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American Journal on Addictions

Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Huiping Zhang, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. METHODS: We searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Jonathan Avery, Bernadine H Han, Erin Zerbo, Guojiao Wu, Elizabeth Mauer, Joseph Avery, Stephen Ross, Julie B Penzner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatry residents provide care for individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders (SUDs). Small studies have shown that clinicians in general possess negative attitudes towards these dually diagnosed individuals. This is a serious concern, as clinicians' stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with mental illnesses may have a particularly potent adverse impact on treatment. The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of psychiatry residents towards individuals with diagnoses of schizophrenia, multiple SUDs, co-occurring schizophrenia and SUDs, and major depressive disorder...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Ka Ho Robin Kwok, Sze Ngar Vanessa Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Binge drinking is a phenomenon of excessive alcohol use seen in many countries. The objectives of this systematic review are a) to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status on binge drinking in adolescents, b) to compare how binge drinking and parental socioeconomic status was measured across studies, and c) to compare the differences between developed and developing countries. METHOD: We searched PsycINFO and Ovid Medline databases for articles up to January 2016...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
David S Mathai, Christopher D Verrico, Daryl Shorter, John H Coverdale, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Certain medical consequences seem unique to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and not cannabis use. We report the case of an adolescent, whose drug expectancies appear to minimize the severity of SC-related adverse events. METHODS/RESULTS: An 18-year-old male presented with altered mental status and seizure, complicated by respiratory failure. He was stabilized and on discharge, despite counseling on the harms of SC usage, the patient planned to resume use, insisting that the hospitalization was "just one bad high"...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Amy M Cohn, Amanda L Johnson, Jessica M Rath, Andrea C Villanti
BACKGROUND: Emerging tobacco product use is on the rise in young adults and has been linked to alcohol and marijuana use. Little is known about which patterns of alcohol, marijuana, and emerging tobacco product co-use are most popular in this age group. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence of a broad spectrum of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco co-use patterns across a variety of tobacco products in a national sample of young adults. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a sub-set of 18-24 year olds (unweighted n = 3,940) from five waves of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of 18-34 year olds...
October 5, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Lei Yang, Yanxun Liu, Jian Wang, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The existence of smokers who are resistant to smoking cessation interventions has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Given the paucity of data on that topic in rural China, we aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hardcore smoking in rural China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 villages in Shandong, China. A total of 1,287 male daily smokers were face-to-face interviewed. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore the associations of demographics, environment, knowledge and attitudes about smoking, and smoking behavior characteristics with hardcore smoking among daily male smokers...
October 5, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Joseph T Ciccolo, James W Whitworth, Shira I Dunsiger, Nicholas J SantaBarbara, Sanaz Nosrat, Jordan E LaBrec
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Young adults frequently engage in hazardous alcohol consumption, and many meet the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol use disorder. The urge to drink is a defining symptom of alcohol dependence, and it is closely tied to and exacerbated by negative affect. This study examined the acute effect of resistance exercise on affect, arousal, and drinking urges in young adult (ages 21-40) hazardous drinkers. METHODS: On two separate occasions, 14 participants underwent an 18-hour alcohol abstinence before completing, in a counter-balanced manner, a 20-minute session of resistance exercise and a 20-minute video control...
September 26, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Mary-Anne Enoch, Bernard J Albaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic and environmental predictors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are both important in the general population. As a group, American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals (AI/AN) are at increased risk for alcohol-related morbidity /mortality, early onset problem drinking and AUD. METHODS: Alcohol consumption behaviors amongst AI/AN tribes, environmental stressors and genetic studies in AI/AN and European-ancestry individuals are reviewed followed by an analysis of unique difficulties for undertaking research with AI/AN...
September 6, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Lorra Garey, Mina K Cheema, Tanveer K Otal, Norman B Schmidt, Clayton Neighbors, Michael J Zvolensky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Suzanne E Decker, Kristen Morie, Karen Hunkele, Theresa Babuscio, Kathleen M Carroll
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reappraisal (CR) and emotional suppression (ES), two emotion regulation strategies, are disrupted in other substance use disorders but have not been studied in cocaine dependence. METHODS: Methadone-maintained individuals with cocaine dependence (N = 72) completed assessment of CR, ES, cocaine use, and psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: CR scores were associated with lower depression scores (r = -.29, p = ...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Dawn E Sugarman, Sara B Wigderson, Brittany R Iles, Julia S Kaufman, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, E Yvette Hilario, Michael S Robbins, Shelly F Greenfield
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A Stage II, two-site randomized clinical trial compared the manualized, single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) to mixed-gender group therapy (Group Drug Counseling; GDC) and demonstrated efficacy. Enhanced affiliation and support in the WRG is a hypothesized mechanism of efficacy. This study sought to extend results of the previous small Stage I trial that showed the rate of supportive affiliative statements occurred more frequently in WRG than GDC. METHODS: Participants (N = 158; 100 women, 58 men) were 18 years or older, substance dependent, and had used substances within the past 60 days...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Ayesha Sajid, Aaron Whiteman, Richard L Bell, Marion S Greene, Eric A Engleman, R Andrew Chambers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university-affiliated integrated mental health-addiction treatment clinic. METHODS: Repeated measure parametrics examined PDMP and urine drug screening (UDS) data before and after first injection for all patients (N = 68) who received at least one long-acting naltrexone injection (380 mg/IM) according to diagnostic groupings of having either (i) alcohol (control); (ii) opioid; or (iii) combined alcohol and opioid use disorders...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Jung Yeon Lee, Judith S Brook, Nasrat Nezia, David W Brook
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The excessive consumption of alcohol is a major issue in the United States and elsewhere. It is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, as well as difficulty in relationships and employment. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates the direct and indirect adolescent predictors of alcohol use in adulthood. METHODS: Among the 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans), 60% were females (n = 405)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Nihit Kumar, Zachary N Stowe, Xiaotong Han, Michael J Mancino
BACKGROUND: Early adverse life events such as childhood trauma have been linked to development of substance use disorders. The prevalence and impact on treatment of early childhood trauma in opioid-dependent individuals has received limited research attention. The present study examined reported childhood trauma and its relation to retention and adherence in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program. METHODS: Medical records of individuals who completed childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) were reviewed to extract baseline data and demographics (N = 113)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Maria Beatriz Brisola-Santos, João Guilherme de Mello E Gallinaro, Felipe Gil, Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Matheus Cheibub David Marin, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Kimber Paschall Richter, Ira David Glick, Danilo Antonio Baltieri, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite scientific evidence that marijuana impairs performance and mental health, there is evidence that some athletes are at higher risk for use. This review aims to identify possible risk factors associated with marijuana use in athletes. METHODS: A search was conducted in the PubMed database with the keywords: (marijuana OR cannabis OR tetrahydrocannabinol OR delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OR THC) AND (sports OR sport OR athlete OR athletes)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Elizabeth J Santa Ana, Steven D LaRowe, Kent Armeson, Kayla E Lamb, Karen Hartwell
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that Group Motivational Interviewing (GMI) for dually diagnosed patients holds promise for increasing treatment engagement. OBJECTIVES: The current study evaluated the impact of a novel GMI protocol that included tobacco-specific components (referred to as "Tobacco GMI or T-GMI") targeting enhanced engagement in smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Thirty-seven primary alcohol and nicotine-dependent cigarette smoking homeless Veterans with co-morbid psychiatric conditions were recruited to receive four GMI sessions over 4 consecutive days...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Sameer Hassamal, Karen Miotto, Tisha Wang, Andrew J Saxon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioids increase the risk for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), but there are few studies examining the prevalence and risk factors for SDB, specifically central sleep apnea (CSA), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in chronic pain patients on opioids as well as methadone maintained patients (MMPs). METHODS: A literature review was conducted in which SDB was confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) in chronic pain patients on opioids as well as patients with a diagnosis of an opioid use disorder or opioid dependence on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT)...
September 2016: American Journal on Addictions
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