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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Leilei Liu, Zuwen Chen, Yanchao Yang, Yutao Xiao, Chenxi Liu, Yuemin Ma, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Yongbo Yang, Kaiyu Liu
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins exert their toxicity by forming membrane pores after binding with larval midgut membrane proteins known as receptors. Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera frugiperda belong to the same genus, but S. litura is tolerant to Cry1Ac, while S. frugiperda is susceptible. The mechanism involved in the differential toxicity of Cry1Ac to these insect species is not understood. Amino acid sequences analysis of ABCC2, a well-recognized Cry1Ac receptor, from both species showed high sequence identity...
June 29, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Xueyao Zhang, Xiaolin Kang, Haihua Wu, Kristopher Silver, Jianzhen Zhang, Enbo Ma, Kun Yan Zhu
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) belong to a large superfamily of heme-containing enzymes catalyzing at least 60 different types of chemically distinct reactions. Insect CYPs play key roles in biotransformation of insecticides and plant chemicals, and are implicated in insecticide resistance and insect adaptation to their host plants. Insect CYPs are well studied in model insects, but little is known about the CYP superfamily in paurometabolous insects. We employed Illumina sequencing technology to identify 71 partial and 78 full-length open reading frames (ORFs) of LmCYP genes from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), one of the most destructive paurometabolous insect pests in the world...
June 27, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhe Song, Yong-Pan Yang, Wei-Hua Xu
Diapause is a complex physiological response accompanied by many signaling pathways participating in the process. Previous studies have shown that p-AKT levels in brains of diapause-destined pupae are elevated by ROS, and the activated AKT promotes Glut expression for glucose uptake during diapause entry in Helicoverpa armigera. However, the mechanism by which ROS activate AKT is still unclear. Here, we show that PTEN, a PI3K/p-AKT signaling inhibitor, was significantly lower in the brains of diapause-destined pupae and that p-AKT levels were elevated by a lack of PTEN dephosphorylating PIP3...
June 27, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhuhong Wang, Jun-Qing Ge, Hang Chen, Xiaoyan Cheng, Yiqun Yang, Jun Li, R Jeff Whitworth, Ming-Shun Chen
Like pathogens, galling insects deliver effectors into plant tissues that induce gall formation. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, also called Hessian fly, can convert a whole wheat seedling into a gall by inducing the formation of nutritive cells at the feeding site, inhibiting wheat growth, and reprogramming metabolic pathways of the attacked plants. Here we demonstrated the identification of a secreted Hessian fly protein, the nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), in infested wheat plants through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and western blots...
June 18, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Freja Scheys, Els Jm Van Damme, Kristof De Schutter, An Staes, Kris Gevaert, Guy Smagghe
N-glycosylation is one of the most abundant and conserved protein modifications in eukaryotes. The attachment of N-glycans to proteins can modulate their properties and influences numerous important biological processes, such as protein folding and cellular attachment. Recently, it has been shown that protein N-glycosylation plays a vital role in insect development and survival, which makes the glycans an interesting target for pest control. Despite the importance of protein N-glycosylation in insects, knowledge about insect N-glycoproteomes is scarce...
June 12, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jothi Kumar Yuvaraj, Martin N Andersson, Jacob A Corcoran, Olle Anderbrant, Christer Löfstedt
The odorant receptors (ORs) of insects are crucial for host and mate recognition. In moths (Lepidoptera), specialized ORs are involved in male detection of the sex pheromone produced by females. Most moth sex pheromones are C10 -C18 acetates, alcohols, and aldehydes (Type I pheromones), and most pheromone receptors (PRs) characterized to date are from higher Lepidoptera (Ditrysia), responding to these types of compounds. With few exceptions, functionally characterized PRs fall into what has been called the "PR-clade", which also contains receptors that have yet to be characterized...
June 9, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jia-Bao Lu, Xu-Mei Luo, Xiao-Ya Zhang, Peng-Lu Pan, Chuan-Xi Zhang
Using transcriptome analysis of tissues of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, we identified a gene tentatively designated NlCP21.92 that was expressed at high levels in the integument. Spatiotemporal expression profiling with quantitative PCR and Western blotting verified its integument-specific expression and showed periodic expression during molting. The open reading frame was GC-rich and encoded a hydrophobic polypeptide. The polypeptide contained AAPA/V repeat motifs and other sequence features similar to several reported cuticular proteins but lacked an R&R consensus and other chitin-binding domains...
June 7, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Galit Eakteiman, Rita Moses-Koch, Pnina Moshitzky, Natividad Mestre-Rincon, Daniel G Vassão, Katrin Luck, Rotem Sertchook, Osnat Malka, Shai Morin
Many phloem-feeding insects are considered severe pests of agriculture and are controlled mainly by chemical insecticides. Continued extensive use of these inputs is environmentally undesirable, and also leads to the development of insecticide resistance. Here, we used a plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) approach, to develop a new control strategy for phloem-feeding insects. The approach aims to silence "key" detoxification genes, involved in the insect's ability to neutralize defensive and toxic plant chemistry...
May 31, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sharath Chandra Gaddelapati, Megha Kalsi, Amit Roy, Subba Reddy Palli
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata developed resistance to imidacloprid after exposure to this insecticide for multiple generations. Our previous studies showed that xenobiotic transcription factor, cap 'n' collar isoform C (CncC) regulates the expression of multiple cytochrome P450 genes, which play essential roles in resistance to plant allelochemicals and insecticides. In this study, we sought to obtain a comprehensive picture of the genes regulated by CncC in imidacloprid-resistant CPB...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Miaomiao Ren, Jianguo Niu, Bo Hu, Qi Wei, Cheng Zheng, Xiangrui Tian, Congfen Gao, Bingjun He, Ke Dong, Jianya Su
Flonicamid is a selective insecticide for the control of sap-sucking insects; it exerts toxic effects by inhibiting insect feeding. However, its molecular target remains elusive. In this study, we functionally characterized NlKir1 channels of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in HEK293 cells. Homomeric NlKir1 channels generated inward-rectifying K+ currents. Flonicamid inhibited NlKir1 channels at nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, flonicamid inhibited honeydew and salivary secretions of planthoppers, and reduced the renal excretion of female mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tsuguru Fujii, Kazunori Yamamoto, Yutaka Banno
Translucency of the larval integument in Bombyx mori is caused by a lack of uric acid in the epidermis. Hime'nichi translucent (ohi) is a unique mutation causing intermediate translucency of the larval integument and male-specific flaccid paralysis. To determine the gene associated with the ohi mutation, the ohi locus was mapped to a 400-kb region containing 29 predicted genes. Among the genes in this region, we focused on Bombyx homolog of mammalian Gephyrin (BmGphn), which regulates molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis, because MoCo is indispensable for the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), a key enzyme in uric acid biosynthesis...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nai-Yong Liu, Wei Xu, Shuang-Lin Dong, Jia-Ying Zhu, Yu-Xing Xu, Alisha Anderson
The functions of the Ionotropic Receptor (IR) family have been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but only limited information is available in Lepidoptera. Here, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide analysis of the IR gene repertoire in 13 moths and 16 butterflies. Combining a homology-based approach and manual efforts, totally 996 IR candidates are identified including 31 pseudogenes and 825 full-length sequences, representing the most current comprehensive annotation in lepidopteran species. The phylogeny, expression and sequence characteristics classify Lepidoptera IRs into three sub-families: antennal IRs (A-IRs), divergent IRs (D-IRs) and Lepidoptera-specific IRs (LS-IRs), which is distinct from the case of Drosophila IRs...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Fan Yang, Yang Wang, Niranji Sumathipala, Xiaolong Cao, Michael R Kanost, Haobo Jiang
Insect prophenoloxidase activation is coordinated by a serine protease network, which is regulated by serine protease inhibitors of the serpin superfamily. The enzyme system also leads to proteolytic processing of a Spätzle precursor. Binding of Spätzle to a Toll receptor turns on a signaling pathway to induce the synthesis of defense proteins. Previous studies of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta have revealed key members of the protease cascade, which generates phenoloxidase for melanogenesis and Spätzle to induce immunity-related genes...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yanran Wan, Guangdi Yuan, Bingqing He, Baoyun Xu, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Youjun Zhang, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a molecular target for spinosyns and neonicotinoids, mediate rapid cholinergic transmission in insect central nervous system by binding acetylcholine. Previous studies have shown that mutations in nAChRs contribute to the high level of resistance to these two classes of insecticides. In this study, we identified nine nAChR subunits from a transcriptome of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, including α1-7, β1, and β2. Exon 4 of α4 and exons 3 and 8 of α6 each have two splicing variants, respectively...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Guang-Zhen Huang, Jing-Tao Liu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Qian Wang, Jian-Zhen Dong, Yong-Jun Zhang, Xian-Chun Li, Jing Li, Shao-Hua Gu
Insect general odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) have been long thought to bind and transport host plant volatiles to the olfactory receptors on the dendrite membrane of the olfactory neurons. Recent studies indicate that they can also bind female sex pheromones. In present study, two GOBP genes, AipsGOBP1 and AipsGOBP2 were cloned from the adult antennae of Agrotis ipsilon. Tissue expression profiles indicated that both of them are antennae-specific and more abundant in the female antennae than in the male antennae...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Trias Thireou, Georgia Kythreoti, Katerina E Tsitsanou, Konstantinos Koussis, Christina E Drakou, Julie Kinnersley, Thomas Kröber, Patrick M Guerin, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Kostas Iatrou, Elias Eliopoulos, Spyros E Zographos
In this work we report a fast and efficient virtual screening protocol for discovery of novel bioinspired synthetic mosquito repellents with lower volatility and, in all likelihood, increased protection time as compared with their plant-derived parental compounds. Our screening protocol comprises two filtering steps. The first filter is based on the shape and chemical similarity to known plant-derived repellents, whereas the second filter is based on the predicted similarity of the ligand's binding mode to the Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein (AgamOBP1) relative to that of DEET and Icaridin to the same OBP...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhangfei Shen, Xiaoyuan Yang, Yu Chen, Liangen Shi
Bombyx mori neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (BNGR)-A27 is a specific receptor for B. mori capability (CAPA) periviscerokinin (PVK), that is, Bom-CAPA-PVK receptor 2. Upon stimulation of Bom-CAPA-PVK-1 or -PVK-2, Bom-CAPA-PVK receptor 2 significantly increases cAMP-response element-controlled luciferase activity and Ca2+ mobilization in a Gq inhibitor-sensitive manner. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for CAPA/CAPA receptor system mediation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) activation remains to be explained further...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Christopher S Spencer, Cristina Yunta, Glauber Pacelli Gomes de Lima, Kay Hemmings, Lu-Yun Lian, Gareth Lycett, Mark J I Paine
The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The ability of A. gambiae to transmit malaria is strictly related to blood feeding and digestion, which releases nutrients for oogenesis, as well as substantial amounts of highly toxic free heme. Heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) is a common protective mechanism, and a gene for HO exists in the An. gambiae genome HO (AgHO), although it has yet to be functionally examined. Here, we have cloned and expressed An. gambiae HO (AgHO) in E...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Kolja N Eckermann, Hassan M M Ahmed, Mohammad KaramiNejadRanjbar, Stefan Dippel, Christian E Ogaugwu, Peter Kitzmann, Musa D Isah, Ernst A Wimmer
Even in times of advanced site-specific genome editing tools, the improvement of DNA transposases is still on high demand in the field of transgenesis: especially in emerging model systems where evaluated integrase landing sites have not yet been created and more importantly in non-model organisms such as agricultural pests and disease vectors, in which reliable sequence information and genome annotations are still pending. In fact, random insertional mutagenesis is essential to identify new genomic locations that are not influenced by position effects and thus can serve as future stable transgene integration sites...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Wei Dou, Dan-Dan Wei, Yong Yue, Rui-Lin Yang, Pei-Jin Yang, Shuai-Feng Yu, Kristof De Schutter, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Cuticular proteins (CPs) are essential components of the insect cuticle as they create a structural and protective shield and may have a role in insect development. In this paper, we studied the CPs in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), one of the most economically important pests in the Tephritidae family around the world. The availability of a complete genome sequence (NCBI Assembly: ASM78921v2) allowed the identification of 164 CP genes in B. dorsalis. Comparative analysis of the CPs in B. dorsalis with those in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster and the closely related Ceratitis capitata, and CPs from mosquitoes, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera identified Diptera-specific genes and cuticle development patterns...
June 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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