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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128668/inhibition-of-the-complement-system-by-saliva-of-anopheles-nyssorhynchus-aquasalis
#1
Antonio Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Vladimir Fazito Vale, Daniel Costa Queiroz, Adalberto Alves Pereira-Filho, Naylene Carvalho Sales da Silva, Leonardo Barbosa Koerich, Luciano Andrade Moreira, Marcos Horácio Pereira, Maurício Roberto Sant'Anna, Ricardo Nascimento Araújo, John Andersen, Jesus Gilberto Valenzuela, Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo
Anopheline mosquitoes are vectors of malaria parasites. Their saliva contains anti-hemostatic and immune-modulator molecules that favor blood feeding and parasite transmission. In this study, we describe the inhibition of the alternative pathway of the complement system (AP) by Anopheles aquasalis salivary gland extracts (SGE). According to our results, the inhibitor present in SGE acts on the initial step of the AP blocking deposition of C3b on the activation surfaces. Properdin, which is a positive regulatory molecule of the AP, binds to SGE...
November 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128667/bombyx-mori-abc-transporter-c2-structures-responsible-for-the-receptor-function-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aatoxin
#2
Shiho Tanaka, Haruka Endo, Satomi Adegawa, Ami Iizuka, Kazuhiro Imamura, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Because Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2) has 1000-fold higher potential than B. mori cadherin-like protein as a receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin (Tanaka et al., 2013), the gate-opening ability of the latent pore under six extracellular loops (ECLs) of BmABCC2 was expected to be the reason for its higher potential (Heckel, 2012). In this study, cell swelling assays in Sf9 cells showed that BmABCC2 mutants lacking substrate-excreting activity retained receptor activity, indicating that the gate-opening activity of BmABCC2 is not responsible for Cry1Aa toxicity...
November 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117500/development-and-ultrastructure-of-the-rigid-dorsal-and-flexible-ventral-cuticles-of-the-elytron-of-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#3
Mi Young Noh, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Karl J Kramer, Yasuyuki Arakane
Insect exoskeletons are composed of the cuticle, a biomaterial primarily formed from the linear and relatively rigid polysaccharide, chitin, and structural proteins. This extracellular material serves both as a skin and skeleton, protecting insects from environmental stresses and mechanical damage. Despite its rather limited compositional palette, cuticles in different anatomical regions or developmental stages exhibit remarkably diverse physicochemical and mechanical properties because of differences in chemical composition, molecular interactions and morphological architecture of the various layers and sublayers throughout the cuticle including the envelope, epicuticle and procuticle (exocuticle and endocuticle)...
November 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113754/nuclear-receptor-hr3-controls-locust-molt-by-regulating-chitin-synthesis-and-degradation-genes-of-locusta-migratoria
#4
Xiaoming Zhao, Zhongyu Qin, Weimin Liu, Xiaojian Liu, Bernard Moussian, Enbo Ma, Sheng Li, Jianzhen Zhang
During growth and development of insects, the steroid hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates the molting process through activation of a series of genes including E74, E75 and HR3 by the 20E receptor EcR. Here, we analyzed the function of LmHR3 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. By sequence comparison, we first identified and characterized the putative nuclear receptor protein (LmHR3) based on L. migratoria transcriptome data. The full length cDNA is 2272 bp long encoding a protein of 455 amino acids that contains a DNA binding domain (zinc finger) and a ligand binding domain...
November 4, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074090/the-role-of-a-single-gene-encoding-the-single-von-willebrand-factor-c-domain-protein-svc-in-bumblebee-immunity-extends-beyond-antiviral-defense
#5
Haidong Wang, Guy Smagghe, Ivan Meeus
The Single von Willebrand factor C-domain proteins (SVCs) are a group of short proteins mainly found in arthropods. They are proposed to be responsive in relation to environmental challenges including the nutritional status, bacterial and viral infections. The SVC protein Vago acts as a cross-talk molecule between the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway and the Jak/STAT pathway upon viral infection in Drosophila melanogaster and Culex mosquito cells. Unlike flies and mosquitoes that possess diverse SVCs, most bee species only have one of which the function remains unclear...
October 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056374/describing-the-role-of-drosophila-melanogaster-abc-transporters-in-insecticide-biology-using-crispr-cas9-knockouts
#6
Shane Denecke, Roberto Fusetto, Philip Batterham
ABC transporters have a well-established role in drug resistance, effluxing xenobiotics from cells and tissues within the organism. More recently, research has been dedicated to understanding the role insect ABC transporters play in insecticide toxicity, but progress in understanding the contribution of specific transporters has been hampered by the lack of functional genetic tools. Here, we report knockouts of three Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporter genes, Mdr49, Mdr50, and Mdr65, that are homologous to the well-studied mammalian ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein)...
October 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037755/biochemical-identification-of-residues-that-discriminate-between-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-decarboxylase-and-3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-synthase-mediated-reactions
#7
Jing Liang, Qian Han, Haizhen Ding, Jianyong Li
In available insect genomes, there are several L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) decarboxylase (DDC)-like or aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) sequences. This contrasts to those of mammals whose genomes contain only one DDC. Our previous experiments established that two DDC-like proteins from Drosophila actually mediate a complicated decarboxylation-oxidative deamination process of dopa in the presence of oxygen, leading to the formation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DHPA), CO2, NH3, and H2O2...
October 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951206/leptinotarsa-hormone-receptor-4-hr4-tunes-ecdysteroidogenesis-and-mediates-20-hydroxyecdysone-signaling-during-larval-pupal-metamorphosis
#8
Qing-Yu Xu, Qing-Wei Meng, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Hormone receptor 4 (HR4) is involved in the regulation of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) biosynthesis and the mediation of 20E signaling during larval-pupal transition in a holometabolan Drosophila melanogaster, whereas it acts as a repressor in 20E-responsive transcriptional cascade in a hemimetabolan, Blattella germanica. Here we characterized two HR4 splicing variants, LdHR4X1 and LdHR4X2, in a coleopteran Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdHR4X1 was highly expressed in the prothoracic gland and epidermis while LdHR4X2 was abundantly transcribed in the nervous system...
September 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993249/spider-acetylcholine-binding-proteins-an-alternative-model-to-study-the-interaction-between-insect-nachrs-and-neonicotinoids
#9
Haibo Bao, Xiangkun Meng, Zewen Liu
Acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) are homologs of extracellular domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and serve as models for studies on nAChRs. Particularly, studies on invertebrate nAChRs that are limited due to difficulties in their heterologous expression have benefitted from the discovery of AChBPs. Thus far, AChBPs have been characterized only in aquatic mollusks, which have shown low sensitivity to neonicotinoids, the insecticides targeting insect nAChRs. However, AChBPs were also found in spiders based on the sequence and tissue expression analysis...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987647/serpin-9-and-13-regulate-hemolymph-proteases-during-immune-responses-of-manduca-sexta
#10
Yan He, Yang Wang, Picheng Zhao, Subrahmanyam Rayaprolu, Xiuhong Wang, Xiaolong Cao, Haobo Jiang
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins, most of which inhibit cognate serine proteases by forming inactive acyl-enzyme complexes. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, serpin-1, -3 through -7 negatively regulate a hemolymph serine protease system that activates precursors of the serine protease homologs (SPHs), phenoloxidases (POs), Spätzles, and other cytokines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of M. sexta serpin-9 and -13. Serpin-9, a 402-residue protein most similar to Drosophila Spn77Ba, has R(366) at the P1 position right before the cleavage site; Serpin-13, a 444-residue ortholog of Drosophila Spn28Dc, is longer than the other seven serpins and has R(410) as the P1 residue...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986331/expressional-divergences-of-two-desaturase-genes-determine-the-opposite-ratios-of-two-sex-pheromone-components-in-helicoverpa-armigera-and-helicoverpa-assulta
#11
Rui-Ting Li, Chao Ning, Ling-Qiao Huang, Jun-Feng Dong, Xianchun Li, Chen-Zhu Wang
The sympatric closely related species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use 97:3 and 7:93 of (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal, respectively, as their sex pheromone to find/locate correct sex mates. Moreover, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl alcohol and (Z)-9-hexadecenyl alcohol are more abundant in the pheromone gland of H. assulta than in that of H. armigera. To clarify the molecular basis of these differences, we sequenced the pheromone gland transcriptomes of the two species and compared the expression patterns of the candidate enzyme genes involved in the pheromone biosynthetic pathways by FPKM values and quantitative RT-PCR analysis...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964913/functions-and-substrates-of-neddylation-during-cell-cycle-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
Zhiqing Li, Qixin Cui, Xiaoyan Wang, Bingqian Li, Dongchao Zhao, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
NEDDylation, a post-translational modification mediated by the conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to specific substrates, is an essential biological process that regulates cell cycle progression in eukaryotes. Here, we report the conservation of NEDDylation machinery and NEDDylated proteins in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We have identified all the components necessary for reversible NEDDylation in the silkworm including Nedd8, E1, E2, E3, and deNEDDylation enzymes. By the approach of RNAi-mediated gene silencing, it was shown that knockdown of BmNedd8 and the conjugating enzymes decreased the global level of NEDDylation, while knockdown of deNEDDylation enzymes increased the prevalence of this modification in cultured silkworm cells...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951282/accumulation-of-dsrna-in-endosomes-contributes-to-inefficient-rna-interference-in-the-fall-armyworm-spodoptera-frugiperda
#13
June-Sun Yoon, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Subba Reddy Palli
RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951207/cap-n-collar-transcription-factor-regulates-multiple-genes-coding-for-proteins-involved-in-insecticide-detoxification-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#14
Megha Kalsi, Subba Reddy Palli
In invertebrates, a heterodimer of xenobiotic transcription factors, cap n collar C isoform (CncC) and muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis (Maf) mediate cellular defense. In insects, these proteins regulate expression of genes involved in insecticide detoxification. In the current study, we performed sequencing of cDNA copied from RNA isolated from Tribolium castaneum pyrethroid resistant strain (QTC279) beetles injected with CncC or green fluorescence protein (GFP, control) dsRNA. Differential expression analysis of sequences identified 662 genes that showed a decrease and 91 genes that showed an increase in expression (p value ≤ 0...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942992/a-new-drosophila-octopamine-receptor-responds-to-serotonin
#15
Yi-Xiang Qi, Gang Xu, Gui-Xiang Gu, Fen Mao, Gong-Yin Ye, Weiwei Liu, Jia Huang
As the counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, octopamine and tyramine are important physiological regulators in invertebrates. They control and modulate many physiological and behavioral functions in insects. In this study, we reported the pharmacological properties of a new α2-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (CG18208) from Drosophila melanogaster, named DmOctα2R. This new receptor gene encodes two transcripts by alternative splicing. The long isoform DmOctα2R-L differs from the short isoform DmOctα2R-S by the presence of an additional 29 amino acids within the third intracellular loop...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941994/the-microrna-ame-mir-279a-regulates-sucrose-responsiveness-of%C3%A2-forager-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#16
Fang Liu, Tengfei Shi, Wei Yin, Xin Su, Lei Qi, Zachary Y Huang, Shaowu Zhang, Linsheng Yu
Increasing evidence demonstrates that microRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the regulation of animal behaviours. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are eusocial insects, with honey bee workers displaying age-dependent behavioural maturation. Many different miRNAs have been implicated in the change of behaviours in honey bees and ame-miR-279a was previously shown to be more highly expressed in nurse bee heads than in those of foragers. However, it was not clear whether this difference in expression was associated with age or task performance...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927841/maternal-provision-of-transformer-2-is-required-for-female-development-and-embryo-viability-in-the-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis
#17
Elzemiek Geuverink, Anna H Rensink, Inge Rondeel, Leo W Beukeboom, Louis van de Zande, Eveline C Verhulst
In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919559/adipokinetic-hormone-receptor-gene-identification-and-its-role-in-triacylglycerol-mobilization-and-sexual-behavior-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#18
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Dan-Dan Wei, Shun-Hua Gui, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918158/recombinant-expression-and-characterization-of-lucilia-cuprina-cyp6g3-activity-and-binding-properties-toward-multiple-pesticides
#19
Matthew J Traylor, Jong-Min Baek, Katelyn E Richards, Roberto Fusetto, W Huang, Peter Josh, Zhenzhong Chen, Padma Bollapragada, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham, Elizabeth M J Gillam
The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a primary cause of sheep flystrike and a major agricultural pest. Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been implicated in the resistance of L. cuprina to several classes of insecticides. In particular, CYP6G3 is a L. cuprina homologue of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1, a P450 known to confer multi-pesticide resistance. To investigate the basis of resistance, a bicistronic Escherichia coli expression system was developed to co-express active L. cuprina CYP6G3 and house fly (Musca domestica) P450 reductase...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#20
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
October 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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