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Mediators of Inflammation

Anna Cláudia Calvielli Castelo Branco, Fábio Seiti Yamada Yoshikawa, Anna Julia Pietrobon, Maria Notomi Sato
Inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, impact the immune system, usually as proinflammatory factors. Other mediators act as regulatory components to establish homeostasis after injury or prevent the inflammatory process. Histamine, a biogenic vasoactive amine, causes symptoms such as allergies and has a pleiotropic effect that is dependent on its interaction with its four histamine receptors. In this review, we discuss the dualistic effects of histamine: how histamine affects inflammation of the immune system through the activation of intracellular pathways that induce the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in different immune cells and how histamine exerts regulatory functions in innate and adaptive immune responses...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Ke Zhang, Zhenfeng Dai, Runzhe Liu, Fang Tian, Xi Liu, Yi Sun, Xin Zhao, Xiaoping Pu
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common acquired autoimmune disease, and thrombopoietin (TPO) is an important cytokine that regulates the production of megakaryocytes and platelets. We have identified a biologically active component, icaritin, from a Chinese herba epimedii extract. Icaritin promotes platelet production and regulates T cell polarization, but its mechanism is not clear. In this study, the BALB/c mouse model of ITP was established by injection of an antiplatelet antibody every other day for seven total times...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Jing Ye, Ling Liu, Qingwei Ji, Ying Huang, Ying Shi, Lei Shi, Jianfang Liu, Menglong Wang, Yao Xu, Huimin Jiang, Zhen Wang, Yingzhong Lin, Jun Wan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/5635929.].
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Stefano Bibbò, Maria Pina Dore, Giovanni Cammarota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Hongbo Yi, Li Wang, Yunxia Xiong, Zhilin Wang, Yueqin Qiu, Xiaolu Wen, Zongyong Jiang, Xuefen Yang, Xianyong Ma
Intestinal epithelial barrier damage disrupts immune homeostasis and leads to many intestinal disorders. Lactobacillus reuteri strains have probiotic functions in their modulation of the microbiota and immune system in intestines. In this study, the effects of L. reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaning piglets, on intestinal epithelial barrier damage in IPEC-1 cells caused by challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 were examined. It was found that L. reuteri LR1, in large part, offset the ETEC K88-induced increase in permeability of IPEC-1 cell monolayers and decreased the adhesion and invasion of the coliform in IPEC-1 cells...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Marlon Fraga Mattos, Patrícia Matos Biselli-Chicote, Joice Matos Biselli, Thiago Luís da Silva Assembleia, Eny Maria Goloni-Bertollo, Érika Cristina Pavarino
Immunological impairment is a condition that is often observed in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The immune response is modulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines whose expressions could be influenced by genetic polymorphisms. The present study was aimed at evaluating the frequencies of -174G>C, -572G>C, and -597G>A polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene and -592C>A, -1082A>G, and -819C>T polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene and the IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels in healthy individuals with and without DS...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Karolina Haziak, Monika Tomczyk, Andrzej P Herman
Prolactin is a hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of many physiological processes including lactation, reproduction, fat metabolism, and immune response. The secretion of prolactin could be disturbed by an immune stress commonly accompanying infection. This study was designed to determine the influence of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-on prolactin gene (PRL) expression and prolactin release from the ovine anterior pituitary (AP) explants collected from saline- and LPS-treated ewes in the follicular phase...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Sara Nullens, Joris De Man, Chris Bridts, Didier Ebo, Sven Francque, Benedicte De Winter
During sepsis, disturbed gastrointestinal motility and increased mucosal permeability can aggravate sepsis due to the increased risk of bacterial translocation. To help identify new therapeutic targets, there is a need for animal models that mimic the immunological changes in the gastrointestinal tract as observed during human sepsis. We therefore characterized in detail the gastrointestinal neuroimmune environment in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model, which is the gold standard animal model of microbial sepsis...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Daria Augustyniak, Justyna Roszkowiak, Izabela Wiśniewska, Jacek Skała, Daiva Gorczyca, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) play both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities and are produced during infection and inflammation. Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the leading infectious agents responsible for inflammatory exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since the airway inflammation in COPD is connected with activation of both epithelial cells and accumulated neutrophils, in this study we determined the in vitro effects of neuropeptides on the inflammatory potential of these cells in response to M...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Agnieszka Żyłka, Paulina Dumnicka, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Agnieszka Gala-Błądzińska, Piotr Ceranowicz, Jakub Kucharz, Anna Ząbek-Adamska, Barbara Maziarz, Ryszard Drożdż, Marek Kuźniewski
Diabetic kidney disease develops in half of genetically predisposed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Early diagnosis of kidney damage and nephroprotective treatment are the ways of preventing the disease progression. Our aim was to evaluate selected laboratory markers of glomerular and tubular damage in T2DM patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (G1/G2, A1/A2) for their associations with A2 albuminuria and early decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Among 80 T2DM patients with median eGFR of 92...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Huining Guo, Li Sun, Shuang Ling, Jin-Wen Xu
Background: Inflammation is one of the most important pathogeneses of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a vital role in the body's immune response and disease development. It can be activated by numerous types of pathogens or danger signals. As the core of the inflammatory response, the NLRP3 inflammasome may provide a new target for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Levistilide A (LA) is a phthalide dimer isolated from umbelliferous plants. Its pharmacological effect is largely unknown...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Jaime S Marques Filho, Jorge Gobara, Gustavo Vargas da Silva Salomao, Laura M Sumita, Jamil A Shibli, Renato G Viana, Humberto O Schwartz Filho, Claudio Sergio Pannuti, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Debora Pallos
This study evaluated the presence of cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP-1 α , MIP-1 β , and TNF- α ) and human herpesvirus (HSV1, HSV2, EBV, CMV, VZV, HHV6, HHV7, and HHV8) in saliva samples taken from subjects with and without peri-implantitis. Forty-two periodontally healthy subjects were divided according to peri-implant condition: healthy and peri-implantitis groups. The clinical parameters as probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index, gingival bleeding, bleeding on probing, and suppuration were evaluated...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Mayumi Iguchi, Miki Hiroi, Haruhide Kanegae, Yoshihiro Ohmori
During chronic inflammation from diseases, such as periodontal disease, the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN γ ) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF α ) alter bone remodeling. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the effect of IFN γ and TNF α on the proliferation and survival of clonal MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts. We found that although IFN γ or TNF α alone affected cell growth and survival only marginally, costimulation with both synergistically inhibited cell growth and reduced cell viability...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Luana de Mendonça Oliveira, Franciane Mouradian Emidio Teixeira, Maria Notomi Sato
Vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, organogenesis, and reproduction and a key role in mucosal immune responses. RA promotes dendritic cells to express CD103 and to produce RA, enhances the differentiation of Foxp3+ inducible regulatory T cells, and induces gut-homing specificity in T cells. Although vitamin A is crucial for maintaining homeostasis at the intestinal barrier and equilibrating immunity and tolerance, including gut dysbiosis, retinoids perform a wide variety of functions in many settings, such as the central nervous system, skin aging, allergic airway diseases, cancer prevention and therapy, and metabolic diseases...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
José L Reyes, Danielle T Vannan, Bertus Eksteen, Imelda Juárez Avelar, Tonathiu Rodríguez, Marisol Ibet González, Alicia Vázquez Mendoza
Dry eye disease (DED) is the most common ocular disease and affects millions of individuals worldwide. DED encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases that can be generally divided into two forms including aqueous-deficient and evaporative DED. Evidence suggests that these conditions arise from either failure of lacrimal gland secretion or low tear film quality. In its secondary form, DED is often associated with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. Current treatment strategies for DED are limited to anti-inflammatory medications that target the immune system as the source of deleterious inflammation and tissue injury...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Luiza C Reis, Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez, Fabricio Petitto-Assis, Audun H Nerland, Maria Hernandez-Valladares, Frode Selheim, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter, Hiro Goto
Certain cytokines modulate the expression of insulin-like growth factor- (IGF-) I. Since IL-4 and IGF-I promote growth of the protozoan Leishmania major , we here addressed their interaction in downregulating the expression of Igf-I mRNA using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in Leishmania major -infected macrophages. Parasitism was decreased in the siRNA-treated cells compared with the nontreated cells, reversed by the addition of recombinant IGF-I (rIGF-I). In IL-4-stimulated macrophages, parasitism and the Igf-I mRNA amount were increased, and the effects were nullified upon siRNA transfection...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Yong Li, Yiyuan Pan, Lin Gao, Jingzhu Zhang, Xiaochun Xie, Zhihui Tong, Baiqiang Li, Gang Li, Guotao Lu, Weiqin Li
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2018/3232491.].
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Joel Jesús Toledo-Mauriño, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Marco A Villeda-Ramírez, Gabriela Fonseca-Camarillo, Daniela Meza-Guillen, Rafael Barreto-Zúñiga, Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) may play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of the study was to determine the gene and protein expression of TRPV1 in UC patients and noninflamed controls. Gene expression was performed by RT-PCR, and protein expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. The gene expression of TRPV1 was significantly increased in the remission UC group compared to active UC patients ( P = 0.002), and an upregulation of the TRPV1 gene was associated with clinical outcomes such as age at diagnosis (<40 years) ( P = 0...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Masaaki Hirasawa, Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai
It has been reported that periodontitis is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction is an early marker for atherosclerosis. To determine how periodontal infections contribute to endothelial dysfunction, we examined the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). P. gingivalis significantly suppressed the viability of HUVEC, induced DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining, and increased caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Veronica Tisato, Stefania Gallo, Elisabetta Melloni, Claudio Celeghini, Angelina Passaro, Giorgio Zauli, Paola Secchiero, Carlo Bergamini, Alessandro Trentini, Gloria Bonaccorsi, Giuseppe Valacchi, Giovanni Zuliani, Carlo Cervellati
Objective: "Oxinflammation" is a recently coined term that defines the deleterious crosstalk between inflammatory and redox systemic processes, which underlie several diseases. Oxinflammation could be latently responsible for the predisposition of certain healthy individuals to disease development. The oxinflammatory pathway has been recently suggested to play a crucial role in regulating the activity of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a TNF superfamily member that can mediate multiple signals in physiological and pathological processes...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
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