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Platelets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067110/genetic-polymorphisms-of-human-platelet-antigens-in-euro-african-and-japanese-descendants-from-parana-southern-brazil
#1
Ana Paula Avenia Silvestre, Joana Maira Valentini Zacarias, Gláucia Andréia Soares Guelsin, Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer, Ana Maria Sell
The frequency distributions of HPA-1 to HPA-6 and HPA-15 were evaluated in two Brazilian populations from Parana: a mixed population of predominantly Caucasians and a population of Japanese descendants. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP in 364 unrelated individuals. Differences in the distribution of HPA highlight diversity in Brazilian miscegenation and the importance of formation of the HPA panel composed of regional blood donors.
January 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067100/effects-of-a-single-bout-of-strenuous-exercise-on-platelet-activation-in-female-apoe-ldlr-mice
#2
K Przyborowski, H Kassassir, M Wojewoda, K Kmiecik, B Sitek, K Siewiera, A Zakrzewska, A M Rudolf, R Kostogrys, C Watala, J A Zoladz, S Chlopicki
Strenuous physical exercise leads to platelet activation that is normally counterbalanced by the production of endothelium-derived anti-platelet mediators, including prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO). However, in the case of endothelial dysfunction, e.g. in atherosclerosis, there exists an increased risk for intravascular thrombosis during exercise that might be due to an impairment in endothelial anti-platelet mechanisms. In the present work, we evaluated platelet activation at rest and following a single bout of strenuous treadmill exercise in female ApoE/LDLR(-)(/-) mice with early (3-month-old) and advanced (7-month-old) atherosclerosis compared to female age-matched WT mice...
January 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067098/glycated-albumin-modifies-platelet-adhesion-and-aggregation-responses
#3
Ioana Soaita, Wei Yin, David A Rubenstein
A diabetic vasculature is detrimental to cardiovascular health through the actions of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on endothelial cells and platelets. Platelets activated by AGEs agonize endothelial responses promoting cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. While it has been established that AGEs can alter platelet functions, little is known about the specific platelet pathways that AGEs modify. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of AGEs on specific salient platelet pathways related to CVDs and whether the effects that AGEs elicit are dependent on glycation extent...
January 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067095/progress-in-bio-manufacture-of-platelets-for-transfusion
#4
Shen Y Heazlewood, Susan K Nilsson, Kellie Cartledge, Cheang Ly Be, Andrew Vinson, Murat Gel, David N Haylock
Blood transfusion services face an ever-increasing demand for donor platelets to meet clinical needs. Whilst strategies for increasing platelet storage life and improving the efficiency of donor platelet collection are important, in the longer term, platelets generated by bio-manufacturing processes will be required to meet demands. Production of sufficient numbers of in vitro-derived platelets for transfusion represents a significant bioengineering challenge. In this review, we highlight recent progress in this area of research and outline the main technical and biological obstacles that need to be met before this becomes feasible and economic...
January 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067094/the-use-of-regression-analysis-in-determining-reference-intervals-for-low-hematocrit-and-thrombocyte-count-in-multiple-electrode-aggregometry-and-platelet-function-analyzer-100-testing-of-platelet-function
#5
Gerhardus J A J M Kuiper, Rik Houben, Rick J H Wetzels, Paul W M Verhezen, Rene van Oerle, Hugo Ten Cate, Yvonne M C Henskens, Marcus D Lancé
Low platelet counts and hematocrit levels hinder whole blood point-of-care testing of platelet function. Thus far, no reference ranges for MEA (multiple electrode aggregometry) and PFA-100 (platelet function analyzer 100) devices exist for low ranges. Through dilution methods of volunteer whole blood, platelet function at low ranges of platelet count and hematocrit levels was assessed on MEA for four agonists and for PFA-100 in two cartridges. Using (multiple) regression analysis, 95% reference intervals were computed for these low ranges...
January 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060550/evaluating-platelet-function-disorders-in-children-with-bleeding-tendency-a-single-center-study
#6
Osama Tanous, Orna Steinberg Shemer, Joanne Yacobovich, Meira Zoldan, Yoseph Horovitz, Isaac Yaniv, Esther Rabizadeh, Hannah Tamary, Sigal Nakav, Judith Lahav
Platelet function disorders (PFDs) are a common cause of mild bleeding tendency. However, they cannot be recognized by standard screening studies. The gold standard test for PFD is platelet aggregation, performed by light transmission aggregometry (LTA). A newer and less validated method is the closure time (CT), performed by the platelet function Analyzer 100 (PFA-100). Data regarding the validity of these tests in children are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of LTA and PFA-100 for the diagnosis of pediatric patients with bleeding tendency...
January 6, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033029/higher-platelet-reactivity-and-platelet-monocyte-complex-formation-in-gram-positive-sepsis-compared-to-gram-negative-sepsis
#7
Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Wouter van de Heijden, Rolf T Urbanus, Philip G de Groot, Andre van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
Platelets may play a role in the high risk for vascular complications in Gram-positive sepsis. We compared the platelet reactivity of 15 patients with Gram-positive sepsis, 17 with Gram-negative sepsis and 20 healthy controls using a whole blood flow cytometry-based assay. Patients with Gram-positive sepsis had the highest median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the platelet membrane expression of P-selectin upon stimulation with high dose adenosine diphosphate (ADP; P = 0.002 vs. Gram-negative and P = 0.005 vs...
December 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033028/single-particle-analysis-methods-for-detection-of-platelet-extracellular-vesicles-in-suspension-excluding-flow-cytometry
#8
Edit I Buzás, Chris Gardiner, Changwon Lee, Zachary J Smith
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, membrane-bound particles released by all cell types, including abundant release by platelets. EVs are a topic of increasing interest in the academic and clinical community due to their increasingly recognised and diverse role in normal biology as well as in disease. However, typical analysis methods to characterise EVs released by cultured cells or isolated from whole blood or other body fluids are restricted to bulk analysis of all EVs in a sample. In this review, we discuss the motivation for analysis of individual EVs, as well as discuss three emerging methods for physical and chemical characterisation of individual EVs: nanoparticle tracking analysis, tunable resistive pulse sensing and Raman spectroscopy...
December 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032533/tetraspanin-tspan9-regulates-platelet-collagen-receptor-gpvi-lateral-diffusion-and-activation
#9
Elizabeth J Haining, Alexandra L Matthews, Peter J Noy, Hanna M Romanska, Helen J Harris, Jeremy Pike, Martina Morowski, Rebecca L Gavin, Jing Yang, Pierre-Emmanuel Milhiet, Fedor Berditchevski, Bernhard Nieswandt, Natalie S Poulter, Steve P Watson, Michael G Tomlinson
The tetraspanins are a superfamily of four-transmembrane proteins, which regulate the trafficking, lateral diffusion and clustering of the transmembrane proteins with which they interact. We have previously shown that tetraspanin Tspan9 is expressed on platelets. Here we have characterised gene-trap mice lacking Tspan9. The mice were viable with normal platelet numbers and size. Tspan9-deficient platelets were specifically defective in aggregation and secretion induced by the platelet collagen receptor GPVI, despite normal surface GPVI expression levels...
December 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032527/bioreactivity-of-stent-material-activation-of-platelets-coagulation-leukocytes-and-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-in-vitro
#10
Veronique Ollivier, Caroline Roques, Nicolas Receveur, Matthias Gratz, Laurent Feldman, Didier Letourneur, Christian Gachet, Pierre H Mangin, Martine Jandrot-Perrus
Outcome of patients with coronary artery disease has been significantly improved by percutaneous coronary interventions with stent implantation. However, despite progress made on devices and antithrombotic treatments, stent thrombosis remains an important issue because of serious adverse consequences. Several mechanisms are assumed to favor stent thrombosis as platelet aggregation, fibrin formation, defective healing and local inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the thrombogenicity, proinflammatory properties and healing capacities of cobalt-chromium (CoCr), an alloy commonly used for cardiovascular implants...
December 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032520/differential-expression-of-sdf-1-receptor-cxcr4-in-molecularly-defined-forms-of-inherited-thrombocytopenias
#11
Juan P Salim, Ana C Glembotsky, Paola R Lev, Cecilia P Marin Oyarzún, Nora P Goette, Felisa C Molinas, Rosana F Marta, Paula G Heller
The SDF-1-CXCR4 axis plays an essential role in the regulation of platelet production, by directing megakaryocyte (MK) migration toward the vascular niche, thus allowing terminal maturation and proplatelet formation, and also regulates platelet function in an autocrine manner. Inherited thrombocytopenias (IT) comprise a spectrum of diverse clinical conditions caused by mutations in genes involved in platelet production and function. We assessed CXCR4 expression and SDF-1 levels in a panel of well-characterized forms of IT...
December 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010140/the-cellular-basis-of-platelet-secretion-emerging-structure-function-relationships
#12
Shilpi Yadav, Brian Storrie
Platelet activation has long been known to be accompanied by secretion from at least three types of compartments. These include dense granules, the major source of small molecules; α-granules, the major protein storage organelle; and lysosomes, the site of acid hydrolase storage. Despite ~60 years of research, there are still many unanswered questions about the cell biology of platelet secretion: for example, how are these secretory organelles organized to support cargo release and what are the key routes of cargo release, granule to plasma membrane or granule to canalicular system...
December 23, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996341/platelet-extracellular-vesicles-as-biomarkers-for-arterial-thrombosis
#13
Aleksandra Gasecka, Anita N Böing, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Rienk Nieuwland
Arterial thrombosis is a major and global cause of human death and disability. Considering the socioeconomic costs of arterial thrombosis, identification of biomarkers to predict and detect arterial thrombosis at an early stage is an important public health goal. Platelet extracellular vesicles (PEV) are a new candidate biomarker of arterial thrombosis. PEV can be measured in biorepositories, thereby offering the possibility to validate PEV in multicenter clinical trials. PEV analysis has been hitherto hampered by lack of standardized methodology, but substantial technological improvements of PEV detection techniques have been achieved recently...
December 20, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928935/taking-the-stock-of-granule-cargo-platelet-releasate-proteomics
#14
Oliver Pagel, Elena Walter, Kerstin Jurk, René P Zahedi
Human platelets are key players in a multitude of physiological and pathological processes. Upon activation they release cargo from different types of granules as well as microparticles in an apparently well-regulated and orchestrated manner. The resulting specific platelet releasates create microenvironments of biologically active compounds and proteins during platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, allowing efficient delivery of growth factors and immune modulators to their sites of effect and enhancing the coagulative response in a positive feedback loop...
December 8, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928930/the-role-of-platelet-microvesicles-in-intercellular-communication
#15
Leonard C Edelstein
In recent years, there has been exponential growth in the interest in microvesicles, which is reflected by the number of publications. Initially referred to as "platelet dust" by Peter Wolf in 1967, platelet microvesicles (PMV) are now recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. There are examples of PMV exerting physiological effects on almost all hematological and vascular cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells, endothelium cells, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
December 8, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897101/platelets-from-glioblastoma-patients-promote-angiogenesis-of-tumor-endothelial-cells-and-exhibit-increased-vegf-content-and-release
#16
Clara Di Vito, Stefania Elena Navone, Giovanni Marfia, Loubna Abdel Hadi, Maria Elisa Mancuso, Alessandro Pecci, Francesco Maria Crisà, Valeria Berno, Paolo Rampini, Rolando Campanella, Laura Riboni
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and fatal intracranial cancer in humans and exhibits intense and aberrant angiogenesis that sustains its malignancy and involves several angiogenic signals. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role and is overexpressed in GBM. Different cells appear to act as triggers of the aberrant angiogenesis, and, among them, platelets act as key participants. In order to provide further insights into the platelet features and angiogenic role in GBM, this study investigated the effects of platelet releasate on GBM-derived endothelial cells (GECs) and the levels of VEGF and endostatin, as pro- and anti-angiogenic components of platelet releasate from GBM patients...
November 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897087/nuclear-imaging-of-thrombosis-in-small-animal
#17
Marie-Cécile Valéra, Bernard Payrastre, Olivier Lairez
Thromboembolic disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The progress in noninvasive imaging techniques has led to the development of radionuclide imaging based on SPECT and PET approaches to observe molecular and cellular processes that may underlie the onset and progression of disease. The advantages of using normal and genetically modified small animal research have spurred the development of dedicated small animal imaging systems. Animal models of venous and arterial thrombosis are largely used and have improved our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of thrombosis...
November 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897081/the-time-between-venepuncture-and-blood-incubation-is-critical-for-serum-thromboxane-b2-synthesis
#18
María Teresa Santos, Antonio Moscardó, Ana Latorre, Belén Cortina, Juana Vallés
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885913/platelet-index-levels-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-incident-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-cohort-study
#19
Fenfen Peng, Zhijian Li, Chunyan Yi, Qunying Guo, Rui Yang, Haibo Long, Fengxian Huang, Xueqing Yu, Xiao Yang
Prior studies have shown that the levels of some platelet (PLT) indices were associated with mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. We aimed to investigate whether the changes in PLT indices associated with mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). A single-center, retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in incident PD patients from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012, and followed up until 31 December 2014. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the relationships between the levels of PLT indices including PLT, plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (PLCR), and mortality...
November 25, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885904/the-effect-of-p2y12-inhibition-on-platelet-activation-assessed-with-aggregation-and-flow-cytometry-based-assays
#20
Tesse C Leunissen, Peter Paul Wisman, Thijs C van Holten, Philip G de Groot, Suzanne J Korporaal, Arnold C Koekman, Frans L Moll, Martin Teraa, Marianne C Verhaar, Gert Jan de Borst, Rolf T Urbanus, Mark Roest
Patients on P2Y12 inhibitors may still develop thrombosis or bleeding complications. Tailored antiplatelet therapy, based on platelet reactivity testing, might reduce these complications. Several tests have been used, but failed to show a benefit of tailored antiplatelet therapy. This could be due to the narrowness of current platelet reactivity tests, which are limited to analysis of platelet aggregation after stimulation of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-pathway. However, the response to ADP does not necessarily reflect the effect of P2Y12 inhibition on platelet function in vivo...
November 25, 2016: Platelets
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