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American Journal on Addictions

Meagan M Carr, Jennifer D Ellis, David M Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High rates of suicidal ideation and attempts secondary to gambling are well established among those with gambling disorders. The present study explores potential risk factors for suicidal ideation and/attempt among a sample of help-line callers. METHODS: Participants (N = 202) completed measures assessing demographics; gambling behavior; and financial, family/social, employment, substance use, and legal difficulties related to gambling...
August 16, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Naista Zhand, Robert Milin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbance is one of the hallmarks of cannabis withdrawal. Studies have indicated that treatment of this key symptom may facilitate abstinence. In the present paper we aim to provide a systematic review of the extant literature on pharmacological management of sleep disturbance associated with cannabis withdrawal. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature search across five electronic databases including PubMed, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Cochrane review and Embase...
August 16, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Aimee N C Campbell, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Mary Hatch-Maillette, Sarah E Mennenga, Martina Pavlicova, Jennifer Scodes, Tanya Saraiya, Shannon G Mitchell, John Rotrosen, Patricia Novo, Edward V Nunes, Shelly F Greenfield
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: We investigated gender differences in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving inpatient services and entering a randomized controlled trial comparing extended-release naltrexone to buprenorphine. METHODS: Participants (N = 570) provided demographic, substance use, and psychiatric information. RESULTS: Women were significantly younger, more likely to identify as bisexual, live with a sexual partner, be financially dependent, and less likely employed...
August 14, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Grace Chang, Mitchell Crawford, Michelle Pitts, Abigail Z Schein, Katherine Goodwin, Justin L Enggasser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the promise of extended release naltrexone in the treatment of the opioid and alcohol use disorders, challenges with initiation and subsequent adherence have limited its potential. The purpose of this study is to identify the patient and treatment characteristics associated with adherence to extended release naltrexone. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 155 veterans who initiated the medication in FY 2014 and FY2015. Medical records were abstracted for patient and treatment data including preferred drug and utilization of substance use treatment in the year before and after medication initiation...
August 14, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Matisyahu Shulman, Aimee Campbell, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Efrat Aharonovich, Edward V Nunes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Substance use disorders are associated with lower cognitive functioning, and this impairment is associated with poorer outcomes. The Therapeutic Education System (TES) is an internet-based psychosocial intervention for substance use disorders that may provide enhanced treatment for individuals with cognitive deficits. This secondary analysis investigates the association between cognitive functioning and treatment outcomes in a large (N = 507) randomized controlled effectiveness trial of TES compared to treatment-as-usual conducted within outpatient programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
August 9, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Carlos Blanco, Ludwing Flórez-Salamanca, Roberto Secades-Villa, Shuai Wang, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There may be substantial overlap in the risk factors for substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). Identifying risk factors for substance use initiation is essential for understanding the etiology and natural history of SUD and to develop empirically-based preventive interventions to reduce initiation. METHODS: Analyses were done on Wave 1 participants of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093)...
August 7, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Chang-Chih Tsou, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chun-Yen Chen, Ru-Band Lu, Tso-Jen Wang, San-Yuan Huang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin dependence (HD) is a chronic relapsing brain illness with substantial heritability. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a crucial modulator in the neurodevelopment, and may be a key mediator of reward processes in HD. The purpose of this genetic study was to investigate whether NGF gene polymorphisms associate with the occurrence of HD and the specific personality traits of patients with HD. METHODS: We selected a homogeneous Han Chinese male population to overcome possible confounding effects of population and gender...
August 2, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Claire E Blevins, Ana M Abrantes, Bradley J Anderson, Celeste M Caviness, Debra S Herman, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging adulthood is a time of identity formation, and is also the most common time period for individuals to consume alcohol. Alcohol self-concept (or drinking identity) has been associated cross-sectionally with rates of alcohol use and use-related problems. Additionally, there is preliminary evidence that alcohol self-concept is related to negative affect and to alcohol use motives. However, less research has evaluated the longitudinal nature of these variables, particularly in a community sample...
July 24, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Paolo Mannelli, Marvin Swartz, Li-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long acting naltrexone has improved the therapy of opioid use disorder (OUD), and safe and effective withdrawal management during naltrexone induction may help advance treatment. Despite the uncertain role of opioid withdrawal in predicting successful outcomes, early symptom control may favor detoxification completion. METHODS: We explored withdrawal severity and early response to treatment, safety, and clinical measures in 35 adult patients with DSM-5 OUD during a 7-day office-based buprenorphine-naltrexone and ancillary medications transition to extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX)...
July 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
R Kathryn McHugh, Rachel Geyer, Sterling Karakula, Margaret L Griffin, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The nonmedical use of benzodiazepines-defined as use without a prescription or at a dose or frequency higher than prescribed-is increasing among adults in substance use disorder treatment and is associated with risk for overdose. The aim of the current study was to characterize the prevalence of nonmedical benzodiazepine use among adults seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder and to examine whether nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with: (1) polysubstance use and (2) greater anxiety sensitivity...
July 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Jin H Yoon, Matthew T Weaver, Richard De La Garza, Robert Suchting, Chandra S Nerumalla, Yasmine Omar, Gregory S Brown, Ilana Haliwa, Thomas F Newton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delay discounting is associated with numerous clinically significant aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs). Recent studies have demonstrated that different models for assessing discounting may result in disparate conclusions. The current study compared two discounting tasks: money now versus money later (M-M) and methamphetamine now versus money later (MA-M) among non-treatment seeking individuals (N = 59) with methamphetamine use disorder (MAUD). Results from each task were assessed using three different models for assessing delay discounting...
July 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Christoph Borzikowsky, Fabian Bernhardt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The personality construct grit is defined as the ability to be persistent in pursuit of long-term goals in spite of challenges or obstacles. Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology and has gained much attention because of its relevance for success and well-being across different domains. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of grit for online game addiction. METHODS: We surveyed German speaking online gamers (N = 305: 193 males and 112 females, Mage  = 28...
July 11, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Caitlin E Martin, Mishka Terplan, Kevin E O'Grady, Hendrée E Jones
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) during pregnancy challenges public health. This study examines how pregnancy intention affects OUD treatment. METHODS: The primary exposure and outcome were pregnancy intention and treatment duration among MOTHER (Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research) participants (N = 175). RESULTS: Treatment durations were longer (21.3 vs. 16.3 weeks; p = .01) among intended (n = 29) compared to unintended (n = 146) pregnancy participants, but this was not significant in adjusted analyses...
July 11, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Jueun Kim, Aesoon Park
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Youth drinking is a pervasive public health concern with serious negative developmental implications. Candidate gene and environment interaction studies (cGxE) show that environmental effects on drinking behaviors may differ by individuals' genotypes. Yet little is known about whether genetic and environmental effects on drinking behaviors are developmentally specific. METHODS: This systematic review evaluated 42 cGxE studies of drinking in adolescence and young adulthood...
July 10, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Aparna Das, Daniel Price, Jeffrey Clothier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians and psychiatrists often encounter patients in the emergency department presenting after methamphetamine use. While physical and psychiatric manifestations associated with methamphetamine use are well known, movement disorders are relatively less common. The aim of this case report is to add to existing literature awareness about the possibility of movement disorders occurring after methamphetamine use, discuss the possible mechanism by which such use leads to dyskinesia, and describe possible management strategies...
July 3, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Suzanne E Decker, Kristen P Morie, Bo Malin-Mayo, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for substance use disorder is empirically supported, and may be associated with change in affect over time. OBJECTIVES: Understanding the role of affect in cocaine use disorder could help to improve CBT outcomes. METHODS: This secondary analysis included 140 adults with cocaine use disorder, 57.9% female, drawn from two randomized controlled studies of web-based cognitive-behavior therapy who completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) before and during treatment...
June 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Jumi Hayaki, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unprotected sex has been linked independently to alcohol and marijuana use, but few studies have examined associations with dual use or gender differences in these associations. METHODS: This study examined day-level associations between unprotected sex, defined as condomless vaginal sex with an opposite-sex partner, and use of alcohol, marijuana, neither, or both substances among 290 young adults (18-25 years, 52.3% female) who reported either alcohol or marijuana use...
June 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Cory A Crane, Nicole Umehira, Cassandra Berbary, Caroline J Easton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cyber aggression has emerged as a modern form of intimate partner violence which has yet to undergo sufficient research necessary to identify risk factors that may increase the likelihood or severity of cyber aggressive behavior toward a relationship partner. Prior research offers contradictory findings pertaining to the relationship between problematic alcohol use and cyber aggression. METHODS: We recruited 100 (40 female) adult participants through online crowdsourcing to complete a series of questionnaires assessing traditional partner violence, cyber aggression, and problematic alcohol use...
June 6, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Inga Curry, Ryan S Trim, Sandra A Brown, Christian J Hopfer, Michael C Stallings, Tamara L Wall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The acquired preparedness model (APM) integrates personality trait research and psychosocial learning, which are theorized to ultimately increase risk for problematic substance use outcomes. METHODS: The present study uses the APM to examine the potential mediational role of positive and negative expectancies on the relationship between impulsivity and two marijuana outcomes (ie, frequency of use and marijuana use disorder [MUD] symptom count) among an at-risk sample of young adults with history of antisocial behavior and substance use in adolescence and their siblings (n = 312)...
June 6, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Elias Wagner, Florian Raabe, Gabriele Martin, Catja Winter, Diana Plörer, Daniela L Krause, Kristina Adorjan, Gabriele Koller, Oliver Pogarell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numbers of drug-related deaths have been growing in Europe and the USA, especially those attributable to mixed drug consumption. Overdose deaths account for about one third up to one half of all illicit drug deaths worldwide. In most cases opioids are involved. Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is a well-established therapy option among people with opioid dependence. The aim of this study was to assess concomitant substance abuse in opioid-dependent patients under OMT in two centers in Munich, Germany...
May 24, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
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