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Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology

Beata Kmiec, Rui M M Branca, Oliver Berkowitz, Lu Li, Yan Wang, Monika W Murcha, James Whelan, Janne Lehtiö, Elzbieta Glaser, Pedro F Teixeira
The stepwise degradation of peptides to amino acids in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts is catalyzed by a network of oligopeptidases (presequence protease PreP, organellar oligopeptidase OOP) and aminopeptidases. In the present report, we show that the lack of oligopeptidase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the accumulation of endogenous free peptides, mostly of chloroplastic origin (targeting peptides and degradation products). Using mRNA sequencing and deep coverage proteomics, allowing for the identification of 17000 transcripts and 11000 proteins, respectively, we uncover a peptide-stress response occurring in plants lacking PreP and OOP oligopeptidase activity...
September 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Saet Buyl Lee, Mi-Chung Suh
The hydrophobic biopolymer suberin, which is deposited in the root endodermis and seed coats, functions as an extracellular barrier against uncontrolled water, gas, and ion loss. Suberin monomers synthesized in the ER are exported through the plasma membrane to the apoplast. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying suberin monomer export and assembly. In this study, we investigated the in planta role of LTPG15 encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein...
September 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
John Ohlrogge, Nick Thrower, Vandana Mhaske, Sten Stymne, Melissa Baxter, Weili Yang, Jinjie Liu, Kathleen Shaw, Basil Shorrosh, Meng Zhang, Curtis Wilkerson, Bertrand Matthäus
Over 450 structurally distinct fatty acids are synthesized by plants. We have developed PlantFAdb. org, an internet-based database that allows users to search and display fatty acid composition data for over 9000 plants. PlantFAdb includes more than 17,000 data tables from >3000 publications and hundreds of unpublished analyses. A unique feature allows users to easily explore chemotaxonomic relationships between fatty acid structures and plant species by displaying these relationships on dynamic phylogenetic trees...
September 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhong-Qi Fan, Liang-Jie Ba, Wei Shan, Xiao Yun-Yi, Lu Wang-Jin, Kuang Jian-Fei, Chen Jian-Ye
Starch degradation is a necessary process determining banana fruit quality during ripening. Many starch degradation-related genes are well studied. However, the transcriptional regulation of starch degradation during banana fruit ripening remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified a MYB transcription factor (TF) termed MaMYB3, as a putative protein binding the promoter of MaGWD1, a member of glucan water dikinase (GWD) family which has been demonstrated as an important enzyme of starch degradation...
September 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Damián A Cambiagno, Florencia Nota, Diego Zavallo, Sebastián Rius, Paula Casati, Sebastián Asurmendi, María E Alvarez
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLR) are major components of the plant immune system responsible for pathogen detection. To date, the transcriptional regulation of PRR/NLR genes is poorly understood. Some PRR/NLR genes are affected by epigenetic changes of neighboring transposable elements (TEs) (cis-regulation). We analyzed whether these genes can also respond to changes in the epigenetic marks of distal pericentromeric TEs (trans-regulation). We found that Arabidopsis tissues infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv...
September 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hirokazu Handa, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Kazuki Murata, Fuminori Kobayashi, Stephen J Robinson, Chu Shin Koh, Curtis J Pozniak, Andrew G Sharpe, Etienne Paux, Iwgsc International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, Jianzhong Wu, Shuhei Nasuda
The reference genome sequence of wheat 'Chinese Spring' (CS) is now available (IWGSC RefSeq v1.0), but the core sequences defining the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) have not been characterized. We estimated that the total copy number of the rDNA units in the wheat genome is 11,160, of which 30.5%, 60.9% and 8.6% are located on Nor-B1 (1B), Nor-B2 (6B) and other NORs, respectively. The total lengths of NORs are estimated to be 100 Mb, corresponding to approximately 10% of the unassembled portion of the genome not represented in RefSeq v1...
September 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Chuanying Fang, Jie Luo
Plants have served as sources providing the human with metabolites for food and nutrition, biomaterials for the living, and treatment of pain and disease. Plants produce a huge array of metabolites, with immense diversity at both the population and individual levels. Dissection of the genetic bases for metabolic diversity has attracted increasing research attention. The concept of genome-wide association study (GWAS) was extended to the studies on the diversity of plant metabolome, beneficial from the development of mass-spectrometry-based analytical systems and genome sequencing technologies...
September 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zitong Yu, Shahidul Islam, Maoyun She, Dean Diepeveen, Yujuan Zhang, Guixiang Tang, Jingjuan Zhang, Angela Juhasz, Rongchang Yang, Wujun Ma
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield and grain protein content are negatively correlated, making the simultaneous increase of the two traits challenging. Apart from genetic approaches, modifying nitrogen fertilization offers a feasible option to achieve this aim. In this study, a range of traits related to nitrogen use efficiency in six Australian bread wheat varieties were investigated under different nitrogen treatments using three-year multisite field trials. The changes in the individual storage protein composition content were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography technology...
September 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yaacov Micha Brog, Sonia Osorio, Yoav Yichie, Saleh Alseekh, Elad Bensal, Kochevenko Andriy, Dani Zamir, Alisdair R Fernie
We present a complementary resource for trait fine-mapping in tomato to those based on the intraspecific cross between cultivated tomato and the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii which have been extensively used for quantitative genetics in tomato over the last twenty years. The current population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 107 lines derived after three backcrosses of progeny of the of the wild species S. neorickii (LA2133) and cultivated tomato (cultivar TA209) and is freely available to the scientific community...
September 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Shoji Sugano, Satoru Maeda, Nagao Hayashi, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Haruhiko Inoue, Chang-Jie Jiang, Hiroshi Takatsuji, Masaki Mori
Plants have evolved many receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) to modulate their growth, development, and innate immunity. Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice RLCK whose overexpression confers resistance to multiple diseases, including fungal rice blast and bacterial leaf blight; however, the mechanisms underlying the resistance remain largely unknown. In the present study, we report that BSR1 is a functional protein kinase that autophosphorylates and transphosphorylates an artificial substrate, in vitro...
September 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Eric L Patterson, Amit J Jhala, Suat Irmak, Keenan Amundsen, Stevan Z Knezevic
Pollen-mediated gene (PMGF) flow might play an important role in dispersing herbicide resistance alleles in dioecious weedy Amaranthus species. Field experiments in a concentric donor-receptor design were conducted to quantify two sets of PMGF studies, an interspecific (Amaranthus tuberculatus × A. palmeri) and an intraspecific (A. tuberculatus × A. tuberculatus). In both studies, PMGF were evaluated using a resistant A. tuberculatus phenotype with enhanced mesotrione detoxification via P450 enzymes as a source of resistance alleles...
September 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Di Fan, Xianqiang Wang, Xiaofeng Tang, Xiao Ye, Sha Ren, Denghui Wang, Keming Luo
Anthocyanins are involved in several aspects of development and defence in poplar (Populus spp.). Although, in the past decades, significant progress has been made in uncovering the anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory mechanisms, the fundamental understanding of the epigenetic regulation in this pathway is still largely unknown. Here, we isolated a histone H3K9 demethylase gene JMJ25 from Populus and characterized its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis by genetic and biochemical approaches. JMJ25 was induced by continuous dark treatment...
September 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yu-Chi Liu, Ying-Chen Lin, Kazue Kanehara, Yuki Nakamura
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is a predominant membrane lipid class in eukaryotes. The phospho-base N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes a critical step in PtdCho biosynthesis; however, an involvement of specific PMT isoform in PtdCho biosynthesis remains elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that PMT1 and PMT3 redundantly play an essential role in phosphocholine (PCho) biosynthesis, a prerequisite for PtdCho production. The pmt1 pmt3 double mutant was devoid of PCho and affected PtdCho biosynthesis in vivo, showing severe growth defect in postembryonic development...
September 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Evan Angelos, Federica Brandizzi
In all eukaryotes, the unfolded protein response (UPR) relieves endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is a potentially lethal condition caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. In mammalian and yeast cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ER stress attenuate the UPR, negatively impacting cell survival. In plants, the relationship between the UPR and ROS is less clear. Although ROS develop during ER stress, the sources of ROS linked to ER stress responses and the physiological impact of ROS generation on the survival from proteotoxic stress are yet unknown...
September 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Julien Sechet, Soe Htwe, Breeanna Urbanowicz, Abigail Agyeman, Wei Feng, Toshiki Ishikawa, Marianne Colomes, Kavitha Satish Kumar, Maki Kawai-Yamada, José R Dinneny, Malcolm A O'Neill, Jenny C Mortimer
Boron is a micronutrient that is required for the normal growth and development of vascular plants, but its precise functions remain a subject of debate. One established role for boron is in the cell wall where it forms a diester cross-link between two monomers of the low-abundance pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). The inability of RG-II to properly assemble into a dimer results in the formation of cell walls with abnormal biochemical and biomechanical properties and severely impacts plant productivity...
September 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kadri Tõldsepp, Jingbo Zhang, Yohei Takahashi, Yana Sindarovska, Hanna Hõrak, Paulo H O Ceciliato, Kaspar Koolmeister, Yuh-Shuh Wang, Lauri Vaahtera, Liina Jakobson, Chung-Yueh Yeh, Jiyoung Park, Mikael Brosche, Hannes Kollist, Julian I Schroeder
Respiration in leaves and the continued elevation in the atmospheric CO2 concentration cause CO2 -mediated reduction in stomatal pore apertures. Several mutants have been isolated for which stomatal responses to both abscisic acid (ABA) and CO2 are simultaneously defective. However, there are only few mutations that impair the stomatal response to elevated CO2 , but not to ABA. Such mutants are invaluable in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of early CO2 signal transduction in guard cells. Recently, mutations in the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) kinase, MPK12, have been shown to partially impair CO2 -induced stomatal closure...
September 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Arjun Sukumaran, Tim McDowell, Ling Chen, Justin Renaud, Sangeeta Dhaubhadel
Phytoalexin glyceollins are soybean-specific antimicrobial compounds which are derived from the isoflavonoid pathway. They are synthesized by soybean in response to extrinsic stress such as pathogen attack or injury, thereby conferring partial resistance if synthesized rapidly at the site of infection and at the required concentration. Soybean produces multiple forms of glyceollins that result from the differential prenylation reaction catalyzed by prenyltransferases (PTs) on either the C-2 or C-4 carbon of a pterocarpan glycinol...
September 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xiaolei Sui, Jing Nie, Xin Li, Michael J Scanlon, Cankui Zhang, Yi Zheng, Si Ma, Nan Shan, Zhangjun Fei, Robert Turgeon, Zhenxian Zhang
The phloem of the Cucurbitaceae has long been a subject of interest due to its complex nature and the economic importance of the family. As in a limited number of other families, cucurbit phloem is bicollateral, i.e., with sieve tubes on both sides of the xylem. To date little is known about the specialized functions of the internal (IP) and external phloem (EP). Here, a combination of microscopy, fluorescent dye transport analysis, micro-computed tomography, laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing is used to study the functions of IP and EP in the vascular bundles (VBs) of cucumber fruit...
September 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nobuhiro Tanaka, Shimpei Uraguchi, Masataka Kajikawa, Akihiro Saito, Yoshihiro Ohmori, Toru Fujiwara
Essential metal absorption for plant growth is mediated predominantly by metal-specific transporters, with expression that responds to the environmental or cellular conditions of specific metals. Differing from metal-specific regulation, we describe a constitutively expressed transcription factor that regulates the transport of several metals in rice. We characterized the rice mutant LOW CADMIUM 5 (LC5), which exhibited reduced growth and accumulation of essential metals (e.g., copper [Cu], zinc [Zn] and manganese [Mn]) in shoots...
September 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kirill S Mironov, Maria Shumskaya, Roman A Sidorov, Marina S Trofimova, Dmitry A Los
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms widely used in biotechnology, photosynthesis and abiotic stress research. There are several cyanobacterial strains modified to produce biofuels, but the influence of alcohols on cyanobacterial cell physiology is poorly understood. Here, we conducted a systematic study of the effects of nine primary aliphatic alcohols and an aromatic benzyl alcohol on both membrane physical state and the expression of genes for fatty acid desaturases (FADs) in a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp...
September 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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