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Mediators of Inflammation

Elżbieta Bronisz, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is a proteolytic enzyme which is recently one of the more often studied biomarkers. Its possible use as a biomarker of neuronal damage in stroke, heart diseases, tumors, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy is being widely indicated. In epilepsy, MMP-9 is suggested to play a role in epileptic focus formation and in the stimulation of seizures. The increase of MMP-9 activity in the epileptic focus was observed both in animal models and in clinical studies. MMP-9 contributes to formation of epileptic focus, for example, by remodeling of synapses...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Weiling Leng, Xinshou Ouyang, Xiaotian Lei, Mingxia Wu, Liu Chen, Qinan Wu, Wuquan Deng, Ziwen Liang
Background. Our study aimed to observe the effect of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin on diabetic atherosclerosis and investigate the subsequent mechanism. Methods. Aortic atherosclerosis was induced in streptozotocin induced diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice by feeding with high-fat diet, and dapagliflozin was administrated intragastrically for 12 weeks as treatment. Effects of dapagliflozin on indices of glucose and fat metabolism, IL-1β, IL-18, NLRP3 protein levels, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yunan Gao, Hongxiao Yang, Yanbin Fan, Lin Li, Jiahui Fang, Wei Yang
Doxorubicin (DOX) remains the most effective anticancer agent which is widely used in several adult and pediatric cancers, but its application is limited for its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for many diseases. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline (H2 saline) ameliorated the mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and histopathological changes caused by DOX in rats. Meanwhile, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also attenuated after H2 saline treatment...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Gang Liu, Shuai Chen, Guiping Guan, Jun Tan, Naif A Al-Dhabi, Hongbing Wang, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Jun Fang
This study aims to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) on gastrointestinal pathogen resistance in mice model. For two weeks, a control group of ICR mice received a basal diet whilst the intervention group received the basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg COS. After two weeks, the mice fed the supplemented diet had a lower body weight. Then enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) was administered to the mice through oral gavage, with each mouse receiving 10(8) CFU. At day 7 after infection, the bacterial load in the jejunum and faeces was significantly lower in the COS group than that in the control group...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Xianguo Ren, Yun Bo, Junting Fan, Maosheng Chen, Daliang Xu, Yang Dong, Haowei He, Xianzhi Ren, Rong Qu, Yulian Jin, Weihong Zhao, Changliang Xu
We investigated the effect of Dalbergioidin (DAL), a well-known natural product extracted from Uraria crinita, on doxorubicin- (DXR-) induced renal fibrosis in mice. The mice were pretreated for 7 days with DAL followed by a single injection of DXR (10 mg/kg) via the tail vein. Renal function was analyzed 5 weeks after DXR treatment. DXR caused nephrotoxicity. The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome were greatly improved after DAL treatment. The indices of renal fibrosis, the phosphorylation of Smad3, and the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen III (Col III), E-cadherin, TGF-β, and Smad7 in response to DXR were all similarly modified by DAL...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yi-Zhong Yan, Ru-Lin Ma, Jing-Yu Zhang, Jia He, Jiao-Long Ma, Hong-Rui Pang, La-Ti Mu, Yu-Song Ding, Heng Guo, Mei Zhang, Jia-Ming Liu, Dong-Sheng Rui, Kui Wang, Shu-Xia Guo
Objective. To study the relationships between IR and glucose and lipid metabolism in far western China and these relationships' ethnic heterogeneity. Methods. From the baseline survey, 419 Uygur cases, 331 Kazak cases, and 220 Han cases were randomly selected, resulting in a total of 970 cases for study. FINS concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results. (1) In the Kazak population, IR was correlated with hyperglycemia; high levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C; and low levels of HDL-C and abdominal obesity (all P < 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Carolina Cunha, Cátia Gomes, Ana Rita Vaz, Dora Brites
Identification of mediators triggering microglia activation and transference of noncoding microRNA (miRNA) into exosomes are critical to dissect the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We used lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced N9 microglia activation to explore new biomarkers/signaling pathways and to identify inflammatory miRNA (inflamma-miR) in cells and their derived exosomes. Upregulation of iNOS and MHC-II (M1-markers) and downregulation of arginase 1, FIZZ1 (M2-markers), and CX3CR1 (M0/M2 polarization) confirmed the switch of N9 LPS-treated cells into the M1 phenotype, as described for macrophages/microglia...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Bunsoon Choi, Do-Hyun Jo, A K M Mostafa Anower, S M Shamsul Islam, Seonghyang Sohn
Herpes disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an intractable condition. It is a major concern in public health. Our purpose of this study was to verify the function of chitosan as an adjuvant for immune regulation specifically under herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Ahead of HSV infection, chitosan, heat inactivated green fluorescent protein expressing HSV (G-HSV), and a combination of chitosan and G-HSV were used to pretreat ICR mice followed by HSV-1 infection. Using flow cytometric analysis, the frequencies of T-cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer (NK) cells were analyzed by surface expression of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD14(+), CD11c(+), NK1...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Giuseppe Spaziano, Donato Cappetta, Konrad Urbanek, Elena Piegari, Grazia Esposito, Maria Matteis, Manuela Sgambato, Gioia Tartaglione, Rosa Russo, Raffaele De Palma, Francesco Rossi, Antonella De Angelis, Bruno D'Agostino
Structural changes contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction in asthma. Emerging evidence points to the involvement of c-kit(+) cells in lung homeostasis, although their potential role in asthma is unknown. Our aim was to isolate c-kit(+) cells from normal mouse lungs and to test whether these cells can interfere with hallmarks of asthma in an animal model. Adult mouse GFP-tagged c-kit(+) cells, intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, positively affected airway remodeling and improved airway function...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Sudan Prasad Neupane, Andreas Skulberg, Knut Ragnvald Skulberg, Hans Christian D Aass, Jørgen G Bramness
Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol's effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N = 20) aged 25-45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg) which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Chiara Parisi, Giulia Napoli, Pablo Pelegrin, Cinzia Volonté
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a most frequently occurring and severe form of motor neuron disease, causing death within 3-5 years from diagnosis and with a worldwide incidence of about 2 per 100,000 person-years. Mutations in over twenty genes associated with familial forms of ALS have provided insights into the mechanisms leading to motor neuron death. Moreover, mutations in two RNA binding proteins, TAR DNA binding protein 43 and fused in sarcoma, have raised the intriguing possibility that perturbations of RNA metabolism, including that of the small endogenous RNA molecules that repress target genes at the posttranscriptional level, that is, microRNAs, may contribute to disease pathogenesis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Howard M Johnson, Chulbul M Ahmed
The canonical model of cytokine signaling via the JAK/STAT pathway dominates our view of signal transduction but provides no insight into the significance of the simultaneous presence of activated JAKs and STATs in the nucleus of cells treated with cytokines. Such a mechanistic shortcoming challenges the usefulness of the model in its present form. Focusing on the interferon (IFN) cytokines, we have developed a noncanonical model of IFN signaling that naturally connects activated JAKs and STATs at or near response elements of genes that are activated by the IFNs...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yong Wu, Yunzhou Dong, Mohammad Atefi, Yanjun Liu, Yahya Elshimali, Jaydutt V Vadgama
Increasing body of evidence suggests that there exists a connection between diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, the potential reasons for this association are still poorly understood and currently there is no clinical evidence available to direct the proper management of patients presenting with these two diseases concomitantly. Both cancer and diabetes have been associated with abnormal lactate metabolism and high level of lactate production is the key biological property of these diseases. Conversely, high lactate contribute to a higher insulin resistant status and a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells, promoting diabetes and cancer development and progression...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Li-Li Shen, Li-Xia Zhang, Li-Mei Wang, Rong-Jing Zhou, Cheng-Zhe Yang, Jin Zhang, Pi-Shan Yang
The important role of ephrinB2-EphB4 signaling pathway in bone remodeling has been well established. However, it is still unclear whether this bidirectional signaling also has effects on the regenerative processes of bone defects created in an inflammatory microenvironment. In this study, an experimental animal model of bone defects treated with lentiviruses was prepared and an inflammatory microenvironment was established. Expression levels of bone marker genes were monitored in the newly formed bone tissue using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yong Li, Chuanlong Zhu, Faxi Wang, Tiantian Zhu, Jun Li, Shufeng Liu, Fei Xiao
Interferon-α (IFN-α) has limited response rate in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The underlying mechanism of differential responsiveness to IFN remains elusive. It has been recently reported that SART1 mediates antiviral effects of IFN-α in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cell culture model. In this study, we investigated the role of SART1 in antiviral activity of IFN-α against hepatitis B virus (HBV) using blood and liver biopsy samples from chronic hepatitis B patients treated with pegylated IFN-α and HepG2 cells transfected with cloned HBV DNA...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Kristin J Speaker, Madeline M Paton, Stewart S Cox, Monika Fleshner
Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Danilo Figueiredo Soave, Marina Pacheco Miguel, Fernanda Dias Tomé, Liliana Borges de Menezes, Patrícia Resende Alo Nagib, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes
Since 2000, written with elegance and accuracy, Hanahan and Weinberg have proposed six major hallmarks of cancer and, together, they provide great advances to the understanding of tumoral biology. Our knowledge about tumor behavior has improved and the investigators have now recognized that inflammatory microenvironment may be a new feature for the tumor entities. Macrophages are considered as an important component of tumoral microenvironment. Biologically, two forms of activated macrophages can be observed: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternative activated macrophages (M2)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Ragnhild Helseth, Svein Solheim, Harald Arnesen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Trine Baur Opstad
Background and Aims. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been identified in acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the time profile and association with infarct size for NETs markers in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and stable angina pectoris (AP). Methods. In 20 patients with STEMI and 10 with AP undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), blood samples were collected before PCI (only AP group) and after 3 and 12 hours, days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 for measurement of NETs markers...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Themis Thoudam, Jae-Han Jeon, Chae-Myeong Ha, In-Kyu Lee
Inflammation is considered to be one of the most critical factors involved in the development of complex metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A few decades ago, the discovery of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM) was followed by the identification of its roles in regulating cellular homeostatic processes, ranging from cellular bioenergetics to apoptosis. MAM provides an excellent platform for numerous signaling pathways; among them, inflammatory signaling pathways associated with MAM play a critical role in cellular defense during pathogenic infections and metabolic disorders...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Nona Janikashvili, Maxime Samson, Eli Magen, Tinatin Chikovani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
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