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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093313/knockdown-of-nuclease-activity-in-the-gut-enhances-rnai-efficiency-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-but-not-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#1
Jornt Spit, Annelies Philips, Niels Wynant, Dulce Santos, Geert Plaetinck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The responsiveness towards orally delivered dsRNA and the potency of a subsequent environmental RNA interference (RNAi) response strongly differs between different insect species. While some species are very sensitive to dsRNA delivery through the diet, others are not. The underlying reasons for this may vary, but degradation of dsRNA by nucleases in the gut lumen is believed to play a crucial role. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a voracious defoliator of potato crops worldwide, and is currently under investigation for novel control methods based on dsRNA treatments...
January 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089691/orcokinin-neuropeptides-regulate-ecdysis-in-the-hemimetabolous-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#2
Juan Pedro Wulff, Ivana Sierra, Marcos Sterkel, Michiel Holtof, Pieter Van Wielendaele, Flavio Francini, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Sheila Ons
To grow and develop insects must undergo ecdysis. During this process, the individual sheds the old cuticle to emerge as the following developmental stage. During ecdysis, different programed behaviors are regulated by neuropeptidergic pathways. In general, components of these pathways are better characterized in crustacean and holometabolous insects than in hemimetabola. In insects, the orkoninin gene produces two different neuropeptide precursors by alternative splicing: orcokinin A and orcokinin B. Although orcokinins are well conserved in insect species, their physiological role remains elusive...
January 9, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057597/depletion-of-juvenile-hormone-esterase-extends-larval-growth-in-bombyx-mori
#3
Zhongjie Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Zhisheng Wang, Xia Xu, Yongping Huang, Muwang Li, Kai Li, Anjiang Tan
Two major hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), regulate insect growth and development according to their precisely coordinated titres, which are controlled by both biosynthesis and degradation pathways. Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) is the primary JH-specific degradation enzyme that plays a key role in regulating JH titers, along with JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and JH diol kinase (JHDK). In the current study, a loss-of-function analysis of JHE in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was performed by targeted gene disruption using the transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system...
January 3, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057598/complete-gene-sequence-of-spider-attachment-silk-protein-pysp1-reveals-novel-linker-regions-and-extreme-repeat-homogenization
#4
Ro Crystal Chaw, Christopher A Saski, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders use a myriad of silk types for daily survival, and each silk type has a unique suite of task-specific mechanical properties. Of all spider silk types, pyriform silk is distinct because it is a combination of a dry protein fiber and wet glue. Pyriform silk fibers are coated with wet cement and extruded into "attachment discs" that adhere silks to each other and to substrates. The mechanical properties of spider silk types are linked to the primary and higher-level structures of spider silk proteins (spidroins)...
January 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017798/n-glycosylation-influences-the-catalytic-activity-of-mosquito-%C3%AE-glucosidases-associated-with-susceptibility-or-refractoriness-to%C3%A2-lysinibacillus-sphaericus
#5
Nathaly Alexandre do Nascimento, Lígia Maria Ferreira, Tatiany Patrícia Romão, Darleide Maria da Conceição Correia, Crhisllane Rafaele Dos Santos Vasconcelos, Antônio Mauro Rezende, Samara Graciane Costa, Fernando Ariel Genta, Osvaldo Pompílio de-Melo-Neto, Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha
Cqm1 and Aam1 are α-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20) expressed in Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti larvae midgut, respectively. These orthologs share high sequence similarity but while Cqm1 acts as a receptor for the Binary (Bin) insecticidal toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Aam1 does not bind the toxin, rendering Ae. aegypti refractory to this bacterium. Aam1 is heavily glycosylated, contrasting to Cqm1, but little is known regarding how glycosylation impacts on its function. This study aimed to compare the N-glycosylation patterns and the catalytic activities of Aam1 and Cqm1...
December 23, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011348/multidrug-transporters-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-protect-insects-against-the-toxic-effects-of-cardenolides
#6
Simon C Groen, Erika R LaPlante, Nicolas M Alexandre, Anurag A Agrawal, Susanne Dobler, Noah K Whiteman
In the struggle against dietary toxins, insects are known to employ target site insensitivity, metabolic detoxification, and transporters that shunt away toxins. Specialized insects across six taxonomic orders feeding on cardenolide-containing plants have convergently evolved target site insensitivity via specific amino acid substitutions in the Na/K-ATPase. Nonetheless, in vitro pharmacological experiments have suggested a role for multidrug transporters (Mdrs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps), which may provide a basal level of protection in both specialized and non-adapted insects...
December 21, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007552/the-potential-subunits-involved-in-two-subtypes-of-%C3%AE-bgt-resistant-nachrs-in-cockroach-dorsal-unpaired-median-dum-neurons
#7
Huahua Sun, Yang Liu, Jian Li, Xinzhu Cang, Haibo Bao, Zewen Liu
The american cockroach (Periplaneta americana) dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons provide an native tool to analyze the functional and pharmacological properties of ion channels and membrane receptors, such as nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here the imidacloprid-activated nAChR subtypes were examined in DUM neurons by the patch-clamp technique and the potential subunits involved in important subtypes were analyzed by combining with RNA interference (RNAi) technique. Imidacloprid exerted agonist activities on one subtype in α-Bgt-sensitive nAChRs and another subtype in α-Bgt-resistant nAChRs, in which the α-Bgt-resistant subtype showed much higher sensitivity to imidacloprid than the α-Bgt-sensitive subtype, with the difference close to 200-fold...
December 20, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986639/identification-of-the-binding-domains-and-key-amino-acids-for-the-interaction-of-the-transcription-factors-bmpoum2-and-bmabd-a-in-bombyx-mori
#8
Yong He, Huimin Deng, Qihao Hu, Zidan Zhu, Lin Liu, Sichun Zheng, Qisheng Song, Qili Feng
The transcription factor BmPOUM2 interacted with another transcription factor BmAbd-A to regulate the expression of the wing cuticle protein gene BmWCP4 in Bombyx mori. In this study, the binding domains and amino acids for the interaction between BmPOUM2 and BmAbd-A were reported. Two isoforms of BmPOUM2 were identified. The short isoform (BmPOUM2-S) lacks a 114-amino acid sequence containing a POU-homeodomain and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS), as compared to the full-length isoform (BmPOUM2)...
December 14, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986638/the-immune-properties-of-manduca-sexta-transferrin
#9
Lisa M Brummett, Michael R Kanost, Maureen J Gorman
Transferrins are secreted proteins that bind iron. The well-studied transferrins are mammalian serum transferrin, which is involved in iron transport, and mammalian lactoferrin, which functions as an immune protein. Lactoferrin and lactoferrin-derived peptides have bactericidal activity, and the iron-free form of lactoferrin has bacteriostatic activity due to its ability to sequester iron. Insect transferrin is similar in sequence to both serum transferrin and lactoferrin, and its functions are not well-characterized; however, many studies of insect transferrin indicate that it has some type of immune function...
December 13, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979731/nucleoporin-nup358-facilitates-nuclear-import-of-methoprene-tolerant-met-in-an-importin-%C3%AE-and-hsp83-dependent-manner
#10
Qianyu He, Yuanxi Zhang, Xu Zhang, DanDan Xu, Wentao Dong, Sheng Li, Rui Wu
The bHLH-PAS transcription factor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met)(1), functions as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor and transduces JH signals by directly binding to E-box like motifs in the regulatory regions of JH response genes. Nuclear localization of Met is crucial for its transcriptional activity. Our previous studies have shown that the chaperone protein Hsp83 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear import in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of Met nuclear transport are not fully elucidated...
December 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939924/clues-on-the-function-of-manduca-sexta-perilipin-2-inferred-from-developmental-and-nutrition-dependent-changes-in-its-expression
#11
Xiao Chen, Sarah J Firdaus, Alisha D Howard, Jose L Soulages, Estela L Arrese
Cellular triglycerides (TG) are stored in cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs). Perilipins (PLIN) are a group of LD-proteins that play important roles in the assembly and transport of LDs and in TG metabolism. Two members of the PLIN family are found in insects (PLIN1 & 2 or Lsd1 & 2). We have cloned and expressed Manduca sexta PLIN2 (MsPLIN2), and studied developmental and nutritional changes in the expression of PLIN2. Nutritional changes induced fast alterations in PLIN2 mRNA and protein levels in fat body and midgut of the feeding larvae...
December 7, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836740/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-chemosensory-genes-in-two-sister-leaf-beetles-provides-insights-into-chemosensory-speciation
#12
Bin Zhang, Wei Zhang, Rui-E Nie, Wen-Zhu Li, Kari A Segraves, Xing-Ke Yang, Huai-Jun Xue
Divergence in chemosensory traits has been posited as an important component of chemosensory speciation in insects. In particular, chemosensory genes expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons are likely to influence insect behaviors such as preference for food, oviposition sites, and mates. Despite their key role in insect behavior and potentially speciation, the underlying genetic basis for divergence in chemosensory traits remains largely unexplored. One way to ascertain the role of chemosensory genes in speciation is to make comparisons of these genes across closely related species to detect the genetic signatures of divergence...
November 9, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816487/arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-1-gene-tcaanat1-is-required-for-cuticle-morphology-and-pigmentation-of-the-adult-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#13
Mi Young Noh, Bonwoo Koo, Karl J Kramer, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Yasuyuki Arakane
In the insect cuticle tanning pathway (sclerotization and pigmentation), the enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the acetylation of dopamine to form N-acetyldopamine (NADA), which is one of the major precursors for quinone-mediated tanning. In this study we characterized and investigated the function of TcAANAT1 in cuticle pigmentation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We isolated a full length TcAANAT1 cDNA that encodes a protein of 256 amino acid residues with a predicted GCN5-related acetyltransferase domain containing an acetyl-CoA binding motif...
November 2, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989837/prophenoloxidase-activation-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-induced-by-the-recombinant-microbe-binding-protein-of-manduca-sexta
#14
Yang Wang, Haobo Jiang
Manduca sexta microbe binding protein (MBP) is a member of the β-1,3-glucanase-related protein superfamily that includes Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs), β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs), and β-1,3-glucanases. Our previous and current studies showed that the purified MBP from baculovirus-infected insect cells had stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation in the hemolymph of naïve and immune challenged larvae and that supplementation of the exogenous MBP and peptidoglycans (PGs) had caused synergistic increases in PO activity...
October 28, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989836/functional-analysis-of-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-1-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#15
Rina Hamajima, Asako Iwamoto, Moe Tomizaki, Ikue Suganuma, Koji Kitaguchi, Michihiro Kobayashi, Hayato Yamada, Motoko Ikeda
Recent advances in genome-wide surveys have revealed a number of lepidopteran insect homologs of mammalian and Drosophila genes that are responsible for apoptosis regulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for apoptosis regulation in lepidopteran insect cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the transfection of Bombyx mori BM-N cells with dsRNA against the B. mori cellular iap1 gene (cbm-iap1) induces severe apoptosis that is accompanied by an increase of caspase-3-like protease activity...
October 28, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989835/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#16
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989834/mir-276-and-mir-3016-modulated-expression-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-accounts-for-spirotetramat-resistance-in-aphis-gossypii-glover
#17
Xiang Wei, Chao Zheng, Tianfei Peng, Yiou Pan, Jinghui Xi, Xuewei Chen, Juhong Zhang, Shuang Yang, Xiwu Gao, Qingli Shang
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) catalyses the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA during de novo fatty acid synthesis. A laboratory-selected spirotetramat-resistant strain (SR) of cotton aphid was used in this study. RT-qPCR results demonstrated significant increases in the levels of ACC transcript in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. Depletion of overexpressed ACC transcripts by RNAi also significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the resistant aphid to spirotetramat...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793627/metabolic-imidacloprid-resistance-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-relies-on-multiple-p450-enzymes
#18
Yixi Zhang, Yuanxue Yang, Huahua Sun, Zewen Liu
Target insensitivity contributing to imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens has been reported to occur either through point mutations or quantitative change in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the metabolic resistance, especially the enhanced detoxification by P450 enzymes, is the major mechanism in fields. From one field-originated N. lugens population, an imidacloprid resistant strain G25 and a susceptible counterpart S25 were obtained to analyze putative roles of P450s in imidacloprid resistance...
October 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793626/ippa08-allosterically-enhances-the-action-of-imidacloprid-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#19
Haibo Bao, Xusheng Shao, Yixi Zhang, Jiagao Cheng, Yunchao Wang, Xiaoyong Xu, Jichao Fang, Zewen Liu, Zhong Li
Our previous study showed that IPPA08, a cis-configuration neonicotinoid compound with unique oxabridged substructure, acted as a specific synergist to neonicotinoid insecticides targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Heteropentamer nAChRs have diverse characteristics and can form canonical and noncanonical subunit interfaces. While canonical interfaces have been exploited as targets of many drugs, noncanonical interfaces have received less attention. In this study, the mechanism of IPPA08 synergism was evaluated on hybrid nAChRs consisting of three α1 subunits from the brown planthopper and two rat β1 subunits (Nlα1/rβ2) expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
October 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784614/differential-proteomics-reveals-novel-insights-into-nosema-honey-bee-interactions
#20
Christoph Kurze, Ryan Dosselli, Julia Grassl, Yves Le Conte, Per Kryger, Boris Baer, Robin F A Moritz
Host manipulation is a common strategy by parasites to reduce host defense responses, enhance development, host exploitation, reproduction and, ultimately, transmission success. As these parasitic modifications can reduce host fitness, increased selection pressure may result in reciprocal adaptations of the host. Whereas the majority of studies on host manipulation have explored resistance against parasites (i.e. ability to prevent or limit an infection), data describing tolerance mechanisms (i.e. ability to limit harm of an infection) are scarce...
October 23, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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