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Mediators of Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951635/implication-of-ceramide-kinase-in-adipogenesis
#1
Marta Ordoñez, Natalia Presa, Miguel Trueba, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz
Ceramide kinase (CerK) plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and survival and has been implicated in proinflammatory responses. In this work, we demonstrate that CerK regulates adipocyte differentiation, a process associated with obesity, which causes chronic low-grade inflammation. CerK was upregulated during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Noteworthy, knockdown of CerK using specific siRNA to silence the gene encoding this kinase resulted in substantial decrease of lipid droplet formation and potent depletion in the content of triacylglycerols in the adipocytes...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951634/effect-of-irak-m-on-airway-inflammation-induced-by-cigarette-smoking
#2
Haihong Gong, Tao Liu, Wei Chen, Weixun Zhou, Jinming Gao
BACKGROUND: IRAK-M, negatively regulating Toll-like receptor, is shown the dual properties in the varied disease contexts. We studied the effect of IRAK-M deficiency on cigarette smoking- (CS-) induced airway inflammation under acute or subacute conditions in a mouse model. METHODS: A number of cellular and molecular techniques were used to detect the differences between IRAK-M knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice exposed to 3-day or 7-week CS. RESULTS: Airway inflammation was comparable between IRAK-M KO and WT mice under 3-day CS exposure...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951633/neutrophil-extracellular-dna-traps-induce-autoantigen-production-by-airway-epithelial-cells
#3
Youngwoo Choi, Le Duy Pham, Dong-Hyun Lee, Ga-Young Ban, Ji-Ho Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
The hypothesis of autoimmune involvement in asthma has received much recent interest. Autoantibodies, such as anti-cytokeratin (CK) 18, anti-CK19, and anti-α-enolase antibodies, react with self-antigens and are found at high levels in the sera of patients with severe asthma (SA). However, the mechanisms underlying autoantibody production in SA have not been fully determined. The present study was conducted to demonstrate that neutrophil extracellular DNA traps (NETs), cytotoxic molecules released from neutrophils, are a key player in the stimulation of airway epithelial cells (AECs) to produce autoantigens...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951632/amelioration-of-ethanol-induced-hepatitis-by-magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-through-inhibition-of-neutrophil-cell-infiltration-and-oxidative-damage
#4
Yan Wang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xia Wang, Dan Qi, Aijuan Qu, Guiqiang Wang
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is no effective treatment to prevent the disease progression. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) showed potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities and was used for treating liver diseases in Asia. In this study, we examined whether MgIG could protect mice against alcohol-induced liver injury. The newly developed chronic plus binge ethanol feeding model was used to study the role of MgIG in ALD...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947859/modulation-of-dendritic-cell-apoptosis-and-cd8-cytotoxicity-by-histamine-role-of-protein-kinase-c
#5
Julieta Alcain, Enrique Podaza, María Soledad Gori, Gabriela Salamone, Mónica Vermeulen
Dendritic cells (DC) are able to present extracellular antigens associated with the molecules of the major histocompatibility complex class I. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the histamine (HIS), acting through H1/H4 receptors, increases the cross-presentation of soluble ovalbumin by murine DC and can enhance the recruitment of specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes during the development of chronic inflammatory responses. Here, we studied in more depth the mechanisms underlying this enhancement. We showed that the cytotoxicity of specific CD8(+) lymphocytes is increased in HIS-treated DC and it is lost by inhibition of vacuolar-ATPase that prevents endosome acidification...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947858/psoriasis-and-cardiovascular-risk-do-promising-new-biomarkers-have-clinical-impact
#6
REVIEW
Sirje Kaur, Külli Kingo, Mihkel Zilmer
Epidemiological studies suggest an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with psoriasis (PS). Therefore, emphasis has lately been laid on the necessity for clinical evaluation of the risk of CVD in these patients. The systemic inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin- (IL-) 6, which have long been used to predict future CVD in the general population, are increased manyfold in patients with PS. Lipid abnormalities characterized by elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and its oxidized form are also prevalent in patients...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947857/liver-regeneration-analysis-of-the-main-relevant-signaling-molecules
#7
REVIEW
Yachao Tao, Menglan Wang, Enqiang Chen, Hong Tang
Liver regeneration is a highly organized tissue regrowth process and is the most important reaction of the liver to injury. The overall process of liver regeneration includes three phases: priming stage, proliferative phase, and termination phase. The initial step aims to induce hepatocytes to be sensitive to growth factors with the aid of some cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6. The proliferation phase promotes hepatocytes to re-enter G1 with the stimulation of growth factors. While during the termination stage, hepatocytes will discontinue to proliferate to maintain normal liver mass and function...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932021/chitinase-3-like-protein-1-ykl-40-is-a-new-biomarker-of-inflammation-in-psoriasis
#8
Joanna Salomon, Łukasz Matusiak, Danuta Nowicka-Suszko, Jacek C Szepietowski
PURPOSE: The evaluation of new inflammatory biomarkers in psoriasis could determine therapeutic decisions. Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) plays a role in inflammation. The study was undertaken to check whether YKL-40 is a reliable biomarker of inflammation in psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 55 psoriatic patients were enrolled, including 21 men and 34 women, aged from 18 to 88 years. The PASI and body surface area were calculated for all patients. Blood samples were taken to evaluate serum concentration of YKL-40, as well as other inflammatory parameters, including CRP, ESR, white blood cell count, and neutrophil count...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932020/role-of-the-cysteinyl-leukotrienes-in-the-pathogenesis-and-progression-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Colazzo, Paolo Gelosa, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Laura Castiglioni
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent lipid inflammatory mediators synthesized from arachidonic acid, through the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway. Owing to their properties, CysLTs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation; therefore, CysLT modifiers as synthesis inhibitors or receptor antagonists, central in asthma management, may become a potential target for the treatment of other inflammatory diseases such as the cardiovascular disorders. 5-LO pathway activation and increased expression of its mediators and receptors are found in cardiovascular diseases...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928604/kaempferide-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway
#10
Dong Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Defang Li, Wenjin Hao, Fanqing Meng, Bo Wang, Jichun Han, Qiusheng Zheng
The aim of this study is to investigate both the efficacy and mechanism of action of kaempferide (Kae) as a therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. A rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by a 2 h perfusion. In our study, we show that Kae remarkably improved cardiac function, alleviated myocardial injury via a decrease in myocardial enzyme levels, and attenuated myocardial infarct size in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912627/il-25-could-be-involved-in-the-development-of-allergic-rhinitis-sensitized-to-house-dust-mite
#11
Dae Woo Kim, Dong-Kyu Kim, Kyoung Mi Eun, Jun-Sang Bae, Young-Jun Chung, Jun Xu, Yong Min Kim, Ji-Hun Mo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: When house dust mite (HDM), a common allergen, comes into the mucosal membrane, it may stimulate innate immunity. However, the precise role of interleukin- (IL-) 25 in the development of HDM-induced nasal allergic inflammation is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of IL-25 in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients sensitized to HDM. METHODS: To confirm the production of IL-25 in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), we stimulated HNECs...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912626/clinical-impact-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Junko Tsuchida, Masayuki Nagahashi, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Breast cancer metastasizes to lymph nodes or other organs, which determine the prognosis of patients. It is difficult to cure the breast cancer patients with distant metastasis due to resistance to drug therapies. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance is expected to provide new therapeutic targets. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic, bioactive lipid mediator that regulates many cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, survival, angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis, and immune responses...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900313/selective-atp-binding-cassette-subfamily-c-gene-expression-and-proinflammatory-mediators-released-by-beas-2b-after-pm2-5-budesonide-and-cotreated-exposures
#13
Jarline Encarnación-Medina, Rosa I Rodríguez-Cotto, Joseph Bloom-Oquendo, Mario G Ortiz-Martínez, Jorge Duconge, Braulio Jiménez-Vélez
ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC) genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5)) and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1-4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8) release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients), and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894350/short-term-regulation-of-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagocytosis-by-tlrs-in-macrophages-participation-of-5-lipoxygenase-products
#14
Carla da S Pinheiro, Ana Paula T Monteiro, Fabiano F Dutra, Marcelo T Bozza, Marc Peters-Golden, Claudia F Benjamim, Claudio Canetti
TLRs recognize a broad spectrum of microorganism molecules, triggering a variety of cellular responses. Among them, phagocytosis is a critical process for host defense. Leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators produced from 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme, increase FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we evaluated the participation of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and whether this process is modulated by LTs. Rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) treated with TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists, but not TLR9, enhanced IgG-opsonized sheep red blood cell (IgG-sRBC) phagocytosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883688/a-controversial-medicolegal-issue-timing-the-onset-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Vittorio Fineschi, Rocco Valerio Viola, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, Paola Frati
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, as a result of chronic, subacute, and acute insults, represents the pathological consequence of fetal distress and birth or perinatal asphyxia, that is, "nonreassuring fetal status." Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII) is typically characterized by an early phase of damage, followed by a delayed inflammatory local response, in an apoptosis-necrosis continuum. In the early phase, the cytotoxic edema and eventual acute lysis take place; with reperfusion, additional damage should be assigned to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883687/experimental-porcine-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-as-a-representative-model-for-human-toxoplasmosis
#16
Julia Nau, Silvia Kathrin Eller, Johannes Wenning, Katrin Henrike Spekker-Bosker, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk, Andrea Hotop, Uwe Groß, Walter Däubener
Porcine infections are currently not the state-of-the-art model to study human diseases. Nevertheless, the course of human and porcine toxoplasmosis is much more comparable than that of human and murine toxoplasmosis. For example, severity of infection, transplacental transmission, and interferon-gamma-induced antiparasitic effector mechanisms are similar in pigs and humans. In addition, the severe immunosuppression during acute infection described in mice does not occur in the experimentally infected ones...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852271/potential-biomarkers-for-nsaid-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#17
REVIEW
Hanki Park, Youngwoo Choi, Chang-Gyu Jung, Hae-Sim Park
Asthma is a common chronic disease with several variant phenotypes and endotypes. NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) is one such endotype characterized by asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps, and hypersensitivity to aspirin/cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. NERD is more associated with severe asthma than other asthma phenotypes. Regarding diagnosis, aspirin challenge tests via the oral or bronchial route are a standard diagnostic method; reliable in vitro diagnostic tests are not available...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852270/the-role-of-proinflammatory-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk factors of CRC in IBD patients include long disease duration, extensive colitis, severe histological inflammation, and coexistence with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Several molecular pathways that contribute to sporadic CRC are also involved in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated CRC. It is well established that long-standing chronic inflammation is a key predisposing factor of CRC in IBD...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852269/cannabinoid-receptor-2-modulates-neutrophil-recruitment-in-a-murine-model-of-endotoxemia
#19
Theodore S Kapellos, Carlota Recio, David R Greaves, Asif J Iqbal
The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous lipid mediators and cannabinoid receptors (CB) 1 and 2. It has previously been demonstrated that activation of the leukocyte-expressed CB2 has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Here, we report its role under baseline conditions and in a model of low-dose endotoxemia by comparing CB2 knockout to littermate control mice. CB2-deficient mice displayed significantly more neutrophils and fewer monocytes in the bone marrow under steady state. In initial validation experiments, administration of 1 mg/kg LPS to male C57BL/6J mice was shown to transiently upregulate systemic proinflammatory mediators (peaked at 2 hours) and mobilise bone marrow neutrophils and monocytes into circulation...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852268/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-multidrug-resistant-strain-m-induces-low-il-8-and-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-secretion-by-bronchial-epithelial-cells-altering-neutrophil-effector-functions
#20
Denise Kviatcovsky, Leonardo Rivadeneyra, Luciana Balboa, Noemí Yokobori, Beatriz López, Viviana Ritacco, Mirta Schattner, María Del Carmen Sasiain, Silvia de la Barrera
M strain, the most prevalent multidrug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in Argentina, has mounted mechanisms to evade innate immune response. The role of human bronchial epithelium in Mtb infection remains unknown as well as its crosstalk with neutrophils (PMN). In this work, we evaluate whether M and H37Rv strains invade and replicate within bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-6 and how conditioned media (CM) derived from infected cells alter PMN responses. We demonstrated that M infects and survives within Calu-6 without promoting death...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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