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Plant Cell

Jessica Schmitz, Isabell C Dittmar, Jörn D Brockmann, Marc Schmidt, Meike Hüdig, Alessandro W Rossoni, Veronica G Maurino
Methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) are toxic reactive carbonyl species generated as by-products of glycolysis. The pre-emption pathway for detoxification of these products, the glyoxalase (GLX) system, involves two consecutive reactions catalyzed by GLXI and GLXII. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the GLX system is encoded by three homologs of GLXI and three homologs of GLXII, from which several predicted GLXI and GLXII isoforms can be derived through alternative splicing. We identified the physiologically relevant splice forms using sequencing data and demonstrated that the resulting isoforms have different subcellular localizations...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
Ido Nir, Hagai Shohat, Irina Panizel, Neil E Olszewski, Asaph Aharoni, David Weiss
Plants employ stomatal closure and reduced growth to avoid water deficiency damage. Reduced levels of the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin (GA) lead to increased tolerance to water deficit, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DELLA protein PROCERA (PRO), a negative regulator of GA signaling, acts in guard cells to promote stomatal closure and reduce water loss in response to water deficiency by increasing abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. The loss-of-function pro mutant exhibited increased stomatal conductance and rapid wilting under water-deficit stress...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
Hyunggon Mang, Baomin Feng, Zhangjian Hu, Aurelien Boisson-Dernier, Christina Franck, Xiangzong Meng, Yanyan Huang, Jinggeng Zhou, Guangyuan Xu, Taotao Wang, Libo Shan, Ping He
Plants have evolved two tiers of immune receptors to detect infections: cell surface-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense microbial signatures and intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize pathogen effectors. How PRRs and NLRs interconnect and activate the specific and overlapping plant immune responses remains elusive. A genetic screen for components controlling plant immunity identified ANXUR1 (ANX1), a malectin-like domain-containing receptor-like kinase, together with its homolog ANX2, as important negative regulators of both PRR- and NLR-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
Gregory Bertoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Patrice A Salomé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Lars B Scharff, Miriam Ehrnthaler, Marcin Janowski, Liam H Childs, Claudia Hasse, Jürgen Gremmels, Stephanie Ruf, Reimo Zoschke, Ralph Bock
In prokaryotic systems, the translation initiation of many, though not all, mRNAs depends on interaction between a sequence element upstream of the start codon (the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, SD) and a complementary sequence in the 3' end of the 16S ribosomal RNA (anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, aSD). Although many chloroplast mRNAs harbor putative SDs in their 5' untranslated regions and the aSD displays strong conservation, the functional relevance of SD-aSD interactions in plastid translation is unclear. Here, by generating transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mutants with point mutations in the aSD coupled with genome-wide analysis of translation by ribosome profiling, we provide a global picture of SD-dependent translation in plastids...
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Takema Sasaki, Hiroo Fukuda, Yoshihisa Oda
Proper patterning of the cell wall is essential for plant cell development. Cortical microtubule arrays direct the deposition patterns of cell walls at the plasma membrane. However, the precise mechanism underlying cortical microtubule organization is not well understood. Here, we show that a microtubule-associated protein, CORD1 (CORTICAL MICROTUBULE DISORDERING 1), is required for the pitted secondary cell wall pattern of metaxylem vessels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of CORD1 and its paralog, CORD2, led to the formation of irregular secondary cell walls with small pits in metaxylem vessels, while overexpressing CORD1 led to the formation of abnormally enlarged secondary cell wall pits...
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Jennifer Mach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Patrice A Salomé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Xiaoqin Liu, Renlu Liu, Yue Li, Xing Shen, Shangwei Zhong, Hui Shi
In buried seedlings, chloroplasts are arrested at the etioplast stage, but they rapidly mature upon emergence of the seedling. Etioplast-chloroplast differentiation is halted through the integration of soil-induced signals, including pressure and the absence of light, although the details on how this information converges to regulate cellular decisions remain unclear. Here, we identify an interdependent transcription module that integrates the mechanical pressure and darkness signals to control chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 7, 2017: Plant Cell
Magdalena Julkowska, Iko Tamar Koevoets, Selena Mol, Huub Cj Hoefsloot, Richard Feron, Mark Tester, Joost J B Keurentjes, Arthur Korte, Michel A Haring, Gert-Jan de Boer, Christa Testerink
Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
November 7, 2017: Plant Cell
Jiapei Yan, Ju-Chen Chia, Huajin Sheng, Ha-Il Jung, Tetiana-Olena Zavodna, Zhang Lu, Rong Huang, Chen Jiao, Eric Craft, Zhangjun Fei, Leon Vincent Kochian, Olena K Vatamaniuk
A deficiency of the micronutrient copper (Cu) leads to infertility and grain/seed yield reduction in plants. How Cu affects fertility, which reproductive structures require Cu, and which transcriptional networks coordinate Cu delivery to reproductive organs is poorly understood. Using RNA-seq analysis, we showed that the expression of a gene encoding a novel transcription factor, CITF1 (Cu-deficiency Induced Transcription Factor 1), was strongly upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers subjected to Cu deficiency...
November 7, 2017: Plant Cell
Nancy Rosenbaum Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Plant Cell
Liang Hu, Yan Wu, Di Wu, Weiwei Rao, Jianping Guo, Yinhua Ma, Zhizheng Wang, Xinxin Shangguan, Huiying Wang, Chunxue Xu, Jin Huang, Shaojie Shi, Rongzhi Chen, Bo Du, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He
BROWN PLANTHOPPER RESISTANCE14 (BPH14), the first planthopper-resistance gene isolated via map-based cloning in rice (Oryza sativa), encodes a coiled-coil-, nucleotide-binding site-, leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. Several planthopper and aphid resistance genes encoding proteins with similar structures have recently been identified. Here, we analyzed the functions of the domains of BPH14 to identify molecular mechanisms underpinning BPH14-mediated planthopper resistance. The CC or NB domains alone or in combination (CC-NB [CN]) conferred a similar level of brown planthopper resistance to that of full-length (FL) BPH14...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
Akihito Fukudome, Di Sun, Xiuren Zhang, Hisashi Koiwa
Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription of protein-coding mRNAs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). CTD function in transcription of protein-coding RNAs has been studied extensively, but its role in plant ncRNA transcription remains obscure. Here, using Arabidopsis thaliana CTD PHOSPHATASE-LIKE 4 knock-down lines (CPL4RNAi), we showed that CPL4 functions in genome-wide, conditional production of 3'-extensions of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and biogenesis of novel transcripts from protein-coding genes downstream of the snRNAs (snRNA-Downstream Protein-coding Genes, snR-DPGs)...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
Saleh Alseekh, Hao Tong, Federico Scossa, Yariv Brotman, Florian Vigroux, Takayuki Tohge, Itai Ofner, Daniel Zamir, Zoran Nikoloski, Alisdair R Fernie
To explore the genetic robustness (canalization) of metabolism, we examined the levels of fruit metabolites in multiple harvests of a tomato introgression line (IL) population. The IL partitions the whole genome of the wild species Solanum pennellii in the background of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We identified several metabolite quantitative trait loci that reduce variability for both primary and secondary metabolites, which we named canalization metabolite quantitative trait loci (cmQTLQTL)...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
Yizhou Wang, Adrian Hills, Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Maria Papanatsiou, Howard Griffiths, Simon Rogers, Tracy Lawson, Virgilio Lew, Michael R Blatt
Stomatal movements depend on the transport and metabolism of osmotic solutes that drive reversible changes in guard cell volume and turgor. These processes are defined by a deep knowledge of the identities of the key transporters and of their biophysical and regulatory properties, and have been modelled successfully with quantitative kinetic detail at the cellular level. Transpiration of the leaf and canopy, by contrast, is described by quasi-linear, empirical relations for the inputs of atmospheric humidity, CO2, and light, but without connection to guard cell mechanics...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
Tyler M Wittkopp, Stefan Schmollinger, Shai I Saroussi, Wei Hu, Weiqing Zhang, Qiuling Fan, Sean D Gallaher, Michael T Leonard, Eric Soubeyrand, Gilles Basset, Sabeeha S Merchant, Arthur R Grossman, Deqiang Duanmu, J Clark Lagarias
In land plants, linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based phytochrome photosensors optimize photosynthetic light capture by mediating massive reprogramming of gene expression. But, surprisingly, many green algal genomes lack phytochrome genes. Studies of the heme oxygenase mutant (hmox1) of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggest that bilin biosynthesis in plastids is essential for proper regulation of a nuclear gene network implicated in oxygen detoxification during dark-to-light transitions. hmox1 cannot grow photoautotrophically and photoacclimates p oorly to increased illumination...
October 30, 2017: Plant Cell
Tengfang Ling, Diana Bellin, Elodie Vandelle, Zahra Imanifard, Massimo Delledonne
Pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to suppress immunity-related signaling. However, effector recognition by the host elicits a hypersensitive response (HR) that overcomes the inhibition of host signaling networks, restoring disease resistance. Signaling components are shared between the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity, and it is unclear how plants inactivate these effectors to execute the HR. Here we report that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, during the onset of the HR the bacterial effector HopAI1 is S-nitrosylated and that this modification inhibits its phosphothreonine lyase activity...
October 30, 2017: Plant Cell
Du-Hwa Lee, Seung Jun Park, Chang Sook Ahn, Hyun-Sook Pai
Dynamic control of protein translation in response to the environment is essential for the survival of plant cells. Target of rapamycin (TOR) coordinates protein synthesis with cellular energy/nutrient availability through transcriptional modulation and phosphorylation of the translation machinery. However, mechanisms of TOR-mediated translation control are poorly understood in plants. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana MRF (MA3 DOMAIN-CONTAINING TRANSLATION REGULATORY FACTOR) family genes encode translation regulatory factors under TOR control, and their functions are particularly important in energy-deficient conditions...
October 30, 2017: Plant Cell
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