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Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430402/a-removable-virus-vector-suitable-for-plant-genome-editing
#1
Tetsuya Chujo, Manabu Yoshikawa, Hirotaka Ariga, Masaki Endo, Seiichi Toki, Kazuhiro Ishibashi
Plant genome editing is achieved by expression of sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs). RNA virus vector-mediated expression of SSNs is a promising approach for transgene integration-free targeted mutagenesis in plants. However, removal of virus vectors from infected plants is challenging because no antiviral drugs against plant viruses are available. Here, we developed a removable RNA virus vector that carries the target site of tobacco microRNA398 (miR398) whose expression is induced during shoot regeneration...
April 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423470/quantification-of-near-attomole-gibberellins-in-floral-organs-dissected-from-single-arabidopsis-thaliana-flower
#2
Dongmei Li, Zhenpeng Guo, Cuimei Liu, Jincheng Li, Wenzhong Xu, Yi Chen
There remains a methodological bottleneck in the quantification of ultra-trace plant hormones in very tiny plant organs at a fresh weights below milligram. The challenge becomes even more serious in the determination of endogenous gibberellins (GAs), which are a class of compounds that are difficult to separate and detect. Herein, a quantitation method by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, combined with a derivatization technique in which GAs react with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide in ethanol...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423458/dissecting-virulence-function-from-recognition-cell-death-suppression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-by-xopq-hopq1-family-effectors-relies-on-eds1-dependent-immunity
#3
Norman Adlung, Ulla Bonas
Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria express effector proteins of the XopQ/HopQ1 family which are translocated into plant cells via the type III secretion system during infection. In Nicotiana benthamiana, recognition of XopQ/HopQ1 proteins induces an effector-triggered immunity (ETI) reaction which is not associated with strong cell death but renders plants immune against Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Additionally, XopQ suppresses cell death in N. benthamiana when transiently co-expressed with cell death inducers...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423209/r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-mdmyb73-is-involved-in-malate-accumulation-and-vacuolar-acidification-in-apple
#4
Da-Gang Hu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Quan-Yan Zhang, Ming Li, Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Yu-Jin Hao
Malate, the predominant organic acid in many fruits, is a crucial component of fruit organoleptic quality, including taste and flavor. The genetic and environmental mechanisms affecting malate metabolism in fruit cells have been studied extensively. However, the transcriptional regulation of malate-metabolizing enzymes and vacuolar transporters remains poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that MdMYB1 modulates anthocyanin accumulation and vacuolar acidification, by directly activating vacuolar transporters, including MdVHA-B1, MdVHA-E, MdVHP1, and MdtDT...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419597/growth-rate-correlates-negatively-with-protein-turnover-in-arabidopsis-accessions
#5
Hirofumi Ishihara, Thiago Alexandre Moraes, Eva-Theresa Pyl, Waltraud X Schulze, Toshihiro Obata, André Scheffel, Alisdair R Fernie, Ronan Sulpice, Mark Stitt
Previous studies with Arabidopsis accessions revealed biomass correlates negatively to dusk starch content and total protein, and positively to the maximum activities of enzymes in photosynthesis. We hypothesised that large accessions have lower ribosome abundance and lower rates of protein synthesis, and that this is compensated by lower rates of protein degradation. This would increase growth efficiency and allow more investment in photosynthetic machinery. We analysed ribosome abundance and polysome loading in 19 accessions, modelled the rates of protein synthesis and compared them with the observed rate of growth...
April 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419593/protein-sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-intersect-in-arabidopsis-signaling
#6
Ella Nukarinen, Konstantin Tomanov, Ionida Ziba, Wolfram Weckwerth, Andreas Bachmair
Conjugation of the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO to protein substrates impacts on stress responses and on development. We analyzed the proteome and phosphoproteome of mutants in this pathway. Mutants chosen had defects in SUMO ligase SIZ1, which catalyzes attachment of single SUMO moieties onto substrates, and in ligases PIAL1 and 2, which are known to form SUMO chains. 2657 proteins and 550 phosphopeptides were identified and quantified. Approximately 40% of the proteins and 20% of the phosphopeptides showed abundance differences in at least one of the analyzed genotypes, demonstrating the influence of SUMO conjugation on protein abundance and phosphorylation...
April 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419587/oligogalacturonide-derived-molecular-probe-demonstrates-the-dynamics-of-calcium-mediated-pectin-complexation-in-cell-walls-of-tip-growing-structures
#7
Jozef Mravec, Stjepan K Kračun, Maja G Rydahl, Bjørge Westereng, Daniela Pontiggia, Giulia De Lorenzo, David S Domozych, William G T Willats
Pectic homogalacturonan (HG) is one of the main constituents of plant cell walls. When processed to low degrees of esterification, HG can form complexes with divalent calcium ions. These macromolecular structures (also called egg boxes) play an important role in determining cell wall biomechanics and in mediating cell-to-cell adhesion. Current immunological methods enable only steady-state detection of egg box formation in situ. Here we present a tool for efficient real-time visualisation of available sites for HG crosslinking within cell wall microdomains...
April 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407383/msh1-maintains-organelle-genome-stability-and-genetically-interacts-with-reca-and-recg-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#8
Masaki Odahara, Yoshihito Kishita, Yasuhiko Sekine
Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA encodes genes essential for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Thus, loss of organelle genomic DNA integrity leads to a decline in organelle function and to alteration of organelle genetic information. RECA (RECA1 and RECA2) and RECG, which are homologs of bacterial homologous recombination repair (HRR) factors RecA and RecG, respectively, play an important role in the maintenance of organelle genome integrity by suppressing aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats (SDRs) in the moss Physcomitrella patens...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407380/n-glycan-maturation-mutants-in-lotus-japonicus-for-basic-and-applied-glycoprotein-research
#9
Carina T Pedersen, Ian Loke, Andrea Lorentzen, Sara Wolf, Manoj Kamble, Sebastian K Kristensen, David Munch, Simona Radutoiu, Edzard Spillner, Peter Roepstorff, Morten Thaysen-Andersen, Jens Stougaard, Svend Dam
Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicus LORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of one of the twelve enzymes required for normal N-glycan maturation in the glycosylation machinery. The inactivation of the individual genes resulted in altered N-glycan patterns as documented using mass spectrometry and glycan-recognising antibodies, indicating successful identification of null-mutations in the target glyco-genes...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407373/activation-of-the-arabidopsis-membrane-bound-transcription-factor-bzip28-is-mediated-by-site-2-protease-but-not-site-1-protease
#10
Yuji Iwata, Makoto Ashida, Chisa Hasegawa, Kazuki Tabara, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba, Nozomu Koizumi
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic cellular response conserved in eukaryotic cells to alleviate the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Arabidopsis bZIP28 is a membrane-bound transcription factor activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to ER stress, thereby releasing its cytosolic portion containing the bZIP domain from the membrane to translocate into the nucleus where it induces the transcription of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407323/proteogenomic-analysis-reveals-alternative-splicing-and-translation-as-part-of-the-abscisic-acid-response-in-arabidopsis-seedlings
#11
Fu-Yuan Zhu, Mo-Xian Chen, Neng-Hui Ye, Lu Shi, Kai-Long Ma, Jing-Fang Yang, Yun-Ying Cao, Youjun Zhang, Takuya Yoshida, Alisdair R Fernie, Guang-Yi Fan, Bo Wen, Ruo Zhou, Tie-Yuan Liu, Tao Fan, Bei Gao, Di Zhang, Ge-Fei Hao, Shi Xiao, Ying-Gao Liu, Jianhua Zhang
In eukaryotes, mechanisms such as alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI) contribute to organismal protein diversity. Specifically, splicing factors play crucial roles in responses to environment and development cues. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well investigated in plants. Here, we report the parallel employment of short-read RNA sequencing, single molecule long-read sequencing and proteomic identification to unravel AS isoforms and previously unannotated proteins in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394446/laser-ablation-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-with-ion-mobility-separation-reveals-metabolites-in-the-symbiotic-interactions-of-soybean-roots-and-rhizobia
#12
Sylwia A Stopka, Beverly J Agtuca, David W Koppenaal, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Akos Vertes, Christopher R Anderton
Technologies enabling in situ metabolic profiling of living plant systems are invaluable for understanding physiological processes and could be used for rapid phenotypic screening (e.g., to produce plants with superior biological nitrogen fixing ability). The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria results in a specialized plant organ (i.e., root nodule) where the exchange of nutrients between host and endosymbiont occurs. Laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) is a method that can be performed under ambient conditions requiring minimal sample preparation...
April 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390103/asn1-encoded-asparagine-synthetase-in-floral-organs-contributes-to-nitrogen-filling-in-arabidopsis-seeds
#13
Laure Gaufichon, Anne Marmagne, Katia Belcram, Tadakatsu Yoneyama, Yukiko Sakakibara, Toshiharu Hase, Olivier Grandjean, Clément Gilles, Sylvie Citerne, Stéphanie Boutet-Mercey, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Fabien Chardon, Fabienne Soulay, Xiaole Xu, Marion Trassaert, Maryam Shakiebaei, Amina Najihi, Akira Suzuki
Despite a general view that asparagine synthetase generates asparagine as a long-distance nitrogen transport amino acid to sink organs, its role in nitrogen metabolic pathways in floral organs during seed nitrogen filling has remained undefined. We demonstrate that onset of pollination in Arabidopsis induces selected genes of asparagine metabolism particularly at ovule stage (stage 0): ASN1 (At3g47340), GLN2 (At5g35630), GLU1 (At5g04140), AapAT2 (At5g19950), ASPGA1 (At5g08100) and ASPGB1 (At3g16150), which accompanies enhanced asparagine synthetase protein, asparagine and total amino acids...
April 8, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390076/sugar-and-hexokinase-suppress-expression-of-pip-aquaporins-and-reduce-leaf-hydraulics-that-preserves-leaf-water-potential
#14
Gilor Kelly, Nir Sade, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Stephen Lerner, Arava Shatil-Cohen, Yelena Yeselson, Aiman Egbaria, Jayaram Kottapalli, Arthur A Schaffer, Menachem Moshelion, David Granot
Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1)...
April 8, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387959/high-quality-genome-assembly-of-capsella-bursa-pastoris-reveals-asymmetry-of-regulatory-elements-at-early-stages-of-polyploid-genome-evolution
#15
Artem S Kasianov, Anna V Klepikova, Ivan V Kulakovskiy, Evgeny S Gerasimov, Anna V Fedotova, Elizaveta G Besedina, Alexey S Kondrashov, Maria D Logacheva, Aleksey A Penin
Polyploidization and subsequent sub- and neofunctionalization of duplicated genes represent a major mechanism of plant genome evolution. Capsella bursa-pastoris, a widespread ruderal plant, is a recent allotetraploid, and, thus, is an ideal model organism for studying early changes following polyploidization. We constructed a high-quality assembly of C. bursa-pastoris genome and a transcriptome atlas covering a broad sample of organs and developmental stages (available online at http://travadb.org/browse/Species=Cbp)...
April 7, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380280/alcohol-acyl-transferase-1-links-two-distinct-volatile-pathways-that-produce-esters-and-phenylpropenes-in-apple-fruit
#16
Yar-Khing Yauk, Edwige J F Souleyre, Adam J Matich, Xiuyin Chen, Mindy Y Wang, Blue Plunkett, Andrew P Dare, Richard V Espley, Sumathi Tomes, David Chagné, Ross G Atkinson
Fruit accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including esters and phenylpropenes. Volatile esters are synthesised via fatty acid degradation or from amino acid precursors with the final step being catalysed by alcohol acyl transferases (AATs). Phenylpropenes are produced as a side branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. Major QTLs on apple (Malus x domestica) LG2 for production of the phenylpropene estragole and volatile esters (including 2-methylbutyl acetate and hexyl acetate) both co-located with the MdAAT1 gene...
April 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380278/chloroplastic-atp-synthase-builds-up-proton-motive-force-for-preventing-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-photosystem-i
#17
Daisuke Takagi, Katsumi Amako, Masaki Hashiguchi, Hidehiro Fukaki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Goh Tatsuaki, Yoichiro Fukao, Ryosuke Sano, Tetsuya Kurata, Taku Demura, Shinichiro Sawa, Chikahiro Miyake
Over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain should be avoided because the accumulation of reducing electron carriers produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) within photosystem I (PSI) in thylakoid membranes and causes oxidative damage to chloroplasts. For preventing ROS production in thylakoid membranes, H(+) gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) needs to be built up to suppress the over-reduction state of the PET chain. In this study, we aimed to identify the critical component that stimulates ΔpH formation under illumination in higher plants...
April 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378460/chlorosis-caused-by-two-recessively-interacting-genes-reveals-a-role-of-rna-helicase-in-hybrid-breakdown-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Björn Plötner, Markus Nurmi, Axel Fischer, Mutsumi Watanabe, Korbinian Schneeberger, Svante Holm, Neha Vaid, Mark Aurel Schöttler, Dirk Walther, Rainer Hoefgen, Detlef Weigel, Roosa A E Laitinen
Hybrids often differ in fitness from their parents. They may be superior, translating into hybrid vigour or heterosis, but they may also be markedly inferior, because of hybrid weakness or incompatibility. The underlying genetic causes for the latter can often be traced back to genes that evolve rapidly because of sexual or host-pathogen conflicts. Hybrid weakness may manifest itself only in later generations, in a phenomenon called hybrid breakdown. We have characterized a case of hybrid breakdown among two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Shahdara (Sha, Tajikistan) and Lövvik-5 (Lov-5, Northern Sweden)...
April 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378445/rice-no-pollen-1-np1-is-required-for-anther-cuticle-formation-and-pollen-exine-patterning
#19
Ze Liu, Sen Lin, Jianxin Shi, Jing Yu, Lu Zhu, Xiujuan Yang, Dabing Zhang, Wanqi Liang
Angiosperm male reproductive organs (anthers and pollen grains) have complex and interesting morphological features, but mechanisms that underlie their patterning are poorly understood. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a male sterile mutant of No Pollen 1 (NP1) in rice (Oryza sativa). The np1-4 mutant exhibited smaller anthers with a smooth cuticle surface, abnormal Ubisch bodies, and aborted pollen grains covered with irregular exine. Wild-type exine has two continuous layers; but np1-4 exine showed a discontinuous structure with large granules of varying size...
April 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370754/differences-and-commonalities-of-plant-responses-to-single-and-combined-stresses
#20
Haina Zhang, Uwe Sonnewald
In natural or agricultural environments, plants are constantly exposed to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Given the forecasted global climate changes plants will cope with heat waves, drought periods and pathogens at the same time or consecutively. Heat and drought cause opposing physiological responses, while pathogens may or may not profit from climate changes depending on their lifestyle. Several studies have been conducted to find stress-specific signatures or stress-independent commonalities...
April 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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