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Transgenic Research

Mihael Cristin Ichim
Romania was the third country in Europe and the tenth in the world, to commercially adopt genetically modified crops in 1999, only 3 years after they were first marketed globally. Half a million hectares of transgenic herbicide resistant soybean and insect resistant maize were grown in Romania during an uninterrupted 17-year period. After several years of continued declining area, the commercial cultivation of transgenic plants recently ended. The commercial cultivation of transgenic crops in Romania remains legally and technically possible, according to the EU and national regulations...
September 20, 2018: Transgenic Research
Nivedita Seshadri, Sumit Sandhu, Xiaoli Wu, Wenjun Liu, Hao Ding
Regulator of telomere length 1 (RTEL1) DNA helicase has been demonstrated to be essential for the maintenance of telomeres and genomic stability. This function of RTEL1 could be required for protecting stem cells from genomic mutations as suggested by its selective expression in stem cell-zones, as well as by RTEL1 mutations identified in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, a severe dyskeratosis congenita that targets primarily stem cell compartments. As a first step to establish a role of RTEL1 in stem cells, we generated an Rtel1CreERT2 mouse allele in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre (CreERT2) cDNA was specifically knocked into the Rtel1 genomic locus and controlled by the endogenous Rtel1 regulatory elements...
September 8, 2018: Transgenic Research
Parimala Chinnadurai, Duška Stojšin, Kang Liu, Gregory E Frierdich, Kevin C Glenn, Tao Geng, Adam Schapaugh, Keguo Huang, Andrew E Deffenbaugh, Zi L Liu, Luis A Burzio
The expression of the CP4 EPSPS protein in genetically engineered (GE) soybean confers tolerance to the Roundup® family of agricultural herbicides. This study evaluated the variability of CP4 EPSPS expression using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in soybean tissues collected across diverse germplasm and 74 different environments in Argentina, Brazil and the USA. Evaluated material included single and combined (stacked) trait products with other GE traits in entries with cp4 epsps gene at one or two loci...
September 1, 2018: Transgenic Research
Xiaoxi Wei, Min Hu, Fei Liu
Reporter genes play important roles in transgenic research. LacZ is a widely used reporter gene that encodes Escherichia coli β-galactosidase, an enzyme that is well known for its ability to hydrolyze X-gal into a blue product. It is unknown whether transgenic LacZ has any adverse effects. R26R reporter mice, containing a LacZ reporter gene, were generated to monitor the in vivo recombination activity of various transgenic Cre recombinase via X-gal staining. P0-Cre is expressed in neural crest-derived cells, which give rise to the majority of the craniofacial bones...
August 22, 2018: Transgenic Research
Fang Zeng, Rui Dong, Chengcheng Zhao, Dewu Liu, Enqin Zheng, Changxu Song, Zhenfang Wu, Zicong Li
Use of huge amounts of antibiotics in farm animal production has promoted the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a serious threat to public health. Therefore, alternative approaches are needed to reduce or replace antibiotic usage in the food animal industry. PR-39 is a pig-derived proline-rich antimicrobial peptide that has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. To test whether ubiquitous expression of PR-39 in transgenic (TG) mice can increase resistance against bacterial infection, we generated TG mice that ubiquitously express a pig-derived antimicrobial peptide PR-39 and analyzed their growth and resistance to infection of the highly pathogenic Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) isolated from swine...
July 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
Fatima Naim, Benjamin Dugdale, Jennifer Kleidon, Anthony Brinin, Kylie Shand, Peter Waterhouse, James Dale
Bananas are a staple food source and a major export commodity worldwide. The Cavendish dessert banana is a triploid AAA genome type and accounts for around 47% of global production. Being essentially sterile, genetic modification is perhaps the only pathway available to improve this cultivar. In this study, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system to deliver a self-cleaving polycistronic guide RNA (gRNA) designed to target exon 1 of the Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene in the Cavendish cultivar "Williams"...
July 9, 2018: Transgenic Research
Chae-Yeon Son, Brian B Haines, Andreas Luch, Chun Jeih Ryu
2C T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice have been long used to study the molecular basis of TCR binding to peptide/major compatibility complexes and the cytotoxicity mechanism of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). To study the role of variable gene promoters in allelic exclusion, we previously constructed mutant mice in which the Vβ13 promoter was deleted (P13 mice). Introduction of 2C transgene into P13 mice accelerated the onset of systemic CD8 T cell lymphoma between 14 and 27 weeks of age, although parental P13 mice appeared to be normal...
October 2018: Transgenic Research
Cesare Galli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Transgenic Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Transgenic Research
Lucía Pérez, Erika Soto, Gemma Villorbina, Ludovic Bassie, Vicente Medina, Pilar Muñoz, Teresa Capell, Changfu Zhu, Paul Christou, Gemma Farré
The first committed step in the endosperm starch biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by the cytosolic glucose-1-phosphate adenylyl transferase (AGPase) comprising large and small subunits encoded by the OsAPL2 and OsAPS2b genes, respectively. OsAPL2 is expressed solely in the endosperm so we hypothesized that mutating this gene would block starch biosynthesis in the endosperm without affecting the leaves. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create two heterozygous mutants, one with a severely truncated and nonfunctional AGPase and the other with a C-terminal structural modification causing a partial loss of activity...
October 2018: Transgenic Research
Paula Andrea Giraldo, Carly Elliott, Pieter Badenhorst, Gavin Kearney, German C Spangenberg, Noel O I Cogan, Kevin F Smith
Alkaloid concentration of perennial ryegrass herbage is affected by endophyte strain and host plant genotype. However, previous studies suggest that associations between host and endophyte also depends on environmental conditions, especially those affecting nutrient reserves and that water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration of perennial ryegrass plants may influence grass-endophyte associations. In this study a single transgenic event, with altered expression of fructosyltransferase genes to produce high WSC and biomass, has been crossed into a range of cultivar backgrounds with varying Epichloë endophyte strains...
October 2018: Transgenic Research
Lluis Montoliu, C Bruce A Whitelaw
The scientific journal Nature Methods have just retracted a publication that reported numerous unexpected mutations after a CRISPR-Cas9 experiment based on collecting whole genome sequencing information from one control and two experimental genome edited mice. In the intervening 10 months since publication the data presented have been strongly contested and criticized by the scientific and biotech communities, through publications, open science channels and social networks. The criticism focused on the animal used as control, which was derived from the same mouse strain as the experimental individuals but from an unrelated sub-colony, hence control and experimental mice were genetically divergent...
August 2018: Transgenic Research
Caterina D'Ambrosio, Adriana Lucia Stigliani, Giovanni Giorio
CRISPR/Cas9 technology is rapidly spreading as genome editing system in crop breeding. The efficacy of CRISPR/Cas9 in tomato was tested on Psy1 and CrtR-b2, two key genes of carotenoid biosynthesis. Carotenoids are plant secondary metabolites that must be present in the diet of higher animals because they exert irreplaceable functions in important physiological processes. Psy1 and CrtR-b2 were chosen because their impairment is easily detectable as a change of fruit or flower color. Two CRISPR/Cas9 constructs were designed to target neighboring sequences on the first exon of each gene...
August 2018: Transgenic Research
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
August 2018: Transgenic Research
Linga R Gutha, Divakar Purushottam, Aruna Veeramachaneni, Sarita Tigulla, Vikas Kodappully, Chandana Enjala, Hitendrasinh Rajput, Jennifer Anderson, Bonnie Hong, Jean Schmidt, Shveta Bagga
Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions...
August 2018: Transgenic Research
M M Slot, C C M van de Wiel, G A Kleter, R G F Visser, E J Kok
Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials...
August 2018: Transgenic Research
Rui Lu, Ting Zhang, Daijin Wu, Zhengyi He, Lei Jiang, Minya Zhou, Yong Cheng
Human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) are two superoxide dismutases that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their biological role of eliminating oxidative stress caused by excessive ROS levels in living organisms has been utilized in medical treatment, preventing skin photoaging and food preservation. In this study, we employed two sequences that encode human CuZn-SOD and EC-SOD, along with goat beta-casein 5' and 3' regulatory elements, to construct mammary gland-specific expression vectors...
June 20, 2018: Transgenic Research
Daniela Dal Bosco, Iraci Sinski, Patrícia S Ritschel, Umberto A Camargo, Thor V M Fajardo, Ricardo Harakava, Vera Quecini
Increased tolerance to pathogens is an important goal in conventional and biotechnology-assisted grapevine breeding programs worldwide. Fungal and viral pathogens cause direct losses in berry production, but also affect the quality of the final products. Precision breeding strategies allow the introduction of resistance characters in elite cultivars, although the factors determining the plant's overall performance are not fully characterized. Grapevine plants expressing defense proteins, from fungal or plant origins, or of the coat protein gene of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of somatic embryos and shoot apical meristems...
June 6, 2018: Transgenic Research
Hassan Rahnama, Amir Bahram Moradi, Seyed Hamid Mirrokni, Foad Moradi, Mohammad Reza Shams, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian
In this study, the compositions of transgenic potatoes (TPs) resistant to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) were compared with those of its non-transgenic (NTP) counterparts. The light inducible promoter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase led to the expression of Cry1Ab only in the leaves and light-treated tubers of the TPs. No significant differences were found in the moisture, ash, dry weight, total soluble protein, carbohydrate, starch, fiber, ascorbate, cations, anions, fatty acids, and glycoalkaloids contents of TP and NTP...
June 2018: Transgenic Research
Qian Du, Xiangdong Yang, Jinhua Zhang, Xiaofang Zhong, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Xiaoyu Li, Zhaoyuan Jiang, Qiyun Li, Yingshan Dong, Hongyu Pan
Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean (Glycine max) production all over the world. Harpin proteins in many plant pathogenic bacteria were confirmed to enhance disease and insect resistance in crop plants. Here, a harpin protein-encoding gene hrpZpsta from the P. syringae pv. tabaci strain Psta218 was codon-optimized (renamed hrpZm) and introduced into soybean cultivars Williams 82 and Shennong 9 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
June 2018: Transgenic Research
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