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Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology

V V Lavrekha, T Pasternak, V B Ivanov, K Palme, V V Mironova
To date CYCB1;1 marker and cortex cell lengths are conventionally used to determine the proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis root meristem. By creating a 3D map of mitosis distribution we showed that these markers overlooked that stele and endodermis save their potency to divide longer than cortex and epidermis. Cessation of cell divisions is not a random process, so that the mitotic activity within the endodermis and stele shows a diarch pattern. Mitotic activity of all root tissues peaked at the same distance from the quiescent center (QC); however, different tissues stopped dividing at different distances, with cells of the protophloem exiting the cell cycle first and the procambial cells being the last...
September 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Victor Marco Emmanuel N Ferriols, Ryoko Yaginuma-Suzuki, Kazunari Fukunaga, Takashi Kadono, Masao Adachi, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera is unique among this group of microalgae given that it is one of only a handful of diatom species that can produce highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) hydrocarbons. In our efforts to determine distinguishing molecular characteristics in R. setigera CCMP 1694 that could help elucidate the underlying mechanisms for its ability to biosynthesize HBIs, we discovered the occurrence of independent genes encoding for two isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases (RsIDI1 and RsIDI2) and one squalene synthase (RsSQS), enzymes that catalyze non-consecutive steps in isoprenoid biosynthesis...
September 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Franco R Rossi, Adriana R Krapp, Fabiana Bisaro, Santiago J Maiale, Fernando L Pieckenstain, Néstor Carrillo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play fundamental roles in plant responses to pathogen infection, including modulation of cell death processes and defense-related gene expression. Cell death triggered as part of the hypersensitive response enhances resistance to biotrophic pathogens, but favors virulence of necrotrophs. Even though the involvement of ROS in the orchestration of defense responses is well established, the relative contribution of specific subcellular ROS sources to plant resistance against microorganisms with different pathogenesis strategies is not completely known...
September 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maria Ines Reyes, Miguel A Flores-Vergara, Orlene Guerra-Peraza, Cyprian Rajabu, Jigar Desai, Yokiko H Hiromoto-Ruiz, Joseph Ndunguru, Linda Hanley-Bowdoin, Susanne Kjemtrup, Jose T Ascencio-Ibáñez, Dominique Robertson
Geminiviruses are DNA viruses that cause severe crop losses in different parts of the world, and there is a need for genetic sources of resistance to help combat them. Arabidopsis has been used as a source for virus resistance genes that derive from alterations in essential host factors. We used a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector derived from the geminivirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) to assess natural variation in virus-host interactions in 190 Arabidopsis accessions. Silencing of CH-42, encoding a protein needed to make chlorophyll, was used as a visible marker to discriminate asymptomatic accessions from those showing resistance...
September 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Charlotte Roth, Daniel Lüdke, Melanie Klenke, Annalena Quathamer, Oliver Valerius, Gerhard H Braus, Marcel Wiermer
Importin-α proteins mediate the translocation of nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Genetically, Arabidopsis IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for basal plant immunity and constitutive disease resistance activated in the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), suggesting that MOS6 plays a role in nuclear import of proteins involved in plant defense signaling. Here, we sought to identify and characterize defense-regulatory cargo proteins and interaction partners of MOS6...
September 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yong-Qiang Gao, Wei-Hua Wu, Yi Wang
Stomata are the major gates in plant leaf that allow water and gas exchange, which is essential for plant transpiration and photosynthesis. Stomatal movement is mainly controlled by the ion channels and transporters in guard cells. In Arabidopsis, the inward Shaker K(+) channels, such as KAT1 and KAT2, are responsible for stomatal opening. However, the characterization of inward K(+) channels in maize guard cells is limited. In the present study, we identified two KAT1-like Shaker K(+) channels, KZM2 and KZM3, which were highly expressed in maize guard cells...
September 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Oded Pri-Tal, Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Gil Wiseglass, Zvi Peleg, Assaf Mosquna
Abiotic stresses have severe detrimental effects on agricultural productivity worldwide. ABA levels rise in response to abiotic stresses, and play a role in coordinating physiological responses. ABA elicits its effects by binding a family of soluble receptors, increasing affinity of the receptors to type 2C phosphatases (PP2Cs) leading to phosphatase inhibition. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the ABA signaling pathway in the cereal model grass Brachypodium distachyon. The Brachypodium genome encodes a family of ten functionally conserved ABA receptors...
September 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Alex Schultink, Tiancong Qi, Arielle Lee, Adam D Steinbrenner, Brian Staskawicz
Xanthomonas spp are phytopathogenic bacteria that can cause disease on a wide variety of plant species resulting in significant impacts on crop yields. Limited genetic resistance is available in most crop species and current control methods are often inadequate, particularly when environmental conditions favor disease. The plant Nicotiana benthamiana has been shown to be resistant to Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas due to an immune response triggered by the bacterial effector proteins XopQ and HopQ1, respectively...
September 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhongpeng Li, Shouxin Wu, Junyi Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Jiong Gao, Guodong Ren, Benke Kuai
In seed industry, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence is often used as a major non-invasive reporter of seed maturation and quality. Breakdown of Chl is a proactive process during the late stage of seed maturation as well as during leaf senescence and fruit ripening. However, the biological significance of this process is still unclear. NYE1 and NYE2 are Mg-dechelatases, catalyzing the first also a rate-limiting step of Chl a degradation. Loss-of-function of both NYE1 and NYE2 not only results in a nearly complete retention of Chl during leaf senescence, but also produces green seeds in Arabidopsis...
September 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mohamed Zouine, Elie Maza, Anis Djari, Mattieu Lauvernier, Pierre Frasse, Abdelaziz Smouni, Julien Pirrello, Mondher Bouzayen
The TomExpress platform was developed to provide the tomato research community with a browser and integrated web tools for public RNA-Seq data visualization and data mining. To avoid major biases that can result from the use of different mapping and statistical processing methods, RNA-Seq raw sequence data available in public databases were mapped de novo on a unique tomato reference genome sequence and post-processed using the same pipeline with accurate parameters. Following the calculation of the number of counts per gene in each RNA-Seq sample, a communal global normalization method was applied to all expression values...
September 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Franziska Fichtner, Francois F Barbier, Regina Feil, Mutsumi Watanabe, Maria Grazia Annunziata, Tinashe G Chabikwa, Rainer Höfgen, Mark Stitt, Christine A Beveridge, John E Lunn
Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a signal of sucrose availability in plants, and has been implicated in regulation of shoot branching by the abnormal branching phenotypes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays) mutants with altered Tre6P metabolism. Decapitation of garden pea (Pisum sativum) plants has been proposed to release the dormancy of axillary buds lower down the stem due to changes in sucrose supply, and we hypothesized that this response is mediated by Tre6P. Decapitation led to a rapid and sustained rise in Tre6P levels in axillary buds, coinciding with the onset of bud outgrowth...
September 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Gina M Pham, Linsey Newton, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Brieanne Vaillancourt, David S Douches, C Robin Buell
Relative to homozygous diploids, the presence of multiple homologs or homeologs in polyploids affords greater tolerance to mutations that can impact genome evolution. In this study, we describe sequence and structural variation in the genomes of six accessions of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, and their impact on the transcriptome. Sequence diversity was high with a mean SNP rate of approximately 1 per 50 bases suggestive of high levels of allelic diversity...
September 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ben Lucker, Eliezer Schwartz, Sebastian Kuhlgert, Elisabeth Ostendorf, David M Kramer
Photosynthetic organisms rapidly adjust the capture, transfer and utilization of light energy to optimize the efficiency of photosynthesis and avoid photodamage. These adjustments involve fine tuning of expression levels and mutual interactions among electron/proton transfer components and their associated light harvesting antenna. Detailed studies of these interactions and their dynamics have been hindered by the low throughput and resolution of currently available research tools, which involve laborious isolation, separation and characterization steps...
September 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Pengfei Wang, Xinshi Chen, Cameron Goldbeck, Eric Chung, Byung-Ho Kang
Root border cells lie on the surface of the root cap and secret massive amounts of mucilage that contains polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Golgi stacks in the border cells have hypertrophied margins, reflecting elevated biosynthetic activity to produce the polysaccharide components of the mucilage. To investigate the three-dimensional structures and macromolecular compositions of these Golgi stacks, we examined high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted alfalfa root cap cells with electron microscopy/tomography...
September 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Max E Kraner, Carmen Müller, Uwe Sonnewald
In plants, intercellular communication and exchange are highly dependent on cell wall bridging structures between adhering cells, so-called Plasmodesmata (PD). In our previous genetic screen for PD deficient Arabidopsis mutants, we described choline transporter-like 1 (CHER1) being important for PD genesis and maturation. Leaves of cher1 mutant plants have up to 10-times less PD which do not develop to complex structures. Here we utilize the T-DNA insertion mutant cher1-4 and report a deep comparative proteomic workflow for the identification of cell wall embedded PD-associated proteins...
September 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
S Massoz, M Hanikenne, B Bailleul, N Coosemans, M Radoux, H Miranda-Astudillo, P Cardol, V Larosa, C Remacle
The qualitative screening method to select complex I mutants in the microalga Chlamydomonas, based on reduced growth under heterotrophic condition, is not suited for high throughput screening. In order to develop a fast screening method based on measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, we first demonstrated that complex I mutants displayed decreased photosystem II efficiency in the genetic background of a photosynthetic mutation leading to reduced formation of the electrochemical proton gradient in the chloroplast (pgrl1 mutation)...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Haigang Ma, Jie Chen, Zhenzhen Zhang, Ling Ma, Zeyu Yang, Qinglu Zhang, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Shiping Wang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, with each cascade consisting of a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), a MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and a MAPK, have important roles in different biological processes. However, the signal transduction in rice MAPK cascades remains to be elucidated. We show that the structural non-canonical MAPKK, MPKK10.2, enhances rice resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial streak disease, and increases rice tolerance to drought stress by phosphorylating and activating two MAPKs, MPK6 and MPK3, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Naxin Huo, Lingli Dong, Shengli Zhang, Yi Wang, Tingting Zhu, Toni Mohr, Susan Altenbach, Zhiyong Liu, Jan Dvorak, Olin D Anderson, Ming-Cheng Luo, Daowen Wang, Yong Q Gu
Among the wheat prolamins important for its end-use traits, α-gliadins are the most abundant and also a major cause of food-related allergies and intolerances. Previous studies of various wheat species estimated between 25 to 150 α-gliadin genes reside in the Gli-2 locus regions. To better understand the evolution of this complex gene family, the DNA sequence of a 1.75-Mb genomic region spanning the Gli-2 locus was analyzed in the diploid grass, Aegilops tauschii, the ancestral source of D genome in hexaploid bread wheat...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anja Kögler, Thomas Schmidt, Torsten Wenke
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for the de novo or improvement of annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jose M Celedon, Macaire M S Yuen, Angela Chiang, Hannah Henderson, Karen E Reid, Jörg Bohlmann
Plant defenses often involve specialized cells and tissues. In conifers, specialized cells of the bark are important for defense against insects and pathogens. Using laser microdissection, we characterized the transcriptomes of cortical resin duct cells, phenolic cells, and phloem of white spruce (Picea glauca) bark under constitutive and methyl jasmonate (MeJa)-induced conditions, and we compared these transcriptomes with the transcriptome of the bark tissue-complex. Overall, ~3,700 bark transcripts were differentially expressed in response to MeJa...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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