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Eline A Vlot, Laura M Willemsen, Eric P A Van Dongen, Paul W Janssen, Christian M Hackeng, Geoffrey T L Kloppenburg, Johannes C Kelder, Jurrien M Ten Berg, Peter G Noordzij
Postoperative coagulopathic bleeding is common in cardiac surgery and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Platelet function is affected by multiple factors, including patient and procedural characteristics. Point-of-care (POC) multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) can rapidly detect and quantify platelet dysfunction and could contribute to optimal patient blood management. In patients undergoing CABG and heart valve surgery platelet function was assessed using POC MEA at four different perioperative timepoints in response to stimulation with four specific receptor agonists (ADP, AA, COL, TRAP)...
November 9, 2018: Platelets
Simon J Cleary, Clive P Page
Gustav Born achieved scientific fame for his application of light transmission aggregometry to the study of platelet function, but also led interdisciplinary research teams in pioneering quantitative in vivo imaging studies of platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion, and in conducting the first research into the biomechanical factors underlying atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Gus Born also communicated both current research findings and an integrated understanding of cardiovascular biology to a wide audience through acting as scientific advisor on several television productions...
November 9, 2018: Platelets
Steve P Watson, Amanda Dalby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2018: Platelets
Wayne A Schroder, Thuy T Le, Joy Gardner, Robert K Andrews, Elizabeth E Gardiner, Leonie Callaway, Andreas Suhrbier
SerpinB2, also known as plasminogen activation inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), is classically viewed as an inhibitor of fibrinolysis. However, we show herein a distinct, hitherto unrecognized role for SerpinB2 in hemostasis. Mice deficient in SerpinB2 expression and mice with an active site mutation in SerpinB2, both showed significant reductions in tail bleeding times. This hemostatic phenotype was associated with platelets, with SerpinB2 and SerpinB2-urokinase complexes clearly present in platelet fractions, and immunohistochemistry of blood clots suggesting SerpinB2 is associated with platelet aggregates...
November 2, 2018: Platelets
Sean P Heffron, Christian Marier, Manish Parikh, Edward A Fisher, Jeffrey S Berger
Mechanisms explaining the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are needed. Despite growing recognition of the importance of the anucleate platelet transcriptome, low levels of RNA in platelets make assessment difficult. We sought to perform unbiased platelet RNA profiling in obesity by performing a prospective study of severe obesity and weight loss via bariatric surgery on platelet characteristics and mRNA profile in 26 pre-menopausal, non-diabetic women (31.6 ± 8.4 years; BMI 43...
November 2, 2018: Platelets
Valerie B O'Donnell
I am delighted to have been be asked by Steve Watson to write a short piece for this series in Platelets, on my friendship with Prof Gus Born which began in 2011, when he came to Cardiff to present at our UK Platelets meeting. Gus was an insipiration, his story resonates today and it is an honour to have the opportunity to record a summary of our meetings here.
October 30, 2018: Platelets
Carlo Patrono
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Platelets
Hala El-Gendy, Rasmia M El-Gohary, Safaa Mahfouz, Hamdy M A Ahmed, Doaa M El Demerdash, Gaafar Ragab
Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a devastating condition that is rarely reported in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Treatment with steroids remains a major risk factor for developing AVN. However, the incidence of AVN in patients with ITP requiring corticosteroid therapy is much less than that observed with other clinical conditions requiring corticosteroids. ITP is a bleeding disorder but can be also be a pro-thrombotic state via different mechanisms and thus could result in AVN. Among the possible causes of this pro-thrombotic state is the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs)...
October 29, 2018: Platelets
Tony G Walsh, Yong Li, Andreas Wersäll, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of fundamental biological processes within platelets is continually evolving. A critical feature of platelet biology relates to the intricate uptake, packaging and release of bioactive cargo from storage vesicles, essential in mediating a range of classical (haemostasis/thrombosis) and non-classical (regeneration/inflammation/metastasis) roles platelets assume. Pivotal to the molecular control of these vesicle trafficking events are the small GTPases of the Ras superfamily, which function as spatially distinct, molecular switches controlling essential cellular processes...
October 26, 2018: Platelets
Rashid Al Ghaithi, Jun Mori, Zoltan Nagy, Annabel Maclachlan, Lewis Hardy, Helen Philippou, Emma Hethershaw, Neil V Morgan, Yotis A Senis, Paul Harrison
The Total Thrombus-formation Analyser System (T-TAS) is a whole blood flow chamber system for the measurement of in vitro thrombus formation under variable shear stress conditions. Our current study sought to evaluate the potential utility of the T-TAS for the measurement of thrombus formation within human and mouse whole blood. T-TAS microchips (collagen, PL chip; collagen/tissue thromboplastin, AR chip) were used to analyze platelet (PL) or fibrin-rich thrombus formation, respectively. Blood samples from humans (healthy and patients with mild bleeding disorders) and wild-type (WT), mice were tested...
October 26, 2018: Platelets
Gayle M Halford, Marie Lordkipanidzé
This article is taken from an interview with Professor Gustav Victor Rudolf Born (known as Gus), and focuses on his personal reflections and his distinguished career. Professor Born's innovative research led to the development of a pioneering device, the aggregometer, which opened up the field of platelet research. In this article, Professor Born gives his modest insight into the early stages of his career and the impact Hiroshima had on his decision to work on thrombosis and hemostasis. He details the key events that led to development of a machine which had a revolutionary effect on diagnosing platelet-related diseases and the development of antiplatelet agents, thereby making it a world-wide success and saving so many lives...
October 26, 2018: Platelets
Marco Ranucci, Valeria Pistuddi, Umberto Di Dedda, Lorenzo Menicanti, Carlo De Vincentiis, Ekaterina Baryshnikova
Platelet dysfunction after cardiac surgery is a determinant of postoperative bleeding. The existing guidelines suggest the use of desmopressin and/or platelet concentrate transfusions in case of platelet dysfunction in bleeding patients, but no cut-off values for platelet activity exist in the literature. The Platelet Function in the Operating Room (PLATFORM) study aims to identify the relationship between platelet function after cardiopulmonary bypass and severe bleeding, finding adequate predictive values of platelet function for severe bleeding...
October 26, 2018: Platelets
Emma L Welch, Michael G Crooks, Simon P Hart
It is widely believed that assays of platelet activation are susceptible to preanalytical variables related to blood draw technique. We assessed platelet activation by whole blood flow cytometry and investigated the effects of: (1) drawing blood into vacuum tubes or manually aspirated syringes, and (2) discarding the first drawn blood sample (discard tube). Platelet P-selectin expression and platelet-monocyte complexes were measured by flow cytometry under both basal conditions and following stimulation with 0...
October 26, 2018: Platelets
René Verboket, Carlos Herrera-Vizcaíno, Kirsten Thorwart, Patrick Booms, Marlene Bellen, Sarah Al-Maawi, Robert Sader, Ingo Marzi, Dirk Henrich, Shahram Ghanaati
Large bone defects have always been a big challenge. The use of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) combined with an osteoconductive scaffold has been proved a good alternative for the treatment of large bone defects. Another autologous source for tissue engineering is platelet rich fibrin (PRF). PRF is a blood concentrate system obtained through a one-step centrifugation. The generated 3D matrix of the PRF clot serves as a reservoir of growth factors. Those growth factors might support the regenerative response of BMC, and therefore the effect of PRF, centrifuged with either high medium (208 g) or low (60 g) relative centrifugation force (RCF) on BMCs was evaluated in vitro in the present study...
October 25, 2018: Platelets
Sanjeev Raghuwanshi, Swati Dahariya, Syed Shahid Musvi, Usha Gutti, Ravinder Kandi, Ram Babu Undi, Itishri Sahu, Dushyant Kumar Gautam, Indira Paddibhatla, Ravi Kumar Gutti
Megakaryocytes (MKs), the largest cells in the bone marrow, are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a sequential process called megakaryocytopoiesis in which HSCs undergo MK-progenitor (MP) commitment and maturation to terminally differentiated MK. Megakaryocytopoiesis is controlled by a complex network of bone marrow niche factors. Traditionally, the studies on megakaryocytopoiesis were focused on different cytokines, growth factors and transcription factors as the regulators of megakaryocytopoiesis...
October 25, 2018: Platelets
Vanessa Valéria Miron, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Gabriel Pranke, Aline Mânica, Beatriz da Silva Rosa Bonadiman, Leandro Henrique Manfredi, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Andréia Machado Cardoso
Acute bouts of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sports are associated with changes in lymphocytes and platelet functions and we hypothesized that the purinergic system is involved with these alterations. We investigated the activity of ectonucleotidases in platelets and lymphocytes as well as the platelet aggregation of futsal players in response to an acute protocol of HIIE. Thus, 19 male semi-professional futsal players were submitted to 40 min of HIIE on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected three-time points: before exercise, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of the session...
October 22, 2018: Platelets
Elizabeth Gardiner
The utility of a methods section of a research paper is often tempered by the brevity demanded by manuscript word limitations. Whilst word limits help streamline a paper, a Methods section often bears the brunt of the editorial scalpel, resulting in only brief sketches of experimental protocols and consignment of methodology to online supplementary information files. To retain a place for important detailed methodology, and to encapsulate and highlight new and existing important techniques for platelet and megakaryocyte biology, the Platelets Journal Editorial board now accept Methods manuscripts...
October 22, 2018: Platelets
Vanessa Discepola, Mireille E Schnitzer, E Marc Jolicoeur, Guy Rousseau, Marie Lordkipanidzé
Thrombocytopenia (TP) is common in hospitalized patients. In the context of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), TP has been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the clinical importance of preexisting and in-hospital acquired TP in the context of ACS. Specifically, we address (a) the prevalence and associated factors with TP in the context of ACS; and (b) the association between TP and all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), and major bleeding...
October 22, 2018: Platelets
Cati Racca, Jeske Joanna Katarina van Diemen, Wessel Willem Fuijkschot, Karlinde Spit, Tobias Nicolaas Bonten, Mattijs Everard Numans, Johanna Gerarda van der Bom, Yvo Michiel Smulders, Abel Thijs
Aspirin is traditionally taken once daily in the morning and considered to be effective throughout the 24h interval. Cardiovascular events occur most frequently in the early morning, suggesting that these hours are critical in terms of adequate platelet inhibition. This study therefore assed platelet function in the early morning-8.00 AM-in healthy volunteers, during a once-daily (OD) 80 mg morning in comparison with an OD evening regimen and a twice-daily (BID) 40 mg regimen. It was an open-label randomized cross-over study, comprising 12 healthy subjects...
October 22, 2018: Platelets
Katja Aurbach, Markus Spindler, Elizabeth J Haining, Markus Bender, Irina Pleines
Inherited or acquired disorders of platelet production and function can result in thrombocytopenia and bleeding. Mouse models have proven useful for investigating the mechanisms that underlie these defects in humans. Precise methods for blood withdrawal, platelet isolation and measurement of platelet parameters are key for the generation of reproducible and conclusive data. Here, we provide three different protocols for mouse platelet isolation to encourage research knowledge transfer between experienced laboratories, while at the same time enabling less experienced researchers to implement a protocol that best suits their local expertise and equipment...
October 22, 2018: Platelets
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