imaging (BOLD fMRI), MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetoencephalography detect physiologic abnormalities in symptomatic patients and, although currently in the investigation phase, may become useful in the clinical arena...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157848/diffusion-mr-imaging-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Maria J Borja, Sohae Chung, Yvonne W Lui
Remarkable advances have been made in the last decade in the use of diffusion MR imaging to study mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Diffusion imaging shows differences between mTBI patients and healthy control groups in multiple different metrics using a variety of techniques, supporting the notion that there are microstructural injuries in mTBI patients that radiologists have been insensitive to. Future areas of discovery in diffusion MR imaging and mTBI include larger longitudinal studies to better understand the evolution of the injury and unravel the biophysical meaning that the detected changes in diffusion MR imaging represent...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157847/functional-mr-imaging-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-and-resting-state-techniques-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
REVIEW
Scott Rosenthal, Matthew Gray, Hudaisa Fatima, Haris I Sair, Christopher T Whitlow
This article discusses mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)-associated effects on brain functional connectivity assessed via resting-state functional MR (fMR) imaging. Several studies have reported acute post-injury default mode network hyperconnectivity, followed by a period of decreased connectivity before later connectivity normalization in some patients. Other studies have reported mTBI associated effects on connectivity that remain evident for up to 5-years or more. Discordance in the published literature regarding the direction of network connectivity changes (eg, increased versus decreased connectivity) may reflect differences in timing of data collection post-injury, as well as the need to standardize MR imaging acquisition protocols and processing methods...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157846/definition-of-traumatic-brain-injury-neurosurgery-trauma-orthopedics-neuroimaging-psychology-and-psychiatry-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Mubashir Pervez, Ryan S Kitagawa, Tiffany R Chang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. This condition can adversely affect a person's quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe TBI depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient's clinical status. Patients with TBI require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985941/functional-connectivity
#14
EDITORIAL
Jay J Pillai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985940/functional-connectivity
#15
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985939/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Godfrey David Pearlson
Resting state studies in neuropsychiatric disorders have already provided much useful information, but the field is regarded as being at a relatively preliminary stage and subject to several design issues that set limits on the overall utility.
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985938/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Alexander Barnett, Samantha Audrain, Mary Pat McAndrews
We discuss the value of resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) as an emerging technique to address questions about memory and language that are central in surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy, namely the identification and characterization of eloquent cortex to avoid surgical morbidity. The emergence of a robust set of data using rsfMR imaging has opened new avenues for exploring more direct relationships between neural networks and current cognitive function and prediction of postoperative change...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985937/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
Thomas J O'Neill, Elizabeth M Davenport, Gowtham Murugesan, Albert Montillo, Joseph A Maldjian
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health issue. TBI includes a broad spectrum of injury severities and abnormalities. Functional MR imaging (fMR imaging), both resting state (rs) and task, has been used often in research to study the effects of TBI. Although rs-fMR imaging is not currently applicable in clinical diagnosis of TBI, computer-aided tools are making this a possibility for the future. Specifically, graph theory is being used to study the change in networks after TBI. Machine learning methods allow researchers to build models capable of predicting injury severity and recovery trajectories...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985936/applications-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-to-neurodegenerative-disease
#19
REVIEW
Juan Zhou, Siwei Liu, Kwun Kei Ng, Juan Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases target specific large-scale neuronal networks, leading to distinct behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMR imaging)-based functional connectivity method maps symptoms-associated functional network deterioration in vivo. This article summarizes accumulating functional connectivity findings supporting the network-based neurodegeneration hypothesis. Understanding of disease mechanism can further guide early detection and predictions of disease progression and inform development of more effective treatment...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985935/limitations-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-in-the-setting-of-focal-brain-lesions
#20
REVIEW
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Jay J Pillai
Methods of image acquisition and analysis for resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) are still evolving. Neurovascular uncoupling and susceptibility artifact are important confounds of rsfMR imaging in the setting of focal brain lesions such as brain tumors. This article reviews the detection of these confounds using rsfMR imaging metrics in the setting of focal brain lesions. In the near future, with the wide range of ongoing research in rsfMR imaging, these issues likely will be overcome and will open new windows into brain function and connectivity...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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