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Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology

Charles T Hunter, Jonathan W Saunders, Maria Magallanes-Lundback, Shawn A Christensen, Denis Willett, Philip S Stinard, Qin-Bao Li, Kwanghee Lee, Dean DellaPenna, Karen E Koch
Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has been used to study carotenoid deficiency for almost 100 years, although the molecular basis of the mutation has remained unknown. Here we show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruption of the maize gene for homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), which catalyzes the first and committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) biosynthesis in the plastid. The resulting PQ-9 deficiency prohibits photosynthetic electron transfer and eliminates PQ-9 as an oxidant in the enzymatic desaturation of phytoene during carotenoid synthesis...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kathlyn N Woolfson, Meghan L Haggitt, Yanni Zhang, Alexandra Kachura, Anica Bjelica, M Alejandra Rey Rincon, Karina M Kaberi, Mark A Bernards
Wound-induced suberin deposition involves the temporal and spatial coordination of phenolic and fatty acid metabolism. Phenolic metabolism leads to both soluble metabolites that accumulate as defense compounds as well as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives that form the basis of the poly(phenolic) domain found in suberized tissue. Fatty acid metabolism involves the biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids, 1-alkanols, ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids that form a poly(aliphatic) domain, commonly referred to as suberin...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Allison Maree Heskes, Tamil C M Sundram, Berin Alain Boughton, Niels Bjerg Jensen, Nikolaj Lervad Hansen, Christoph Crocoll, Federico Cozzi, Simon Rasmussen, Britta Hamberger, Björn Hamberger, Dan Staerk, Birger Lindberg Møller, Irini Pateraki
Vitex agnus-castus L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant historically used throughout the Mediterranean region to treat menstrual cycle disorders and is still used today as a clinically effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome. The pharmaceutical activity of the plant extract is linked to its ability to lower prolactin levels. This feature has been attributed to the presence of dopaminergic diterpenoids that can bind to dopamine receptors in the pituitary gland. Phytochemical analyses of V. agnus-castus show that it contains an enormous array of structurally related diterpenoids and, as such holds potential as a rich source of new dopaminergic drugs...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xuewen Xu, Jing Ji, Qiang Xu, Xiaohua Qi, Yiqun Weng, Xuehao Chen
In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis remains fragmentary. Here, through combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based whole genome sequencing, SNP haplotyping and fine genetic mapping, we identified a candidate gene for a major-effect QTL ARN6.1 that was responsible for waterlogging tolerance due to increased AR formation in the cucumber line Zaoer-N. Through multiple lines of evidence, we show that the CsARN6...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Upinder S Gill, Liang Sun, Sachin Rustgi, Yuhong Tang, Diter von Wettstein, Kirankumar S Mysore
Phosphite (Phi) is commercially used to manage diseases mainly caused by Oomycetes, primarily due to its low-cost compared to other fungicides, and persistent control of oomycetous pathogens. We explored the use of Phi in controlling fungal pathogens Puccinia emaculata and Phakopsora pachyrhizi the causal agents of the switchgrass rust and the Asian soybean rust, respectively. Phi primes host defenses and efficiently inhibits growth of P. emaculata, P. pachyrhizi, and several other fungal pathogens tested. To understand the Phi-mediated effects, a detailed molecular analysis was undertaken in both the host and the pathogen...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wen-Cheng Liu, Si-Qiu Zheng, Zhen-Dong Yu, Xiang Gao, Ran Shen, Ying-Tang Lu
While nitric oxide (NO) is known to regulate root growth, the factor(s) modulating NO during this process have not yet been elucidated. Here, we identified Arabidopsis WD40-REPEAT 5a (WDR5a) as a novel factor that functions in root growth by modulating NO accumulation. The wdr5a-1 mutant accumulated less NO and produced longer roots than the wild type, while the WDR5a overexpression lines had the opposite phenotype. The role of NO was further supported by our observation that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) rescued the root meristem growth phenotypes of the wdr5a-1 and WDR5a overexpression lines, respectively...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Funmilayo Adebesin, Joshua R Widhalm, Joseph H Lynch, Rachel M McCoy, Natalia Dudareva
Peroxisomal β-oxidative degradation of compounds is a common metabolic theme in eukaryotes. Reported benzoyl-CoA (BA-CoA) thioesterase activity in peroxisomes from petunia flowers suggests that, like mammals and fungi, plants contain auxiliary enzymes mediating β-oxidation. Here, we report identification of Petunia hybrida Thioesterase 1 (PhTE1), which catalyzes hydrolysis of aromatic acyl-CoAs to their corresponding acids in peroxisomes. PhTE1 expression is spatially, developmentally and temporally regulated and exhibits a similar pattern to known benzenoid metabolic genes...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Aaron Lomax, Daniel P Woods, Yinxin Dong, Frédéric Bouché, Ying Rong, Kevin S Mayer, Xuehua Zhong, Richard M Amasino
Many plants require prolonged cold exposure to acquire the competence to flower. The process by which cold exposure results in competence is known as vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization leads to the stable repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C via chromatin modification including an increase of trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). Vernalization in pooids is associated with the stable induction of a floral promoter, VERNALIZATION 1...
January 4, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jessica L Erickson, Norman Adlung, Christina Lampe, Ulla Bonas, Martin H Schattat
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type III secreted effectors were screened for candidates influencing plant cell processes relevant to the formation and maintenance of stromules in Nicotiana benthamiana lower leaf epidermis. Transient expression of XopL, a unique type of E3 ubiquitin ligase, led to a nearly complete elimination of stromules and the relocation of plastids to the nucleus. Further characterization of XopL revealed that the E3 ligase activity is essential for the two plastid phenotypes. In contrast to XopL wild type, a mutant XopL lacking E3 ligase activity specifically localized to microtubules...
December 29, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Geert Smant, Johannes Helder, Aska Goverse
Parallel adaptations enabling the use of plant cells as the primary food source have occurred multiple times in distinct nematode clades. The hallmark of all extant obligate and facultative plant feeding nematodes is the presence of an oral stylet, which is required for penetration of plant cell walls, delivery of pharyngeal gland secretions into host cells, and selective uptake of plant assimilates. Plant parasites from different clades, and even within a single clade, display a large diversity in feeding behaviours ranging from short feeding cycles on single cells to prolonged feeding on highly sophisticated host cell complexes...
December 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Luis Rodriguez-Moreno, Malaika K Ebert, Melvin D Bolton, Bart P H J Thomma
Fungi represent an ecologically diverse group of microorganisms that includes plant pathogenic species able to cause considerable yield loses in crop production systems worldwide. In order to establish compatible interactions with their hosts, pathogenic fungi rely on the secretion of molecules of diverse nature during host colonization to modulate host physiology, manipulate other environmental factors or provide self-defence. These molecules, collectively known as effectors, are typically small secreted cysteine-rich proteins, but may also comprise secondary metabolites and sRNAs...
December 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kaoru Tonosaki, Daisuke Sekine, Takayuki Ohnishi, Akemi Ono, Hiroyasu Furuumi, Nori Kurata, Tetsu Kinoshita
In most eudicot and monocot species, interspecific and interploidy crosses generally display abnormalities in the endosperm that are the major cause of a post-zygotic hybridization barrier. However, in some eudicot species, this type of hybridization barrier can be overcome by manipulation of ploidy levels of one parental species suggesting that the molecular mechanisms underlying the species hybridization barrier can be circumvented by genome dosage. We previously demonstrated that endosperm barriers in interspecific and interploidy crosses in the genus Oryza involve overlapping but different mechanisms...
December 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yusuke Saijo, Eliza Po-Iian Loo, Shigetaka Yasuda
Plants solely rely on innate immunity of each individual cell to deal with a diversity of microbes in the environment. Extracellular recognition of microbe- and host damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs and DAMPs, respectively) leads to the first layer of inducible defenses, termed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). In plants, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) described to date are all membrane-associated receptor-like kinases (RLKs) or receptor-like proteins (RLPs), reflecting the prevalence of apoplastic colonization of plant-infecting microbes...
December 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Laura Bacete, Hugo Mélida, Eva Miedes, Antonio Molina
Plants have evolutionary developed a repertoire of monitoring systems to sense plant morphogenesis and to face environmental changes and threats caused by different attackers. These systems integrate different signals into overreaching triggering pathways, which coordinate developmental and defensive-associated responses. The plant cell wall, a dynamic and complex structure surrounding every plant cell, has emerged recently as an essential component of plant monitoring systems, thus expanding its function as a passive defensive barrier...
December 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xianjun Lai, Lang Yan, Yanli Lu, James C Schnable
The domestication of diverse grain crops from wild grasses resulted from artificial selection for a suite of overlapping traits producing changes referred to in aggregate as "domestication syndrome". Parallel phenotypic change can be accomplished by either selection on orthologous genes, or selection on non-orthologous genes with parallel phenotypic effects. To determine how often artificial selection for domestication traits in the grasses targeted orthologous genes, we employed resequencing data from wild and domesticated accessions of Zea (maize) and Sorghum (sorghum)...
December 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jiapei Yuan, Jingrui Li, Yang Yang, Chang Tan, Yumin Zhu, Long Hu, Yijun Qi, Zhi John Lu
Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in many biological processes of plants. However, a systematic study on transcriptional and, especially, post-transcriptional regulation of stress-responsive lncRNAs in Oryza sativa is lacking. We sequenced three types of RNA libraries, poly(A)+, poly(A)- and nuclear RNAs, under four abiotic stresses, cold, heat, drought, and salt. Based on an integrative bioinformatics approach and ~200 high-throughput datasets, of which ~170 have been published, we revealed over 7,000 lncRNAs, of which nearly half were identified for the first time...
December 18, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wu Jiao, Jingya Yuan, Shan Jiang, Yanfeng Liu, Lili Wang, Mingming Liu, Dewei Zheng, Wenxue Ye, Xiue Wang, Z Jeffrey Chen
Polyploidy occurs in some animals and all flowering plants including important crops such as wheat. The consequences of polyploidy on crops remain elusive partly because their progenitors are unknown. Using two resynthesized wheat allotetraploids Sl Sl AA and AADD with known diploid progenitors, we analyzed mRNA and small RNA transcriptomes in the endosperm, compared transcriptomes between endosperm and root in AADD, and examined chromatin changes in the allotetraploids. In the endosperm, there were more nonadditively expressed genes in Sl Sl AA than in AADD...
December 18, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jonathan M Plett, Francis M Martin
Micro-organisms, or 'microbes', have formed intimate associations with plants throughout the length of their evolutionary history. In extant plant systems microbes still remain an integral part of the ecological landscape impacting plant health, productivity, and long-term fitness. Therefore, to properly understand the genetic wiring of plants, we must first determine what perception systems plants have evolved to parse beneficial from commensal from pathogenic microbes. In this review, we consider some of the most recent advances in how plants respond at the molecular level to different microbial lifestyles...
December 18, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Daniel Lang, Kristian K Ullrich, Florent Murat, Jörg Fuchs, Jerry Jenkins, Fabian B Haas, Mathieu Piednoel, Heidrun Gundlach, Michiel Van Bel, Rabea Meyberg, Cristina Vives, Jordi Morata, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Manuel Hiss, Wellington Muchero, Yasuko Kamisugi, Omar Saleh, Guillaume Blanc, Eva L Decker, Nico van Gessel, Jane Grimwood, Richard D Hayes, Sean W Graham, Lee E Gunter, Stuart McDaniel, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Anders Larsson, Fay-Wei Li, Pierre-Francois Perroud, Jeremy Phillips, Priya Ranjan, Daniel S Rokshar, Carl J Rothfels, Lucas Schneider, Shengqiang Shu, Dennis W Stevenson, Fritz Thümmler, Michael Tillich, Juan Carlos Villarreal A, Thomas Widiez, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Ann Wymore, Yong Zhang, Andreas D Zimmer, Ralph S Quatrano, Klaus F X Mayer, David Goodstein, Josep M Casacuberta, Klaas Vandepoele, Ralf Reski, Andrew C Cuming, Jerry Tuskan, Florian Maumus, Jérome Salse, Jeremy Schmutz, Stefan A Rensing
The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2,000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yuling Bai, Christos Kissoudis, Zhe Yan, Richard G F Visser, Gerard van der Linden
Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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