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Tobacco Control

Rijo M John, Hana Ross
OBJECTIVE: To estimate illicit cigarette consumption in India using a modified and replicable method and compare it with estimates generated by the tobacco industry and by a commercial entity. METHODS: The study employed a modified approach to cigarette pack analysis suitable for countries with prevalent single-cigarette sales. Empty cigarette packs generated by 1 day's single-cigarette sales were collected directly from cigarette vendors in four large and four small cities covering the length and breadth of India...
December 8, 2017: Tobacco Control
Andre Knuchel-Takano, Daniel Hunt, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Martin Brown, Lise Retat, Katrina Brown, Sebastian Hinde, Chit Selvarajah, Linda Bauld, Laura Webber
INTRODUCTION: Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. METHODS: A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035...
December 6, 2017: Tobacco Control
Armando Peruga, Luminita S Hayes, Ximena Aguilera, Vinayak Prasad, Douglas W Bettcher
OBJECTIVE: To explore correlates of high compliance with smoking bans in a cross-sectional data set from the 41 countries with national comprehensive smoke-free laws in 2014 and complete data on compliance and enforcement. METHODS: Outcome variable: compliance with a national comprehensive smoke-free law in each country was obtained for 2014 from the WHO global report on the global tobacco epidemic. Explanatory variables: legal enforcement requirements, penalties, infrastructure and strategy were obtained through a separate survey of governments...
December 5, 2017: Tobacco Control
Joseph G L Lee, Elizabeth N Orlan, Kerry B Sewell, Kurt M Ribisl
OBJECTIVE: Retailers that primarily or exclusively sell electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or vaping products represent a new category of tobacco retailer. We sought to identify (a) how vape shops can be identified and (b) sales and marketing practices of vape shops. DATA SOURCES: A medical librarian iteratively developed a search strategy and in February 2017 searched seven academic databases (ABI/INFORM Complete, ECONLit, Embase, Entrepreneurship, PsycINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus)...
December 5, 2017: Tobacco Control
Terry Frank Pechacek, Pratibha Nayak, Paul Slovic, Scott R Weaver, Jidong Huang, Michael P Eriksen
INTRODUCTION: Benefit-cost analyses of tobacco regulations include estimates of the informed choice of smokers to continue smoking. Few studies have focused on subjective feelings associated with continued smoking. This study estimates how smoker discontent and regret relate to risk perceptions and health concerns. METHODS: We analysed data from a 2015 nationally representative, online survey of 1284 US adult current smokers. Information was collected on regret, intention to quit, perceived addiction, risk perceptions and health concerns...
November 28, 2017: Tobacco Control
John P Pierce, Yuyan Shi, Erik M Hendrickson, Martha M White, Madison L Noble, Sheila Kealey, David R Strong, Dennis R Trinidad, Anne M Hartman, Karen Messer
BACKGROUND: In the 1990s, California led the USA in state-level tobacco control strategies. However, after 2000, California lost ground on cigarette taxes, although it maintained higher levels of smoke-free homes among smokers. METHODS: Trends in per capita cigarette consumption were assessed through taxed sales data and from self-report in repeated national cross-sectional surveys. Linear regressions identified changes in trends after year 2000 separately for California and the rest of the USA...
November 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
Nathan Critchlow, Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Douglas Eadie, Anne-Marie MacKintosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
Suzan Burton, Mark Ludbrooke, Kelly Williams, Scott C Walsberger, Sam Egger
OBJECTIVE: To obtain insight into tobacco retailing by alcohol-licenced premises, in order to understand the financial importance of tobacco sales for such retailers. METHOD: Data were collected by a telephone survey of 1042 clubs, hotels and packaged liquor outlets in New South Wales, Australia. The response rate was 86.1%. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Logistic and linear regression were used to determine factors associated with the probability of selling and stopping selling and the importance of cigarette sales...
November 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
Andrea L Smith, Stacy M Carter, Sally M Dunlop, Becky Freeman, Simon Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To explore the quitting histories of Australian ex-smokers in order to develop an understanding of the varied contribution of smoking cessation assistance (either pharmacotherapy or professionally mediated behavioural support) to the process of quitting. DESIGN: Qualitative grounded theory study; in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS: 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 men, 22 women) who quit in the past 6-24 months. RESULTS: Although participants' individual quitting histories and their overall experiences of quitting were unique, when the 37 quitting histories were compared it was clear two experiences were common to almost all participants: almost no one quit at their first quit attempt and almost everyone started out quitting unassisted...
November 23, 2017: Tobacco Control
Panagis Galiatsatos, Cynthia Kineza, Seungyoun Hwang, Juliana Pietri, Emily Brigham, Nirupama Putcha, Cynthia S Rand, Meredith McCormack, Nadia N Hansel
INTRODUCTION: Several studies suggest that the health of an individual is influenced by the socioeconomic status (SES) of the community in which he or she lives. This analysis seeks to understand the relationship between SES, tobacco store density and health outcomes at the neighbourhood level in a large urban community. METHODS: Data from the 55 neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were reviewed and parametric tests compared demographics and health outcomes for low-income and high-income neighbourhoods, defined by the 50th percentile in median household income...
November 23, 2017: Tobacco Control
Olivia A Wackowski, M Jane Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Tobacco Control
Minji Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Tobacco Control
Christine L Cleghorn, Tony Blakely, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Frederieke S van der Deen, Nhung Nghiem, Linda J Cobiac, Nick Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The health gains and cost savings from tobacco tax increase peak many decades into the future. Policy-makers may take a shorter-term perspective and be particularly interested in the health of working-age adults (given their role in economic productivity). Therefore, we estimated the impact of tobacco taxes in this population within a 10-year horizon. METHODS: As per previous modelling work, we used a multistate life table model with 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, parameterised with rich national data by sex, age and ethnicity...
November 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
Yvette van der Eijk
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates remain high among people with mental health conditions, even though smoking contributes to negative mental health outcomes and is a leading cause of mortality. Many mental health facilities are not covered by smoke-free laws or do not encourage smoking cessation, and people with mental health conditions are often targeted in tobacco industry promotions. OBJECTIVE: To analyse how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), to which most countries are a Party, obliges State Parties to review policies and practices for tobacco control in the mental health setting...
November 9, 2017: Tobacco Control
Burcu Mucan, Crawford Moodie
INTRODUCTION: The Turkish Government's 'National Tobacco Control Program 2015-2018' included plans to introduce plain packaging and also a ban on brand names on cigarette packs, allowing only assigned numbers on packs. We explored perceptions of these proposed measures, and also pack inserts with cessation messages, another novel way of using the packaging to communicate with consumers. METHODS: Eight focus groups were conducted with 47 young adult smokers in Manisa and Kutahya (Turkey) in December 2016...
November 9, 2017: Tobacco Control
Rebecca S Williams, Jason Derrick, Aliza K Liebman, Kevin LaFleur
OBJECTIVE: To identify the population of Internet e-cigarette vendors (IEVs) and conduct content analysis of products sold and IEVs' promotional, claims and pricing practices. METHODS: Multiple sources were used to identify IEV websites, primarily complex search algorithms scanning over 180 million websites. In 2013, 32 446 websites were manually screened, identifying 980 IEVs, with the 281 most popular selected for content analysis. This methodology yielded 31 239 websites for manual screening in 2014, identifying 3096 IEVs, with 283 selected for content analysis...
November 3, 2017: Tobacco Control
Yvette van der Eijk, Patricia A McDaniel, Stanton A Glantz, Stella A Bialous
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Global Compact (UNGC), a UN initiative to engage corporations in supporting the UN's mission, sets out principles that companies should follow for more ethical business practices. Since its inception in 2000, at least 13 tobacco companies, subsidiaries and tobacco industry affiliates joined the UNGC. In a September 2017 integrity review, the UNGC Board excluded from UNGC participation companies who derive revenue from tobacco production or manufacturing...
November 2, 2017: Tobacco Control
Ce Shang, Jidong Huang, Frank J Chaloupka, Sherry L Emery
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. DESIGN: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message)...
November 2, 2017: Tobacco Control
Hemantha Amarasinghe, Sajeeva Ranaweera, Thushara Ranasinghe, Nadeeka Chandraratne, Dinesh Ruwan Kumara, Montarat Thavorncharoensap, Palitha Abeykoon, Amala de Silva
INTRODUCTION: Cancer has a high mortality rate and morbidity burden in Sri Lanka. This study estimated the economic cost of smoking and smokeless tobacco (ST) related to cancers in Sri Lanka in 2015. METHODS: Prevalence-based cost of illness is calculated according to the guidelines of the WHO (2011). The direct costs are costs of curative care (costs of inward patients and outpatient care borne by the state and out of pocket expenditure by households) for tobacco-related cancers, weighted by the attributable fractions for these cancers...
October 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
Jasper V Been, Daniel F Mackay, Christopher Millett, Ireneous Soyiri, Constant P van Schayck, Jill P Pell, Aziz Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether Scottish implementation of smoke-free legislation was associated with a reduction in unplanned hospitalisations or deaths ('events') due to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among children. DESIGN: Interrupted time series (ITS). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 0-12 years living in Scotland during 1996-2012. INTERVENTION: National comprehensive smoke-free legislation (March 2006)...
October 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
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