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Mediators of Inflammation

Elena Dozio, Federico Ambrogi, Massimo de Cal, Elena Vianello, Claudio Ronco, Massimiliano M Corsi Romanelli
End-stage renal disease patients on dialysis (CKD-G5D) have a high mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In these patients, inflammation, oxidative stress, and uremia increase the production of glycation products (AGEs) which in turn accelerate CVD onset and progression. Recently, attention has been given to the soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) as a marker of inflammation, oxidative stress, atherosclerosis, and heart failure in CKD-G5D. However, its association with patient outcomes is still under debate...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Kritika Ramani, Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Bianca M Coleman, Chetan V Jawale, Youhua Liu, Partha S Biswas
Chronic inflammation has an important role in the development and progression of most fibrotic diseases, for which no effective treatments exist. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TF) is characterized by irreversible deposition of fibrous tissue in chronic kidney diseases. Prolonged injurious stimuli and chronic inflammation regulate downstream events that lead to TF. In recent years, interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been strongly linked to organ fibrosis. However, the role of IL-17 receptor signaling in TF is an active area of debate...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Marzena Tylicka, Ewa Matuszczak, Maria Karpińska, Adam Hermanowicz, Wojciech Dębek, Halina Ostrowska
Surgical tissue damage and the accompanying inflammatory response lead to proteasome activation, initiation of damaged protein degradation, and induction of acute-phase inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of change in proteasome chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and C-reactive protein concentration depending on the degree of tissue damage and their correlation with prealbumin concentrations in children before and after abdominal surgery. This experimental study included children who underwent abdominal surgery between 2015 and 2017...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Fabio Cacciapaglia, Maria Grazia Anelli, Angela Rinaldi, Marco Fornaro, Giuseppe Lopalco, Crescenzio Scioscia, Giovanni Lapadula, Florenzo Iannone
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and the chronic inflammatory state may generate quantitative and qualitative changes in lipoprotein fractions. The anti-IL-6 receptor tocilizumab (TCZ), even if effective in inflammation and joint damage prevention, determined significant alterations to RA patients' lipid levels in randomized controlled trials, but real-world data are lacking. We evaluated the changes in lipid fraction levels and disease activity in a longitudinal cohort of RA patients on long-term treatment with tocilizumab (TCZ) in a community setting...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Feng Huang, Junsong Zhang, Diyuan Yang, Yuelan Zhang, Jinxiang Huang, Yaochang Yuan, Xuefeng Li, Gen Lu
Human adenovirus (Adv) infection is responsible for most community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children, which results in significant morbidity and mortality in children every year. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with viral replication and host immune response. Knowing the miRNA expression profile will help understand the role of miRNAs in modulating the host response to adenovirus infection and possibly improve the diagnosis of adenovirus-infected pneumonia. In our study, total RNA extracted from whole blood of adenovirus-infected pneumonia children and healthy controls were analyzed by small RNA deep sequencing...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Yi Chen, Chunfang Zhu, Yingchao Chen, Ningjian Wang, Qin Li, Bing Han, Li Zhao, Chi Chen, Hualing Zhai, Lijuan Zhang, Yingli Lu
Background: The interrelation between thyroid autoimmunity and cardiovascular risks is complex and has not been confirmed. This study aimed at evaluating whether there exists a relationship between thyroid autoimmune diseases (AITDs) and cardiometabolic risks in a large population with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Methods: The data was obtained from a cross-sectional study (SPECT-China study). This study enrolled 9082 subjects (3948 males and 5134 females) above 18 years with normal TSH levels...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Andrzej P Herman, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Marta Kowalewska, Aleksandra Szczepkowska, Małgorzata Oleszkiewicz, Agata Krawczyńska, Maciej Wójcik, Hanna Antushevich, Janina Skipor
The study was designed to examine whether the administration of neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal), a peripheral inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), during an immune/inflammatory challenge provoked by intravenous injection of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg)-attenuates the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines in the ovine preoptic area (POA), the hypothalamic structure playing an essential role in the control of the reproduction process, and in the choroid plexus (CP), a multifunctional organ sited at the interface between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in the ewe...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Yunchang Mo, Yingying Lou, Anqi Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Congying Zhu, Bo Zheng, Dan Li, Mingyuan Zhang, Wenjun Jin, Lei Zhang, Junlu Wang
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory reaction caused by infection. Multiple organ failure ultimately leads to high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, therapies against these responses have been unsuccessful due to the insufficient underlying pathophysiological evidence. Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) has received considerable attention because of its important physiological functions in many tissues. However, its role in sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unclear. In this study, we used cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to establish a septic model and found that decreased microtubule-associated protein-1light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I in PICK1-/- septic mice was caused by autophagy dysfunction...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Nattawan Suwannakul, Ning Ma, Raynoo Thanan, Somchai Pinlaor, Piti Ungarreevittaya, Kaoru Midorikawa, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Shosuke Kawanishi, Mariko Murata
Various CD44 isoforms are expressed in several cancer stem cells during tumor progression and metastasis. In particular, CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) is highly expressed in chronic inflammation-induced cancer. We investigated the expression of CD44v9 and assessed whether CD44v9 is a selective biomarker of human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The expression profile of CD44v9 was evaluated in human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini -related CCA (OV-CCA) tissues, human CCA (independent of OV infection, non-OV-CCA) tissues, and normal liver tissues...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Bjorn O Eriksson, Caroline Gahm, Martin Halle
Background: Clinical studies have shown that radiotherapy can induce vascular disease at the site of exposure but is usually not clinically evident until years after treatment. We have studied irradiated human arteries and veins to better understand the underlying biology in search of future treatments. The aim was to investigate whether radiotherapy contributed to a sustained expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in human arteries and veins. Methods: Irradiated arteries and veins were harvested, together with unirradiated control vessels, from patients undergoing free tissue transfer reconstruction at a median time of 90 weeks [5-650] following radiation exposure...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Maëlle Plawecki, Marion Morena, Nils Kuster, Leila Chenine, Hélène Leray-Moragues, Bernard Jover, Pierre Fesler, Manuela Lotierzo, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Kada Klouche, Jean-Paul Cristol
Heart failure is the most frequent cardiac complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Biomarkers help identify high-risk patients. Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP) are largely used for monitoring patients with cardiac failure but are highly dependent on glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) biomarker is well identified in risk stratification of cardiovascular (CV) events in heart failure. Furthermore, sST2 is included in a bioclinical score to stratify mortality risk...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Yue Tian, Ke-Yan Chen, Li-Dan Liu, Yun-Xia Dong, Ping Zhao, Shan-Bin Guo
Objective: This study was aimed at investigating whether sevoflurane inhalation induced cognitive impairment in rats with a possible mechanism involved in the event. Methods: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups of normal saline (NS) + O2 , NS + sevoflurane (sevo), amyloid- β peptide (A β ) + O2 , and A β  + sevo. The rats in the four groups received bilateral intrahippocampus injections of NS or A β . The treated hippocampus was harvested after inhaling 30% O2 or 2...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Heightened placental inflammation and dysfunction are commonly associated in pregnant obese women compared to their pregnant lean counterparts. The small GTPase superfamily members known as the rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Ras) proteins, in particular, the K-Ras and H-Ras isoforms, have been implicated to regulate inflammation. The aims were to determine the placental Ras expression and activity with maternal obesity and its role in regulating placental inflammation. Human placenta was obtained at term Caesarean section from lean and obese pregnant women to determine the effect of maternal obesity on Ras protein expression and activity...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Francisco J Rios, Naïma Moustaïd-Moussa, Joilson O Martins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Tomasz Mikuła, Mariusz Sapuła, Joanna Jabłońska, Joanna Kozłowska, Wojciech Stańczak, Dagny Krankowska, Alicja Wiercińska-Drapało
Objectives: Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are among the most important complications of decompensated liver cirrhosis. In clinical practice, new inflammation biomarkers are needed for the early diagnosis of SBP, as well-known biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), or peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) count, lack the required specificity and sensitivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of heparin-binding protein (HBP) in comparison to CRP, PCT, WBC, and D-dimers in the diagnosis of SBP...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Duale Ahmed, David Roy, Edana Cassol
With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals are now living longer and healthier lives. However, ART does not completely restore health and treated individuals are experiencing increased rates of noncommunicable diseases such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. While it is well known that persistent immune activation and inflammation contribute to the development of these comorbid diseases, the mechanisms underlying this chronic activation remain incompletely understood...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Karolina Kopeć-Pyciarz, Irena Makulska, Danuta Zwolińska, Łukasz Łaczmański, Wojciech Baran
Background: Psoriasis is currently regarded as a chronic systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Objectives: The aim of the study was the assessment of skin autofluorescence (SAF), as a measure of AGE accumulation, in individuals suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis without any comorbid conditions. Methods: A study group consisted of 70 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis without any comorbid conditions and 59 healthy controls, matched by age and gender...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Martha Lappas
Preterm birth remains the primary cause of early neonatal death and is a major determinant for long-term health consequences. Aberrant intrauterine inflammation and infection are known to augment the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and induce uterine contractions, which can subsequently lead to preterm birth. The transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β ) superfamily members regulate numerous cellular processes through the activation of intracellular mediators known as mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMADs)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Chenyu Li, Shujuan Wang, Lin Che, Xianghua Wang, Yan Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Sebastián Beltrán-Castillo, Jaime Eugenín, Rommy von Bernhardi
A mild chronic inflammatory state, like that observed in aged individuals, affects microglial function, inducing a dysfunctional phenotype that potentiates neuroinflammation and cytotoxicity instead of neuroprotection in response to additional challenges. Given that inflammatory activation of microglia promotes increased release of D-serine, we postulate that age-dependent inflammatory brain environment leads to microglia-mediated changes on the D-serine-regulated glutamatergic transmission. Furthermore, D-serine dysregulation, in addition to affecting synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, appears also to potentiate NMDAR-dependent excitotoxicity, promoting neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
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