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Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516447/metacarpophalangeal-joint-injury-patterns-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-comparison-in-racing-standardbreds-and-thoroughbreds
#1
Julien Olive, Nicolas Serraud, Thibault Vila, Jean-Philippe Germain
The metacarpal condyle has received extensive attention as a predominant site of overload arthropathy in racehorses. However, detailed descriptions of MRI lesion patterns for the metacarpophalangeal joint and comparisons between types of racing horses are currently lacking. Aims of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe and compare standing low-field magnetic resonance findings in the metacarpophalangeal joints for groups of Standardbreds and Thoroughbreds using systematic semiquantitative scores...
May 17, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497590/multimodality-characterization-of-a-noncommunicating-congenital-duodenal-duplication-cyst-causing-pyloric-outflow-obstruction-in-a-young-dog
#2
Liliana Mutascio, Federico Vilaplana Grosso, José Ramos-Vara, Micha Simons
A 10-month-old German Shepherd Dog presented for evaluation of intermittent vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed a marked right cranial mass effect. Initial differentials included abscess/cyst or less likely neoplasia from undetermined origin. On abdominal ultrasound the mass appeared cystic and thin walled. Computed tomography revealed a large cystic lesion originating from the pyloroduodenal junction causing pyloric outflow obstruction. A noncommunicating duodenal duplication cyst was found on exploratory laparotomy and further confirmed with histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
May 11, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464566/multidetector-computed-tomographic-pulmonary-angiography-in-a-cat-with-fatal-heartworm-disease
#3
Ioannis Panopoulos, Swan Specchi, Nektarios Soubasis, Anastasia Papastefanou, Georgia Brellou, Edoardo Auriemma
A 17-month-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was referred for a computed tomographic (CT) study of the thorax due to respiratory distress. Multidetector CT angiography showed a multifocal interstitial ground glass opacity, tortuous and blunted pulmonary arteries consistent with thromboembolism with perivascular lung infiltration and hypoventilation in multiple lung lobes. A blood antigen test was positive for Dirofilaria immitis. The cat's clinical condition rapidly declined and the owners elected euthanasia...
May 2, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464564/a-comparison-of-two-dose-calculation-algorithms-anisotropic-analytical-algorithm-and-acuros-xb-for-radiation-therapy-planning-of-canine-intranasal-tumors
#4
Koichi Nagata, Timothy D Pethel
Although anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) are both radiation dose calculation algorithms that take into account the heterogeneity within the radiation field, Acuros XB is inherently more accurate. The purpose of this retrospective method comparison study was to compare them and evaluate the dose discrepancy within the planning target volume (PTV). Radiation therapy (RT) plans of 11 dogs with intranasal tumors treated by radiation therapy at the University of Georgia were evaluated...
May 2, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449234/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomographic-characteristics-of-a-glioma-causing-calvarial-erosion-in-a-dog
#5
Alfredo Recio, Cristian de la Fuente, Martí Pumarola, Yvonne Espada, Sònia Añor
An 8-year-old female Boxer was examined for acute onset of seizures. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an intra-axial mass with imaging features consistent with glioma was observed in the right cerebral hemisphere. A defect in the temporal bone adjacent to the mass was observed. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) confirmed temporal bone osteolysis and necropsy demonstrated a glioblastoma with associated calvarial erosion. Although occasionally described in human medicine, to our knowledge, this is the first description of a brain glioma causing calvarial erosion in a dog...
April 27, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444825/3-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-the-normal-canine-femoral-and-sciatic-nerves
#6
Christine Sievert, Henning Richter, Dominic Gascho, Patrick R Kircher, Inés Carrera
Understanding the normal course and optimizing visualization of the canine peripheral nerves of the lumbar plexus, in particular the sciatic and the femoral nerves, is essential when interpreting images of patients with suspected peripheral neuropathies such as inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The purpose of this prospective, anatomic study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves and to define the sequences in which the nerves are best depicted...
April 25, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436129/use-of-an-electronic-brachytherapy-surface-applicator-to-treat-an-epiglottal-fibrosarcoma-in-a-dog
#7
Charles A Maitz, Katherine L Robinson
Presented is the case of an epiglottal fibrosarcoma in a dog. The location of the mass resulted in challenges in the delivery of adequate dose to the tumor, and herein we describe the treatment using an electronic brachytherapy source. The treatment consisted of four Gy fractions, twice daily for a total of 10 fractions (40 Gy total). Visual reevaluation two weeks after treatment supported adequate spatial dose delivery, and the patient was reportedly improved six weeks after treatment. We demonstrate that plesiotherapy using an electronic brachytherapy device is feasible and may be useful in the treatment of carefully selected veterinary tumors...
April 23, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436073/academic-and-private-practice-partnerships-in-veterinary-radiology-residency-training
#8
Anthony J Fischetti, Jon T Shiroma, Brian A Poteet
As veterinary radiologists devote greater time to telemedicine consultation, residency training must evolve to reflect the skills of these services. The contribution of private practice/consultant radiologists to residency training has traditionally been minimal but academic and private practice partnerships in education and research can provide the framework for a well-rounded residency. These partnerships can also lessen the impact of workforce shortages in academia and provide financial compensation to academicians through external consultation...
April 23, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429414/evaluation-of-t2-weighted-versus-short-tau-inversion-recovery-sagittal-sequences-in-the-identification-and-localization-of-canine-intervertebral-disc-extrusion-with-low-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Daniel Housley, Abby Caine, Giunio Cherubini, Olivier Taeymans
Sagittal T2-weighted sequences (T2-SAG) are the foundation of spinal protocols when screening for the presence of intervertebral disc extrusion. We often utilize sagittal short-tau inversion recovery sequences (STIR-SAG) as an adjunctive screening series, and experience suggests that this combined approach provides superior detection rates. We hypothesized that STIR-SAG would provide higher sensitivity than T2-SAG in the identification and localization of intervertebral disc extrusion. We further hypothesized that the parallel evaluation of paired T2-SAG and STIR-SAG series would provide a higher sensitivity than could be achieved with either independent sagittal series when viewed in isolation...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429403/accuracy-of-computed-tomographic-arthrography-for-assessment-of-articular-cartilage-defects-in-the-ovine-stifle
#10
Fanny Hontoir, Peter Clegg, Vincent Simon, Nathalie Kirschvink, Jean-Francois Nisolle, Jean-Michel Vandeweerd
Articular cartilage defects are one of the features of osteoarthritis in animals and humans. Early detection of cartilage defects is a challenge in clinical veterinary practice and also in translational research studies. An accurate, diagnostic imaging method would be desirable for detecting and following up lesions in specific anatomical regions of the articular surface. The current prospective experimental study aimed to describe the accuracy of computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) for detecting cartilage defects in a common animal model used for osteoarthritis research, the ovine stifle (knee, femoropatellar/femorotibial) joint...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429379/retrospective-evaluation-of-thoracic-computed-tomography-findings-in-dogs-naturally-infected-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#11
Mark E Coia, Gawain Hammond, Daniel Chan, Randi Drees, David Walker, Kevin Murtagh, Janine Stone, Nicholas Bexfield, Lizzie Reeve, Jenny Helm
Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum) is an important emerging disease of canidae. Cardiorespiratory signs are common in affected dogs, therefore thoracic imaging is critical for diagnosing and monitoring disease. Descriptions of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings in dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum are currently lacking. Aims of this multicenter, retrospective study were to describe thoracic CT findings in a group of dogs with confirmed disease, determine whether any changes were consistent among dogs, and propose standardized terms for describing thoracic CT findings...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421647/evaluation-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-differentiation-of-inflammatory-neoplastic-and-vascular-intradural-spinal-cord-diseases-in-the-dog
#12
Amanda E Masciarelli, John F Griffin, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Silke Hecht, Joseph M Mankin, Shannon P Holmes, Simon R Platt, Marc Kent, Theresa E Pancotto, Annie V Chen, Jonathan M Levine
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a common test for dogs with suspected intradural spinal cord lesions, however studies on diagnostic performance for this test are lacking. Objectives of this multi-institutional, retrospective, case-control study were to estimate sensitivity and specificity of MRI for (1) distinguishing between histopathologically confirmed intradural spinal cord disease versus degenerative myelopathy in dogs, (2) categorizing intradural spinal cord diseases as neoplastic, inflammatory, or vascular; and (3) determining tumor type within the etiologic category of neoplasia...
April 18, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419635/canine-histiocytic-sarcoma-presenting-as-a-target-lesion-on-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-as-a-solitary-pulmonary-mass
#13
Jill Hicks, Renee Barber, Bronwen Childs, Shannon Gm Kirejczyk, Elizabeth W Uhl
A 6-year-old spayed female miniature schnauzer presented with generalized seizures and progressive multifocal intracranial neurologic disease. Thoracic radiographs and computed tomography (CT) revealed a large solitary pulmonary mass within the right cranial lung lobe. On brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a solitary intraparenchymal mass within the left piriform lobe had a "target" appearance on both pre- and postcontrast sequences. Cerebrospinal fluid was unremarkable and histopathology indicated both masses represented histiocytic sarcoma...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402031/evaluation-of-osseous-associated-cervical-spondylomyelopathy-in-dogs-using-kinematic-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Michele Provencher, Amy Habing, Sarah A Moore, Laurie Cook, Gary Phillips, Ronaldo C da Costa
Osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy in dogs is characterized by both static and dynamic spinal cord compression; however, standard MRI methods only assess static compression. In humans with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, kinematic MRI is commonly used to diagnose dynamic spinal cord compressions. The purpose of this prospective, analytical study was to evaluate kinematic MRI as a method for characterizing the dynamic component of osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy in dogs. We hypothesized that kinematic MRI would allow visualization of spinal cord compressions that were not identified with standard imaging...
April 12, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397316/proposed-expansion-margins-for-planning-organ-at-risk-volume-for-lenses-during-radiation-therapy-of-the-nasal-cavity-in-dogs-and-cats
#15
Zaki Jafry, Arnon Gal, Andre Fleck, Johnson Darko, Valerie J Poirier
Radiation therapy protocols for the feline or canine nasal cavity can damage epithelial cells of the posterior pole of the lens and lead to the development of cataracts. Aims of this retrospective, descriptive study were to calculate movements of the lens during radiation therapy of the nasal cavity in a sample of cats and dogs, and to propose species-specific expansion margins for planning organ at risk volume (PRV) to minimize radiation doses to the lens. All included patients were immobilized with an indexed bite block and positioned in a vacuum positioning cushion for head irradiation...
April 11, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397313/correlation-of-cytologic-and-histopathologic-findings-with-perinodal-echogenicity-of-abdominal-lymph-nodes-in-dogs-and-cats
#16
Aditya C Davé, Lisa J Zekas, Danelle M Auld
Abdominal lymphadenopathy in dogs and cats is routinely investigated with ultrasound. As the determination between benign and neoplastic etiologies of lymphadenopathy affects patient management, specific sonographic characteristics associated with both benign and neoplastic lymph nodes have been suggested. However, a significant overlap between these characteristics exists, necessitating a cytologic or histopathologic diagnosis in most instances. The objectives of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to evaluate whether echogenicity of perinodal fat could be a discriminator between benign and neoplastic abdominal lymphadenopathy and to assess if additional sonographic features associated with malignancy could be identified in lymph nodes with hyperechoic perinodal fat...
April 11, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371108/associations-between-thoracic-radiographic-changes-and-severity-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-diagnosed-in-60-dogs-via-doppler-echocardiography-a-retrospective-study
#17
Dustin S Adams, Angela J Marolf, Alejandro Valdés-Martínez, Elissa K Randall, Annette M Bachand
Doppler echocardiography is a noninvasive method for estimating and grading pulmonary arterial hypertension. No current literature associates significance of radiographic findings with severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that the number and conspicuity of radiographic findings suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension would be greater based on the severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal control dogs were included in this retrospective, case control study...
March 29, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343367/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-leukoaraiosis-in-elderly-dogs
#18
Elena Scarpante, Giunio Bruto Cherubini, Alberta de Stefani, Olivier Taeymans
Leukoaraiosis is a descriptive term used to designate bilateral, symmetrical, white matter lesions identified in brains of elderly human patients. These lesions are isointense to normal in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1-weighted pulse sequences, non-contrast enhancing, and hyperintense in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequences. Pathophysiologic mechanisms for leukoaraiosis remain incompletely understood; however, an ischemic origin is currently being favored. Age-related changes, such as brain atrophy, ventricular enlargement, and well-demarcated sulci, have also been previously described in dogs over 9 years of age...
March 26, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337826/diagnostic-outcome-of-contrast-videofluoroscopic-swallowing-studies-in-216-dysphagic-dogs
#19
Rachel E Pollard, Stanley L Marks, Diane M Cheney, Cecily M Bonadio
Determining the anatomic and functional origin for dysphagia is critical for development of an appropriate therapeutic plan and determination of the prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the quantitative and qualitative outcome of contrast videofluoroscopic swallowing studies in a large cohort of dysphagic dogs presenting to a tertiary veterinary care hospital. The videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were reviewed to generate values for pharyngeal constriction ratio, timing of swallowing events (maximum pharyngeal contraction, opening of upper esophageal sphincter, closing of upper esophageal sphincter, and reopening of epiglottis), type of esophageal peristalsis generated, and esophageal transit time...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337816/vertebral-venous-system-abnormalities-identified-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-sighthounds
#20
John C Vernon, Alexane Durand, Julien Guevar, Roberto José-López, Gawain Hammond, Catherine Stalin, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana
In humans, abnormalities of the vertebral venous system are considered rare but significant causes of radiculopathy and myelopathy. Published information on abnormalities of the canine vertebral venous system is currently lacking. Aims of this retrospective descriptive study were to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities of the vertebral venous system in a population of sighthounds, report prevalence of vertebral venous system abnormalities within that population and explore possible clinical significance...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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