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Platelets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409645/evaluation-of-platelet-function-in-thrombocytopenia
#1
Mette Tiedemann Skipper, Peter Rubak, Jesper Stentoft, Anne-Mette Hvas, Ole Halfdan Larsen
Whole blood aggregometry is a functional assay for determination of platelet function. Until now, whole blood aggregometry has not been considered feasible at low platelet counts. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to explore platelet function in thrombocytopenia using a novel index of impedance aggregometry adjusted for platelet count and evaluate the association to platelet function assessed by flow cytometry. Hirudin anticoagulated blood was collected from 20 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and 17 hematological cancer patients...
April 14, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406726/role-of-heterotrimeric-g-proteins-in-platelet-activation-and-clot-formation-in-platelets-treated-with-integrin-%C3%AE-iib%C3%AE-3-inhibitor
#2
Ivan Budnik, Boris Shenkman, Hagit Hauschner, Isaac Zilinsky, Naphtali Savion
Mechanisms of platelet activation are triggered by thrombin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, thromboxane A2, and other soluble agonists which induce signaling via heterotrimeric Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13 proteins. We have undertaken a study addressing the contribution of these G proteins to platelet activation and clot formation in the presence of eptifibatide, thus excluding outside-in signaling provided by integrin αIIbβ3-fibrinogen engagement. Selective and combined activation of the G proteins was achieved by using combinations of platelet agonists and inhibitors...
April 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406722/development-of-quantitative-monoclonal-antibody-specific-immobilization-of-platelet-antigens-assay-for-antibodies-against-human-platelet-antigen-1a-3a-and-5b
#3
R S Li, B Ling, P Lu
Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are platelet-specific alloantigens that cause alloimmunization. Alloantibodies induced via pregnancy and transfusion may result in various clinical syndromes. The monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) assay is the gold standard for the detection and identification of HPA antibodies. The present study aimed to develop standardized quantitative MAIPA assays for antibodies against HPA-1a, 3a, and 5b. MAIPA protocol was applied on serial dilutions of standard or reference reagents containing antibodies against HPA-1a, 3a, and 5b...
April 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406717/young-steady-state-rabbit-platelets-do-not-have-an-enhanced-capacity-to-expose-procoagulant-phosphatidylserine
#4
Emily C Reddy, Hong Wang, K W Annie Bang, Marian A Packham, Margaret L Rand
Platelets are recognized to be physiologically and functionally heterogeneous. An example of the diversity in reactivity is the formation of a distinct subpopulation of procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing platelets upon activation. Platelet age has been proposed as a determinant of platelet function, and it has been reported that young platelets are more reactive in exposing PS; using the same methodology of thiazole orange (TO) staining to distinguish young and old platelets, the percentages of procoagulant platelets produced by thrombin plus collagen activation of platelets from healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry...
April 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399723/germline-heterozygous-variants-in-genes-associated-with-familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-as-a-cause-of-increased-bleeding
#5
Marcus Fager Ferrari, Eva Leinoe, Maria Rossing, Eva Norström, Karin Strandberg, Tobias Steen Sejersen, Klaus Qvortrup, Eva Zetterberg
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is caused by biallelic variants in genes regulating granule secretion in cytotoxic lymphocytes. In FHL3-5, the affected genes UNC13D, STX11 and STXBP2 have further been shown to regulate the secretion of platelet granules, giving rise to compromised platelet function. Therefore, we aimed to investigate platelet degranulation in patients heterozygous for variants in UNC13D, STX11 and STXBP2. During the work-up of patients referred to the Coagulation Unit, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden and the Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark due to bleeding tendencies, 12 patients harboring heterozygous variants in UNC13D, STX11 or STXBP2 were identified using targeted whole exome sequencing...
April 11, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374642/value-of-platelet-count-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-nosocomial-invasive-fungal-infections-in-premature-infants
#6
Yu-Chen Yang, Jian Mao
The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a platelet count (PLT) in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants. Based on clinical diagnosis combined with blood culture results, 72 premature infants of 5354 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in the neonatal ward of our hospital between September 2009 and February 2013 were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive fungal infections (fungal infection group). There were 58 premature infants diagnosed with bacterial infections during the same period (bacterial infection group)...
April 4, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374620/thrombin-generation-test-for-evaluation-of-antiplatelet-treatment-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#7
Gelena Berezovskaya, Olga Smirnova, Eduard Malev, Nikita Khromov-Borisov, Elena Klokova, Mikhail Karpenko, Lyudmila Papayan, Nikolay Petrishchev
To study the possibility of using thrombin generation tests in platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma for evaluation of dual antiplatelet therapy efficacy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), following percutaneous coronary intervention. Venous blood was analyzed from CAD patients aged 53-75 years who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting within one year and had been receiving standard doses of clopidogrel and aspirin (75 and 75-100 mg per day, respectively). The control group comprised age- and sex-matched subjects without clinical signs of CAD who were not receiving these drugs...
April 4, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368695/myh9-gene-mutations-associated-with-bleeding
#8
Anna Savoia, Daniela De Rocco, Alessandro Pecci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358995/use-of-microfluidics-to-assess-the-platelet-based-control-of-coagulation
#9
Magdolna Nagy, Johan W M Heemskerk, Frauke Swieringa
This paper provides an overview of the various types of microfluidic devices that are employed to study the complex processes of platelet activation and blood coagulation in whole blood under flow conditions. We elaborate on how these devices are used to detect impaired platelet-dependent fibrin formation in blood from mice or patients with specific bleeding disorders. We provide a practical guide on how to assess formation of a platelet-fibrin thrombus under flow, using equipment that is present in most laboratories...
March 30, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358586/utility-of-microfluidic-devices-to-study-the-platelet-endothelium-interface
#10
Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Joanna L Sylman, Kathleen S Garland, Cristina Puy, Andrew D Wong, Peter C Searson, Owen J T McCarty
The integration of biomaterials and understanding of vascular biology has led to the development of perfusable endothelialized flow models, which have been used as valuable tools to study the platelet-endothelium interface under shear. In these models, the parameters of geometry, compliance, biorheology, and cellular complexity are varied to recapitulate the physical biology of platelet recruitment and activation under physiologically relevant conditions of blood flow. In this review, we summarize the mechanistic insights learned from perfusable microvessel models and discuss the potential utility as well as challenges of endothelialized microfluidic devices to study platelet function in the bloodstream in vitro...
March 30, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355122/the-platelets-perspective-to-pathogen-reduction-technologies
#11
Abdimajid Osman, Walter E Hitzler, Patrick Provost
A wide variety of clinical conditions, associated with low circulating platelet counts, require platelet transfusion in order to normalize hemostatic function. Although single-donor apheresis platelets bear the lowest risk of transfusion-transmitted infections, pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are being implemented worldwide to reduce this risk further through inactivation of known, emergent and as yet to be discovered nucleic acid-based pathogens. Human blood platelets are now known to harbor a diverse transcriptome, important to their function and comprised of >5000 protein-coding messenger RNAs and different classes of non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs...
March 29, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351192/synergistic-effect-of-peptide-inhibitors-derived-from-the-extracellular-and-intracellular-domain-of-%C3%AE-iib-subunit-of-integrin-%C3%AE-iib%C3%AE-3-on-platelet-activation-and-aggregation
#12
Alexia V Gkourogianni, Klytaimnistra Kiouptsi, Vassiliki Koloka, Vassilios Moussis, Vassilios Tsikaris, Christilla Bachelot-Loza, Demokritos C Tsoukatos
αIIbβ3, the major platelet integrin, plays a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Upon platelet activation, conformation of αIIbβ3 changes and allows fibrinogen binding and, subsequently, platelet aggregation. It was previously shown that a lipid-modified platelet permeable peptide, which corresponds to the intracellular acidic membrane distal sequence (1000)LEEDDEEGE(1008) of αIIb (pal-K-LEEDDEEGE or pal-K-1000-1008), inhibits thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation, by inhibiting talin association with the integrin...
March 29, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351189/effects-of-an-injectable-platelet-rich-fibrin-on-osteoblast-behavior-and-bone-tissue-formation-in-comparison-to-platelet-rich-plasma
#13
Xuzhu Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Joseph Choukroun, Shahram Ghanaati, Richard J Miron
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized for many years as a regenerative agent capable of inducing vascularization of various tissues using blood-derived growth factors. Despite this, drawbacks mostly related to the additional use of anti-coagulants found in PRP have been shown to inhibit the wound healing process. For these reasons, a novel platelet concentrate has recently been developed with no additives by utilizing lower centrifugation speeds. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate osteoblast behavior of this novel therapy (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin; i-PRF, 100% natural with no additives) when compared to traditional PRP...
March 29, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300459/mildly-elevated-unconjugated-bilirubin-is-associated-with-reduced-platelet-activation-related-thrombogenesis-and-inflammation-in-gilbert-s-syndrome
#14
Avinash R Kundur, Abishek B Santhakumar, Andrew C Bulmer, Indu Singh
Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is associated with a mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, increased circulating antioxidant capacity, and reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study investigated whether mildly elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is negatively associated with multiple thrombotic risk factors including platelet activity, hemostatic function, and inflammation in individuals with GS. Blood samples were collected from matched GS and control subjects (14 per group). Activation-dependent platelet surface marker expression of PAC-1 (binds to GPIIb/IIIa surface receptors on activated platelets) and CD62P (marker for P-selectin released from activated degranulated platelets) was assessed in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelets using flow cytometry...
March 16, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287032/new-platelet-functional-method-for-identification-of-pathogenic-antibodies-in-hit-patients
#15
M L Guarino, I Massimi, S Mardente, A Lappa, S Donfrancesco, G P Visentin, F M Pulcinelli
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a thrombotic complication of heparin therapy. The most used functional method for HIT diagnosis is serotonin release assay (SRA). A different functional method based on ATP release with luciferin/luciferase long-life and stable luminescent signal is used here, which is shown to be comparable for accuracy with SRA in both negative (patients 4Ts ≤3, and negative for both anti-PF4/heparin immunoassay and SRA) and positive (4Ts >3, and positive for both PF4/heparin antibodies and SRA) patients...
March 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287031/comparison-of-diverse-platelet-activation-markers-as-indicators-for-left-atrial-thrombus-in-atrial-fibrillation
#16
Daniel Tarnowski, David M Poitz, Lina Plichta, Felix M Heidrich, Stephan Wiedemann, Tobias Ruf, Johannes Mierke, Tobias Löhn, Stefanie Jellinghaus, Ruth H Strasser, Karim Ibrahim, Christian Pfluecke
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is well known for being a major risk factor of thromboembolic stroke. We could recently demonstrate an association of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) with the degree of thrombogenicity in patients with AF. This study investigated platelet activation markers, as potential biomarkers for the presence of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with AF. One hundred and eight patients with symptomatic AF underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before scheduled cardioversion or pulmonary vein isolation...
March 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287000/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcome-of-profound-thrombocytopenia-in-adult-patients-with-denv-infections
#17
Amreeta Dhanoa, Ganeswrie Rajasekaram, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Amutha Ramadas, Nur Amelia Azreen Adnan, Chun Fatt Lau, Teik Seng Chan, Chin Fang Ngim
Severe thrombocytopenia is common in dengue virus (DENV) infections. However, studies focusing on the role of profound thrombocytopenia (PT) (nadir platelet counts ≤ 20 000/mm(3)) in DENV infections are scarce. This study aims to identify the associated features and outcome of DENV patients with PT. It involves 237 adult hospitalized patients who were DENV PCR positive. The presence of comorbidity (AOR = 4.625; 95% CI = 1.113-19.230), higher admission hematocrit (AOR = 1.213; 95% CI = 1.067-1.379), lower admission albumin (AOR = 0...
March 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267395/the-role-of-platelets-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#18
G Baroni, A Banzato, E Bison, G Denas, G Zoppellaro, V Pengo
Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) remains obscure in many aspects. However, it is widely accepted that thrombosis is the result of a hypercoagulable state caused by antibodies directed against β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI), a protein whose physiological role is unknown. Although underestimated, platelets may be involved in APS and its thrombotic manifestations, especially arterial, in several ways. Thrombocytopenia is the most relevant non-criteria manifestation of APS, possibly caused by direct binding of anti-β2-GPI antibodies or anti-β2-GPI-β2-GPI complexes...
March 7, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267389/molecular-requirements-involving-the-human-platelet-protease-activated-receptor-4-mechanism-of-activation-by-peptide-analogues-of-its-tethered-ligand
#19
I C Moschonas, T F Kellici, T Mavromoustakos, P Stathopoulos, V Tsikaris, V Magafa, A G Tzakos, A D Tselepis
Thrombin is the most potent agonist of human platelets and its effects are primarily mediated through the protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -4. Although PAR-1 has higher affinity for thrombin than PAR-4, both receptors contribute to thrombin-mediated actions on platelets. Recently, a potent and selective PAR-1 antagonist (vorapaxar) was approved for clinical use in selected patients. In contrast, despite the fact that several PAR-4 antagonists have been developed, few of them have been tested in clinical trials...
March 7, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267384/comparison-of-p2y12-inhibitors-for-mortality-and-stent-thrombosis-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-single-center-study-of-10-793-consecutive-real-world-patients
#20
Rebecca Gosling, Momina Yazdani, Yasir Parviz, Ian R Hall, Ever D Grech, Julian P Gunn, Robert F Storey, Javaid Iqbal
Three oral platelet P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor, are available for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death and stent thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We sought to compare the efficacy of these antiplatelet drugs in contemporary practice. Data were collected for 10 793 consecutive ACS patients undergoing coronary angiography at Sheffield, UK (2009-2015). Since prasugrel use was mostly restricted to the STEMI subgroup, clopidogrel and ticagrelor were compared for all ACS patients, and all three agents were compared in the STEMI subgroup...
March 7, 2017: Platelets
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