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Mediators of Inflammation

Gap Ryol Lee
Regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain immune homeostasis by suppressing excessive immune responses. Treg cells induce tolerance against self- and foreign antigens, thus preventing autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection, and fetus rejection during pregnancy. However, Treg cells also infiltrate into tumors and inhibit antitumor immune responses, thus inhibiting anticancer therapy. Depleting whole Treg cell populations in the body to enhance anticancer treatments will produce deleterious autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding the precise nature of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells is essential for effectively targeting Treg cells in tumors...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Hui-Chun Yu, Kuang-Yung Huang, Ming-Chi Lu, Hsien-Lu Huang, Su-Qin Liu, Ning-Sheng Lai, Hsien-Bin Huang
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is highly associated with the expression of human leukocyte antigen-B27 (HLA-B∗ 27). HLA-B∗ 27 heavy chain (B27-HC) has an intrinsic propensity to fold slowly, leading to the accumulation of the misfolded B27-HC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and formation of the HLA-B∗ 27 HC homodimer, (B27-HC)2 , by a disulfide linkage at Cys-67. (B27-HC)2 displayed on the cell surface can act as a ligand of the killer-cell Ig-like receptor (KIR3DL2). (B27-HC)2 binds to KIR3DL2 of NK and Th17 cells and activates both cells, resulting in the activation of the IL-23/IL-17 axis to launch the inflammatory reaction in AS patients...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Mareen Braunstein, Martina Williamson, Thomas Kusmenkov, Jürgen Landes, Peter Biberthaler, Karl-Georg Kanz, Wolfgang Böcker, Viktoria Bogner
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate immunological changes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). mRNA expression levels of selected immunomodulatory cytokines in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors were detected and correlated to clinical parameter. Methods: OHCA survivors with sustained unconsciousness after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were included. PAXgene whole blood samples were drawn immediately after initiation of CPR and subsequently after 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Juarez A S Quaresma, Mirian N Sotto, Anna Balato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Sébastien Boutin, Martin Depner, Mirjam Stahl, Simon Y Graeber, Susanne A Dittrich, Antje Legatzki, Erika von Mutius, Marcus Mall, Alexander H Dalpke
A genuine microbiota resides in the lungs which emanates from the colonization by the oropharyngeal microbiota. Changes in the oropharyngeal microbiota might be the source of dysbiosis observed in the lower airways in patients suffering from asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). To examine this hypothesis, we compared the throat microbiota from healthy children ( n = 62) and that from children with asthma ( n = 27) and CF ( n = 57) aged 6 to 12 years using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our results show high levels of similarities between healthy controls and children with asthma and CF revealing the existence of a core microbiome represented by Prevotella , Streptococcus , Neisseria , Veillonella , and Haemophilus ...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Nandakumar Packiriswamy, Jeff Gandy, Sara N Smith, Harry L T Mobley, Lorraine M Sordillo, Sargurunathan Subashchandrabose
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an extremely common infectious disease. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant etiological agent of UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuric E. coli (ABEC) strains successfully colonize the urinary tract resulting in asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) and do not induce symptoms associated with UTI. Oxylipids are key signaling molecules involved in inflammation. Based on the distinct clinical outcomes of E. coli colonization, we hypothesized that UPEC triggers the production of predominantly proinflammatory oxylipids and ABEC leads to production of primarily anti-inflammatory or proresolving oxylipids in the urinary tract...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Zhiyan Wang, Di Wang, Yi Wang
Smoking is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis through several underlying pathways. Moreover, in the development of atherosclerotic plaque formation, obesity, defined as excess fat mass accumulation, also plays a vital role in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Substantial evidence shows that cigarette smoking induces multiple pathological effects in adipose tissue, such as differentiation of adipocytes, lipolysis, and secretion properties in adipose tissue. Therefore, there is an emerging speculation in which adipose tissue abnormality induced by smoking or nicotine is likely to accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Garrett Pehote, Manish Bodas, Kathryn Brucia, Neeraj Vij
Introduction: Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the leading risk factor for COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. A common characteristic of COPD is impaired phagocytosis that causes frequent exacerbations in patients leading to increased morbidity. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Hence, we investigated if CS exposure causes autophagy impairment as a mechanism for diminished bacterial clearance via phagocytosis by utilizing murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01-GFP) as an experimental model...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Angelica Giuliani, Francesco Prattichizzo, Luigina Micolucci, Antonio Ceriello, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Maria Rita Rippo
A relevant feature of aging is chronic low-grade inflammation, termed inflammaging, a key process promoting the development of all major age-related diseases. Senescent cells can acquire the senescence-associated (SA) secretory phenotype (SASP), characterized by the secretion of proinflammatory factors fuelling inflammaging. Cellular senescence is also accompanied by a deep reshaping of microRNA expression and by the modulation of mitochondria activity, both master regulators of the SASP. Here, we synthesize novel findings regarding the role of mitochondria in the SASP and in the inflammaging process and propose a network linking nuclear-encoded SA-miRNAs to mitochondrial gene regulation and function in aging cells...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Zhuang Yu, Yao Tong, Renlingzi Zhang, Xibing Ding, Quan Li
Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) induce local and distant tissue injuries, contributing to morbidity and mortality in a wider range of pathologies. This is especially seen under uncontrolled aseptic inflammatory conditions, leading to injury of remote organs, such as lung injury, and even failure. Saquinavir (SQV) is a kind of HIV protease inhibitor that possesses an anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we investigated whether SQV suppresses Toll-like receptor 4- (TLR4-) dependent signaling pathways of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and P38/JNK, conferring protection against murine liver I/R-induced lung injury...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Yong Wu, Yunzhou Dong, Shengzhong Duan, Donghui Zhu, Lin Deng
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/8259356.].
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Yung-Ray Hsu, Shu-Wen Chang, Yu-Cheng Lin, Chang-Hao Yang
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect and roles of microRNA (miRNA, miR) treatment in experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU). Materials and Methods: Uveitis was induced in Lewis rats by simultaneous injections of bovine melanin-associated antigen into the hind footpad and the intraperitoneal cavity. The animals were injected intravitreally with low-dose (0.5 μg) or high-dose (1.5 μg) miR-146a. The clinical scores, leukocyte count in the aqueous humor, and histology were assessed...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Arduino A Mangoni, Angelo Zinellu, Salvatore Sotgia, Ciriaco Carru, Matteo Piga, Gian Luca Erre
There is good epidemiological evidence that patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease states, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when compared to the general population. The presence of a chronic systemic proinflammatory state in this patient group disrupts the structural and functional integrity of the endothelium and the arterial wall, favouring the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. A significant role in the detrimental effects of inflammation on endothelial function and vascular homeostasis is played by specific proatherosclerotic cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Katarzyna Fischer, Hanna Przepiera-Będzak, Marcin Sawicki, Anna Walecka, Iwona Brzosko, Marek Brzosko
Objectives: To analyze the correlation between the serum concentration of interleukin- (IL-) 23 and atherosclerotic changes, traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, the autoantibody profile, and involvement of selected organs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Patients and Methods: We studied 94 SLE patients and 27 controls. We analyzed the IL-23 serum concentration, autoantibodies, carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerotic plaque, the ankle-brachial index, atherosclerotic risk factors, and organ manifestations...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Silvia Anahi Valdés-Rives, Aliesha González-Arenas
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a ubiquitous lysophospholipid and one of the main membrane-derived lipid signaling molecules. LPA acts as an autocrine/paracrine messenger through at least six G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), known as LPA1-6, to induce various cellular processes including wound healing, differentiation, proliferation, migration, and survival. LPA receptors and autotaxin (ATX), a secreted phosphodiesterase that produces this phospholipid, are overexpressed in many cancers and impact several features of the disease, including cancer-related inflammation, development, and progression...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Anthony D Foster, Diego Vicente, Jonathan J Sexton, Luke Johnston, Nick Clark, Crystal Leonhardt, Eric A Elster, Thomas A Davis, Matthew J Bradley
Acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the extremities leads to local and systemic inflammatory changes which can hinder limb function and can be life threatening. This study examined whether the administration of the T-cell sequestration agent, FTY720, following hind limb tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle IRI in a rat model would attenuate systemic inflammation and multiple end organ injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1 hr of ischemia via application of a rubber band tourniquet. Animals were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either vehicle control or FTY720 15 min after band placement...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Nuoyan Zheng, Bing Wang, Jinjin Fan, Ning Luo, Qingyu Kong, Hongjian Ye, Jiqin Zhang, Hongyan Ming, Xueqing Yu
The roles of pDC and IFN-α have not been well defined in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In this study, we investigated the abundance of pDCs and IFN-α in IgAN patients and the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after stimulation of the pDC-preferred TLR9 ligand CpG2216. The effects of IFN-α on plasma cell differentiation and leukocyte migration were also investigated. Here, we found that the percentages of pDCs were increased in PBMCs of IgAN patients, than in those of healthy controls. Plasma levels of IFN-α proteins and abundance of plasma cells were higher in IgAN patients than in healthy donors...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Feng Ying, Zheng Cunjing, Feng Feng, Wan Shuo, Zeng Xin, Xie Fukang, Wu Zhongdao
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is an important food-borne parasitic disease. Previous study showed that A. cantonensis infection can cause demyelination in the central nerve system, but the mechanism of action has not been understood. To explore the mechanism and to look for effective therapeutic methods, interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and iNOS expressions were detected during A. cantonensis infection. In addition, IL-17A-neutralizing antibody was applied to treat A. cantonensis-infected mice. In our results, we found that IL-17A and iNOS RNA expressions increased gradually in the process of A...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Irma Colombo, Enrico Sangiovanni, Roberta Maggio, Carlo Mattozzi, Stefania Zava, Yolanda Corbett, Marco Fumagalli, Claudia Carlino, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Stefano Calvieri, Angela Gismondi, Donatella Taramelli, Mario Dell'Agli
Cultured primary human keratinocytes are frequently employed for studies of immunological and inflammatory responses; however, interpretation of experimental data may be complicated by donor to donor variability, the relatively short culture lifetime, and variations between passages. To standardize the in vitro studies on keratinocytes, we investigated the use of HaCaT cells, a long-lived, spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte line which is able to differentiate in vitro, as a suitable model to follow the release of inflammatory and repair mediators in response to TNFα or IL-1β...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Ting Wang, Huiying Liu, Guan Lian, Song-Yang Zhang, Xian Wang, Changtao Jiang
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α is a metabolic regulator that plays an important role in immunologic responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that HIF1α participates in the M1 polarization of macrophages. To clarify the mechanism of HIF1α-induced polarization of M1 macrophage, myeloid-specific HIF1α overexpression (Lysm HIF1α lsl) mice were employed and the bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages were isolated. RT-PCR results revealed that HIF1α overexpression macrophage had a hyperinflammatory state characterized by the upregulation of M1 markers...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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