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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645488/characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-key-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-and-signaling-genes-in-a-spider-mite-panonychus-citri
#1
Gang Li, Jinzhi Niu, Moises Zotti, Qinzhe Sun, Lin Zhu, Jun Zhang, Chongyu Liao, Wei Dou, Dandan Wei, Jinjun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Ecdysteroids play a crucial role in regulating molting in the phylum of Arthropoda and much is known with members of the subphylum of Hexapoda including the Insecta. However, this is still unclear in key pests as spider mites belonging to the subphylum of Chelicerata that originated earlier in the Cambrian period. In this study, we investigated 14 key genes of ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling and their expression over the different developmental stages in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Stigmaeidae)...
June 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#2
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629966/pharmacological-characterisation-and-functional-roles-for-egg-laying-of-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-like-octopamine-receptor-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#3
Shun-Fan Wu, Xiao-Min Jv, Jian Li, Guang-Jian Xu, Xiao-Yi Cai, Cong-Fen Gao
Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, controls and modulates many physiological and behavioral processes in protostomes. It mediates its effects by binding to specific receptors belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. We report the cloning of a cDNA from the brown planthopper (Nloa2b2) sharing high similarity with members of the OA2B2 receptor class. Activation of NlOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 114 nM)...
June 16, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#4
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619669/sex-pheromone-in-the-moth-heliothis-virescens-is-produced-as-a-mixture-of-two-pools-de-novo-and-via-precursor-storage-in-glycerolipids
#5
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson, Jérôme Casas
Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U-(13)C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP)...
June 12, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610908/the-abc-transporter-abch-9c-is-needed-for-cuticle-barrier-construction-in-locusta-migratoria
#6
Zhitao Yu, Yiwen Wang, Xiaoming Zhao, Xiaojian Liu, Enbo Ma, Bernard Moussian, Jianzhen Zhang
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a large superfamily of proteins that mediate transport of a diverse number of substrates including nutrients, lipids and xenobiotics across membranes serving a variety of developmental and physiological functions. Here, we report on the molecular properties and biological roles of the ABC transporter LmABCH-9C in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. LmABCH-9C was expressed continuously during nymphal development in all tissues including the integument. Expression was highest just after molting...
June 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610907/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-like-peptide-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulate-the-growth-and-development-of-the-male-genital-disk-through-different-mechanisms-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#7
Daiki Fujinaga, Yusuke Kohmura, Naoki Okamoto, Hiroshi Kataoka, Akira Mizoguchi
It is well established that ecdysteroids play pivotal roles in the regulation of insect molting and metamorphosis. However, the mechanisms by which ecdysteroids regulate the growth and development of adult organs after pupation are poorly understood. Recently, we have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-like peptides (IGFLPs), which are secreted after pupation under the control of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, massive amounts of Bombyx-IGFLP (BIGFLP) are present in the hemolymph during pupal-adult development, suggesting its importance in the regulation of adult tissue growth...
June 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595898/transcriptional-signatures-of-parasitization-and-markers-of-colony-decline-in-varroa-infested-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#8
Virginia Zanni, David A Galbraith, Desiderato Annoscia, Christina M Grozinger, Francesco Nazzi
Extensive annual losses of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) reported in the northern hemisphere represent a global problem for agriculture and biodiversity. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in association with deformed wing virus (DWV), plays a key role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To elucidate these mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profile of uninfested and mite infested bees, under laboratory and field conditions, highlighting the effects of parasitization on the bee's transcriptome under a variety of conditions and scenarios...
June 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591565/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-fall-armyworm-saliva
#9
Flor E Acevedo, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Michelle Peiffer, Dawn S Luthe, Gary W Felton
Lepidopteran larvae secrete saliva on plant tissues during feeding. Components in the saliva may aid in food digestion, whereas other components are recognized by plants as cues to elicit defense responses. Despite the ecological and economical importance of these plant-feeding insects, knowledge of their saliva composition is limited to a few species. In this study, we identified the salivary proteins of larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda; determined qualitative and quantitative differences in the salivary proteome of the two host races-corn and rice strains-of this insect; and identified changes in total protein concentration and relative protein abundance in the saliva of FAW larvae associated with different host plants...
June 4, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577927/deletion-of-the-bombyx-mori-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-bmorco-impairs-olfactory-sensitivity-in-silkworms
#10
Qun Liu, Wei Liu, Baosheng Zeng, Guirong Wang, Dejun Hao, Yongping Huang
Olfaction plays an essential role in many important insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. To detect olfactory stimuli, an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) is required. In this study, we deleted the Orco gene in the Lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori, using a binary transgene-based clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. We initially generated somatic mutations in two targeted sites, from which we obtained homozygous mutants with deletion of a 866 base pair sequence...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576656/a-double-stranded-rna-degrading-enzyme-reduces-the-efficiency-of-oral-rna-interference-in-migratory-locust
#11
Huifang Song, Jianqin Zhang, Daqi Li, Anastasia M W Cooper, Kristopher Silver, Tao Li, Xiaojian Liu, Enbo Ma, Kun Yan Zhu, Jianzhen Zhang
Application of RNA interference (RNAi) for insect pest management is limited by variable efficiency of RNAi in different insect species. In Locusta migratoria, RNAi is highly efficient through injection of dsRNA, but oral delivery of dsRNA is much less effective. Efforts to understand this phenomenon have shown that dsRNA is more rapidly degraded in midgut fluid than in hemolymph due to nuclease enzyme activity. In the present study, we identified and characterized two full-length cDNAs of double-stranded RNA degrading enzymes (dsRNase) from midgut of L...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576655/intra-and-extracellular-domains-of-the-helicoverpa-armigera-cadherin-mediate-cry1ac-cytotoxicity
#12
Haonan Zhang, Shan Yu, Yu Shi, Yihua Yang, Jeffrey A Fabrick, Yidong Wu
Diverse midgut cadherin mutations confer resistance to Cry1A toxins in at least three lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Most of these cadherin mutations are inherited as recessive alleles and result in changes within the cadherin repeat (CR) regions of the extracellular protein domain. However, the H. armigera r15 cadherin mutation results in a deletion of 55 amino acid residues within the cytoplasmic domain, and Cry1A resistance is inherited as a non-recessive trait...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576654/mutations-on-m3-helix-of-plutella-xylostella-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel-confer-unequal-resistance-to-abamectin-by-two-different-mechanisms
#13
Xingliang Wang, Alin M Puinean, Andrias O O Reilly, Martin S Williamson, Charles L C Smelt, Neil S Millar, Yidong Wu
Abamectin is one of the most widely used avermectins for agricultural pests control, but the emergence of resistance around the world is proving a major threat to its sustained application. Abamectin acts by directly activating glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) and modulating other Cys-loop ion channels. To date, three mutations occurring in the transmembrane domain of arthropod GluCls are associated with target-site resistance to abamectin: A309V in Plutella xylostella GluCl (PxGluCl), G323D in Tetranychus urticae GluCl1 (TuGluCl1) and G326E in TuGluCl3...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572000/c-type-lectin-interacting-with-%C3%AE-integrin-enhances-hemocytic-encapsulation-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#14
Pan Wang, Xiao-Rong Zhuo, Lin Tang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Yu-Feng Wang, Guo-Xiu Wang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jia-Lin Wang
The encapsulation reaction in invertebrates is analogous to granuloma formation in vertebrates, and this reaction is severely compromised when ecdysone signaling is blocked. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the encapsulation reaction and its regulation by ecdysone remains obscure. In our previous study, we found that the C-type lectin HaCTL3, from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, is involved in anti-bacterial immune response, acting as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the current study, we demonstrate that HaCTL3 is involved in defense against parasites and directly binds to the surface of nematodes...
May 29, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522347/functional-analysis-of-tcctlp-5c2-a-chymotrypsin-like-serine-protease-needed-for-molting-in-tribolium-castaneum
#15
Daniel Albaum, Gunnar Broehan, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Hans Merzendorfer
In a previous study, we have characterized a gene family encoding chymotrypsin-like proteases from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcCTLPs). We identified 14 TcCTLP genes that were predominantly expressed in the midgut, where they presumably function in digestion. Two genes (TcCTLP-6C and TcCTLP-5C2), however, additionally showed considerable expression in the carcass, and RNAi studies demonstrated that they are required for molting (Broehan et al., 2010; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol 40, 274-83). Thus, the enzyme has distinct functions in different physiological environments...
May 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502574/diner-database-for-insect-neuropeptide-research
#16
Joseph G C Yeoh, Aniruddha A Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Neuropeptides are responsible for regulating a variety of functions, including development, metabolism, water and ion homeostasis, and as neuromodulators in circuits of the central nervous system. Numerous neuropeptides have been identified and characterized. However, both discovery and functional characterization of neuropeptides across the massive Class Insecta has been sporadic. To leverage advances in post-genomic technologies for this rapidly growing field, insect neuroendocrinology requires a consolidated, comprehensive and standardised resource for managing neuropeptide information...
May 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473197/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-outer-kinetochore-genes-in-the-holocentric-insect-bombyx-mori
#17
Hiroaki Mon, Jae Man Lee, Masanao Sato, Takahiro Kusakabe
The kinetochore creates chromosomal attachment sites for microtubules. The kinetochore-microtubule interface plays an important role in ensuring accurate transmission of genetic information to daughter cells. Bombyx mori is known to possess holocentric chromosomes, where spindle microtubules attach along the entire length of the chromosome. Recent evidence suggests that CENP-A and CENP-C, which are essential for centromere structure and function in other species, have lost in holocentric insects, implying that B...
May 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455184/arabidopsis-glucosinolates-trigger-a-contrasting-transcriptomic-response-in-a-generalist-and-a-specialist-herbivore
#18
Fabian Schweizer, Hanna Heidel-Fischer, Heiko Vogel, Philippe Reymond
Phytophagous insects have to deal with toxic defense compounds from their host plants. Although it is known that insects have evolved genes and mechanisms to detoxify plant allochemicals, how specialist and generalist precisely respond to specific secondary metabolites at the molecular level is less understood. Here we studied the larval performance and transcriptome of the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist butterfly Pieris brassicae feeding on Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes with different glucosinolate (GS) levels...
April 26, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412513/wolbachia-induced-loss-of-male-fertility-is-likely-related-to-branch-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-and-ilve-in-laodelphax-striatellus
#19
Jia-Fei Ju, Ary A Hoffmann, Yan-Kai Zhang, Xing-Zhi Duan, Yan Guo, Jun-Tao Gong, Wen-Chao Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype in affected hosts, involving embryonic lethality in crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently unclear. Here we examine the molecular correlates of the Wolbachia infection in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important rice pest, where embryonic lethality is strong and almost complete...
April 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408149/leptinotarsa-cap-n-collar-isoform-c-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein%C3%A2-1-signaling-is-critical-for-the-regulation-of-ecdysteroidogenesis-in-the-larvae
#20
Qiang-Kun Sun, Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Drosophila cap 'n' collar isoform C (CncC) and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) regulate metamorphosis by transcriptional control of a subset of genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling, and juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. In the present paper, we found that prothoracicotropic hormone signal was required for the activation of LdCncC and LdKeap1 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Moreover, RNA interference of LdCncC or LdKeap1 in the fourth-instar larvae delayed development...
April 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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