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European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH

M Onisto, S Garbisa, M Spina
Lorenzo Gotte (1926-1991) was an outstanding histologist at the School of Medicine of Padua. This year marks the 25th anniversary of his passing away - commemorated during the recent congress of the Italian Society for the Connective Tissue (SISC), held in Padua (September 30 - October 1, 2016). This brief note recalls this outstanding figure: indeed, forthose who knew him, Lorenzo Gotte was an exceptional scientist and at the same time, an unparalleled teacher - and, for many, a great friend. It is still difficult to separate these aspects of his personality, so intertwined in his life: studying elastin and elastic tissue was a passion central to Gotte's life...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Y Kaneko, N Onda, Y Watanabe, M Shibutani
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of autofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of autofluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between autofluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
F Cau, E Pisu, C Gerosa, G Senes, F Ronchi, C Botta, E Di Felice, F Uda, V Marinelli, G Faa, V Fanos, C Moretti, D Fanni
The surfactant complex, thanks to its multiple actions including decrease of surface- tension and antimicrobial activity, plays a fundamental role in newborn survival, lowering the risk of respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this work was to determine if the synthesis of two surfactant proteins (SP), SPA and pro-SPB, shows some inter-individual variability during lung development in the intrauterine life. Immunoreactivity for SPA and pro-SPB was investigated in the lungs of  40 subjects, including 15 fetuses, ranging from 14 to 22 weeks of gestation, and 25 neonates, from 24 to 41 weeks...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
A Mangas, J Yajeya, N González, S Duleu, M Geffard, R Coveñas
A highly specific monoclonal antibody directed against nitric oxide-tryptophan (NO-W) with good affinity (10-9 M) and specificity was developed. In the rat brain, using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, cell bodies containing NO-W were exclusively found in the intermediate and dorsal parts of the lateral septal nucleus. No immunoreactive fibres were found in the rat brain. This work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of cell bodies containing NO-W in the mammalian brain...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
V Pibiri, A Ravarino, C Gerosa, M C Pintus, V Fanos, G Faa
The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
A Di Giancamillo, M E Andreis, P Taini, M C Veronesi, M Di Giancamillo, S C Modina
Cartilage canals (CCs) are microscopic structures involved in secondary ossification centers (SOCs) development. The features of CCs were investigated in the humeral and femoral proximal epiphyses of small-sized newborn dogs (from premature to 28 days after birth) with histochemical and immunohistochemical approaches. Masson's Trichrome revealed a ring-shaped area around CCs, which changes in colour from green (immature collagen) to red (mature collagen) as ossification progresses; perichondrium staining always matched the ring colour...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Manuela Monti
By putting together the most advanced evidences supporting the 'gamete and embryo-fetal origins of adult diseases' the two editors, Prof. He-Feng Huang and Prof. Jian-Zhong Sheng (Hangzhou, People's Republic of China) did a great workk.....
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
H Zhang, P Yu, S Zhong, T Ge, S Peng, Z Zhou, X Guo
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
V Poletto, V Galimberti, G Guerra, V Rosti, F Moccia, M Biggiogera
We propose a tool for a rapid high-resolution detection of calcium ions which can be used in parallel with other techniques. We have applied a new approach by  photo-oxidation of diaminobenzidine in presence of the emission of an excited fluorochrome specific for calcium detection. This method combines the selectivity of available fluorophores to the high spatial resolution offered by transmission electron microscopy to detect even fluorescing molecules even when present in low amounts in membrane-bounded organelles...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
E Ayarza, M González, F López, R Fernández-Donoso, J Page, S Berrios
We investigated whether apoptotic spermatocytes from the mouse Mus m. domesticus presented alterations in chromosomal synapses and DNA repair. To enrich for apoptotic spermatocytes, the scrotum's temperature was raised by partially exposing animals for 15 min to a 42ºC water bath. Spermatocytes in initial apoptosis were identified in situ by detecting activated Caspase-9.  SYCP1 and SYCP3 were markers for evaluating synapses or the structure of synaptonemal complexes and Rad51 and γH2AX for detecting DNA repair and chromatin remodeling...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
CarloAlberto Redi
One of the main precision medicine's promises is nutrigenomics; still far from being a widespread attitude for the laypeople, it is certainly one of the most challenging aspect of the near to come health care system based on personalized medicine. Thus, we welcome books like this one that is exploring the pre-requisites to get a better health care in the new millennium.....
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
J Melrose
Loose bodies are fragments of cartilage or bone present in the synovial fluid. In the present study we assessed if loose bodies could be used as a source of autologous human chondrocytes for experimental purposes. Histochemical examination of loose bodies and differential enzymatic digestions were undertaken, the isolated cells were cultured in alginate bead microspheres and immunolocalisations were undertaken for chondrogenic markers such as aggrecan, and type II collagen. Isolated loose body cells had high viability (≥90% viable), expressed chondrogenic markers (aggrecan, type II collagen) but no type I collagen...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
C Fede, G Albertin, L Petrelli, M M Sfriso, C Biz, R De Caro, C Stecco
Cannabinoid receptors have been localized in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on cells of the immune system, but recent studies on animal tissue gave evidence for the presence of cannabinoid receptors in different types of tissues. Their presence was supposed also in myofascial tissue, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, until now the expression of CB1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) and CB2 (cannabinoid receptor 2) in fasciae has not yet been established...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
M Costanzo, F Carton, A Marengo, G Berlier, B Stella, S Arpicco, M Malatesta
In order to design valid protocols for drug release via nanocarriers, it is essential to know the mechanisms of cell internalization, the interactions with organelles, and the intracellular permanence and degradation of nanoparticles (NPs) as well as the possible cell alteration or damage induced. In the present study, the intracellular fate of liposomes, polymeric NPs and mesoporous silica NPs (MSN) has been investigated in an in vitro cell system by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanocarriers proved to be characterized by specific interactions with the cell: liposomes enter the cells probably by fusion with the plasma membrane and undergo rapid cytoplasmic degradation; polymeric NPs are internalized by endocytosis, occur in the cytoplasm both enclosed in endosomes and free in the cytosol, and then undergo massive degradation by lysosome action; MSN are internalized by both endocytosis and phagocytosis, and persist in the cytoplasm enclosed in vacuoles...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
M Úbeda-Manzanaro, J B Ortiz-Delgado, C Sarasquete
Multiple genes and transcription factors are involved in regulation and control of the complex process of sex determination and differentiation of fish species. Also more, several hormonal factors and some environmental conditions can also be adequate spawning strategies and stimuli for inducing reproduction of fish species. Brdt gene belongs to the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET) family of transcriptional coregulators. In mammals, Brdt gene is almost exclusively expressed in testis. Furthermore, Brdt protein is involved in elongating spermatids, and is required for proper spermatogenesis and male fertility...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
T Al-Dhohorah, M Mashrah, Z Yao, J Huang
We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
F Zhang, J Wang, Y Jiao, L Zhang, H Zhang, X Sheng, Y Han, Z Yuan, Q Weng
The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder. In this study, using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the mRNA and protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrel during the breeding season (April), the non-breeding season (June) and pre-hibernation (September). AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom protein/mRNA were present in the MPOA of all seasons detected...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
D Fanni, M Manchia, F Lai, C Gerosa, R Ambu, G Faa
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major global health problem, since more than 90% of primary liver cancers worldwide are HCC. Most cases of HCC are secondary to viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C), alcoholism and cirrhosis. Sorafenib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that suppresses tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, emerged as the first effective systemic treatment for HCC after 30 years of research, and is currently the standard-of-care for patients with advanced HCC. Sorafenib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450), particularly from the 3A4 isoform, producing two main metabolites: the N-oxide and the N-hydroxymethyl metabolite...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
E Wyroba, P Kwaśniak, K Miller, K Kobyłecki, M Osińska
Protein products of the paralogous genes resulting from the whole genome duplication may acquire new function. The role of post-translational modifications (PTM) in proper targeting of Paramecium Rab7b paralogue - distinct from that of Rab7a directly involved in phagocytosis - was studied using point mutagenesis, proteomic analysis and double immunofluorescence after in vivo electroporation of the mutagenized protein. Here we show that substitution of Thr200 by Ala200 resulted in diminished incorporation of [P32] by 37...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
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