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Christian Valina, Timo Bömicke, Sherif Abdelrazek, Sara Eltaweel, Christian Stratz, Miroslaw Ferenc, Dietmar Trenk, Anja Chafai, Franz-Josef Neumann, Willibald Hochholzer
Current guidelines recommend as treatment option in patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) an antiplatelet monotherapy with clopidogrel if there is an increased risk for bleeding. However, retrospective data suggested a potential interaction of clopidogrel and the vitamin K antagonist (VKA) phenprocoumon leading to a diminished antiplatelet effect. This would increase the ischemic risk of patients treated with this combination. Thus, this prospective study sought to evaluate the pharmacodynamic effect of clopidogrel monotherapy in patients on phenprocoumon undergoing PCI and assessed clinical outcomes...
September 13, 2018: Platelets
Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Platelets
Lars Asmis, Anja Moldenhauer, Walter Hitzler, Peter Hellstern
Platelet quality in different platelet concentrates (PCs) has been the subject of several studies. Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust data on the correlation and agreement among platelet function tests as a prerequisite for the association of PC functionality in vitro with platelet function in vivo post PC transfusion. The purpose of our study was to correlate a larger panel of platelet function assays in PCs and to assess whether the methods agree sufficiently and can be used interchangeably. Twelve apheresis platelet concentrates in plasma (APC), 16 pooled platelet concentrates in plasma (PPC), and 12 PPC in T-sol (PPCA) were examined on days 1 and 4 after production...
September 11, 2018: Platelets
Anne Atherton, Nicola Begent, Geoffrey J Blackwell, Y S Bakhle
In 1960, Gustav Born was appointed to head the Department of Pharmacology at the Royal College of Surgeons in London. The next 13 years  would prove to be  the most productive in his scientific career and the most important in the development of the Department into an internationally respected research center. The advances in platelet biology were made possible by the evolution of the platelet aggregometer, brilliantly conceived and developed by Born and his team, into a robust and reliable scientific instrument, with which they, quite literally, revolutionized the study of platelet function...
September 11, 2018: Platelets
Emmanuel Ampofo, Beate M Schmitt, Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger
Thrombus formation is dependent on the interaction of platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells as well as proteins of the coagulation cascade. This interaction is tightly controlled by phospho-regulated pathways involving protein kinase CK2. A growing number of studies have demonstrated an important role of this kinase in the regulation of primary and secondary hemostasis. Inhibition of CK2 downregulates the expression of important adhesion molecules on platelets and endothelial cells, such as glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa, P-selectin, von Willebrand factor and vascular cell adhesion molecule...
September 11, 2018: Platelets
Augusto Martins Lima, Maiia E Bragina, Olivier Burri, Julien Bortoli Chapalay, Fabiana P Costa-Fraga, Marc Chambon, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Nikolaos Stergiopulos
Despite significant advances in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiplatelet therapies are still associated with a high risk of hemorrhage. In order to develop new drugs, methods to measure platelet function must be adapted for the high-throughput screening (HTS) format. Currently, all assays capable of assessing platelet function are either expensive, complex, or not validated, which makes them unsuitable for drug discovery. Here, we propose a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput-compatible platelet function assay, validated for the 384-well plate...
September 5, 2018: Platelets
Alan T Nurden
Professor GVR Born, Gus to his friends, was one of the great pioneers of platelet research. My early memories of him have enabled me to look back at his early years in Oxford and London. A brilliant and generous man with always the time to discuss and advise he was instrumental in deciphering the principle stages of the aggregation of blood platelets by ADP, a path aided by his development and use of the platelet aggregometer. He applied his knowledge to the real time analysis of platelet and leukocyte involvement in thrombus formation in animal models and to the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis and their pharmacological inhibition...
September 5, 2018: Platelets
Alexandre Slater, Gina Perrella, Marie-Blanche Onselaer, Eleyna M Martin, Julia S Gauer, Rui-Gang Xu, Johan Wm Heemskerk, Robert A S Ariëns, Steve P Watson
GPVI is the major signalling receptor for collagen on platelets. Dimerization of GPVI is required for collagen binding and initiation of signalling through the associated FcR-γ chain. Recently, fibrin and fibrinogen have been identified as ligands for GPVI and shown to induce signalling in support of thrombus formation and stabilization. Contrasting observations have been reported on whether fibrin binds to monomeric or dimeric GPVI, or to neither form. In this article, we discuss reasons for the contradictory results and how to reconcile these...
August 15, 2018: Platelets
Sultan A Alqahtani, Naif M Alhawiti
This study investigated the effect of testosterone deficiency and replacement on platelets function and aggregation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis in young adult healthy male rats. Rats were classified into three groups (n = 6/group) of either "a sham-operated+ vehicle," "an orchidectomized (ORX)+ vehicle," and "an ORX+testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg, 3X/week, S.C)." All treatments were carried out for 12 weeks. Our results showed that ORX rats had induced platelets aggregation and coagulation and inhibited fibrinolysis...
August 13, 2018: Platelets
Stuart James Mundell, Andrew Mumford
Platelet activity is regulated by a number of surface expressed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including the α isoform of the thromboxane receptor (TPα receptor). With the advance of genomic technologies, there has been a substantial increase in the identification of naturally occurring rare GPCR variants including in the TBXA2R gene, which encodes the TPα receptor. The study of patients with naturally occurring variants within TBXA2R associated with bleeding and abnormal TPα receptor function has provided a powerful insight in defining the critical role of TPα in thrombus formation...
August 8, 2018: Platelets
Gabriella Mezei, Ildiko Beke Debreceni, Adrienne Kerenyi, Gyula Remenyi, Robert Szasz, Arpad Illes, Janos Kappelmayer, Peter Batar
Since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the overall survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia has markedly improved. However long term use of these drugs results in various adverse events. Treatment with second generation dasatinib is often complicated by hemorrhagic events. Previous lumi-aggregometry studies have shown impaired platelet function in patients on dasatinib therapy. Dual agonist activated platelets (coated-platelets) are also sensitive indicators of platelet function. We hypothesized that dual activation with convulxin and thrombin of platelets in a flow cytometric assay could be a more sensitive method for detecting platelet dysfunction as compared to single agonist studies used in lumi-aggregometer...
August 1, 2018: Platelets
Mari Kono, Shiori Matsuhiroya, Fumie Nakazawa, Masako Kaido, Atsushi Wada, Yoshiaki Tomiyama
Ultrastructure analysis of immature platelets is difficult because of the lack of a suitable marker and their relatively low concentration in total platelets. We investigated the morphological and optical properties of human immature platelets produced and enriched in immunodeficient mice via human CD34-positive cell administration. Immunodeficient mice were injected with human CD34-positive cells and administered eltrombopag orally for 14 days (eltro-mice). Some of these mice were maintained for 2-3 months (steady-state-mice)...
July 30, 2018: Platelets
Sun Young Choi, Moo Hyun Kim
Previous studies have reported that various factors affect ADP-induced platelet reactivity during clopidogrel therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical and laboratory variables for platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) are dependent on the assay used. We enrolled 904 patients receiving DAPT following coronary intervention. Platelet reactivity was measured using three methods: the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) ADP assay, and the light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) ADP assay at 24-48 h following coronary intervention...
July 30, 2018: Platelets
Prakrith Vijey, Benjamin Posorske, Kellie R Machlus
Megakaryocytes (MKs) are specialized precursor cells committed to producing and proliferating platelets. In a cytoskeletal-driven process, mature MKs generate platelets by releasing thin cytoplasmic extensions, named proplatelets, into the sinusoids. Due to knowledge gaps in this process and mounting clinical demand for non-donor-based platelet sources, investigators are successfully developing artificial culture systems to recreate the environment of platelet biogenesis. Nevertheless, drawbacks in current methods entail elaborate procedures for stem cell enrichment, extensive growth periods, low MK yield, and poor proplatelet production...
July 26, 2018: Platelets
Matteo Nardin, Monica Verdoia, Lucia Barbieri, Giuseppe De Luca
Platelets represent one of the main actors involved in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as marker of platelet reactivity and thrombotic risk. However, still debated is whether higher MPV constitutes an independent determinant of CAD or just the consequence of an association with several cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS), on MPV and its relationship with angiographically defined CAD...
July 26, 2018: Platelets
Shoko Nakayama, Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Tatsuya Adachi, Sanae Sueda, Yuka Ohashi, Sumie Awaji, Shigeo Hashimoto, Itaru Matsumura
The international prognostic index (IPI) is a broadly utilized clinical tool to aid in predicting the prognosis of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). However, since this score was developed before the development of rituximab, and the introduction of combined rituximab plus CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) (R-CHOP) therapy for NHL has dramatically improved clinical outcomes, the IPI may be inadequate to assess prognosis in the R-CHOP era. In the present study, we assessed the utility of hemoglobin (Hb) level and platelet count to predict prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS), the largest category of aggressive NHL...
July 26, 2018: Platelets
Eleni Vrigkou, Iraklis Tsangaris, Stefanos Bonovas, Petros Kopterides, Elias Kyriakou, Dimitrios Konstantonis, Athanasios Pappas, Anastasia Anthi, Argyri Gialeraki, Stylianos E Orfanos, Apostolos Armaganidis, Argyrios Tsantes
There is a complex and not fully elucidated association between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and coagulation disorders. The goal of this study was to evaluate platelet function, coagulation and fibrinolysis in PAH patients at diagnosis, before PAH-specific treatment initiation. We enrolled 20 healthy controls and 30 PAH patients (20 with connective tissue disease (CTD-PAH) and 10 idiopathic (iPAH)). None of the participants was on any antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. Blood samples from PAH patients were collected during the initial right heart catheterization...
July 26, 2018: Platelets
Jose Rivera, Maria Luisa Lozano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2018: Platelets
Lennart Rune Fredrik Blomqvist, Annika Margareta Strandell, Fariba Baghaei, Margareta Sofia Elisabet Hellgren
Increased platelet activation is involved in obstetric complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. It is of interest to study platelet aggregation during pregnancy, since increased aggregation theoretically could be a mechanism associated with placenta-mediated complications, which possibly could be prevented by drugs inhibiting platelet aggregation. There are, however, few robust studies describing platelet aggregation during normal pregnancy. The present longitudinal study was performed in order to study platelet aggregation during normal pregnancy resulting in a healthy child, during the puerperium and in nonpregnant, fertile women...
July 16, 2018: Platelets
Paola Patrignani, Carlo Patrono
Several lines of evidence are consistent with the hypothesis that activated platelets contribute to colorectal tumorigenesis and metastatization through direct cell-cell interactions and the release of different lipid and protein mediators, and microvesicles. This review examines the clinical pharmacology of low-dose aspirin as a basis for discussing the mechanisms underlying the contribution of platelets to neoplastic transformation and progression of cancer via the development of metastases.
July 9, 2018: Platelets
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