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Plant Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193737/exogenous-transposable-elements-circumvent-identity-based-silencing-permitting-the-dissection-of-expression-dependent-silencing
#1
Dalen Fultz, R Keith Slotkin
The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we have revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21-22 or 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome...
February 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188267/phosphorylation-of-spt5-by-cdkd-2-is-required-for-vip5-recruitment-and-normal-flowering-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Chengyuan Lu, Yongke Tian, Shiliang Wang, Yanhua Su, Ting Mao, Tongtong Huang, Qingqing Chen, Zuntao Xu, Yong Ding
The elongation factor suppressor of Ty 5 homolog (Spt5) is a regulator of transcription and histone methylation. In humans, phosphorylation of SPT5 by P-TEFb, a protein kinase composed of Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and cyclin T, interacts with the RNA polymerase II-associated factor1 (PAF1) complex. However, the mechanism of SPT5 phosphorylation is not well understood in plants. Here, we examine the function of SPT5 in Arabidopsis thaliana, and find that spt5 mutant flowers early under long-day and short-day conditions...
February 10, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188266/photodamaged-chloroplasts-are-targets-of-cellular-garbage-disposal
#3
Gregory Bertoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188265/the-kinase-cipk23-inhibits-ammonium-transport-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Tatsiana Straub, Uwe Ludewig, Benjamin Neuhaeuser
Ion transport in plants is not only strictly regulated on a transcriptional level, but it is also regulated posttranslationally. Enzyme modifications such as phosphorylation provide rapid regulation of many plant ion transporters and channels. Upon exposure to high ammonium concentrations in the rhizosphere, the high-affinity AMmonium Transporters (AMT) in Arabidopsis thaliana are efficiently inactivated by phosphorylation to avoid toxic accumulation of cytoplasmic ammonium. External ammonium stimulates the phosphorylation of a conserved threonine in the cytosolic AMT1 C-terminus, which allosterically inactivates AMT1 trimers...
February 10, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138017/the-histone-chaperone-nrp1-interacts-with-werewolf-to-activate-glabra2-in-arabidopsis-root-hair-development
#5
Yan Zhu, Liang Rong, Qiang Luo, Baihui Wang, Nana Zhou, Yue Yang, Chi Zhang, Haiyang Feng, Lina Zheng, Wen-Hui Shen, Jinbiao Ma, Aiwu Dong
Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1 (NAP1) defines an evolutionarily conserved family of histone chaperones and loss-of-function of the Arabidopsis thaliana NAP1-family genes NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN 1 (NRP1) and NRP2 causes abnormal root hair formation. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that NRP1 interacts with the transcription factor WEREWOLF (WER) in vitro and in vivo and enriches at the GLABRA2 (GL2) promoter in a WER-dependent manner. Crystallographic analysis indicates that NRP1 forms a dimer via its N-terminal α-helix...
January 30, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138016/protein-degradation-rate-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leaf-growth-and-development
#6
Lei Li, Clark J Nelson, Josua Trösch, Ian Castleden, Shaobai Huang, A Harvey Millar
We have applied 15N labeling approaches to leaves of the Arabidopsis thaliana rosette to characterize their protein degradation rate and understand its determinants. The progressive labeling of new peptides with 15N and measuring the decrease in the abundance of >60,000 existing peptides over time allowed us to define the degradation rate of 1228 proteins in vivo. We show that Arabidopsis protein half-lives vary from several hours to several months based on the exponential constant of the decay rate for each protein...
January 30, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138015/molecular-profiles-of-contrasting-shade-response-strategies-in-wild-plants-differential-control-of-immunity-and-shoot-elongation
#7
Charlotte M M Gommers, Diederik H Keuskamp, Sara Buti, Hans Van Veen, Iko T Koevoets, Emilie Reinen, Laurentius A C J Voesenek, Ronald Pierik
Plants growing at high densities elongate their shoots to reach for light, a response known as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Phytochrome-mediated detection of far-red light reflection from neighbouring plants activates growth-promoting molecular pathways leading to SAS. It is however unknown how plants that complete their life cycle in the forest understory and are shade tolerant prevent SAS when exposed to shade. Here we show how two wild Geranium species from different native light environments regulate contrasting responses to light quality cues...
January 30, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138014/loose-knit-family-tracing-the-evolution-of-actin-depolymerizing-factors-that-sever-or-join-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#8
Jennifer A Lockhart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123107/characterization-of-phytochrome-interacting-factors-from-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens-illustrates-conservation-of-phytochrome-signaling-modules-in-land-plants
#9
Anja Possart, Tengfei Xu, Inyup Paik, Sebastian Hanke, Sarah Keim, Helen-Maria Hermann, Luise Wolf, Manuel Hiss, Claude Becker, Enamul Huq, Stefan A Rensing, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Across the plant kingdom, phytochrome (PHY) photoreceptors play an important role during adaptive and developmental responses to light. In Arabidopsis thaliana, light-activated PHYs accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate downstream signaling components, such as phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs). PIFs are transcription factors that act as repressors of photomorphogenesis; their inhibition by PHYs leads to substantial changes in gene expression. The nuclear function of PHYs, however, has so far been investigated in only a few non-seed plants...
January 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123106/entire-photodamaged-chloroplasts-are-transported-to-the-central-vacuole-by-autophagy
#10
Masanori Izumi, Hiroyuki Ishida, Sakuya Nakamura, Jun Hidema
Turnover of dysfunctional organelles is vital to maintain homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. As photosynthetic organelles, plant chloroplasts can suffer sunlight-induced damage. However, the process for turnover of entire damaged chloroplasts remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is responsible for the elimination of sunlight-damaged, collapsed chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that vacuolar transport of entire chloroplasts, termed chlorophagy, was induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB) damage to the chloroplast apparatus...
January 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123105/plant-actin-depolymerizing-factors-possess-opposing-biochemical-properties-arising-from-key-amino-acid-changes-throughout-evolution
#11
Qiong Nan, Dong Qian, Yue Niu, Yong-Xing He, Shaofei Tong, Zhimin Niu, Jiaochao Ma, Yang Yang, Lizhe An, Dongshi Wan, Yun Xiang
Functional divergence in paralogs is an important genetic source of evolutionary innovation. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are among the most important actin-binding proteins and are involved in generating and remodeling actin cytoskeletal architecture via their conserved F-actin severing or depolymerizing activity. In plants, ADFs co-evolved with actin, but their biochemical properties are diverse. Unfortunately, the biochemical function of most plant ADFs and the potential mechanisms of their functional divergence remain unclear...
January 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123104/correction-the-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-smd1-interplays-with-splicing-rna-quality-control-and-posttranscriptional-gene-silencing-in-arabidopsis
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108599/basal-vs-non-basal-polarity-different-endomembrane-trafficking-pathways-establish-different-patterns
#13
Nancy Rosenbaum Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100709/the-arabidopsis-ring-type-e3-ligase-tear1-controls-leaf-development-by-targeting-the-tie1-transcriptional-repressor-for-degradation
#14
Jinzhe Zhang, Baoye Wei, Rongrong Yuan, Jianhui Wang, Mingxin Ding, Zhuoyao Chen, Hao Yu, Genji Qin
The developmental plasticity of leaf size and shape is important for leaf function and plant survival. However, the mechanisms by which plants form diverse leaves in response to environmental conditions are not well understood. Here, we identified TIE1-ASSOCIATED RING-TYPE E3 LIGASE 1 (TEAR1), and found that it regulates leaf development by promoting the degradation of TCP INTERACTOR-CONTAINING EAR MOTIF PROTEIN 1 (TIE1), an important repressor of CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors, which are key for leaf development...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100708/the-origin-of-floral-organ-identity-quartets
#15
Philip Ruelens, Zhicheng Zhang, Hilda van Mourik, Steven Maere, Kerstin Kaufmann, Koen Geuten
The origin of flowers has puzzled plant biologists ever since Darwin referred to their sudden appearance in the fossil record as an abominable mystery. Flowers are considered to be an assembly of protective, attractive and reproductive male and female leaf-like organs. Their origin cannot be understood by a morphological comparison to gymnosperms, their closest relatives, which develop separate male or female cones. Despite these morphological differences, gymnosperms and angiosperms possess a similar genetic toolbox consisting of phylogenetically related MADS-domain proteins...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100707/the-rla1-smos1-transcription-factor-functions-with-osbzr1-to-regulate-brassinosteroid-signaling-and-rice-architecture
#16
Shenglong Qiao, Shiyong Sun, Linlin Wang, Zhihua Wu, Chengxiang Li, Xiaoming Li, Tao Wang, Linna Leng, Weisheng Tian, Tiegang Lu, Xuelu Wang
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroid hormones that control plant growth and development. Recent studies have identified key components of the BR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana and in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the mechanism of BR signaling in rice, especially downstream of GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase (GSK2), remains unclear. Here we identified a BR-insensitive rice mutant, reduced leaf angle 1 (rla1), and cloned the corresponding gene. RLA1 was identical to the previously reported SMALL ORGAN SIZE 1 (SMOS1) which was cloned from another allele...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100706/oscul3a-negatively-regulates-cell-death-and-immunity-by-degrading-osnpr1-in-rice
#17
Qun-En Liu, Yuese Ning, Yingxin Zhang, Ning Yu, Chunde Zhao, Xiaodeng Zhan, Weixun Wu, Daibo Chen, Xiangjin Wei, Guo-Liang Wang, Shihua Cheng, Liyong Cao
Cullin3-based RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL3), composed of Cullin3 (CUL3), RBX1, and BTB proteins, are involved in plant immunity but the function of CUL3 in the process is largely unknown. Here, we show that rice OsCUL3a is important for the regulation of cell death and immunity. The rice lesion mimic mutant oscul3a displays a significant increase in the accumulation of flg22- and chitin-induced reactive oxygen species, and in pathogenesis-related gene expression as well as resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100705/fine-tuning-plant-growth-in-the-face-of-drought
#18
Kathleen L Farquharson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087831/a-tale-of-two-cenpcs-centromere-localization-of-kinetochore-null-2-and-cenp-c
#19
Jennifer Mach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087830/recognition-of-the-magnaporthe-oryzae-effector-avr-pia-by-the-decoy-domain-of-the-rice-nlr-immune-receptor-rga5
#20
Diana Ortiz, Karine De Guillen, Stella Cesari, Véronique Chalvon, Jérome Gracy, André Padilla, Thomas Kroj
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are important receptors in plant immunity that allow recognition of pathogen effectors. The rice NLR RGA5 recognizes the Magnaporthe oryzae effector AVR-Pia through direct interaction. Here, we gained detailed insights into the molecular and structural bases of AVR-Pia-RGA5 interaction and the role of the RATX1 decoy domain of RGA5. NMR titration combined with in vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction analyses identified the AVR-Pia interaction surface that binds to the RATX1 domain...
January 13, 2017: Plant Cell
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