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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337139/identification-of-yellow-gene-family-in-agrotis-ipsilon-and-functional-analysis-of-aiyellow-y-by-crispr-cas9
#1
Xi'en Chen, Yanghui Cao, Shuai Zhan, Yong Zhang, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The yellow gene family has been identified in several model insects, but yellow genes were poorly identified in non-model insects and the functions of yellow genes are largely unknown. In this study, we identified seven yellow genes in an important agricultural pest Agrotis ipsilon. Each gene encodes a protein containing a major royal jelly domain. Phylogenetic analysis defined these genes as yellow-y, -b, -b2, -c, -d, -e, and -h, respectively. The A. ipsilon yellow genes yellow-b, -b2, and -c were stably expressed in all developmental stages and tissues analyzed, whereas the other four yellow genes had unique expression patterns, suggesting distinct physiological roles of each gene...
January 11, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331591/brochosomins-and-other-novel-proteins-from-brochosomes-of-leafhoppers-insecta-hemiptera-cicadellidae
#2
Roman Rakitov, Alexander A Moysa, Arthur T Kopylov, Sergei A Moshkovskii, Ralph S Peters, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, Christopher H Dietrich, Kevin P Johnson, Lars Podsiadlowski, Kimberly K O Walden
Brochosomes (BS) are secretory granules resembling buckyballs, produced intracellularly in specialized glandular segments of the Malpighian tubules and forming superhydrophobic coatings on the integuments of leafhoppers (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae). Their composition is poorly known. Using a combination of SDS-PAGE, LC-MS/MS, next-generation sequencing (RNAseq) and bioinformatics we demonstrate that the major structural component of BS of the leafhopper Graphocephala fennahi Young is a novel family of 21-40-kDa secretory proteins, referred to herein as brochosomins (BSM), apparently cross-linked by disulfide bonds...
January 10, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288754/microrna-14-regulates-larval-development-time-in-bombyx-mori
#3
Zulian Liu, Lin Ling, Jun Xu, Baosheng Zeng, Yongping Huang, Peng Shang, Anjiang Tan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate multiple physiological processes including development and metamorphosis in insects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a conserved invertebrate miRNA-14 (miR-14) plays an important role in ecdysteroid regulated development in the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of miR-14 using the GAL4/UAS system resulted in delayed silkworm larval development and smaller body size of larva and pupa with decrease in ecdysteriod titers...
December 27, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269111/cell-lines-as-models-for-the-study-of-cry-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#4
REVIEW
Mario Soberón, Leivi Portugal, Blanca-Ines Garcia-Gómez, Jorge Sánchez, Janette Onofre, Isabel Gómez, Sabino Pacheco, Alejandra Bravo
Cell lines have been use extensively for the study of the mode of action of different pore forming toxins produced by different bacterial species. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are not the exception and their mechanism of action has been analyzed in different cell lines. Here we review the data obtained with different cell lines, including those that are naturally susceptible to the three domain Cry toxins (3d-Cry) and other non-susceptible cell lines that have been transformed with 3d-Cry toxin binding molecules cloned from the susceptible insects...
December 18, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258871/phylogenetic-and-functional-characterization-of-ten-p450-genes-from-the-cyp6ae-subfamily-of-helicoverpa-armigera-involved-in-xenobiotic-metabolism
#5
Yu Shi, Huidong Wang, Zhi Liu, Shuwen Wu, Yihua Yang, René Feyereisen, Yidong Wu
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a generalist herbivore widely distributed over the world and is a major lepidopteran pest on cotton. Studies, especially from Asia, show that it relies on cytochrome P450 monooxygenases with broad substrate specificities to protect itself from pesticides. The number of P450s may have expanded in the processes of coping with the wide diversity of phytochemicals that the insect encounters among its numerous host plants. In order to examine the metabolic capabilities of these P450s, we focused here on all ten P450s of the Helicoverpa armigera CYP6AE subfamily, which can be easily induced by plant toxins and pyrethroids...
December 16, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253529/juvenile-hormone-independent-function-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-homolog-1-in-early-development-of-water-flea-daphnia-pulex
#6
Hitoshi Miyakawa, Minae Watanabe, Marina Araki, Yukiko Ogino, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi
Elaborate regulation of insect metamorphosis is the consequence of physiological cooperation among multiple endocrine factors such as juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids. Hormone-induced transcription factors play important roles in substantive interactions between hormonal signaling pathways. In insects, zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a key gene of the endocrine signaling pathway in which it is directly upregulated by JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in the presence of JH and then regulates multiple downstream factors, including components of the ecdysteroid signaling pathway...
December 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248738/identification-of-immature-stages-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-using-maldi-tof-ms-and-mapping-of-mass-spectra-during-sand-fly-life-cycle
#7
Petr Halada, Kristyna Hlavackova, Vit Dvorak, Petr Volf
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the species identification of sand flies at different developmental stages and map changes in their protein profiles during the course of whole life cycle. Specimens of six different species from laboratory colonies at larval and pupal stages were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profiles of larvae were stable from the L2 to L4 developmental stages and clearly distinguishable at the species level...
December 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248737/environmental-and-hormonal-control-of-body-color-polyphenism-in%C3%A2-late-instar-desert-locust-nymphs-role-of-the-yellow-protein
#8
Ryohei Sugahara, Seiji Tanaka
Locusts show body color polyphenism that is considered to be an adaptation to various biotic and abiotic environmental changes. In Schistocerca gregaria, wild-type late-instar nymphs growing under crowded conditions (gregarious form) develop yellow and black body coloration, whereas they assume various body colors under isolated conditions (solitarious form). Black and green body colorations are induced by the neuropeptide corazonin (Crz) and juvenile hormone (JH), respectively. To characterize the molecular mechanisms controlling body color polyphenism, we investigated factors influencing body coloration in S...
December 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241845/crispr-cas9-mediated-knockout-of-two-eye-pigmentation-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-hemiptera-delphacidae
#9
Wen-Hua Xue, Nan Xu, Xiao-Bo Yuan, Hao-Hao Chen, Jin-Li Zhang, Sheng-Jie Fu, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Hai-Jun Xu
The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests in Asia, demonstrating high fertility and causing huge crop losses by sucking sap of rice as well as transmitting viruses. However, functional genomic studies on N. lugens are seriously constrained by lack of genetic tools. Here, we employed two eye pigmentation genes to generate germ-line mutations in N. lugens using the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system. We showed that injection of single guide RNA of the cinnabar gene of N...
December 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229337/receptor-protein-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-mosquito-larvicidal-toxin-displays-amylomaltase-activity
#10
Mahima Sharma, Gagan D Gupta, Vinay Kumar
The activated binary toxin (BinAB) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus binds to surface receptor protein (Cqm1) on the midgut cell membrane and kills Culex quinquefasciatus larvae on internalization. Cqm1 is attached to cells via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. It has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 13 of the CAZy database. Here, we report characterization of the ordered domain (residues 23-560) of Cqm1. Gene expressing Cqm1 of BinAB susceptible mosquito was chemically synthesized and the protein was purified using E...
December 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223796/species-specific-rna-a-to-i-editing-of-mosquito-rdl-modulates-gaba-potency-and-influences-agonistic-potentiating-and-antagonistic-actions-of-ivermectin
#11
Jennina Taylor-Wells, Anish Senan, Isabel Bermudez, Andrew K Jones
The insect GABA receptor, RDL, is the target of several classes of pesticides. The peptide sequences of RDL are generally highly conserved between diverse insects. However, RNA A-to-I editing can effectively alter amino acid residues of RDL in a species specific manner, which can affect the potency of GABA and possibly insecticides. We report here that RNA A-to-I editing alters the gene products of Rdl in three mosquito disease vectors, recoding five amino acid residues in RDL of Aedes aegypti and six residues in RDLs of Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens, which is the highest extent of editing in RDL observed to date...
December 6, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191465/crystal-structure-of-ryanodine-receptor-n-terminal-domain-from-plutella-xylostella-reveals-two-potential-species-specific-insecticide-targeting-sites
#12
Lianyun Lin, Chen Liu, Juan Qin, Jie Wang, Shengjie Dong, Wei Chen, Weiyi He, Qingzhi Gao, Minsheng You, Zhiguang Yuchi
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are large calcium-release channels located in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. They play a central role in excitation-contraction coupling of muscle cells. Three commercialized insecticides targeting pest RyRs generate worldwide sales over 2 billion U.S. dollars annually, but the structure of insect RyRs remains elusive, hindering our understanding of the mode of action of RyR-targeting insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance in pests. Here we present the crystal structure of RyR N-terminal domain (NTD) (residue 1-205) at 2...
December 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191464/bombyx-ortholog-of-the-drosophila-eye-color-gene-brown-controls-riboflavin-transport-in-malpighian-tubules
#13
Haokun Zhang, Takashi Kiuchi, Chikara Hirayama, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
The Drosophila eye color gene brown is known to control the transport of pteridine precursors in adult eyes. The Brown protein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G family, which includes proteins encoded by the genes brown, scarlet, and white. These genes are responsible for pigmentation in Drosophila and the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori. Although orthologs of brown are conserved among insects, the function of this gene is only known in Drosophila. Here, we elucidated the function of the B...
November 28, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183817/structural-characterization-of-a-lepidopteran-type-ii-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-from-the-spruce-budworm-choristoneura-fumiferana-implications-for-inhibitor-design
#14
Marie-Ève Picard, Audrey Nisole, Catherine Béliveau, Stephanie Sen, Aline Barbar, Rong Shi, Michel Cusson
Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an enzyme from the class of short chain (E)-prenyltransferases that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, C5) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP, C5) to generate the C15 product FPP. In insects, FPPS plays a key role in the biosynthesis of the morphogenetic and gonadotropic "juvenile hormone" (JH). Lepidopteran genomes encode two very distinct FPPS paralogs, one of which ("type-II") is expressed almost exclusively in the JH-producing glands, the corpora allata...
November 25, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175381/20-hydroxyecdysone-promotes-release-of-gbp-binding-protein-from-oenocytoids-to-suppress-hemocytic-encapsulation
#15
Xiao-Rong Zhuo, Lei Chen, Gui-Jie Wang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Yu-Feng Wang, Ke Liu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jia-Lin Wang
Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is an insect cytokine that stimulates plasmatocyte adhesion, thereby playing a critical role in encapsulation reaction. It has been previously demonstrated that GBP-binding protein (GBPB) is released upon oenocytoid lysis in response to GBP and is responsible for subsequent clearance of GBP from hemolymph. However, current knowledge about GBPB is limited and the mechanism by which insects increase GBPB levels to inactivate GBP remains largely unexplored. Here, we have identified one GBP precursor (HaGBP precursor) gene and two GBPB (namely HaGBPB1 and HaGBPB2) genes from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera...
November 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157676/upregulation-of-aedes-aegypti-vago1-by-wolbachia-and-its-effect-on-dengue-virus-replication
#16
Sultan Asad, Rhys Parry, Sassan Asgari
Dengue infection along with its related disease conditions poses a significant threat to human health. The pathogen responsible for this infection is dengue virus (DENV) which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Unavailability of a potent vaccine has recently sparked renewed research endeavours aimed at vector control. To date, Wolbachia as an endosymbiotic bacterium has shown promise as a novel biocontrol agent to restrict DENV replication in the vector, although the underlying antiviral mechanism remains elusive...
November 21, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170068/enhanced-heat-tolerance-in-transgenic-silkworm-via-overexpression-of-pyrococcus-furiosus-superoxide-reductase
#17
Liang Jiang, Chunlin Huang, Bingbing Wang, Huizhen Guo, Qiang Sun, Fei Xia, Guowen Xu, Qingyou Xia
Heat shock causes a serious harm to organisms by accelerating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pyrococcus furiosus superoxide reductase (PfSOR) is an enzyme that efficiently detoxifies ROS. In order to generate a silkworm strain with high heat tolerance for sericulture, we synthesized an artificial DNA sequence encoding PfSOR based on the codon bias of Bombyx mori. PfSOR was successfully overexpressed in transgenic silkworm (named A4SOR) and BmE cells, as determined by RT-PCR and western blot analyses...
November 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157677/dna-methylation-affects-the-lifespan-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-workers-evidence-for-a-regulatory-module-that-involves-vitellogenin-expression-but-is-independent-of-juvenile-hormone-function
#18
Carlos A M Cardoso-Júnior, Karina R Guidugli-Lazzarini, Klaus Hartfelder
The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers...
November 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154832/carboxylesterase-genes-in-pyrethroid-resistant-house-flies-musca-domestica
#19
Xuechun Feng, Ming Li, Nannan Liu
Carboxylesterases are one of the major enzyme families involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids. Up-regulation of carboxylesterase genes is thought to be a major component of insecticide resistant mechanisms in insects. Based on the house fly transcriptome and genome database, a total of 39 carboxylesterase genes of different functional clades have been identified in house flies. In this study, eleven of these genes were found to be significantly overexpressed in the resistant ALHF house fly strain compared with susceptible aabys and wild-type CS strains...
November 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128668/inhibition-of-the-complement-system-by-saliva-of-anopheles-nyssorhynchus-aquasalis
#20
Antonio Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Vladimir Fazito Vale, Daniel Costa Queiroz, Adalberto Alves Pereira-Filho, Naylene Carvalho Sales da Silva, Leonardo Barbosa Koerich, Luciano Andrade Moreira, Marcos Horácio Pereira, Maurício Roberto Sant'Anna, Ricardo Nascimento Araújo, John Andersen, Jesus Gilberto Valenzuela, Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo
Anopheline mosquitoes are vectors of malaria parasites. Their saliva contains anti-hemostatic and immune-modulator molecules that favor blood feeding and parasite transmission. In this study, we describe the inhibition of the alternative pathway of the complement system (AP) by Anopheles aquasalis salivary gland extracts (SGE). According to our results, the inhibitor present in SGE acts on the initial step of the AP blocking deposition of C3b on the activation surfaces. Properdin, which is a positive regulatory molecule of the AP, binds to SGE...
November 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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