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Transgenic Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#1
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777501/expression-of-endogenous-proteins-in-maize-hybrids-in-a-multi-location-field-trial-in-india
#2
Linga R Gutha, Divakar Purushottam, Aruna Veeramachaneni, Sarita Tigulla, Vikas Kodappully, Chandana Enjala, Hitendrasinh Rajput, Jennifer Anderson, Bonnie Hong, Jean Schmidt, Shveta Bagga
Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752697/biofortification-of-safflower-an-oil-seed-crop-engineered-for-ala-targeting-better-sustainability-and-plant-based-omega-3-fatty-acids
#3
Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe, Karunakara Alageri Chandrashekhara, Anil Kush
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed n6:n3 fatty acid ratio in the diet is a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is mounting evidence of the health benefits associated with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA's). Although present in abundance in fish, a number of factors limit our consumption of fish based omega-3 PUFA's. To name a few, overexploitation of wild fish stocks has reduced their sustainability due to increased demand of aquaculture for fish oil and meal; the pollution of marine food webs has raised concerns over the ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals and dioxins; vegetarians do not consider fish-based sources for supplemental nutrition...
May 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728958/comparative-compositional-analysis-of-transgenic-potato-resistant-to-potato-tuber-moth-ptm-and-its-non-transformed-counterpart
#4
Hassan Rahnama, Amir Bahram Moradi, Seyed Hamid Mirrokni, Foad Moradi, Mohammad Reza Shams, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian
In this study, the compositions of transgenic potatoes (TPs) resistant to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) were compared with those of its non-transgenic (NTP) counterparts. The light inducible promoter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase led to the expression of Cry1Ab only in the leaves and light-treated tubers of the TPs. No significant differences were found in the moisture, ash, dry weight, total soluble protein, carbohydrate, starch, fiber, ascorbate, cations, anions, fatty acids, and glycoalkaloids contents of TP and NTP...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728957/over-expression-of-the-pseudomonas-syringae-harpin-encoding-gene-hrpzm-confers-enhanced-tolerance-to-phytophthora-root-and-stem-rot-in-transgenic-soybean
#5
Qian Du, Xiangdong Yang, Jinhua Zhang, Xiaofang Zhong, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Xiaoyu Li, Zhaoyuan Jiang, Qiyun Li, Yingshan Dong, Hongyu Pan
Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean (Glycine max) production all over the world. Harpin proteins in many plant pathogenic bacteria were confirmed to enhance disease and insect resistance in crop plants. Here, a harpin protein-encoding gene hrpZpsta from the P. syringae pv. tabaci strain Psta218 was codon-optimized (renamed hrpZm) and introduced into soybean cultivars Williams 82 and Shennong 9 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728956/the-assessment-of-field-trials-in-gmo-research-around-the-world-and-their-possible-integration-in-field-trials-for-variety-registration
#6
REVIEW
M M Slot, C C M van de Wiel, G A Kleter, R G F Visser, E J Kok
Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691708/generation-of-insulin-deficient-piglets-by-disrupting-ins-gene-using-crispr-cas9-system
#7
Bumrae Cho, Su Jin Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sun Mi Ahn, Jin Seok Lee, Dal-Young Ji, Kiho Lee, Jung-Taek Kang
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with accompanying severe complications. Various animal models, mostly rodents due to availability of genetically modified lines, have been used to investigate the pathophysiology of diabetes. Using pigs for diabetic research can be beneficial because of their similarity in size, pathogenesis pathway, physiology, and metabolism with human. However, the use of pigs for diabetes research has been hampered due to only few pig models presenting diabetes symptoms. In this study, we have successfully generated insulin-deficient pigs by generating the indels of the porcine INS gene in somatic cells using CRISPR/Cas9 system followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer...
April 24, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663254/novel-insights-into-the-genetic-background-of-genetically-modified-mice
#8
Peter Dobrowolski, Melina Fischer, Ronald Naumann
Unclear or misclassified genetic background of laboratory rodents or a lack of strain awareness causes a number of difficulties in performing or reproducing scientific experiments. Until now, genetic differentiation between strains and substrains of inbred mice has been a challenge. We have developed a screening method for analyzing inbred strains regarding their genetic background. It is based on 240 highly informative short tandem repeat (STR) markers covering the 19 autosomes as well as X and Y chromosomes...
April 16, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651659/current-achievements-and-future-directions-in-genetic-engineering-of-european-plum-prunus-domestica-l
#9
REVIEW
Cesar Petri, Nuria Alburquerque, Mohamed Faize, Ralph Scorza, Chris Dardick
In most woody fruit species, transformation and regeneration are difficult. However, European plum (Prunus domestica) has been shown to be amenable to genetic improvement technologies from classical hybridization, to genetic engineering, to rapid cycle crop breeding ('FasTrack' breeding). Since the first report on European plum transformation with marker genes in the early 90 s, numerous manuscripts have been published reporting the generation of new clones with agronomically interesting traits, such as pests, diseases and/or abiotic stress resistance, shorter juvenile period, dwarfing, continuous flowering, etc...
April 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594927/differences-between-immunodeficient-mice-generated-by-classical-gene-targeting-and-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-knockout
#10
Jae Hoon Lee, Jong-Hyung Park, Tae-Wook Nam, Sun-Min Seo, Jun-Young Kim, Han-Kyul Lee, Jong Hyun Han, Song Yi Park, Yang-Kyu Choi, Han-Woong Lee
Immunodeficient mice are widely used for pre-clinical studies to understand various human diseases. Here, we report the generation of four immunodeficient mouse models using CRISPR/Cas9 system without inserting any foreign gene sequences such as NeoR cassettes and their characterization. By eliminating any possible effects of adding a NeoR cassette, our mouse models may allow us to better elucidate the in vivo functions of each gene. Our FVB-Rag2-/- , B6-Rag2-/- , and BALB/c-Prkdc-/- mice showed phenotypes similar to those of the earlier immunodeficient mouse models, including a lack of mature B cells and T cells and an increase in the number of CD45+ DX-5+ natural killer cells...
March 28, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574513/insights-into-phytase-containing-transgenic-lemna-minor-l-as-a-novel-feed-additive
#11
Mrinmoy Ghosh, Neelesh Sharma, Meeta Gera, Nameun Kim, Do Huynh, Jiaojiao Zhang, Taesun Min, Simrinder Singh Sodhi, Min Bae Kim, V P B Rekha, Sukmin Ko, Dong Kee Jeong
This study assessed the effect of supplementation of novel transgenic phytase on growth performance and bone mineralization in Korean native broiler chickens. The experiment was designed using four dietary groups: those with a diet supplemented with (A) recombinant phytase, (B) transgenic phytase from the plant Lemna minor, (C) or wild-type L. minor as well as (D) a control group that was supplemented with commercially available feed. Three hundred 1-day-old Korean native broiler chicks were used and divided into these four dietary treatment groups having three replicates of 25 birds each (n = 75)...
March 24, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546522/novel-reporter-and-deleter-mouse-strains-generated-using-vcre-vloxp-and-scre-sloxp-systems-and-their-system-specificity-in-mice
#12
Yuki Yoshimura, Miyuki Ida-Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Hiramaki, Motohito Goto, Tsutomu Kamisako, Tomoo Eto, Mika Yagoto, Kenji Kawai, Takeshi Takahashi, Manabu Nakayama, Mamoru Ito
DNA site-specific recombination by Cre/loxP is a powerful tool for gene manipulation in experimental animals. VCre/VloxP and SCre/SloxP are novel site-specific recombination systems, consisting of a recombinase and its specific recognition sequences, which function in a manner similar to Cre/loxP. Previous reports using Escherichia coli and Oryzias latipes demonstrated the existence of stringent specificity between each recombinase and its target sites; VCre/VloxP, SCre/SloxP, and Cre/loxP have no cross-reactivity with each other...
March 15, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516259/zygote-injection-of-rna-encoding-cre-recombinase-results-in-efficient-removal-of-loxp-flanked-neomycin-cassettes-in-pigs
#13
Kristin M Whitworth, Raissa Cecil, Joshua A Benne, Bethany K Redel, Lee D Spate, Melissa S Samuel, Randall S Prather, Kevin D Wells
Genetically engineered pigs are often created with a targeting vector that contains a loxP flanked selectable marker like neomycin. The Cre-loxP recombinase system can be used to remove the selectable marker gene from the resulting offspring or cell line. Here is described a new method to remove a loxP flanked neomycin cassette by direct zygote injection of an mRNA encoding Cre recombinase. The optimal concentration of mRNA was determined to be 10 ng/μL when compared to 2 and 100 ng/μL (P < 0.0001)...
April 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492792/a-virus-derived-short-hairpin-rna-confers-resistance-against-sugarcane-mosaic-virus-in-transgenic-sugarcane
#14
Usman Aslam, Bushra Tabassum, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Anwar Khan, Tayyab Husnain
RNA interference (RNAi) is commonly used to produce virus tolerant transgenic plants. The objective of the current study was to generate transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) targeting the coat protein (CP) gene of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). Based on multiple sequence alignment, including genomic sequences of four SCMV strains, a conserved region of ~ 456 bp coat protein (CP) gene was selected as target gene and amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, siRNAs2 and siRNA4 were engineered as stable short hairpin (shRNA) transgenes of 110 bp with stem and loop sequences derived from microRNA (sof-MIR168a; an active regulatory miRNA in sugarcane)...
April 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476327/improved-oil-quality-in-transgenic-soybean-seeds-by-rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-gmfad2-1b
#15
Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Lu Niu, Hongli He, Dongquan Guo, Qian Du, Xueyan Qian, Yao Yao, Haiyun Li, Xiaofang Zhong, Xiangdong Yang
Soybean oil contains approximately 20% oleic acid and 63% polyunsaturated fatty acids, which limits its uses in food products and industrial applications because of its poor oxidative stability. Increasing the oleic acid content in soybean seeds provides improved oxidative stability and is also beneficial to human health. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is the key enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid (18:1) precursors to linoleic acid (18:2) in the lipid biosynthetic pathway...
April 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453733/egfp-transgene-a-useful-tool-to-track-transplanted-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-contribution-to-peripheral-remyelination
#16
Gonzalo Piñero, Vanina Usach, Paula A Soto, Paula V Monje, Patricia Setton-Avruj
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) constitute a heterogeneous population with potential to promote tissue regeneration. For this reason, this cell fraction has recently become a therapeutic alternative to mesenchymal stem cells, as culture is not required and phenotypic transformations can be hence avoided. In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration...
April 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446008/enhanced-resistance-to-citrus-canker-in-transgenic-mandarin-expressing-xa21-from-rice
#17
Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
April 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442214/en-masse-lentiviral-gene-delivery-to-mouse-fertilized-eggs-via-laser-perforation-of-zona-pellucida
#18
Negin P Martin, Page Myers, Eugenia Goulding, Shih-Heng Chen, Mitzie Walker, Thomas M Porter, Lucas Van Gorder, Amanda Mathew, Artiom Gruzdev, Charles Romeo
Lentiviruses are highly efficient vehicles for delivering genes into cells. They readily transduce primary and immortalized cells in vivo and in vitro. Genes delivered by lentiviruses are incorporated and replicated as part of their host genome and therefore offer a powerful tool for creation of stable cell lines and transgenic animals. However, the zona pellucida surrounding the fertilized eggs acts as a barrier and hinders lentiviral transduction of embryos. Here, we utilize a laser, typically used to perforate the zona pellucida for in vitro fertilization, to permeabilize the zona for lentiviral gene delivery...
February 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435708/intrinsic-antimicrobial-properties-of-silk-spun-by-genetically-modified-silkworm-strains
#19
Alessio Saviane, Ottavia Romoli, Andrea Bozzato, Giuliano Freddi, Chiara Cappelletti, Elena Rosini, Silvia Cappellozza, Gianluca Tettamanti, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a fundamental insect for silk industry. Silk is obtained from cocoons, protective envelopes produced during pupation and composed of single raw silk filaments secreted by the insect silk glands. Currently, silk is used as a textile fibre and to produce new materials for technical and biomedical applications. To enhance the use of both fabrics and silk-based materials, great efforts to obtain silk with antimicrobial properties have been made. In particular, a convincing approach is represented by the enrichment of the textile fibre with antimicrobial peptides, the main effectors of the innate immunity...
February 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427161/safety-of-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-as-a-gene-source-for-genetically-modified-crops
#20
Jennifer A Anderson, Jamie Staley, Mary Challender, Jamie Heuton
Genetically modified crops undergo extensive evaluation to characterize their food, feed and environmental safety prior to commercial introduction, using a well-established, science-based assessment framework. One component of the safety assessment includes an evaluation of each introduced trait, including its source organism, for potential adverse pathogenic, toxic and allergenic effects. Several Pseudomonas species have a history of safe use in agriculture and certain species represent a source of genes with insecticidal properties...
February 2018: Transgenic Research
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