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Platelets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727496/modulation-of-vegf-induced-migration-and-network-formation-by-lymphatic-endothelial-cells-roles-of-platelets-and-podoplanin
#1
Stacey A Langan, Leyre Navarro-Núñez, Steve P Watson, Gerard B Nash
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) express the transmembrane receptor podoplanin whose only known endogenous ligand CLEC-2 is found on platelets. Both podoplanin and CLEC-2 are required for normal lymphangiogenesis as mice lacking either protein develop a blood-lymphatic mixing phenotype. We investigated the roles of podoplanin and its interaction with platelets in migration and tube formation by LEC. Addition of platelets or antibody-mediated crosslinking of podoplanin inhibited LEC migration induced by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A or VEGF-C), but did not modify basal migration or the response to basic fibroblast growth factor or epidermal growth factor...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727490/comparison-of-the-release-of-micrornas-and-extracellular-vesicles-from-platelets-in-response-to-different-agonists
#2
Ashley R Ambrose, Mohammed A Alsahli, Sameer A Kurmani, Alison H Goodall
On activation platelets release microRNAs and extracellular vesicles (EV) into circulation. The release of EV from platelets has been shown to be dependent on the agonist; in this study, we investigated whether the microRNA profile or EV released from platelets was also agonist specific. Washed platelets from healthy subjects were maximally stimulated with agonists specific for the receptors for collagen (Glycoprotein VI (GPVI)), thrombin (PAR1/PAR4), or ADP (P2Y1/P2Y12) with/without inhibiting secondary mediators, using aspirin to block cyclooxygenase-1 and apyrase to remove ADP...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727481/leucocyte-and-platelet-rich-fibrin-l-prf-as-a-regenerative-medicine-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-leg-ulcers-a-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Nelson R Pinto, Matias Ubilla, Yelka Zamora, Verónica Del Rio, David M Dohan Ehrenfest, Marc Quirynen
Chronic wounds (VLU: venous leg ulcer, DFU: diabetic foot ulcer, PU: pressure ulcer, or complex wounds) affect a significant proportion of the population. Despite appropriate standard wound care, such ulcers unfortunately may remain open for months or even years. The use of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) to cure skin ulcers is a simple and inexpensive method, widely used in some countries but unknown or neglected in most others. This auto-controlled prospective cohort study explored and quantified accurately for the first time the adjunctive benefits of topical applications of L-PRF in the management of such refractory ulcers in a diverse group of patients...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727479/extracellular-chloride-is-required-for-efficient-platelet-aggregation
#4
Kirk A Taylor, Darren G S Wilson, Matthew T Harper, Nicholas Pugh
Anion channels perform a diverse range of functions and have been implicated in ATP release, volume regulation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelets have been shown to express several anion channels but their function is incompletely understood. Due to a paucity of specific pharmacological blockers, we investigated the effect of extracellular chloride substitution on platelet activation using aggregometry and flow cytometry. In the absence of extracellular chloride, we observed a modest reduction of the maximum aggregation response to thrombin or collagen-related peptide...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726538/marked-bleeding-diathesis-in-patients-with-platelet-dysfunction-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-rasgrp2-encoding-caldag-gefi-p-gly305asp
#5
Emilse Bermejo, Maria F Alberto, David S Paul, Aaron A Cook, Paquita Nurden, Analia Sanchez Luceros, Alan T Nurden, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Congenital platelet function disorders are often the result of defects in critical signal transduction pathways required for platelet adhesion and clot formation. Mutations affecting RASGRP2, the gene encoding the Rap GTPase activator, CalDAG-GEFI, give rise to a novel, and rare, group of platelet signal transduction abnormalities. We here report platelet function studies for two brothers (P1 and P2) expressing a novel variant of RASGRP2, CalDAG-GEFI(p.Gly305Asp). P1 and P2 have a lifelong history of bleeding with severe epistaxis successfully treated with platelet transfusions or rFVIIa...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681651/the-contribution-of-leucocytes-to-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-platelet-rich-plasma-preparations-a-systematic-review
#6
Federica D'asta, Fenella Halstead, Paul Harrison, Sandra Zecchi Orlandini, Naiem Moiemen, Janet Lord
The infection of a wound is one of the major contributors to delays in healing and tissue regeneration. As multi-drug resistance to antibiotics is becoming a serious threat, research in this field has focused on finding new agents and strategies to fight infection and additionally to reduce healing times. The topical use of autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) as a biological accelerator of the healing process, has been safely used as a form of treatment for wounds since the 1990s. Although the presence or absence of leucocytes in PRP preparation was previously neglected, in the last decade more attention has been paid to their role and several studies have been conducted to explore both their immuno-metabolic effects and their antimicrobial properties...
July 6, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660769/platelets-as-a-surrogate-disease-model-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-insights-from-fragile-x-syndrome
#7
David Pellerin, Audrey Lortie, François Corbin
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and the leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite a large number of therapeutics developed in past years, there is currently no targeted treatment approved for FXS. In fact, translation of the positive and very promising preclinical findings from animal models to human subjects has so far fallen short owing in part to the low predictive validity of the Fmr1 ko mouse, an overly simplistic model of the complex human disease...
June 29, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649937/the-genetics-of-platelet-count-and-volume-in-humans
#8
John D Eicher, Guillaume Lettre, Andrew D Johnson
The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the depth, variety, and amount of human genetic data that can be generated. This revolution in technical and analytical capacities has enabled the genetic investigation of human traits and disease in thousands to now millions of participants. Investigators have taken advantage of these advancements to gain insight into platelet biology and the platelet's role in human disease. To do so, large human genetics studies have examined the association of genetic variation with two quantitative traits measured in many population and patient based cohorts: platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV)...
June 26, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649897/platelet-concentrates-for-bone-regeneration-current-evidence-and-future-challenges
#9
Zahi Badran, Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, Jesus Torres, Faleh Tamimi
Activated platelet concentrates are autologous blood preparations containing supraphysiological concentration of platelets. Platelet concentrates are commonly used for bone regeneration purposes based on the fact that growth factors released from activated platelets alpha granules have osteoinductive effects on bone cells. Although most preclinical and clinical studies show that platelet concentrates improve the outcomes of bone regeneration procedures, some studies reported conflicting results and even negative effects on bone healing...
June 26, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649896/platelet-lysate-as-a-serum-replacement-for-skin-cell-culture-on-biomimetic-pcl-nanofibers
#10
Vera Sovkova, Karolina Vocetkova, Michala Rampichova, Andrea Mickova, Matej Buzgo, Vera Lukasova, Jana Dankova, Eva Filova, Alois Necas, Evzen Amler
Platelets are a popular source of native growth factors for tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to verify the use of platelet lysate as a fetal bovine serum (FBS) replacement for skin cell culture. The cytokine content of the platelet lysate was characterized using the Bio-Plex system. The cells (fibroblasts, melanocytes, and keratinocytes) were cultured on PCL nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic their natural microenvironment. The cytokine content of the platelet lysate was determined, and to the cells, a medium containing platelet lysate or platelet lysate in combination with FBS was added...
June 26, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643541/effects-of-ph-and-concentration-of-sodium-citrate-anticoagulant-on-platelet-aggregation-measured-by-light-transmission-aggregometry-induced-by-adenosine-diphosphate
#11
Ksenia Germanovich, Eti Alessandra Femia, Chun Yan Cheng, Natalia Dovlatova, Marco Cattaneo
The 2013 ISTH-SSC guidelines for the standardization of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) were largely based on expert consensus, as studies directly comparing LTA methodologies were lacking. We experimentally tested the cogency of ISTH-SSC recommendations pertaining to use of anticoagulant, in particular whether: (1) buffered citrate (BC) is preferable to unbuffered citrate (C); (2) the two recommended concentrations of sodium citrate (109 and 129 mM) are equivalent in terms of platelet aggregation (PA)...
June 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643538/do-methodological-differences-account-for-the-current-controversy-on-tissue-factor-expression-in-platelets
#12
Marta Brambilla, Laura Rossetti, Chiara Zara, Paola Canzano, Peter L A Giesen, Elena Tremoli, Marina Camera
Tissue factor (TF), the key activator of the blood coagulation cascade and of thrombus formation, is also expressed by circulating human platelets. Despite the documented in-depth characterization of platelet TF carried out in the past 15 years, some authors still fail to identify TF in platelets, especially when assessment in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or washed platelets is carried out. This study aims to extend the characterization of the subset of TF-positive platelets in PRP from healthy subjects and to verify how different centrifugation forces, used to prepare the PRP, could affect the analysis of TF-positive platelets...
June 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643535/efficacy-of-platelets-in-bone-healing-a-systematic-review-on-animal-studies
#13
Sabrina Marcazzan, Roberto Lodovico Weinstein, Massimo Del Fabbro
In presence of large bone defects, delayed bone union, non-union, fractures, and implant surgery, bone reconstruction may be necessary. Different strategies have been employed to enhance bone healing among which the use of autologous platelet concentrates. Due to the high content of platelets and platelet-derived bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, antimicrobial peptides), they are promising candidates to increase bone healing. However, a high heterogeneity of both preclinical and clinical studies resulted in contrasting results...
June 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635382/white-cell-and-platelet-content-affects-the-release-of-bioactive-factors-in-different-blood-derived-scaffolds
#14
S Cabaro, V D'Esposito, R Gasparro, F Borriello, F Granata, G Mosca, F Passaretti, J C Sammartino, F Riccitiello, F Beguinot, P Formisano, G Sammartino
Platelet-derived factors are biomaterials that might accelerate healing process in oral, maxillofacial, and several other applications. Release of specific factors by platelet concentrates is critical to achieving a successful outcome. Here, we have shown that platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) clots were beneficial sources of leukocytes, which may directly affect the release of chemokines and growth factors. When compared with the standard leukocyte-PRF (L-PRF), the experimental low-force modified procedure [defined as advanced-PRF (A-PRF)] entrapped the same content of viable leukocytes, released a similar amount of inflammatory cytokines, but secreted 3-, 1...
June 21, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635374/sepsis-favors-high-on-clopidogrel-platelet-reactivity
#15
Karolina Akinosoglou, Angelos Perperis, Spyridoula Theodoraki, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Charalambos Gogos
High-on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) is associated with ischemic events in patients on antiplatelet therapy with a history of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, recent data have associated sepsis with adverse cardiovascular events in patients admitted with bacteremia or respiratory infection. We aimed to assess P2Y12-mediated platelet reactivity (PR) during sepsis and recovery in patients under clopidogrel. This was a prospective observational study. Incoming patients presenting with signs/symptoms of sepsis already on a maintenance dose of clopidogrel of 75 mg qd for cardiovascular events were included in this study...
June 21, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628345/personalizing-antiplatelet-therapies-what-have-we-learned-from-recent-trials
#16
Sébastien Landry, Jean-François Tanguay, Marie Lordkipanidzé
Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist is currently the standard of care for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Several studies have shown that not all patients benefit from the treatment to the same degree and demonstrated that high on-treatment platelet reactivity may be associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, while low on-treatment platelet reactivity may be linked to a higher risk of bleeding...
June 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580830/thrombocytopenia-and-gba-gene-mutation-in-a-patient-with-adult-type-1-gaucher-disease
#17
Lagen Wan, Hong Wu, Fuyuan Xie, Yijun Nie
A 38-year-old female patient was diagnosed with anemia for 3 years. Medical examination showed slight splenomegaly (250 × 62 mm), thrombocytopenia (platelets 51 × 10(9)/L), anemia (Hb levels 107 g/L), and β-glucocerebrosidase activity (GBA) in leukocytes was lower than normal. Microscopic findings of bone marrow smear demonstrated that Gaucher cells in bone marrow and periodic acid-Schiff staining of them were positive. Sequencing of GBA genomic and cDNA identified one novel homozygous mutation, c.484A> G (p...
June 5, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580812/platelet-reactivity-in-stable-cardiovascular-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Thomas A Mavrakanas, Ahsan Alam, Jean-Luc Reny, Pierre Fontana
The study aimed to evaluate antiplatelet drug responsiveness in stable outpatients with cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and examine whether impaired antiplatelet drug responsiveness is associated with worse clinical outcomes in this population. Stable cardiovascular patients (n = 771) were enrolled at least one month after an acute ischemic atherothrombotic event. Antiplatelet drug responsiveness was assessed with specific assays (serum TxA2 for aspirin, the VASP assay for clopidogrel) and other aggregation-based assays using different agonists...
June 5, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548028/developmental-differences-between-newborn-and-adult-mice-in-response-to-romiplostim
#19
Katherine A Sparger, Haley Ramsey, Viola Lorenz, Zhi-Jian Liu, Henry A Feldman, Nan Li, Tahirih Laforest, Martha C Sola-Visner
Thrombocytopenia is frequent among sick neonates. While most cases are transient, some neonates experience prolonged and severe thrombocytopenia. These infants often pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, and may receive large numbers of platelet transfusions. Romiplostim (ROM) is a thrombopoietin (TPO)-receptor-agonist approved for treatment of adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The immature platelet fraction (IPF) is a novel measure of newly produced platelets, which could aid with the diagnostic evaluation of thrombocytopenic neonates...
May 26, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523956/pathogen-reduction-technologies-the-pros-and-cons-for-platelet-transfusion
#20
Audrey Magron, Jonathan Laugier, Patrick Provost, Eric Boilard
The transfusion of platelets is essential for diverse pathological conditions associated with thrombocytopenia or platelet disorders. To maintain optimal platelet quality and functions, platelets are stored as platelet concentrates (PCs) at room temperature under continuous agitation-conditions that are permissive for microbial proliferation. In order to reduce these contaminants, pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) were developed by the pharmaceutical industry and subsequently implemented by blood banks...
May 19, 2017: Platelets
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