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Mediators of Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316379/high-fat-diet-alters-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptides-preceding-changes-of-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines
#1
Xiulan Guo, Jinchao Li, Renyong Tang, Guodong Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Richard J Wood, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316378/high-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-cardiovascular-mortality-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#2
Han Li, Xiangxue Lu, Ruifang Xiong, Shixiang Wang
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a novel simple biomarker of inflammation. It has emerged as a predictor of poor prognosis in cancer and cardiovascular disease in general population. But little was known of its prognostic value in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Here we investigated the association between NLR and cardiovascular risk markers, including increased pulse pressure (PP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and intima-media thickness (IMT), and mortality in HD patients. Two hundred and sixty-eight HD patients were enrolled in this study and were followed for 36 months...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316377/comparative-expression-analyses-of-pro-versus-anti-inflammatory-mediators-within-synovium-of-patients-with-joint-trauma-osteoarthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Mohammed A Al-Madol, Mohammed Shaqura, Thilo John, Rudolf Likar, Reham Said Ebied, Michael Schäfer, Shaaban A Mousa
Synovial injury and healing are complex processes including catabolic effects by proinflammatory cytokines and anabolic processes by anti-inflammatory mediators. Here we examined the expression of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators in synovium of patients with diagnostic arthroscopy (control), joint trauma (JT), osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial samples from these patients were subjected to RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as immune cell markers...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316375/torilin-inhibits-inflammation-by-limiting-tak1-mediated-map-kinase-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#5
Mehari Endale, Tae-Hwan Kim, Yi-Seong Kwak, Na-Mi Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Bong-Sik Yun, Man-Hee Rhee
Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin's effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316374/the-role-of-il-17-and-related-cytokines-in-inflammatory-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Taku Kuwabara, Fumio Ishikawa, Motonari Kondo, Terutaka Kakiuchi
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) induces the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokines such as CXCL1 and CXCL2 and is a cytokine that acts as an inflammation mediator. During infection, IL-17 is needed to eliminate extracellular bacteria and fungi, by inducing antimicrobial peptides such as defensin. This cytokine also plays an important role in chronic inflammation that occurs during the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergies such as human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for which a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is available...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316373/nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-and-cytokines-gene-expression-of-the-t-cells-in-aids-patients-with-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-during-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Jia Sun, Heling Chen, Yirui Xie, Junwei Su, Ying Huang, Lijun Xu, Michael Yin, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
Background. The etiology of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in AIDS patients after the initiation of HAART remains unknown. Several researches indicated that the development of IRIS is associated with the production and variation of cytokines, whose gene expression are closely related to the Ca2(+)/CN-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. Methods. We studied the expression of NFAT isoforms and their major target cytokines genes in peripheral blood CD3(+) T cells of subjects through fluorescence quantitative PCR and explored the expression changes of these genes before and after HAART...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316372/dyslipidemia-rather-than-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-or-chronic-periodontitis-affects-the-systemic-expression-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-genes
#8
Rafael Nepomuceno, Bárbara Scoralick Villela, Sâmia Cruz Tfaile Corbi, Alliny De Souza Bastos, Raquel Alves Dos Santos, Catarina Satie Takahashi, Silvana Regina Perez Orrico, Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga
A high percentage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients are also affected by dyslipidemia and chronic periodontitis (CP), but no studies have determined the gene expression in patients that are simultaneously affected by all three diseases. We investigated the systemic expression of immune-related genes in T2D, dyslipidemia, and CP patients. One hundred and fifty patients were separated into five groups containing 30 individuals each: (G1) poorly controlled T2D with dyslipidemia and CP; (G2) well-controlled T2D with dyslipidemia and CP; (G3) normoglycemic individuals with dyslipidemia and CP; (G4) healthy individuals with CP; (G5) systemic and periodontally healthy individuals...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316371/znf395-is-an-activator-of-a-subset-of-ifn-stimulated-genes
#9
Linda Schroeder, Christine Herwartz, Darko Jordanovski, Gertrud Steger
Activation of the interferon (IFN) pathway in response to infection with pathogens results in the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) including proinflammatory cytokines, which mount the proper antiviral immune response. However, aberrant expression of these genes is pathogenic to the host. In addition to IFN-induced transcription factors non-IFN-regulated factors contribute to the transcriptional control of ISGs. Here, we show by genome wide expression analysis, siRNA-mediated suppression and Doxycycline-induced overexpression that the cellular transcription factor ZNF395 activates a subset of ISGs including the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 in keratinocytes...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298812/association-between-interleukin-10-1082-g-a-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-308-g-a-gene-polymorphisms-and-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-iranian-preterm-infants
#10
Abolfazl Khoshdel, Soleiman Kheiri, Peyman Omidvari, Fahimeh Moradi, Majid Hamidi, Hossein Teimori
Cytokine polymorphisms may contribute to the prevalence of respiratory distress syndrome. The present study was done to investigate the frequency of interleukin- (IL-) 10 and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α gene polymorphisms and their association with the risk of RDS in preterm infants. One-hundred and nineteen patients with RDS and 119 healthy preterm infants were enrolled. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the frequency of IL-10 and TNF-α genotypes at -1082 A and -308 A, respectively...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293067/syndecan-1-acts-as-an-important-regulator-of-cxcl1-expression-and-cellular-interaction-of-human-endometrial-stromal-and-trophoblast-cells
#11
Dunja Maria Baston-Buest, Olga Altergot-Ahmad, Sarah Jean Pour, Jan-Steffen Krüssel, Udo Rudolf Markert, Tanja Natascha Fehm, Alexandra Petra Bielfeld
Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293066/udp-induced-phagocytosis-and-atp-stimulated-chemotactic-migration-are-impaired-in-stim1-microglia-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Hye Min Lim, Heo Woon, Jung Woo Han, Yoshihiro Baba, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Min Goo Lee, Joo Young Kim
STIM1 is the only currently known intracellular calcium sensor that functions as the calcium influx regulator controlling immune cell activation. STIM1 function in immune cell calcium signalling has been studied extensively; however, its role in microglia, innate immune cells in brain, has not been fully understood. Here, we report that STIM1(-/-) murine microglia lost store-operated calcium influx and displayed aberrant immunological functions. Microglial functions regulated by chronic and global [Ca(2+)]i changes were reduced significantly, including cytokine releases and opsonin-dependent phagocytosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293065/the-combination-of-mbp-and-bcg-induced-dendritic-cell-maturation-through-tlr2-tlr4-promotes-th1-activation-in-vitro-and-vivo
#13
LiNa Jiang, GuoMu Liu, WeiHua Ni, NanNan Zhang, Jing Jie, Fei Xie, GuiXiang Tai
To explore whether TLR2/TLR4 could be involved in the maturation of dendritic cells and polarization of CD4(+) T cells induced by dendritic cells stimulated with MBP and BCG, in vitro and in vivo experiments using TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice were employed. MBP and BCG elevated CD80, CD86 and MHC class II expressed on dendritic cells and increased IL-12 protein, induced DC maturation, and indirectly promoted Th1 activation. Moreover, MBP and BCG upregulated costimulatory molecules on DCs in a TLR2- and TLR4-dependent manner...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293064/involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-in-secondary-injury-during-experimental-diffuse-axonal-injury-in-rats
#14
Yonglin Zhao, Junjie Zhao, Ming Zhang, Yahui Zhao, Jiaxi Li, Xudong Ma, Tingqin Huang, Honggang Pang, Bo Wang, Jinning Song
Treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains challenging in clinical practice due to the unclear pathophysiological mechanism. Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation is one of the most recognized mechanisms that contribute to the secondary injury after DAI. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) is highlighted for the initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle. However, the role and detailed mechanism of TLR2 in secondary injury is yet mostly unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TLR2 levels in cortex, corpus callosum, and internal capsule and the localization of TLR2 in neurons and glial cells in rat DAI models...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286378/iron-reduces-m1-macrophage-polarization-in-raw264-7-macrophages-associated-with-inhibition-of-stat1
#15
Zhen-Shun Gan, Qian-Qian Wang, Jia-Hui Li, Xu-Liang Wang, Yi-Zhen Wang, Hua-Hua Du
Iron metabolism in inflammation has been mostly characterized in macrophages exposed to pathogens or inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study is to investigate the cross-regulatory interactions between M1 macrophage polarization and iron metabolism. Firstly, we characterized the transcription of genes related to iron homeostasis in M1 RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by IFN-γ. The molecular signature of M1 macrophages showed high levels of iron storage (ferritin), a low level of iron export (ferroportin), and changes of iron regulators (hepcidin and transferrin receptors), which favour iron sequestration in the reticuloendothelial system and are benefit for inflammatory disorders...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286377/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-critical-issue-for-clinicians-and-forensic-pathologists
#16
REVIEW
Margherita Neri, Irene Riezzo, Natascha Pascale, Cristoforo Pomara, Emanuela Turillazzi
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Reperfusion strategies are the current standard therapy for AMI. However, they may result in paradoxical cardiomyocyte dysfunction, known as ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Different forms of IRI are recognized, of which only the first two are reversible: reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular obstruction, and lethal myocardial reperfusion injury. Sudden death is the most common pattern for ischemia-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias during AMI...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286376/high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-and-outcomes-in-critically-ill-surgical-patients-requiring-open-abdominal-management
#17
Michelle S Malig, Craig N Jenne, Chad G Ball, Derek J Roberts, Zhengwen Xiao, Andrew W Kirkpatrick
Background. Previous studies assessing various cytokines in the critically ill/injured have been uninformative in terms of translating to clinical care management. Animal abdominal sepsis work suggests that enhanced intraperitoneal (IP) clearance of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) improves outcome. Thus measuring the responses of DAMPs offers alternate potential insights and a representative DAMP, High Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB-1), was considered. While IP biomediators are being recognized in critical illness/trauma, HMGB-1 behaviour has not been examined in open abdomen (OA) management...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280290/amelioration-of-inflammatory-cytokines-mix-stimulation-a-pretreatment-of-cd137-signaling-study-on-vsmc
#18
Wei Zhong, Bo Li, Xiao Yang Li, Zhong Qun Wang, Chen Shao, Cui Ping Wang, Rui Chen, Jin Chuan Yan
Previous studies showed little CD137 expressed in normal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and it is important to find a valid way to elevate it before studying its function. The level of CD137 was detected by RT-PCR, western blot, and flow cytometry, respectively. CD137 signaling activation was activated by agonist antibody and measured through phenotype transformation indicators and cell functions. Proteins in supernatants were detected by ELISA. The total CD137 elevates under different concentrations of CM treatment...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270702/unconventional-role-of-caspase-6-in-spinal-microglia-activation-and-chronic-pain
#19
REVIEW
Temugin Berta, Jee Eun Lee, Chul-Kyu Park
Chronic pain affects ~20% of the worldwide population. The clinical management of chronic pain is mostly palliative and results in limited success. Current treatments mostly target the symptoms or neuronal signaling of chronic pain. It has been increasingly recognized that glial cells, such as microglia, and inflammatory signaling play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. Caspases (CASPs) are a family of protease enzymes involved in apoptosis and inflammation. They are pivotal components in a variety of neurological diseases...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270701/comment-on-soluble-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-plasma-concentration-may-predict-susceptibility-to-high-altitude-pulmonary-edema
#20
COMMENT
Gaurav Sikri, Srinivasa Bhattachar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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