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Tobacco Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634163/reducing-tobacco-related-harm-fda-s-proposed-product-standard-for-smokeless-tobacco
#1
Micah L Berman, Dorothy K Hatsukami
This Special Communication discusses the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) proposed rule that would limit N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) levels in smokeless tobacco products. It argues that finalising and implementing this first 'product standard' would mark a significant step forward in the FDA's efforts to reduce tobacco-related harms.
June 20, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634162/linking-the-content-to-demographic-reach-of-online-advertising-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems
#2
David S Timberlake, Dmitriy Nikitin, Jennifer Garcia-Cano, Samantha Cino, Margarita Savkina, Cornelia Pechmann
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have separately examined the content and demographic reach of the advertising of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). No study to our knowledge has linked the two in investigating whether racial/ethnic groups are differentially exposed to the comparative messages conveyed in online ENDS advertisements. METHODS: 932 unique ENDS advertisements (6311 total), which were posted on 3435 websites between December, 2009 and October, 2015, were categorized as either comparative or non-comparative with respect to the traditional cigarette...
June 20, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624764/recommended-core-items-to-assess-e-cigarette-use-in-population-based-surveys
#3
Jennifer L Pearson, Sara C Hitchman, Leonie S Brose, Linda Bauld, Allison M Glasser, Andrea C Villanti, Ann McNeill, David B Abrams, Joanna E Cohen
A consistent approach using standardised items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behaviour, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid without further item development...
June 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624763/electronic-cigarette-use-among-us-adults-in-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study-2013-2014
#4
Blair N Coleman, Brian Rostron, Sarah E Johnson, Bridget K Ambrose, Jennifer Pearson, Cassandra A Stanton, Baoguang Wang, Cristine Delnevo, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Heather L Kimmel, Maciej L Goniewicz, Raymond Niaura, David Abrams, Kevin P Conway, Nicolette Borek, Wilson M Compton, Andrew Hyland
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the USA is increasing. As such, it is critical to understand who uses e-cigarettes, how e-cigarettes are used and what types of products are prevalent. This study assesses patterns of current e-cigarette use among daily and non-daily adult users in the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. METHODS: We examined the proportion of current adult e-cigarette users (n=3642) reporting infrequent use (use on 'some days' and use on 0-2 of the past 30 days), moderate use (use on 'some days' and use on >2 of the past 30 days) and daily use...
June 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607098/correlates-of-self-reported-exposure-to-advertising-of-tobacco-products-and-electronic-cigarettes-across-28-european-union-member-states
#5
Filippos T Filippidis, Anthony A Laverty, Esteve Fernandez, Ute Mons, Olena Tigova, Constantine I Vardavas
BACKGROUND: Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. METHODS: We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013)...
June 12, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601841/electronic-cigarette-use-in-restaurants-and-workplaces-where-combustible-tobacco-smoking-is-not-allowed-an-internet-survey-in-japan
#6
Kosuke Kiyohara, Takahiro Tabuchi
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to examine the experience of actual electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in smoke-free areas of restaurants and workplaces and to explore the determinants associated with such use among Japanese adults who reported any experience using e-cigarettes (e-cigarette ever-users). METHODS: An Internet-based self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted in 2015 on Japanese e-cigarette ever-users. The proportion of the respondents who had ever used or frequently used e-cigarettes in smoke-free restaurants and/or workplaces was calculated...
June 10, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596276/comparing-the-cytotoxicity-of-electronic-cigarette-fluids-aerosols-and-solvents
#7
Rachel Z Behar, Yuhuan Wang, Prue Talbot
BACKGROUND: As thousands of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) refill fluids continue to be formulated and distributed, there is a growing need to understand the cytotoxicity of the flavouring chemicals and solvents used in these products to ensure they are safe. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of e-cigarette refill fluids/solvents and their corresponding aerosols using in vitro cultured cells. METHODS: E-cigarette refill fluids and do-it-yourself products were screened in liquid and aerosol form for cytotoxicity using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay...
June 8, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592404/alcohol-flavoured-tobacco-products
#8
Robert K Jackler, Callie K VanWinkle, Isabela M Bumanlag, Divya Ramamurthi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. OBJECTIVES: To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)...
June 7, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526758/the-proliferation-of-we-sell-tobacco-here-signs-at-the-point-of-sale-of-tobacco-retailers-in-melbourne-australia
#9
Megan Bayly, Michelle Scollo, Melanie Wakefield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522745/randomised-controlled-trial-of-stand-alone-tailored-emails-for-smoking-cessation
#10
J Lee Westmaas, Jeuneviette Bontemps-Jones, Peter S Hendricks, Jihye Kim, Lorien C Abroms
INTRODUCTION: Digital technology has created opportunities for delivering smoking cessation assistance at the population level. However, the efficacy of sending multiple, automated, tailored emails providing motivation, support and information for quitting is unknown. METHODS: Smokers planning to quit (n=1070) were randomly assigned to (1) 27 tailored cessation emails (deluxe email group (DEG)), (2) 3 to 4 tailored emails with links to downloadable booklets (basic email group (BEG)) or (3) a single non-tailored email (single email group (SEG))...
May 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512171/effect-of-message-congruency-on-attention-and-recall-in-pictorial-health-warning-labels
#11
Kirsten Lochbuehler, Melissa Mercincavage, Kathy Z Tang, C Dana Tomlin, Joseph N Cappella, Andrew A Strasser
OBJECTIVE: The nine pictorial health warning labels (PWLs) proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration vary in format and feature of visual and textual information. Congruency is the degree to which visual and textual features reflect a common theme. This characteristic can affect attention and recall of label content. This study investigates the effect of congruency in PWLs on smoker's attention and recall of label content. METHODS: 120 daily smokers were randomly assigned to view either congruent or incongruent PWLs, while having their eye movements recorded...
May 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500119/evaluating-the-pictorial-warnings-on-tobacco-products-in-arabian-gulf-countries-against-other-international-pictorial-warnings
#12
Nasser F BinDhim, Kevin McGeechan, Anwar K T Alanazi, Hossam M S Alanazi, Sasoun A J Alanazi, Solaiman M Al-Hadlaq, Hisham Aljadhey, Tariq M Alhawassi, Nadia A Alghamdi, Ahmed M Shaman, Meshari S Alquwayzani, Mada H Basyouni
BACKGROUND: Few assessments of pictorial warnings (PWs) on cigarette packs implemented in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have been done. METHODS: This article includes two cross-sectional studies. In Study 1, convenience samples of adults from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (n=111) and USA (n=115) participated in a consumer survey to rate a total of nine PWs from the GCC, Australia and the UK. Outcome measures were affective responses to PWs and concerns about smoking...
May 12, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495977/modelling-the-implications-of-reducing-smoking-prevalence-the-public-health-and-economic-benefits-of-achieving-a-tobacco-free-uk
#13
Daniel Hunt, André Knuchel-Takano, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Lise Retat, Chit Selvarajah, Katrina Brown, Laura L Webber, Martin Brown
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is still the most preventable cause of cancer, and a leading cause of premature mortality and health inequalities in the UK. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of achieving a 'tobacco-free' ambition (TFA) where, by 2035, less than 5% of the population smoke tobacco across all socioeconomic groups. METHODS: A non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data to create projections to 2035. These projections were used to predict the future incidence and costs of 17 smoking-related diseases using a microsimulation approach...
May 11, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484040/content-analysis-of-age-verification-purchase-and-delivery-methods-of-internet-e-cigarette-vendors-2013-and-2014
#14
Rebecca S Williams, Jason Derrick, Aliza Kate Liebman, Kevin LaFleur, Kurt M Ribisl
OBJECTIVE: Identify the population of internet e-cigarette vendors (IEVs) and conduct content analyses of their age verification, purchase and delivery methods in 2013 and 2014. METHODS: We used multiple sources to identify IEV websites, primarily complex search algorithms scanning more than 180 million websites. In 2013, we manually screened 32 446 websites, identifying 980 IEVs, selecting the 281 most popular for content analysis. This methodology yielded 31 239 websites for screening in 2014, identifying 3096 IEVs, with 283 selected for content analysis...
May 8, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432213/tobacco-retail-availability-and-risk-of-relapse-among-smokers-who-make-a-quit-attempt-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Michael O Chaiton, Graham Mecredy, Joanna Cohen
INTRODUCTION: The availability of tobacco is thought to influence smoking behaviour, but there are few longitudinal studies examining if the location and number of tobacco outlets has a prospective impact on smoking cessation. METHODS: The Ontario Tobacco Survey, a population-representative sample of Ontario adult smokers who were followed every 6 months for up to 3 years, was linked with tobacco outlet location data from the Ontario Ministry of Health. Proximity (distance), threshold (at least one outlet within 500 m) and density (number of outlets within 500 m) with respect to a smokers' home were calculated among urban and suburban current smokers (n=2414)...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432212/into-the-black-marlboro-brand-architecture-packaging-and-marketing-communication-of-relative-harm
#16
Timothy Dewhirst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432211/recruiting-and-retaining-youth-and-young-adults-challenges-and-opportunities-in-survey-research-for-tobacco-control
#17
Jennifer Cantrell, Elizabeth C Hair, Alexandria Smith, Morgane Bennett, Jessica Miller Rath, Randall K Thomas, Mansour Fahimi, J Michael Dennis, Donna Vallone
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation studies of population-based tobacco control interventions often rely on large-scale survey data from numerous respondents across many geographic areas to provide evidence of their effectiveness. Significant challenges for survey research have emerged with the evolving communications landscape, particularly for surveying hard-to-reach populations such as youth and young adults. This study combines the comprehensive coverage of an address-based sampling (ABS) frame with the timeliness of online data collection to develop a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of young people aged 15-21...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432210/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-to-reduce-children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-the-home
#18
Elena Ratschen, Rebecca Thorley, Laura Jones, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Juliette Cook, Ann McNeill, John Britton, Tim Coleman, Sarah Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) causes significant harm and occurs predominantly through smoking by caregivers in the family home. We report a trial of a complex intervention designed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit smoking. DESIGN: An open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Deprived communities in Nottingham City and County, England PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers resident in Nottingham City and County in England who were at least 18 years old, the main caregiver of a child aged under 5 years living in their household, and reported that they were smoking tobacco inside their home...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428337/factual-text-and-emotional-pictures-overcoming-a-false-dichotomy-of-cigarette-warning-labels
#19
Lucy Popova, Daniel Owusu, Desmond Jenson, Torsten B Neilands
BACKGROUND: In reviewing the first set of pictorial warning labels in the USA, the courts equated textual labels with facts and information, and images with emotion. This study tested the differences in perceived informativeness and emotion between textual and pictorial cigarette warning labels. METHODS: An online study with 1838 US adults who were non-smokers (n=764), transitioning smokers (quit smoking in the past 2 years or currently trying to quit, n=505) or current smokers (n=569)...
April 20, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416710/compliance-with-uruguay-s-single-presentation-requirement
#20
Teresa DeAtley, Eduardo Bianco, Kevin Welding, Joanna E Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco companies vary pack colours, designs, descriptors, flavours and brand names on cigarette packs to target a multitude of consumers. These different brand variants can falsely imply that some brand variants are less harmful than others. Uruguay is the only country that requires cigarette companies to adhere to a single presentation (one brand variant) per brand family. METHODS: An existing, systematic pack purchasing protocol was adapted for data collection...
April 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
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