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Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology

Pengjuan Zu, Florian P Schiestl
Plant height is an important trait for plant reproductive success. Plant height is often under pollinator-mediated selection, and has been shown to be correlated with various other traits. However, few studies have examined the evolutionary trajectory of plant height under selection and the pleiotropic effects of plant height evolution. We conducted a bi-directional artificial selection experiment on plant height with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to estimate its heritability and genetic correlations and to reveal evolutionary responses to artificial selection on height and various correlated traits...
November 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Eva Bauer, Thomas Schmutzer, Ivan Barilar, Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Mihaela M Martis, Sven O Twardziok, Bernd Hackauf, Andres Gordillo, Peer Wilde, Malthe Schmidt, Viktor Korzun, Klaus F X Mayer, Karl Schmid, Chris-Carolin Schön, Uwe Scholz
We report on a whole-genome draft sequence of rye (Secale cereale L.). Rye is a diploid Triticeae species closely related to wheat and barley and an important crop for food and feed in Central and Eastern Europe. Through whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of the 7.9 Gbp genome of the winter rye inbred line Lo7 we obtained a de novo assembly represented by 1.29 million scaffolds covering a total length of 2.8 Gbp. Our reference sequence represents nearly the entire low-copy portion of the rye genome. This genome assembly was used to predict 27,784 rye gene models based on homology to sequenced grass genomes...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Vincent Truffault, Stephen C Fry, Rebecca G Stevens, Hélène Gautier
Ascorbate content in plants is controlled by its synthesis from carbohydrates, recycling of the oxidized forms and degradation. Of these pathways, ascorbate degradation is the least studied and represents a lack of knowledge which could impair improvement of ascorbate content in fruits and vegetables as degradation is non-reversible and leads to a depletion of the ascorbate pool. The present study revealed the nature of degradation products using [(14) C]ascorbate labelling in tomato, a model plant for fleshy fruits; oxalate and threonate are accumulated in leaves, as is oxalyl threonate...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Catherine Espinoza, Yan Liang, Gary Stacey
In nature, plants need to respond to multiple environmental stresses that require involvement and fine-tuning of different stress signaling pathways. Cross-tolerance in which plants pre-treated with chitin (a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern) have improved salt tolerance was observed in Arabidopsis but is not well understood. Here, we show a unique link between chitin and salt signaling mediated by the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1). Transcriptome analysis revealed that salt stress-induced genes are highly correlated with chitin-induced genes, while this was not observed with other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) or with other abiotic stresses...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yinggen Ke, Hanqing Deng, Shiping Wang
Rice diseases caused by multiple pathogen species are a major obstacle to achieving optimal yield. Using host pathogen species-nonspecific broad-spectrum resistance (BSR) for rice improvement is an efficient way to control diseases. Recent advances in rice genomics and improved understanding of the mechanisms of rice-pathogen interactions have shown that using a single gene to improve rice BSR to multiple pathogen species is technically possible and the necessary resources exist. A variety of rice genes, including major disease resistance genes and defense-responsive genes, which function in pattern-triggered immunity signaling, effector-triggered immunity signaling, or quantitative resistance, can mediate BSR to two or more pathogen species independently...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kien Van Vu, Ngoc Trinh Nguyen, Chan Young Jeong, Yong-Hwa Lee, Hojoung Lee, Suk-Whan Hong
Calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) are homologous lectin chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that facilitate glycoprotein folding and retain folding intermediates to prevent their transit via the secretary pathway. The Arabidopsis genome has two CNX (CNX1 and CNX2) and three CRT homologs (CRT1, CRT2, and CRT3). Despite growing evidence of the biological roles of CNXs and CRTs, little is understood about their function in Arabidopsis growth and development under normal conditions. Here, we report that deletion of CNX1, but not of CNX2, in the crt1 crt2 crt3 triple mutation background had adverse effect on pollen viability and pollen tube growth, leading to significant reduction in fertility...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Li-Xia Qin, Yun Chen, Wei Zeng, Yang Li, Lu Gao, Deng-Di Li, Antony Bacic, Wen-Liang Xu, Xue-Bao Li
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins which play pivotal roles in diverse developmental processes in plants. Type II AG glycans, mostly O-linked to the hydroxyproline residues of the protein backbone, account for up to 95% w/w of the AGP, but their functions are still largely unclear. Cotton fibers are extremely elongated single-cell trichomes on the seed epidermis. However, little is known of the molecular basis governing the regulation of fiber cell development. Here, we characterized the role of a CAZy glycosyltransferase (GT) family 31 member GhGalT1 in cotton fiber development...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maho Takahashi, Kana Umetsu, Yutaka Oono, Takumi Higaki, Elison B Blancaflor, Abidur Rahman
2,4-dichlorophanoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a functional analogue of auxin, is used as an exogenous source of auxin as it evokes physiological responses like the endogenous auxin, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Previous molecular analyses of the auxin response pathway revealed that IAA and 2,4-D share a common mode of action to elicit downstream physiological responses. However, recent findings with 2,4-D specific mutants suggested that 2,4-D and IAA might also use distinct pathways to modulate Arabidopsis root growth...
November 25, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sonia Dorion, Audrey Clendenning, Jean Rivoal
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study, we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on the physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity...
November 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anna Piasecka, Aneta Sawikowska, Anetta Kuczyńska, Piotr Ogrodowicz, Krzysztof Mikołajczak, Karolina Krystkowiak, Kornelia Gudyś, Justyna Guzy-Wróbelska, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Kachlicki
Determination of the role of plant secondary metabolites in stress conditions is problematic due to diversity of their structures and complexity of interdependence with different biological pathways. Correlation of the metabolomic data with the genetic background provides essential information on the features of metabolites. LC-MS analysis of leaf metabolites from 100 barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) revealed that 98 traits among 135 detected phenolic and terpenoid compounds significantly changed the level as a result of drought stress...
November 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maria M Alonso-Peral, Marina Trigueros, Bjorg Sherman, Hua Ying, Jennifer M Taylor, W James Peacock, Elizabeth S Dennis
Hybrids between the Arabidopsis ecotypes C24 and Ler have high levels of hybrid vigour, heterosis, in both biomass and seed yield. Heterosis can be detected throughout the development of the plant and in different tissues. We examined developing embryos and seeds of C24/Ler reciprocal hybrids with the aim of detecting the earliest time at which heterotic gene activity occurs. In the transcriptomes of 4 dap (dermatogen to globular) and 6 dap (heart) embryos from both parents and hybrids, 95% of expressed genes were at the Mid Parent Value (MPV) and 95% of the genes with SNPs between C24 and Ler retained the same relative allelic expression levels in the hybrids as existed in the parents...
November 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Rémi Peyraud, Ullrich Dubiella, Adelin Barbacci, Stéphane Genin, Sylvain Raffaele, Dominique Roby
In the past two decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions...
November 21, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ofer Halperin, Alem Gebremedhin, Rony Wallach, Menachem Moshelion
We present a simple and effective high-throughput experimental platform for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of water relations in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum of numerous plants under dynamic environmental conditions. This system provides a simultaneously measured, detailed physiological response profile for each plant in the array, over time periods ranging from a few minutes to the entire growing season, under normal, stress and recovery conditions and at any phenological stage. Three probes for each pot in the array and a specially designed algorithm enable detailed water-relations characterization of whole-plant transpiration, biomass gain, stomatal conductance and root flux...
November 21, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Eugenia M A Enfissi, Marilise Nogueira, Peter M Bramley, Paul D Fraser
Carotenoid biosynthesis in plants includes a complex series of desaturation/isomerisation reactions, catalysed by four independent enzymes. In bacteria and fungi one desaturase/isomerase enzyme completes the same series of reactions. In the present study, a bacterial desaturase (crtI) from Pantoea ananatis has been overexpressed in the tangerine mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) which accumulates cis carotene isomers in the fruit due to a defective isomerase (CRTISO) and the old gold crimson (og(c) ) tomato mutant, which is defective in the fruit-enhanced lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB)...
November 19, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kyle A Pelot, Rod Mitchell, Moonhyuk Kwon, David M Hagelthorn, Jacob F Wardman, Angela Chiang, Jörg Bohlmann, Dae-Kyun Ro, Philipp Zerbe
Salvia divinorum commonly known as diviner's sage, is an ethnomedicinal plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae). S. divinorum is rich in clerodane-type diterpenoids, which accumulate predominantly in leaf glandular trichomes. The main bioactive metabolite, salvinorin A, is the first non-nitrogenous natural compound known to function as an opioid-receptor agonist, and is undergoing clinical trials for potential use in treating neuropsychiatric diseases and drug addictions. We report here the discovery and functional characterization of two S...
November 19, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sigrid Heuer, Roberto Gaxiola, Rhiannon Schilling, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Damar López-Arredondo, Matthias Wissuwa, Emanuel Delhaize, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrients for plants and indispensable for plant growth and development. P deficiency severely limits crop yield and regular fertilizer applications are required to obtain high yields and prevent soil degradation. To access P from the soil, plants have evolved high and low affinity Pi transporters and the ability to induce root architectural changes to forage P. Also, adjustments of numerous cellular processes are triggered by the P starvation response, a tightly regulated process in plants...
November 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maria Emilia Dueñas, Adam T Klein, Liza E Alexander, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young Jin Lee
Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single cell resolution. Here we applied 5 and 10 μm high-spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of maize leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG)...
November 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tobias Würschum, C Friedrich H Longin, Volker Hahn, Matthew R Tucker, Willmar L Leiser
Winter hardiness is important for the adaptation of wheat to the harsh winter conditions in temperate regions and is thus also an important breeding goal. Here, we employed a panel of 407 European winter wheat cultivars to dissect the genetic architecture of winter hardiness. We show that copy number variation (CNV) of CBF genes at the Fr-A2 locus is the essential component for winter survival, with CBF-A14 CNV being the most likely causal polymorphism, accounting for 24.3% of the genotypic variance. Genome-wide association mapping identified several markers in the Fr-A2 chromosomal region, which even after accounting for the effects of CBF-A14 copy number explained approximately 15% of the genotypic variance...
November 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kyonoshin Maruyama, Takuya Ogata, Norihito Kanamori, Kyouko Yoshiwara, Shingo Goto, Yoshiharu Y Yamamoto, Yuko Tokoro, Chihiro Noda, Yuta Takaki, Hiroko Urawa, Satoshi Iuchi, Kaoru Urano, Takuhiro Yoshida, Tetsuya Sakurai, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
Interactions between heat shock factor (HSF) and the heat shock response element (HSE) are important during the heat shock response (HSR) of flora and fauna. Moreover, plant HSFs that are involved in heat stress are also involved in abiotic stresses such as dehydration and cold as well as development, cell differentiation, and proliferation. Because the specific combination of HSFs and HSEs involved in plants under heat stress remains unclear, the mechanism of their interaction has not yet been utilized in plant molecular breeding for climate change...
November 15, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nicholas McGregor, Victor Yin, Ching-Chieh Tung, Filip Van Petegem, Harry Brumer
The xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family encodes enzymes of central importance to plant cell wall remodelling. The evolutionary history of plant XTH gene products is incompletely understood vis-à-vis the larger body of bacterial endo-glycanases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 (GH16). To provide molecular insight into this issue, high-resolution X-ray crystal structures and detailed enzyme kinetics of an extant transitional plant endo-glucanase (EG) were determined. Functionally intermediate between plant XTH gene products and bacterial licheninases of GH16, Vitis vinifera EG16 (VvEG16) effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of the backbones of two dominant plant cell wall matrix glycans, xyloglucan (XyG) and β(1,3)/β(1,4)-mixed-linkage glucan (MLG)...
November 15, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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