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Tobacco Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822971/second-hand-smoke-exposure-in-homes-with-children-assessment-of-airborne-nicotine-in-the-living-room-and-children-s-bedroom
#1
Teresa Arechavala, Xavier Continente, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, Anna Schiaffino, Esteve Fernandez, Núria Cortés-Francisco, Francesc Centrich, Glòria Muñoz, Maria J López
BACKGROUND: The introduction of 'smoke-free laws' has reduced the population's exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS), although SHS is still an issue in homes and other public places. Children are vulnerable to its health effects, and their greatest exposure occurs at home. OBJECTIVES: To assess airborne nicotine concentration of the living room and children's bedroom of homes with children under 13 years of age, and to analyse factors associated with these levels...
August 19, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822970/estimating-the-effects-of-novel-on-pack-warnings-on-young-adult-smokers-and-susceptible-non-smokers
#2
Philip Gendall, Christine Eckert, Janet Hoek, Jordan Louviere
BACKGROUND: On-pack tobacco warnings can deter smoking initiation and provide powerful cessation cues. However, these warnings typically feature graphic health images, which many young adults dismiss as irrelevant. We estimated responses to more diverse warnings and examined how these performed relative to each other. METHODS: We conducted a behavioural likelihood experiment and a choice modelling experiment in which 474 smokers and 476 susceptible non-smokers aged between 16 and 30 years evaluated 12 warnings featuring health, social, financial and cosmetic themes...
August 19, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818839/do-electronic-cigarettes-increase-cigarette-smoking-in-uk-adolescents-evidence-from-a-12-month-prospective-study
#3
Mark Conner, Sarah Grogan, Ruth Simms-Ellis, Keira Flett, Bianca Sykes-Muskett, Lisa Cowap, Rebecca Lawton, Christopher J Armitage, David Meads, Carole Torgerson, Robert West, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: In cross-sectional surveys, increasing numbers of adolescents report using both electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and cigarettes. This study assessed whether adolescent e-cigarette use was associated prospectively with initiation or escalation of cigarette use. METHODS: Data were from 2836 adolescents (aged 13-14 years at baseline) in 20 schools in England. At baseline, breath carbon monoxide levels, self-reported e-cigarette and cigarette use, sex, age, friends and family smoking, beliefs about cigarette use and percentage receiving free school meals (measure of socioeconomic status) were assessed...
August 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814454/air-pollution-as-a-catalyst-for-supporting-tobacco-control-policies-evidence-from-a-nationwide-study-on-chinese-medical-students
#4
Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Tingzhong Yang, Fanhao Nie
PURPOSE: Few studies have discussed how the increasing ambient air pollution may affect policy-related attitudes. Medical professionals constitute an important interest group who analyse and solve public issues within a medicalised framework. The current study investigates whether ambient air pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of supporting tobacco control measures among medical students. METHODS: We conducted multistage sampling among the medical students from 42 cities in China...
August 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801362/trends-in-cigarette-consumption-and-time-to-first-cigarette-on-awakening-from-2002-to-2015-in-the-usa-new-insights-into-the-ongoing-tobacco-epidemic
#5
Renee D Goodwin, Melanie M Wall, Misato Gbedemah, Mei-Chen Hu, Andrea H Weinberger, Sandro Galea, Michael J Zvolensky, Elizabeth Hangley, Deborah S Hasin
OBJECTIVE: The current study estimates trends in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and percentage of smokers having their first CPD within 30 min of waking (time to first cigarette (TTFC)<30 min) among smokers from 2002 to 2015 in the USA overall, and adjusting for demographics. Trends in TTFC<30 min were also estimated by varying levels of cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use, an annual nationally representative cross-sectional study of the US population aged 12 and older (n=54 079-58 397 per year)...
August 10, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798265/characteristics-of-tobacco-purchases-in-urban-corner-stores
#6
Hannah G Lawman, Jennifer Dolatshahi, Giridhar Mallya, Stephanie Vander Veur, Ryan Coffman, Cheryl Bettigole, Alexis Wojtanowski, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Gary D Foster
INTRODUCTION: To examine the prevalence and patterns of tobacco purchases at low-income, urban corner stores. METHODS: Data on tobacco products and other purchases were collected through direct observation of customers' purchases (n=6369) at 120 urban corner stores in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from April to September 2012. RESULTS: Overall 13% of corner store purchases included tobacco products. The majority (61%) of tobacco purchases did not include any other products, and 5...
August 10, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798264/compliance-with-smoke-free-legislation-and-smoking-behaviour-observational-field-study-from-punjab-india
#7
Sonu Goel, Deepak Sharma, Rakesh Gupta, Vini Mahajan
BACKGROUND: Indian smoke-free legislation requires prohibition of smoking at public places and owners of public places to display 'no smoking' signages. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess the compliance of public places with smoke-free legislation and determine the factors associated with active smoking in public places. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional analytic observational quantitative survey conducted by a team of trained field investigators using a structured observational checklist across 6875 public places in Punjab state of India...
August 10, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798263/cost-effectiveness-of-a-smokeless-tobacco-control-mass-media-campaign-in-india
#8
Nandita Murukutla, Hongjin Yan, Shuo Wang, Nalin Singh Negi, Alexey Kotov, Sandra Mullin, Mark Goodchild
BACKGROUND: Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology...
August 10, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798262/changes-in-the-availability-and-promotion-of-non-cigarette-tobacco-products-near-high-schools-in-new-jersey-usa
#9
Daniel P Giovenco, Christopher Ackerman, Mary Hrywna, Cristine D Delnevo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778972/tobacco-policy-reform-and-population-wide-antismoking-activities-in-australia-the-impact-on-smoking-during-pregnancy
#10
Alys Havard, Duong T Tran, Anna Kemp-Casey, Kristjana Einarsdóttir, David B Preen, Louisa R Jorm
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the impact of antismoking activities targeting the general population and an advertising campaign targeting smoking during pregnancy on the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: Monthly prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was calculated using linked health records for all pregnancies resulting in a birth (800 619) in NSW from 2003 to 2011. Segmented regression of interrupted time series data assessed the effects of the extension of the ban on smoking in enclosed public places to include licensed premises (evaluated in combination with the mandating of graphic warnings on cigarette packs), television advertisements targeting smoking in the general population, print and online magazine advertisements targeting smoking during pregnancy and increased tobacco tax...
August 4, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778971/comparing-the-cancer-potencies-of-emissions-from-vapourised-nicotine-products-including-e-cigarettes-with-those-of-tobacco-smoke
#11
William E Stephens
BACKGROUND: Quantifying relative harm caused by inhaling the aerosol emissions of vapourised nicotine products compared with smoking combustible tobacco is an important issue for public health. METHODS: The cancer potencies of various nicotine-delivering aerosols are modelled using published chemical analyses of emissions and their associated inhalation unit risks. Potencies are compared using a conversion procedure for expressing smoke and e-cigarette vapours in common units...
August 4, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778970/tobacco-industry-response-to-a-ban-on-lights-descriptors-on-cigarette-packaging-and-population-outcomes
#12
Hillel R Alpert, Daniel Carpenter, Gregory N Connolly
OBJECTIVE: The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its Guidelines recommend nations ban the use of misleading terms, such as 'light' and 'mild' on tobacco product advertising, packaging and labelling. Many nations, including the USA, have implemented such bans and some have introduced or passed legislation requiring plain packaging on tobacco products. We previously reported that manufacturers in the USA responded by replacing lights terms with colour terms and related colour-coding of packages...
August 4, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760911/tobacco-companies-use-of-retailer-incentives-after-a-ban-on-point-of-sale-tobacco-displays-in-scotland
#13
Martine Stead, Douglas Eadie, Richard I Purves, Crawford Moodie, Sally Haw
INTRODUCTION: Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. METHODS: As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, annual qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 small retailers in four Scottish communities...
July 31, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754663/assessment-of-short-reports-using-a-human-rights-based-approach-to-tobacco-control-to-the-commitee-on-economics-cultural-and-social-rights
#14
Carolyn Dresler, Kirsten Henry, John Loftus, Harry Lando
BACKGROUND: The health impact of tobacco use remains a major global public health concern and a human rights issue. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network (HRTCN) was established to increase the visibility of tobacco as a human rights issue. HRTCN submitted short reports to the UN Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights evaluating individual nations' tobacco control policies and offering recommendations. METHODS: HRTCN reviewed Concluding Observations documents for nations for which the HRTCN submitted reports...
July 28, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747492/responsiveness-to-cigarette-prices-by-different-racial-ethnic-groups-of-us-adults
#15
Tingting Yao, Michael K Ong, Wendy Max, Courtney Keeler, Yingning Wang, Valerie B Yerger, Hai-Yen Sung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of cigarette prices on adult smoking for four US racial/ethnic groups: whites, African-Americans, Asians and Hispanics. METHODS: We analysed pooled cross-sectional data from the 2006/2007 and 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (n=339 921 adults aged 18+) and cigarette price data from the Tax Burden on Tobacco. Using a two-part econometric model of cigarette demand that controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, state-level antismoking sentiment, local-level smoke-free air laws and monthly indicator, we estimated for each racial/ethnic group the price elasticities of smoking participation, smoking intensity and total demand for cigarettes...
July 26, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743794/can-t-see-the-woods-for-the-trees-exploring-the-range-and-connection-of-tobacco-industry-argumentation-in-the-2012-uk-standardised-packaging-consultation
#16
Jessamina Lih Yan Lie, Gary Fooks, Nanne K de Vries, Suzanne M Heijndijk, Marc C Willemsen
INTRODUCTION: Transnational tobacco company (TTC) submissions to the 2012 UK standardised packaging consultation are studied to examine TTC argumentation in the context of Better Regulation practices. METHODS: A content analysis was conducted of Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco submissions to the 2012 UK consultation. Industry arguments concerning expected costs and (contested) benefits of the policy were categorised into themes and frames...
July 25, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739609/a-national-quitline-service-and-its-promotion-in-the-mass-media-modelling-the-health-gain-health-equity-and-cost-utility
#17
Nhung Nghiem, Christine L Cleghorn, William Leung, Nisha Nair, Frederieke S van der Deen, Tony Blakely, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Mass media campaigns and quitlines are both important distinct components of tobacco control programmes around the world. But when used as an integrated package, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are not well described. We therefore aimed to estimate the health gain, health equity impacts and cost-utility of the package of a national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media. METHODS: We adapted an established Markov and multistate life-table macro-simulation model...
July 24, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735275/tobacco-price-boards-as-a-promotional-strategy-a-longitudinal-observational-study-in-australian-retailers
#18
Megan Bayly, Michelle Scollo, Sarah White, Kylie Lindorff, Melanie Wakefield
BACKGROUND: Price boards in tobacco retailers are one of the few forms of tobacco promotion remaining in Australia. This study aimed to examine how these boards were used to promote products over a period of rapidly rising taxes. METHODS: Observations were made in a panel of 350 stores in Melbourne, Australia, in November of 2013 (just before) and in 2014 and 2015 (after 12.5% increases in tobacco duty). Fieldworkers unobtrusively noted the presence and characteristics of price boards, and the brand name, size and price of the product at the top of each board...
July 22, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735274/automated-dripping-devices-for-vapers-rdtas-bottomfeeders-squonk-mods-and-dripboxes
#19
Paul Truman Harrell, Thomas Eissenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735273/relationship-between-trying-an-electronic-cigarette-and-subsequent-cigarette-experimentation-in-scottish-adolescents-a-cohort-study
#20
Catherine Best, Farhana Haseen, Dorothy Currie, Gozde Ozakinci, Anne Marie MacKintosh, Martine Stead, Douglas Eadie, Andy MacGregor, Jamie Pearce, Amanda Amos, John Frank, Sally Haw
BACKGROUND: This study examines whether young never smokers in Scotland, UK, who have tried an e-cigarette are more likely than those who have not, to try a cigarette during the following year. METHODS: Prospective cohort survey conducted in four high schools in Scotland, UK during February/March 2015 (n=3807) with follow-up 1 year later. All pupils (age 11-18) were surveyed. Response rates were high in both years (87% in 2015) and 2680/3807 (70.4%) of the original cohort completed the follow-up survey...
July 22, 2017: Tobacco Control
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