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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Akanksha Singh, Norene A Buehner, He Lin, Kaitlyn J Baranowski, Geoffrey D Findlay, Mariana F Wolfner
Seminal fluid proteins elicit several post-mating physiological changes in mated Drosophila melanogaster females. Some of these changes persist for over a week after mating because the seminal protein that causes these changes, the Sex Peptide (SP), binds to sperm that are stored in the female reproductive tract. SP's sperm binding is mediated by a network of at least eight seminal proteins. We show here that some of these network proteins (CG1656, CG1652, CG9997 and Antares) bind to sperm within 2 h of mating, like SP...
September 11, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhongxia Wu, Wei Guo, Libin Yang, Qiongjie He, Shutang Zhou
Juvenile hormone (JH) is known to promote cell polyploidization for insect vitellogenesis and egg production, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using the migratory locust Locusta migratoria as a model system, we report here that the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and adenovirus E2 factor-1 (E2f1), the core mediators in cell cycle progression is regulated by JH and its receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met). JH acts through its receptor complex comprised of Met and Taiman to directly activate the transcription of Cdk6 and E2f1...
September 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yulica Santos-Ortega, Nabil Killiny
Plant piercing sucking insects mainly feed on phloem sap containing a high amount of sucrose. To enhance the absorption of sucrose from the midgut, sucrose hydrolase digests sucrose into glucose and fructose. In this study, a sucrose hydrolase homolog (DcSuh) was identified and targeted in Diaphorina citri, the vector of huanglongbing (HLB), by RNA interference (RNAi). In silico analysis revealed the presence of an Aamy domain in the DcSUH protein, which is characteristic of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13)...
September 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tingting Zhang, Weiwei Liu, Daqi Li, Lu Gao, Enbo Ma, Kun Yan Zhu, Bernard Moussian, Sheng Li, Jianzhen Zhang
Chitinases, key enzymes involved in degradation of chitin, have been repeatedly shown to play an indispensable role during insect post-embryonic molting processes at stage transitions. However, how chitinases affect insect embryonic development remains to be analyzed. In this study, we investigated the role of chitinase 5-1 (LmCht5-1) during embryonic development of the hemimetabolous insect Locusta migratoria. LmCht5-1 transcript levels were high in pro-nymphs during late embryogenesis. The respective protein localized to both the pro-nymphal and, to a much lesser extent, the newly formed nymphal cuticle...
September 6, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Katia C Gondim, Georgia C Atella, Emerson G Pontes, David Majerowicz
More than a third of the world population is at constant risk of contracting some insect-transmitted disease, such as Dengue fever, Zika virus disease, malaria, Chagas' disease, African trypanosomiasis, and others. Independent of the life cycle of the pathogen causing the disease, the insect vector hematophagous habit is a common and crucial trait for the transmission of all these diseases. This lifestyle is unique, as hematophagous insects feed on blood, a diet that is rich in protein but relatively poor in lipids and carbohydrates, in huge amounts and low frequency...
August 29, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Aniruddha A Pandit, Lapo Ragionieri, Richard Marley, Joseph G C Yeoh, Daegan J G Inward, Shireen-Anne Davies, Reinhard Predel, Julian A T Dow
Hylobius abietis (Linnaeus), or large pine weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), is a pest of European coniferous forests. In order to gain understanding of the functional physiology of this species, we have assembled a de novo transcriptome of H. abietis, from sequence data obtained by Next Generation Sequencing. In particular, we have identified genes encoding neuropeptides, peptide hormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to gain insights into neuropeptide-modulated processes. The transcriptome was assembled de novo from pooled paired-end, sequence reads obtained from RNA from whole adults, gut and central nervous system tissue samples...
August 27, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Roswitha A Aumann, Marc F Schetelig, Irina Häcker
The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous and invasive insect pest, causing enormous economic damage in horticultural systems. A successful and environment-friendly control strategy is the sterile insect technique (SIT) that reduces pest populations through infertile matings with mass-released, sterilized insects. However, the SIT is not readily applicable to each pest species. While transgenic approaches hold great promise to improve critical aspects of the SIT to transfer it to new species, they are suspect to strict or even prohibitive legislation regarding the release of genetically modified (GM) organisms...
August 26, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Krissana Ruang-Rit, Yoonseong Park
In the flour beetle, Tribolium freemani, a crowded environment in the last larval instar delays the development into a pupa, but the beetle continues to engage in larval-larval molting, which is an adaptive response to avoid being the victim of cannibalism as an immobile pupa. To understand the endocrine mechanism involved in this developmental process, we investigated the components of the juvenile hormone and ecdysone signaling systems. We examined whether elevated juvenile hormone levels in the crowded condition is the sole causal factor for the supernumerary molting...
August 24, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yan He, Yang Wang, Yingxia Hu, Haobo Jiang
Melanization is a universal defense mechanism of insects against microbial infection. During this response, phenoloxidase (PO) is activated from its precursor by prophenoloxidase activating protease (PAP), the terminal enzyme of a serine protease (SP) cascade. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, hemolymph protease-14 (HP14) is autoactivated from proHP14 to initiate the protease cascade after host proteins recognize invading pathogens. HP14, HP21, proHP1*, HP6, HP8, PAP1-3, and non-catalytic serine protease homologs (SPH1 and SPH2) constitute a portion of the extracellular SP-SPH system to mediate melanization and other immune responses...
August 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
María Martínez-Solís, Daniel Pinos, Haruka Endo, Leivi Portugal, Ryoichi Sato, Juan Ferré, Salvador Herrero, Patricia Hernández-Martínez
Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used to control insect pests either as formulated sprays or as in Bt-crops. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt proteins is threatening the long-term use of Bt products. The SeABCC2 locus has been genetically linked to resistance to a Bt bioinsecticide (Xentari™) in Spodoptera exigua (a mutation producing a truncated form of the transporter lacking an ATP binding domain was found in the resistant insects). Here, we investigated the role of SeABCC2 in the mode of action of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, and two Cry1A-1Ca hybrids by expressing the receptor in Sf21 and HEK293T cell lines...
August 2, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Donghun Kim, Ladislav Šimo, Yoonseong Park
Understanding salivation in hematophagous arthropod vectors is crucial to developing novel methods to prevent vector-borne disease transmission. The interactions between the tick, host, and pathogens during salivation are highly complex, and are dynamically regulated by the tick central nervous system (synganglion). Recently, tick salivary modulation via neuropeptides was highlighted by mapping neuropeptidergic cells in the synganglion and salivary glands in hard ticks. In this study, we characterized the role of a novel neuropeptide, elevenin (IsElev), and its receptors (IsElevR1 and IsElevR2) in the innervation of the salivary glands from Ixodes scapularis female ticks...
July 31, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Naeime Karamipour, Yaghoub Fathipour, Ali Asghar Talebi, Sassan Asgari, Mohammad Mehrabadi
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a well-known virus in the Baculoviridae family. Presence of the p35 gene in the AcMNPV genome as a suppressor of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a strong reason for the importance of the siRNA pathway in the host cellular defense. Given that, here we explored the roles of Dicer-2 (Dcr2) and Argonaute 2 (Ago2) genes, key factors in the siRNA pathway in response to AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. The results showed that the transcript levels of Dcr2 and Ago2 increased in response to AcMNPV infection particularly over 16 h post infection suggesting induction of the siRNA pathway...
July 31, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hai-Jian Huang, Jia-Rong Cui, Yan Guo, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene family has an important role in detoxifying host plant allelochemicals and pesticides. In this study, we screened differentially expressed genes of the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPHs) that were reared for more than ten generations on rice and wheat plants, and found that only a few P450s were associated with host adaptation. LsCYP4DE1, whose expression was 9.5-fold higher in the wheat-adapted SBPH (wSBPH) than in the rice-adapted SBPH (rSBPH), appeared to have an important role in the colonization of wheat plants...
July 31, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hitomi Miyazaki, Jun Otake, Hidefumi Mitsuno, Katsuhisa Ozaki, Ryohei Kanzaki, Anna Chui-Ting Chieng, Alvin Kah-Wei Hee, Ritsuo Nishida, Hajime Ono
The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a highly destructive pest of various fruits. The reproductive and host-finding behaviors of this species are affected by several plant semiochemicals that are perceived through chemosensory receptors. However, the chemosensory mechanisms by which this perception occurs have not been fully elucidated. We conducted RNA sequencing analysis of the chemosensory organs of B. dorsalis to identify the genes coding for chemosensory receptors. We identified 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 17 gustatory receptors and 23 ionotropic receptors-including their homologs and variants-from the transcriptome of male antennae and proboscises...
July 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Louise Mc Namara, Christine T Griffin, David Fitzpatrick, Kevin Kavanagh, James C Carolan
The large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. is a major forestry pest in 15 European countries, where it is a threat to 3.4 million hectares of forest. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of H. abietis was performed. Injection with Metarhizium brunneum or Beauvaria bassiana culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell proliferation in larvae. Larvae co-injected with either Beauvaria caledonica or B...
July 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Leilei Liu, Zuwen Chen, Yanchao Yang, Yutao Xiao, Chenxi Liu, Yuemin Ma, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Yongbo Yang, Kaiyu Liu
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins exert their toxicity by forming membrane pores after binding with larval midgut membrane proteins known as receptors. Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera frugiperda belong to the same genus, but S. litura is tolerant to Cry1Ac, while S. frugiperda is susceptible. The mechanism involved in the differential toxicity of Cry1Ac to these insect species is not understood. Amino acid sequences analysis of ABCC2, a well-recognized Cry1Ac receptor, from both species showed high sequence identity...
September 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Xueyao Zhang, Xiaolin Kang, Haihua Wu, Kristopher Silver, Jianzhen Zhang, Enbo Ma, Kun Yan Zhu
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) belong to a large superfamily of heme-containing enzymes catalyzing at least 60 different types of chemically distinct reactions. Insect CYPs play key roles in biotransformation of insecticides and plant chemicals, and are implicated in insecticide resistance and insect adaptation to their host plants. Insect CYPs are well studied in model insects, but little is known about the CYP superfamily in paurometabolous insects. We employed Illumina sequencing technology to identify 71 partial and 78 full-length open reading frames (ORFs) of LmCYP genes from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), one of the most destructive paurometabolous insect pests in the world...
September 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhe Song, Yong-Pan Yang, Wei-Hua Xu
Diapause is a complex physiological response accompanied by many signaling pathways participating in the process. Previous studies have shown that p-AKT levels in brains of diapause-destined pupae are elevated by ROS, and the activated AKT promotes Glut expression for glucose uptake during diapause entry in Helicoverpa armigera. However, the mechanism by which ROS activate AKT is still unclear. Here, we show that PTEN, a PI3K/p-AKT signaling inhibitor, was significantly lower in the brains of diapause-destined pupae and that p-AKT levels were elevated by a lack of PTEN dephosphorylating PIP3...
September 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhuhong Wang, Jun-Qing Ge, Hang Chen, Xiaoyan Cheng, Yiqun Yang, Jun Li, R Jeff Whitworth, Ming-Shun Chen
Like pathogens, galling insects deliver effectors into plant tissues that induce gall formation. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, also called Hessian fly, can convert a whole wheat seedling into a gall by inducing the formation of nutritive cells at the feeding site, inhibiting wheat growth, and reprogramming metabolic pathways of the attacked plants. Here we demonstrated the identification of a secreted Hessian fly protein, the nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), in infested wheat plants through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and western blots...
September 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Freja Scheys, Els J M Van Damme, Kristof De Schutter, An Staes, Kris Gevaert, Guy Smagghe
N-glycosylation is one of the most abundant and conserved protein modifications in eukaryotes. The attachment of N-glycans to proteins can modulate their properties and influences numerous important biological processes, such as protein folding and cellular attachment. Recently, it has been shown that protein N-glycosylation plays a vital role in insect development and survival, which makes the glycans an interesting target for pest control. Despite the importance of protein N-glycosylation in insects, knowledge about insect N-glycoproteomes is scarce...
September 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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