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Mediators of Inflammation

Wei Zheng, Shouwen Du, Mingyao Tian, Wang Xu, Yufei Tian, Tiyuan Li, Yanling Fu, Shipin Wu, Chang Li, Ningyi Jin
Strong inflammation is a prominent pathogenesis of acute hepatitis, which can induce hepatocyte death and lead to liver failure. Lepidium meyenii Walp (Maca) is a traditional herbal medicine mostly used in improving sperm motility and serum hormone levels, etc. However, there are no reports that showed Maca was designed for treating hepatitis so far. Therefore, the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Maca are unknown in hepatitis. In this study, we found that the protective effects of Maca extract ameliorate ConA-induced acute hepatitis (CIH) and underlying mechanisms...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Xin Ma, Teng Wang, Zhen-Long Zhao, Yu Jiang, Shu Ye
We previously reported that propofol upregulated the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/liver X receptor in macrophage-derived foam cells. Here, we provide evidence that in addition to inducing ABCA1 expression, propofol represses proinflammatory cytokine production by increasing ABCA1 expression in a LOC286367-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that ABCA1 expression was elevated in macrophages by propofol treatment and this effect was markedly reduced by LOC286367 overexpression...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Peng Liu, Hong-Bin Yuan, Shuang Zhao, Fei-Fei Liu, Yu-Qing Jiang, Yue-Xian Guo, Xiu-Li Wang
Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is a prevalent complication in diabetes patients. Neuronal inflammation and activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are involved in the occurrence of DNP. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Downregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB ) receptor contributes to the DNP. GABAB receptor interacts with NF- κ B, a downstream signaling factor of TLR4, in a neuropathic pain induced by chemotherapy. In this study, we determined the role of TLR4/Myd88/NF- κ B signaling pathways coupled to GABAB receptors in the generation of DNP...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Chih-Hao Lu, Chao-Yang Lai, Da-Wei Yeh, Yi-Ling Liu, Yu-Wen Su, Li-Chung Hsu, Chung-Hsing Chang, S-L Catherine Jin, Tsung-Hsien Chuang
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that affects ~2%-3% of the worldwide population. Inappropriate and excessive activation of endosomal Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9 (TLRs 7-9) at the psoriatic site has been shown to play a pathogenic role in the onset of psoriasis. Macrophage is a major inflammatory cell type that can be differentiated into phenotypes M1 and M2. M1 macrophages produce proinflammatory cytokines, and M2 macrophages produce anti-inflammatory cytokines. The balance between these two types of macrophages determines the progression of various inflammatory diseases; however, whether macrophage polarization plays a role in psoriatic inflammation activated by endosomal TLRs has not been investigated...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Fangming Guo, Yunhua Hu, Qiang Niu, Yu Li, Yusong Ding, Rulin Ma, Xianhua Wang, Shugang Li, Jianxin Xie
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of squamous cell carcinoma. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is considered to exhibit anticancer activity against several different types of cancer. We aimed to determine whether GSPE inhibited esophageal squamous cancerous cells and the possible involvement of NF- κ B in this process. The human esophageal squamous cancer cell line ECA109 was treated with GSPE (0-80  μ g/mL) and BAY11-7082 (10  μ mol/L) for 12, 24, and 48 h. The MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation; alterations in cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry; levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptotic proteins Bax/Bcl-2 were measured by ELISA; qRT-PCR and western blots were used to examine the activation of caspase-3 and NF- κ B signaling...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Sinan Lin, Ying Wang, Li Li, Peng Chen, Ren Mao, Rui Feng, Yun Qiu, Yao He, Baili Chen, Zhirong Zeng, Minhu Chen, Shenghong Zhang
Background: The association between vitamin D3 and activity of Crohn's disease (CD) is unclear in Chinese patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlations between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and disease activity and predict active disease based on vitamin D status. Methods: Between January 2014 and December 2017, 346 CD patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were recruited and categorized into a group with 25(OH)D3 ≤ 20 ng/ml and a group with 25(OH)D3 > 20 ng/ml...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Jose Luis Morgado-Pascual, Vanessa Marchant, Raul Rodrigues-Diez, Nuria Dolade, Beatriz Suarez-Alvarez, Bredford Kerr, Jose M Valdivielso, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Sandra Rayego-Mateos
The growing incidence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, coupled with the aging of the population, is increasing the prevalence of renal diseases in our society. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by persistent inflammation, fibrosis, and loss of renal function leading to end-stage renal disease. Nowadays, CKD treatment has limited effectiveness underscoring the importance of the development of innovative therapeutic options. Recent studies have identified how epigenetic modifications participate in the susceptibility to CKD and have explained how the environment interacts with the renal cell epigenome to contribute to renal damage...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Marion I Stunault, Gaël Bories, Rodolphe R Guinamard, Stoyan Ivanov
Monocyte and macrophage diversity is evidenced by the modulation of cell surface markers and differential production of soluble mediators. These immune cells play key roles in controlling tissue homeostasis, infections, and excessive inflammation. Macrophages remove dead cells in a process named efferocytosis, contributing to the healthy tissue maintenance. Recently, it became clear that the main macrophage functions are under metabolic control. Modulation of glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism is associated with various macrophage activations in response to external stimuli...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Nikolaos Antonakopoulos, Zoe Iliodromiti, George Mastorakos, Christos Iavazzo, Georgios Valsamakis, Nikolaos Salakos, Aris Papageorghiou, Alexandra Margeli, Sophia Kalantaridou, George Creatsas, Efthymios Deligeoroglou, Nikolaos Vrachnis
The development of the fetal nervous system mirrors general fetal development, comprising a combination of genetic resources and effects of the intrauterine environment. Our aim was to assess the 2nd trimester amniotic fluid levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and to investigate its association with fetal growth. In accordance with our study design, samples of amniotic fluid were collected from women who had undergone amniocentesis early in the 2nd trimester. All pregnancies were followed up until delivery and fetal growth patterns and birth weights were recorded, following which pregnancies were divided into three groups based on fetal weight: (1) AGA (appropriate for gestational age), (2) SGA (small for gestational age), and (3) LGA (large for gestational age)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Helen C Steel, W D Francois Venter, Annette J Theron, Ronald Anderson, Charles Feldman, Luyanda Kwofie, Tanita Cronjé, Natasha Arullapan, Theresa M Rossouw
Like HIV infection, smoking, which is common among HIV-infected persons, is associated with chronic, systemic inflammation. However, the possible augmentative effects of HIV infection and smoking and other types of tobacco usage on indices of systemic inflammation and the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) thereon remain largely unexplored and represent the focus of the current study. Of the total number of HIV-infected persons recruited to the study ( n = 199), 100 were categorised as pre-cART and 99 as virally suppressed (HIV viral load < 40 copies/mL)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Antonela Romina Terrizzi, María Inés Conti, María Pilar Martínez, Javier Fernández-Solari
The exposition to hypoxia is a stressful stimulus, and the organism develops acclimation mechanisms to ensure homeostasis, but if this fails, it leads to the development of pathological processes. Considering the large number of people under hypoxic conditions, it is of utmost importance to study the mechanisms implicated in hypoxic acclimation in oral tissues and the possible alteration of some important inflammatory markers that regulate salivary and periodontal function. It is the aim of the present study to analyze submandibular (SMG) and periodontal status of animals chronically exposed to continuous (CCH) or intermittent (CIH) hypoxia in order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms that may lead to hypoxic acclimation...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Daniel Ngabire, Yeong-Ae Seong, Maheshkumar Prakash Patil, Irvine Niyonizigiye, Yong Bae Seo, Gun-Do Kim
Aster incisus is a common flower found in almost all regions of South Korea. In the current study, we investigated the potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the Aster incisus methanol extract in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We analyzed the phytochemicals contained in the extract by GC-MS. GC-MS results showed that the Aster incisus extract contains 9 known compounds. Later on, DPPH assay, WST-1 assay, nitric oxide (NO) assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR were conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Israel Cotzomi-Ortega, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Paola Maycotte
Autophagy is a protein and organelle degradation pathway important for the maintenance of cytoplasmic homeostasis and for providing nutrients for survival in response to stress conditions. Recently, autophagy has been shown to be important for the secretion of diverse proteins involved in inflammation, intercellular signaling, and cancer progression. The role of autophagy in cancer depends on the stage of tumorigenesis, serving a tumor-suppressor role before transformation and a tumor-survival function once a tumor is established...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Qiang Yu, Tong Liu, Sainan Li, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Wenwen Wang, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Peiqin Niu, Ling Xu, Fan Wang, Weiqi Dai, Yingqun Zhou, Chuanyong Guo
Aims: Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (L-THP) is an active ingredient of Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang, which has many bioactive properties. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of L-THP on concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced hepatitis in mice and explored its possible mechanisms of these effects. Main Methods: Balb/c mice were intravenously injected with 25 mg/kg ConA to generate a model of acute autoimmune hepatitis, and L-THP (20 or 40 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for 5 d before the ConA injection...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Vera Lúcia de Almeida, Wendyson Duarte de Oliveira, Natália Carasek Matos Cascudo, Pollyana Guimarães de Oliveira, Crislaine Aparecida da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza da Silva, Maria Luíza Gonçalves Dos Reis Monteiro, Rosana Rosa Miranda Correa, Milton Adriano Pelli Oliveira, Ruy de Sousa Lino-Júnior, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, Juliana Reis Machado
Inflammatory response in Chagas disease is related to parasite and host factors. However, immune system regulation has not been fully elucidated. Thus, this study is aimed at evaluating IL-4 influence on acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection through dosage of cytokine levels in cardiac homogenate of infected Balb/c WT and Balb/c IL-4-/- as well as its histopathological repercussions. For such purpose, mice were divided into two groups: an infected group with 100 forms of the Colombian strain and an uninfected group...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch, Miguel Garay-Malpartida
Maintenance of healthy human metabolism depends on a symbiotic consortium among bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and host eukaryotic cells throughout the human gastrointestinal tract. Microbial communities provide the enzymatic machinery and the metabolic pathways that contribute to food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism, and production of a variety of bioactive molecules. These include vitamins, amino acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and metabolites, which are essential for the interconnected pathways of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid/Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and amino acid and fatty acid metabolism...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Margherita Sisto, Loredana Lorusso, Giuseppe Ingravallo, Roberto Tamma, Domenico Ribatti, Sabrina Lisi
Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF- β 1) plays a crucial role in the induction of fibrosis, often associated with chronic phases of inflammatory diseases contributing to marked fibrotic changes that compromise normal organ function. The TGF- β 1 signal exerts its biological effects via the TGF- β /SMAD/Snail signaling pathway, playing an important pathogenic role in several fibrotic diseases. It has as yet been poorly investigated in the chronic autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Here, we firstly tested, by immunohistochemistry, whether the TGF- β 1/SMAD/Snail signaling pathway is triggered in human pSS salivary glands (SGs)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Meixiu Zhang, Cuizhe Wang, Jinxiu Wu, Xiaodan Ha, Yuchun Deng, Xueting Zhang, Jingzhou Wang, Keru Chen, Jiale Feng, Jiaojiao Zhu, Jianxin Xie, Jun Zhang
Objective: To investigate the role and possible molecular mechanism of Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in the TLR4/NF- κ B/IL-6 inflammatory signaling pathway activated by free fatty acids (FFA). Methods: The mRNA and protein expression levels of KLF7 and the factors of TLR4/NF- κ B/IL-6 inflammatory signal pathways were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting after cell culture with different concentrations of palmitic acid (PA). The expression of KLF7 or TLR4 in adipocytes was upregulated or downregulated; after that, the mRNA and protein expression levels of these key factors were detected...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Monika Walankiewicz, Ewelina Grywalska, Grzegorz Polak, Izabela Korona-Glowniak, Elzbieta Witt, Agata Surdacka, Jan Kotarski, Jacek Rolinski
The cause of endometriosis remains unknown. However, studies investigating the link between this condition and the immune system revealed several immunological abnormalities focused on cell-mediated immunity. As a major immune checkpoint, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) displays an important inhibitory function in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. The expression of PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1) may contribute to continuous T cell activation and development of inflammation and injury of the tissue...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Cui Zhang, Weigang Shu, Guangxi Zhou, Jian Lin, Feifei Chu, Huili Wu, Zhanju Liu
Neutrophils have been found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and anti-TNF- α mAb (i.e., infliximab) therapy is demonstrated to be effective in the induction of clinical remission and mucosal healing in these patients. However, how anti-TNF- α mAb regulates the functions of neutrophils is still unknown. Herein, we found that anti-TNF- α therapy significantly downregulated infiltration of neutrophils in inflamed mucosa of IBD patients. Importantly, anti-TNF- α mAb could inhibit neutrophils to produce proinflammatory mediators, such as ROS, calprotectin, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF- α ...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
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