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Tobacco Control

Linda Hayes, Melanie A Wakefield, Emily Bain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Tobacco Control
Eric C Leas, John W Ayers, David R Strong, John P Pierce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Tobacco Control
Andrea C Villanti, Paul D Mowery, Cristine D Delnevo, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Gary A Giovino
INTRODUCTION: National data from 2004 to 2010 showed that despite decreases in non-menthol cigarette use prevalence, menthol cigarette use prevalence remained constant in adolescents and adults and increased in young adults. The purpose of the current study was to extend these analyses through 2014. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking in the USA during 2004-2014 using annual cross-sectional data on persons aged ≥12 years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Hyoshin Kim, Juyun Lim, Stephanie S Buehler, Marielle C Brinkman, Nathan M Johnson, Laura Wilson, Kandice S Cross, Pamela I Clark
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which the perception of sweet and other flavours is associated with liking and disliking of flavoured electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: 31 participants (13 females/18 males; 12 sole/19 dual users) vaped 6 commercially available flavours of blu Tanks: Classic Tobacco (CT), Magnificent Menthol (MM), Cherry Crush (CC), Vivid Vanilla (VV), Piña Colada (PC) and Peach Schnapps (PS); all 'medium' strength, 12 mg/mL nicotine concentration...
October 5, 2016: Tobacco Control
Danielle M Smith, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Jidong Huang, Dianne Barker, Andrew J Hyland, Frank Chaloupka
BACKGROUND: Non-menthol characterising flavours (eg, fruit, candy) are banned in cigarettes, yet are still permitted in non-cigarette tobacco (NCT) products. This study examined associations between first use and current use of flavoured tobacco products, and current flavoured tobacco use and quit behaviours. METHODS: A nationally representative, telephone-based survey completed in 2012 by 1443 US adult tobacco users asked about use of 9 tobacco products: cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, little filtered cigars, pipes, hookah, smokeless tobacco and snus...
October 5, 2016: Tobacco Control
Lu Fan, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sairam V Jabba, Pamela E Bonner, Seth R Taylor, Marina R Picciotto, Sven-Eric Jordt
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is a major oral irritant in smokeless tobacco products and has an aversive taste. Mentholated smokeless tobacco products are highly popular, suggesting that menthol increases their palatability and may facilitate initiation of product use. While menthol is known to reduce respiratory irritation by tobacco smoke irritants, it is not known whether this activity extends to oral nicotine and its aversive effects. STUDY DESIGN: The two-bottle choice drinking assay was used to characterise aversion and preference in C57BL/6 mice to a range of menthol concentrations (10-200 µg/mL)...
October 3, 2016: Tobacco Control
Andrew Morehu Waa, Janet Hoek, Richard Edwards, James Maclaurin
BACKGROUND: The tobacco industry routinely opposes tobacco control policies, often using a standard repertoire of arguments. Following proposals to introduce standardised packaging in New Zealand (NZ), British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched the 'Agree-Disagree' mass media campaign, which coincided with the NZ government's standardised packaging consultations. This study examined the logic of the arguments presented and rhetorical strategies employed in the campaign. METHODS: We analysed each advertisement to identify key messages, arguments and rhetorical devices, then examined the arguments' structure and assessed their logical soundness and validity...
September 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
Eric C Donny, Natalie Walker, Dorothy Hatsukami, Chris Bullen
Large reductions in nicotine content could dramatically reduce reinforcement from and dependence on cigarettes. In this article, we summarise the potential benefits of reducing nicotine in combusted tobacco and address some of the common concerns. We focus specifically on New Zealand because it may be ideally situated to implement such a policy. The available data suggest that, in current smokers, very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes decrease nicotine exposure, decrease cigarette dependence, reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day and increase the likelihood of contemplating, making and succeeding at a quit attempt...
September 26, 2016: Tobacco Control
Amber L Pearson, Christine L Cleghorn, Frederieke S van der Deen, Linda J Cobiac, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Nhung Nghiem, Tony Blakely, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Since there is some evidence that the density and distribution of tobacco retail outlets may influence smoking behaviours, we aimed to estimate the impacts of 4 tobacco outlet reduction interventions in a country with a smoke-free goal: New Zealand (NZ). METHODS: A multistate life-table model of 16 tobacco-related diseases, using national data by sex, age and ethnicity, was used to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and net costs over the remainder of the 2011 NZ population's lifetime...
September 22, 2016: Tobacco Control
Kar-Hai Chu, Jon-Patrick Allem, Tess Boley Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
INTRODUCTION: This study documented images posted on Instagram of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and vaping (activity associated with e-cigarette use). Although e-cigarettes have been studied on Twitter, few studies have focused on Instagram, despite having 500 million users. Instagram's emphasis on images warranted investigation of e-cigarettes, as past tobacco industry strategies demonstrated that images could be used to mislead in advertisements, or normalise tobacco-related behaviours...
September 22, 2016: Tobacco Control
Georg E Matt, Penelope J E Quintana, Joy M Zakarian, Eunha Hoh, Melbourne F Hovell, Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Kayo Watanabe, Kathy Datuin, Cher Vue, Dale A Chatfield
BACKGROUND: Over a 6-month period, we examined tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) that remained in the homes of former smokers and the exposure to these pollutants. METHODS: 90 smokers completed study measures at baseline (BL). Measures were repeated among verified quitters 1 week (W1), 1 month (M1), 3 months (M3) and 6 months (M6) following cessation. Measures were analysed for THS pollutants on household surfaces, fingers and in dust (ie, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines) and for urinary markers of exposure (ie, cotinine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL))...
September 21, 2016: Tobacco Control
Angela Aherrera, Asli Çarkoğlu, Mutlu Hayran, Gül Ergör, Toker Ergüder, Bekir Kaplan, Jolie Susan, Laura Zheng, Joanna E Cohen, Ana Navas-Acien
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, Turkey extended the smoke-free legislation to hospitality venues. Compliance, however, remains low in some hospitality venues. We identified characteristics associated with knowledge of health effects that can be prevented by the smoke-free law, the attitude towards and enforcement of the law. METHODS: In 2014, we conducted 400 interviews with hospitality venue owners and employees in 7 cities in Turkey. The venues were identified based on a random sampling strategy in a previous phase of the study...
September 19, 2016: Tobacco Control
Deliana Kostova, Muhammad J Husain, Frank J Chaloupka
BACKGROUND: China is the world's largest producer and consumer of cigarettes. The status of tobacco as both a contributor to China's economy and a liability for the health of its population may complicate the use of taxes for addressing smoking in the country. Understanding how cigarette prices affect transitions in smoking behaviour in China can increase understanding of how China's high smoking rates can be influenced by tax policy. METHODS: In order to estimate the effect of cigarette prices on smoking initiation and cessation in China, we construct pseudo-longitudinal samples for duration analysis using data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey China 2010...
September 16, 2016: Tobacco Control
Noel J Leigh, Ralph I Lawton, Pamela A Hershberger, Maciej L Goniewicz
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled. METHODS: Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Mark D Litt, Valerie Duffy, Cheryl Oncken
INTRODUCTION: The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. METHODS: Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Jonathan M Samet, Mary Ann Pentz, Jennifer B Unger
The menthol report developed by the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC) of the Center for Tobacco Products elaborated a methodology for considering the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes that has relevance to flavourings generally. The TPSAC report was based on a conceptual framework on how menthol in cigarettes has public health impact results of evidence from related systematic reviews, and an evidence-based statistical model. In extending this approach to flavourings generally, consideration will need to be given to the existence of multiple flavourings, a very dynamic market place and regulatory interventions and industry activities...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Allison C Hoffman, Raydel Valdes Salgado, Carolyn Dresler, Rachel Williams Faller, Christopher Bartlett
OBJECTIVE: To understand the available evidence of how children and adults differ in their preferences for flavours that may be used in tobacco products. DATA SOURCES: A total of 474 articles published between 1931 and August 2015 were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and PsycINFO. STUDY SELECTION AND EXTRACTION: A 2-phase relevancy review process resulted in the identification of 59 articles and information was extracted by 2 independent reviewers...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Rachel Z Behar, Wentai Luo, Sabrina C Lin, Yuhuan Wang, Jackelyn Valle, James F Pankow, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution, concentration and toxicity of cinnamaldehyde in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) refill fluids and aerosols. METHODS: The distribution and concentration of cinnamaldehyde were determined in 39 e-cigarette refill fluids plus 6 duplicates using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A cinnamaldehyde toxicity profile was established for embryonic and adult cells using a live cell imaging assay, immunocytochemistry, the comet assay and a recovery assay...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
J K Pepper, K M Ribisl, N T Brewer
BACKGROUND: More US adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavours. METHODS: A national sample of adolescents (n=1125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014 to June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavours (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavour on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
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