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G Berlin, M Hammar, L Tapper, N Tynngård
Platelets are needed to prevent or arrest bleeding and aggregate at the site of injury upon vascular damage. Platelets express receptors for estrogens which might affect the function of the platelets and their hemostatic ability. The aim was to identify possible differences in platelet function related to age, gender, and phases of the menstrual cycle by use of impedance aggregometry with Multiplate. In the first part of the study, platelet function was assessed in 60 healthy individuals (30 men and 30 women) in each of three age groups (20-25, 40-45, and 60-65 years)...
May 8, 2018: Platelets
Martin Berger, Katie Wraith, Casey Woodward, Ahmed Aburima, Zaher Raslan, Matthew S Hindle, Julia Moellmann, Maria Febbraio, Khalid M Naseem
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and associated oxidized phosphocholine-headgroup phospholipids (oxPCs) activate blood platelets through ligation of the scavenger receptor CD36. Previously, we found that oxLDL stimulated phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2). However, the functional relevance of PLCγ2 phosphorylation in oxLDL-mediated platelet hyperactivity remained elusive. Here, we set out to explore the functional importance of PLCγ2 in oxLDL-mediated platelet activation using human and genetically modified murine platelets...
May 7, 2018: Platelets
Melissa V Chan, Philip D Leadbeater, Steve P Watson, Timothy D Warner
In this short article, submitted as part of the review on platelet function testing, we illustrate the quantitative and qualitative differences between classical light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and 96-well plate aggregometry. We show that responses to platelet agonists and antagonists differ depending upon the method of aggregation testing. For example, in 96-well aggregometry, responses to collagen are strongly inhibited by P2Y12 receptor antagonists while in LTA they are much less affected. Furthermore, we explore the importance of differences in the mechanical environment upon platelet aggregation...
May 1, 2018: Platelets
Wail Nammas, Magnus Dalén, Stefano Rosato, Riccardo Gherli, Daniel Reichart, Giuseppe Gatti, Francesco Onorati, Giuseppe Faggian, Marisa De Feo, Ciro Bancone, Sidney Chocron, Sorosh Khodabandeh, Giuseppe Santarpino, Antonino S Rubino, Daniele Maselli, Saverio Nardella, Antonio Salsano, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Nicolini, Marco Zanobini, Matteo Saccocci, Karl Bounader, Paola D'Errigo, Tuomas Kiviniemi, Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Andrea Perrotti, Juhani Airaksinen, Giovanni Mariscalco, Vito G Ruggieri, Fausto Biancari
The impact of thrombocytopenia on postoperative bleeding and other major adverse events after cardiac surgery is unclear. This issue was investigated in a series of patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from the prospective, multicenter E-CABG registry. Preoperative thrombocytopenia was defined as preoperative platelet count <150 × 109 /L and it was considered moderate-severe when preoperative platelet count was <100 × 109 /L. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analysis was performed to adjust the effect of thrombocytopenia on outcomes for baseline and operative covariates as well as for interinstitutional differences in patient-blood management...
April 20, 2018: Platelets
Philip M Bath, Jane May, Stan Heptinstall
Vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are associated with increased platelet function whilst the risk of recurrence is reduced by antiplatelet agents such as aspirin, clopidogrel, and prasugrel. However, some patients exhibit high platelet reactivity, especially with clopidogrel. Existing platelet function tests may not be ideal in that they can be expensive, are often time consuming, and measurements must be made near to the patient and within a few hours of blood collection. Platelet activation leads to translocation of P-selectin from alpha-granules to the cell surface...
April 18, 2018: Platelets
Stefano Cornara, Gabriele Crimi, Alberto Somaschini, Marco Cattaneo, Dominick J Angiolillo, Tullio Palmerini, Stefano De Servi
Systemic inflammation measured by high-sensitivity C reactive protein (CPR) is associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Recent clinical trials targeting CPR showed a reduction in MACE after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Inflammation could be linked to high platelet reactivity (HPR), which is an independent predictor of MACE in patients with ACS. We aimed to evaluate the impact of 1-month C-reactive Protein (CRP) levels on HPR in patients enrolled in the GEPRESS study...
April 4, 2018: Platelets
Ming Zhou, Meng Gao, Yanwei Luo, Rong Gui, Hongwen Ji
Platelet hyperaggregation and hypercoagulation are associated with increase of thrombogenic risk, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). High activity of P2Y12 receptor is found in T2D patients, exposing such patients to a prothrombotic condition. P2Y12 is a promising target for antiplatelet, but due to P2Y12 receptor constitutive activation, the clinical practical phenomena such as "clopidogrel resistance" are commonly occurring. In this study, we investigate the role of lncRNA on platelet activation...
April 4, 2018: Platelets
Remigiusz Kazimierczyk, Piotr Blaszczak, Małgorzata Jasiewicz, Małgorzata Knapp, Katarzyna Ptaszynska-Kopczynska, Bozena Sobkowicz, Ewa Waszkiewicz, Ryszard Grzywna, Wlodzimierz J Musial, Karol A Kaminski
Inflammatory processes and platelet activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Enhanced IL-6 signaling and higher concentration of stromal-derived factor alpha (SDF-1) have been previously shown to be linked with prognosis in PAH. We hypothesized that platelets of PAH patients have higher content of IL-6 and SDF-1 and thus are involved in disease progression. We enrolled into study 22 PAH patients and 18 healthy controls. Patients with PAH presented significantly higher plasma concentrations and platelet contents of IL-6, sIL-6R, and SDF-1 than healthy subjects (platelet content normalized to protein concentration: IL-6 (0...
April 4, 2018: Platelets
Luís Bernardo Pina-Cabral, Miguel Carneiro, Begoña Criado, Pedro José Esteves
Platelet integrin αIIbβ3 is crucial for platelet aggregation. Although structural and functional characteristics of this protein have been extensively studied, the evolutionary pattern studies of this protein complex in mammals are scarce. Here, we addressed this question using maximum likelihood approaches to identify codons that are evolving under positive selection. Likelihood of positive selection was estimated using CODEML implemented in PAML software applied to integrin αIIbβ3 derived from nucleotide sequences of 10 different mammalian species...
April 4, 2018: Platelets
Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Platelets
Shichun Wang, Tianlun Jiang, Yahan Fan, Shuming Zhao
Cryopreservation can slow down the metabolism and decrease the risk of bacterial contamination. But, chilled platelets (PLTs) show a reduced period in circulation due to the rapid clearance by hepatic cells or spleen macrophages after transfusion. The deleterious changes that PLTs undergo are mainly considered the result of PLT protein variation. However, the basis for proteomic variation of stored PLTs remains poorly understood. Besides count, activation markers (CD62P and Annexin V), and aggregation, we used quantitative mass spectrometry to create the first comprehensive and quantitative human PLT proteome of samples stored at different temperatures (22°C, 10°C and -80°C)...
March 29, 2018: Platelets
A K Olsson, J Cedervall
Thrombosis is a frequent issue in cancer patients. Tumor-induced platelet activation and coagulation does not only constitute a significant risk for thrombosis, but also contribute to tumor progression by promoting critical processes such as angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition to their role in hemostasis, platelets are increasingly recognized as regulators of inflammation. By modulating the immune system, platelets regulate several aspects of cancer-associated pathology. Platelets influence the inflammatory response in cancer by affecting the activation status of the endothelium and by recruiting leukocytes to primary and metastatic tumor sites, as well as to distant organs unaffected by tumor growth...
March 27, 2018: Platelets
Caitlin M O'Neill, Ilene C Weitz, Casey O'Connell, Howard A Liebman
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder with a complex immunopathology and pathogenesis characterized by thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. The disorder is separated into primary (idiopathic) ITP and secondary ITP, when associated with other immune or lymphoproliferative disorders and certain chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a recognized bacterial cause of ITP. In regions with high prevalence of infection, bacterial eradication has resulted in improvement in platelet count...
March 26, 2018: Platelets
Fanny Mingant, Romain Didier, Martine Gilard, Françoise Martin, Pierre-Philippe Nicol, Valérie Ugo, Eric Lippert, Hubert Galinat
P2Y12 receptor inhibitors are antiplatelet agents commonly prescribed in the treatment of coronary artery disease. Their efficacy can be limited by high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR), which can be evaluated by different biological assays. Most commonly, HPR is evaluated by flow cytometric vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-phosphorylation (VASP-P) assay, which can be time consuming. To evaluate the potential interest of novel technologies, we compared four different assays. Ninety patients receiving P2Y12 inhibitors were included...
March 26, 2018: Platelets
Mitchell J George, James Bynum, Prajeeda Nair, Andrew P Cap, Charles E Wade, Charles S Cox, Brijesh S Gill
The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between platelet bioenergetics and biomechanics and how this relationship affects the clinical interpretation of platelet function devices. Recent experimental and technological advances highlight platelet bioenergetics and biomechanics as alternative avenues for collecting clinically relevant data. Platelet bioenergetics drive energy production for key biomechanical processes like adhesion, spreading, aggregation, and contraction. Platelet function devices like thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, and aggregometry measure these biomechanical processes...
March 26, 2018: Platelets
Roos E Marck, Ivo van der Bijl, Herbert Korsten, Jos Lorinser, Dirk de Korte, Esther Middelkoop
Burn injury has severe impact on the physiologic homeostasis. Platelet counts show a distinct course post-burn injury, with a nadir at day 3 followed by a thrombocytotic period with at peak at day 15, with a gradual return to normal. So far, it is unknown how the functionality and activational status of platelets develop post burn. In this study, we investigated if the function, activation and growth factor content of platelets of burn patients are affected and how this evolves in time. Six burn patients with over 15% total burned surface area were followed during 1 month...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Ali R Keramati, Lisa R Yanek, Kruthika Iyer, Margaret A Taub, Ingo Ruczinski, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Carla Dessels, Chrisna Durandt, Michael S Pepper
Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) has been used to expand adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and can be formulated using fresh or expired buffy coats (BCs) which are then resuspended in either plasma or an additive solution. Not much is known about the effects that expired products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion, and the need for quality control and release criteria has been expressed. This pilot study compared proliferation, cell size, morphology and immunophenotype of ASCs expanded in the different pHPL alternatives versus foetal bovine serum (FBS)...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Vishal Salunkhe, Iris M De Cuyper, Petros Papadopoulos, Pieter F van der Meer, Brunette B Daal, María Villa-Fajardo, Dirk de Korte, Timo K van den Berg, Laura Gutiérrez
Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent a blood transfusion product with a major concern for safety as their storage temperature (20-24°C) allows bacterial growth, and their maximum storage time period (less than a week) precludes complete microbiological testing. Pathogen inactivation technologies (PITs) provide an additional layer of safety to the blood transfusion products from known and unknown pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. In this context, PITs, such as Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT), have been developed and are implemented in many countries...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Katrine Munk Begtrup, Johanne Andersen Hojbjerg, Birgitte Vrou Offersen, Anne-Mette Hvas
Cancer is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease. Venous thromboembolic disease accounts for a substantial addition to morbidity and mortality rates in cancer patients and is the second leading cause of death in cancer patients, exceeded only by the underlying cancer. Only few previous studies have investigated the influence of radiotherapy on hemostasis and whether radiotherapy in itself causes an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease. The aim was to investigate if adjuvant radiotherapy affects hemostasis after surgery and chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
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