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Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology

Xueqin Lv, Yanping Jing, Jianwei Xiao, Yongdeng Zhang, Yingfang Zhu, Russell Julian, Jinxing Lin
Arabidopsis hypersensitive induced reaction (AtHIR) proteins function in plant innate immunity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which AtHIRs participate in plant immunity remain elusive. Here, using VA-TIRFM and FLIM-FRET, we revealed that AtHIR1 is present in membrane microdomains and co-localizes with the membrane microdomain marker REM1.3. Single-particle tracking analysis revealed that membrane microdomains and the cytoskeleton, especially microtubules, restrict the lateral mobility of AtHIR1 at the plasma membrane and facilitate its oligomerization...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yamuna Somaratne, Youhui Tian, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Yanqing Huo, Fengge Cao, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are the major protective barriers against various stresses. The proper functioning of genes expressed in the tapetum is vital for the development of pollen exine and anther cuticle. In this study, we report a tapetum-specific gene, Abnormal Pollen Vacuolation1 (APV1), in maize that affects anther cuticle and pollen exine formation. The apv1 mutant was completely male sterile. Its microspores were swollen, less vacuolated, with a flat and empty anther locule. In the mutant, the anther epidermal surface was smooth, shiny, and plate-shaped compared with the three-dimensional crowded ridges and randomly formed wax crystals on the epidermal surface of the wild type...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Gregory N Thyssen, David D Fang, Rickie B Turley, Christopher B Florane, Ping Li, Christopher P Mattison, Marina Naoumkina
Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly-elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon-lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865)...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Shiwei Liu, Yihui Liu, Jiawei Zhao, Shitao Cai, Hongmei Qian, Kaijing Zuo, Lingxia Zhao, Lida Zhang
Rice is one of the most important staple foods for more than half of the world's population. Many rice traits are quantitative, complex and controlled by multiple interacting genes. Thus, a full understanding of genetic relationships will be critical to systematically identify genes controlling agronomic traits. We developed a genome-wide rice protein-protein interaction network (RicePPINet, using machine-learning with structural relationship and functional information...
January 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Massimo Minervini, Mario Valerio Giuffrida, Pierdomenico Perata, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
Phenotyping is important to understand plant biology but current solutions are either costly, not versatile or difficult to deploy. To solve this problem, we present Phenotiki, an affordable system for plant phenotyping which, relying on off-the-shelf parts, provides an easy to install and maintain platform, offering an out-of-box experience for a well established phenotyping need: imaging rosette-shaped plants. The accompanying software (with available source code) processes data originating from our device seamlessly and automatically...
January 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Junjie Wang, Qiuqiang Hou, Penghui Li, Lina Yang, Xuecheng Sun, Vagner A Benedito, Jiangqi Wen, Beibei Chen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jian Zhao
The MATE transporter family comprises 70 members in the Medicago truncatula genome, and they play seemingly important, yet mostly uncharacterized, physiological functions. Here, we employed bioinformatics and molecular genetics to identify and characterize MATE transporters involved in citric acid export, Al(3+) tolerance and Fe translocation. MtMATE69 is a citric acid transporter induced by Fe-deficiency. Overexpression of MtMATE69 in hairy roots altered Fe homeostasis and hormone levels under Fe-deficient or Fe-oversupplied conditions...
January 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jessica M Guseman, Kevin Webb, Chinnathambi Srinivasan, Chris Dardick
Roots provide essential uptake of water and nutrients from the soil, as well as anchorage and stability for the whole plant. Root orientation, or angle, is an important component of the overall architecture and depth of the root system, however little is known about the genetic control of this trait. Recent reports in rice identified a role for DEEPER ROOTING 1(DRO1) in influencing the orientation of the root system, leading to positive changes in grain yields under drought conditions. Here we found that DRO1 and DRO1-related genes are present across diverse plant phyla and fall within the IGT gene family...
December 28, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael Pacher, Holger Puchta
The production of mutants of crop plants by the use of chemical or physical genotoxins has a long tradition. These factors induce the natural DNA repair machinery to repair damages in an error-prone way. In case of radiation, multiple double strand breaks (DSBs) are induced randomly in the genome, leading in very rare cases to a desirable phenotype. In recent years the use of synthetic, site directed nucleases (SDNs), also referred to as sequence specific nucleases (SSNs), like the CRISPR/Cas system, enabled scientists to use exactly the same naturally occurring DNA repair mechanisms for the controlled induction of genomic changes at predefined sites in plant genomes...
December 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Daisuke Todaka, Yu Zhao, Takuya Yoshida, Madoka Kudo, Satoshi Kidokoro, Junya Mizoi, Ken-Suke Kodaira, Yumiko Takebayashi, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kiminori Toyooka, Mayuko Sato, Alisdair R Fernie, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
To analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying plant responses to different levels of drought stress, we developed a soil matric potential (SMP)-based irrigation system that precisely controls soil moisture. Using this system, rice seedlings were grown under three different drought levels, denoted Md1, Md2 and Md3, with SMP values set to -9.8, -31.0, and -309.9 kPa, respectively. Although the Md1 treatment did not alter the visible phenotype, the Md2 treatment caused stomatal closure and shoot growth retardation (SGR)...
December 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Martina Legris, Cristina Nieto, Romina Sellaro, Salomé Prat, Jorge J Casal
Light and temperature patterns often correlate in natural plant growth conditions. In this review, we analyse the perception and signalling mechanisms shared by both of these environmental cues and discuss the functional implications of their convergence to control plant growth. The first point of integration is the phytochrome B (phyB) receptor, which senses light and temperature. Downstream of phyB, the signalling core comprises two branches, one that involves PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and the other, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5)...
December 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Qing Ma, Jing Hu, Xiang-Rui Zhou, Hui-Jun Yuan, Tanweer Kumar, Sheng Luan, Suo-Min Wang
The inward rectifying K(+) channel AKT1 constitutes an important pathway for K(+) acquisition in plant roots. In glycophytes, excessive accumulation of Na(+) is accompanied by K(+) deficiency under salt stress. However, in the succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum, which exhibits excellent adaptability to adverse environments, K(+) concentration remains at a relatively constant level despite increased levels of Na(+) under salinity and drought conditions. In this study, the contribution of ZxAKT1 to maintaining K(+) and Na(+) homeostasis in Z...
December 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tamara Muñoz-Nortes, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez, María Rosa Ponce, Héctor Candela, José Luis Micol
The characterization of mutants with altered leaf shape and pigmentation has previously allowed the identification of nuclear genes that encode plastid-localized proteins that perform essential functions in leaf growth and development. A large-scale screen previously allowed us to isolate ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants with small rosettes and pale green leaves with prominent marginal teeth, which were assigned to a phenotypic class that we dubbed Angulata. The molecular characterization of the twelve genes assigned to this phenotypic class should help us to advance our understanding of the still poorly understood relationship between chloroplast biogenesis and leaf morphogenesis...
December 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xueyun Hu, Mike T Page, Akihiro Sumida, Ayumi Tanaka, Matthew J Terry, Ryouichi Tanaka
Proteins that contain iron-sulfur clusters play pivotal roles in various metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis and redox metabolism. Among the proteins involved in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters in plants, the SUFB subunit of the SUFBCD complex appears unique because SUFB has been reported to be involved in chlorophyll metabolism and phytochrome-mediated signaling. To gain insights into the function of the SUFB protein, we analyzed the phenotypes of two SUFB mutants, laf6 and hmc1, and RNAi lines with reduced SUFB expression...
December 22, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Chaowen Xiao, William J Barnes, M Shafayet Zamil, Hojae Yi, Virendra M Puri, Charles T Anderson
Pectin is the most abundant component of primary cell walls in eudicot plants. The modification and degradation of pectin affects multiple processes during plant development, including cell expansion, organ initiation, and cell separation. However, the extent to which pectin degradation by polygalacturonases affects stem development and secondary wall formation remains unclear. Using an activation tag screen, we identified a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with longer etiolated hypocotyls, which overexpresses a gene encoding a polygalacturonase...
December 22, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kaeli C M Johnson, Jin Zhao, Zhongshou Wu, Charlotte Roth, Volker Lipka, Marcel Wiermer, Xin Li
Stringent modulation of immune signaling in plants is necessary to enable rapid response to pathogen attack without spurious defense activation. To identify genes involved in plant immunity, a forward genetic screen for enhancers of the autoimmune snc1 (suppressor of npr1, constitutive 1) mutant was conducted. The snc1 mutant contains a gain-of-function mutation in a gene encoding a NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein. The isolated muse7 (mutant, snc1-enhancing, 7) mutant was shown to confer a reversion to autoimmune phenotypes in the wild-type-like mos4 (modifier of snc1, 4) snc1 background...
December 22, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lee J Sweetlove, Jens Nielsen, Alisdair R Fernie
The goal of increasing crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency is being addressed by a number of ambitious research projects seeking to re-engineer photosynthetic biochemistry. Many of these projects will require the engineering of substantial changes in fluxes of central metabolism. However, as has been amply demonstrated in simpler systems such as microbes, central metabolism is extremely difficult to rationally engineer. This is because of multiple layers of regulation that operate to maintain metabolic steady state and because of the highly connected nature of central metabolism...
December 22, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Feng Wang, Michael J Axtell
In plants, 24 nucleotide long heterochromatic siRNAs (het-siRNAs) transcriptionally regulate gene expression by RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). The biogenesis of most het-siRNAs depends on the plant-specific RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), and ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4) is a major het-siRNA effector protein. Through genome-wide analysis of sRNA-seq data sets, we found that AGO4 is required for the accumulation of a small subset of het-siRNAs. The accumulation of AGO4-dependent het-siRNAs also requires several factors known to participate in the effector portion of the RdDM pathway, including RNA POLYMERASE V (POL V), DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2) and SAWADEE HOMEODOMAIN HOMOLOG 1 (SHH1)...
December 21, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yongping Li, Cheng Dai, Chungen Hu, Zhongchi Liu, Chunying Kang
Alternative splicing (AS) is a key post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, yet little is known about its roles in fruit crops. Here, AS was globally analyzed in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca genome with RNA-seq data derived from different stages of fruit development. The AS landscape was characterized and compared between the single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) and Illumina RNA-seq platform. While SMRT has a lower sequencing depth, it identifies more genes undergoing AS (57.67% of detected multiexon genes) when it is compared with Illumina (33...
December 20, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kaoru Urano, Kyonoshin Maruyama, Yusuke Jikumaru, Yuji Kamiya, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo Shinozaki
Plant responses to dehydration stress are mediated by highly complex molecular systems involving hormone signaling and metabolism, particularly the major stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA-dependent gene expression. To understand the roles of plant hormones and their interactions during dehydration, we analyzed the plant hormone profiles with respect to dehydration responses in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) plants and ABA biosynthesis mutants (nced3-2). We developed a procedure for moderate dehydration stress, and then investigated temporal changes in the profiles of ABA, jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA), cytokinin (trans-zeatin, tZ), auxin (indole-acetic acid, IAA), and gibberellin (GA4 ), along with temporal changes in the expression of key genes involved in hormone biosynthesis...
December 20, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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