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American Journal on Addictions

Peter Barglow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outcome intervention data from Medicare, veteran, prison, and United States' public populations can identify best practices to decrease opioid misuse. Prescription policies for treating pain in the United States and other countries are relevant to preventing overdose. METHODS: Three strategies are considered: (1) Demand Reduction counsels and educates patients and current or potential opioid users about risks and treatment options to reduce motivation to consume opioids...
October 12, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Claudia Tejeda-Romero, Ramón A Kobashi-Margáin, Lourdes Alvarez-Arellano, Juan Carlos Corona, Nadia González-García
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Substance use disorders (SUDs) have high comorbidities with psychiatric disorders. Childhood and adolescence are particularly vulnerable developmental periods for the onset of SUDs. The objective of this study was to explore the differences, if any, between Mexican adolescents and young adults with respect to the prevalences of groups of psychiatric disorders, the types of substances used and the social factors involved. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 781 patients evaluated at the Youth Integration Center in Mexico City...
September 28, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Eric Weintraub, Aaron David Greenblatt, Joy Chang, Seth Himelhoch, Christopher Welsh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The opioid epidemic in the United States has resulted in a public health emergency. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with methadone and buprenorphine are evidence-based treatments for opioid use disorder. However, numerous barriers hinder access to treatment in rural areas. The use of telemedicine to deliver psychiatric services is demonstrated to be safe and effective; however, limited data exist on the novel application of telemedicine in the delivery of MAT...
September 28, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Anjali Dhanda, Stephen S O'Connor, Heather McGuire, Ellen Knox, Erika Ruth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is limited information on the most commonly used opioid reported at the time of presentation for treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone and the extent to which state policy may impact type of opioid use reported. METHODS: Retrospective study, total N = of 595 from four different medical locations from January 1, 2009 to July 1, 2016 that provided buprenorphine/naloxone treatment in Louisville, Kentucky. Study aims included identifying the most commonly used opioid at the time of treatment before and after the creation of a state-wide opioid prescribing surveillance system (ie, the 2012 House Bill 1 [HB1]), and determine the extent to which clinical setting, sex, age, and insurance type impacted type of opioid reported during the intake appointment...
August 28, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Kristen A Schmidt, Ian C Lamoureux, Kathryn M Schak, Christian Lachner, Mary Caroline Burton, Beth R Larrabee, Teresa A Rummans
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A high proportion of persons in institutionalized settings such as the criminal justice system and psychiatric hospitals have substance use disorders (SUDs). We explored the association between substance use, demographics, and criminal justice involvement in a population of patients placed on involuntary 72-h holds in a psychiatric facility. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients aged 18 through 57 years who had been placed on 72-h holds during an acute psychiatric hospitalization during a 1-year period...
August 28, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Marguerite M Patel, David A Nielsen, Thomas R Kosten, Richard De La Garza, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), an agonist at type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The common variant rs324420 C->A within the FAAH gene on chromosome 1 codes for a missense substitution (Pro129Thr), resulting in decreased FAAH activity and increased endocannabinoid potentiation. This FAAH variant has been linked to alterations in mood and stress reactivity, as well as being independently linked to increased risk for addiction...
August 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Sade E Johns, Qin Wang, Lisa K Straub, F Gerard Moeller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Substance misuse is increasing in the older population, which may have differing effects on behavior compared to younger substance participants. Differences in trait and state impulsivity were assessed in younger and older cocaine-dependent participants. METHODS: Thirty-one younger cocaine-dependent participants (n = 31) and 21 older cocaine-dependent participants (n = 21) were assessed using the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11 and the Immediate Memory Task...
October 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Joseph J Palamar, Austin Le
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The popularity of tryptamines such as N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) appears to be increasing in the United States (US), but epidemiologic literature on prevalence of use is scant. This paper aims to determine trends in prevalence and correlates of past-year tryptamine use among a nationally representative sample of young adults in the US. METHODS: Participants in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health survey were queried about past-year use of tryptamines-specifically DMT, α-methyltryptamine (AMT), and 5-MeO-DIPT ("Foxy")...
October 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Alexandra Bouvard, Maud Dupuy, Pierre Schweitzer, Mathieu Revranche, Melina Fatseas, Fuschia Serre, David Misdrahi, Marc Auriacombe, Joel Swendsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mobile testing of executive deficits in substance-related addictions is highly novel but requires validation. METHODS: Sixty-one individuals (34 patients, 27 healthy controls) completed Ecological Momentary Assessments with mobile executive tests. RESULTS: Compliance with the tests was high (78% to 91%) in both the patient and control groups. No fatigue effects were detected, practice effects were observed for controls only, and convergent validity was found relative to neuropsychological assessments...
October 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Amy M Cohn, Amanda L Johnson, Shyanika W Rose, Jennifer L Pearson, Andrea C Villanti, Cassandra Stanton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study identified the most common patterns of current alcohol and marijuana use with the spectrum of tobacco products (cigarettes, hookah, e-cigarettes, cigars/little cigars, and other products), among US young adults and older adults and examined associations of mental health and substance use problems with each pattern. METHODS: Wave 1 adult dataset (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses estimated the prevalence of the top 10 patterns of current alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use and co-use separately by young adults aged 18-24 (n = 9,112) and adults 25+ years (n = 23,208)...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Meagan M Carr, Jennifer D Ellis, David M Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High rates of suicidal ideation and attempts secondary to gambling are well established among those with gambling disorders. The present study explores potential risk factors for suicidal ideation and/attempt among a sample of help-line callers. METHODS: Participants (N = 202) completed measures assessing demographics; gambling behavior; and financial, family/social, employment, substance use, and legal difficulties related to gambling...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Naista Zhand, Robert Milin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbance is one of the hallmarks of cannabis withdrawal. Studies have indicated that treatment of this key symptom may facilitate abstinence. In the present paper we aim to provide a systematic review of the extant literature on pharmacological management of sleep disturbance associated with cannabis withdrawal. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature search across five electronic databases including PubMed, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Cochrane review and Embase...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Aimee N C Campbell, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Mary Hatch-Maillette, Sarah E Mennenga, Martina Pavlicova, Jennifer Scodes, Tanya Saraiya, Shannon G Mitchell, John Rotrosen, Patricia Novo, Edward V Nunes, Shelly F Greenfield
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: We investigated gender differences in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving inpatient services and entering a randomized controlled trial comparing extended-release naltrexone to buprenorphine. METHODS: Participants (N = 570) provided demographic, substance use, and psychiatric information. RESULTS: Women were significantly younger, more likely to identify as bisexual, live with a sexual partner, be financially dependent, and less likely employed...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Grace Chang, Mitchell Crawford, Michelle Pitts, Abigail Z Schein, Katherine Goodwin, Justin L Enggasser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the promise of extended release naltrexone in the treatment of the opioid and alcohol use disorders, challenges with initiation and subsequent adherence have limited its potential. The purpose of this study is to identify the patient and treatment characteristics associated with adherence to extended release naltrexone. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 155 veterans who initiated the medication in FY 2014 and FY2015. Medical records were abstracted for patient and treatment data including preferred drug and utilization of substance use treatment in the year before and after medication initiation...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Matisyahu Shulman, Aimee Campbell, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Efrat Aharonovich, Edward V Nunes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Substance use disorders are associated with lower cognitive functioning, and this impairment is associated with poorer outcomes. The Therapeutic Education System (TES) is an internet-based psychosocial intervention for substance use disorders that may provide enhanced treatment for individuals with cognitive deficits. This secondary analysis investigates the association between cognitive functioning and treatment outcomes in a large (N = 507) randomized controlled effectiveness trial of TES compared to treatment-as-usual conducted within outpatient programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Carlos Blanco, Ludwing Flórez-Salamanca, Roberto Secades-Villa, Shuai Wang, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There may be substantial overlap in the risk factors for substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). Identifying risk factors for substance use initiation is essential for understanding the etiology and natural history of SUD and to develop empirically-based preventive interventions to reduce initiation. METHODS: Analyses were done on Wave 1 participants of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093)...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Chang-Chih Tsou, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chun-Yen Chen, Ru-Band Lu, Tso-Jen Wang, San-Yuan Huang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin dependence (HD) is a chronic relapsing brain illness with substantial heritability. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a crucial modulator in the neurodevelopment, and may be a key mediator of reward processes in HD. The purpose of this genetic study was to investigate whether NGF gene polymorphisms associate with the occurrence of HD and the specific personality traits of patients with HD. METHODS: We selected a homogeneous Han Chinese male population to overcome possible confounding effects of population and gender...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Claire E Blevins, Ana M Abrantes, Bradley J Anderson, Celeste M Caviness, Debra S Herman, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging adulthood is a time of identity formation, and is also the most common time period for individuals to consume alcohol. Alcohol self-concept (or drinking identity) has been associated cross-sectionally with rates of alcohol use and use-related problems. Additionally, there is preliminary evidence that alcohol self-concept is related to negative affect and to alcohol use motives. However, less research has evaluated the longitudinal nature of these variables, particularly in a community sample...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Paolo Mannelli, Marvin Swartz, Li-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long acting naltrexone has improved the therapy of opioid use disorder (OUD), and safe and effective withdrawal management during naltrexone induction may help advance treatment. Despite the uncertain role of opioid withdrawal in predicting successful outcomes, early symptom control may favor detoxification completion. METHODS: We explored withdrawal severity and early response to treatment, safety, and clinical measures in 35 adult patients with DSM-5 OUD during a 7-day office-based buprenorphine-naltrexone and ancillary medications transition to extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX)...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
R Kathryn McHugh, Rachel Geyer, Sterling Karakula, Margaret L Griffin, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The nonmedical use of benzodiazepines-defined as use without a prescription or at a dose or frequency higher than prescribed-is increasing among adults in substance use disorder treatment and is associated with risk for overdose. The aim of the current study was to characterize the prevalence of nonmedical benzodiazepine use among adults seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder and to examine whether nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with: (1) polysubstance use and (2) greater anxiety sensitivity...
September 2018: American Journal on Addictions
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