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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522347/functional-analysis-of-tcctlp-5c2-a-chymotrypsin-like-serine-protease-needed-for-molting-in-tribolium-castaneum
#1
Daniel Albaum, Gunnar Broehan, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Hans Merzendorfer
In a previous study, we have characterized a gene family encoding chymotrypsin-like proteases from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcCTLPs). We identified 14 TcCTLP genes that were predominantly expressed in the midgut, where they presumably function in digestion. Two genes (TcCTLP-6C and TcCTLP-5C2), however, additionally showed considerable expression in the carcass, and RNAi studies demonstrated that they are required for molting (Broehan et al., 2010; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol 40, 274-83). Thus, the enzyme has distinct functions in different physiological environments...
May 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502574/diner-database-for-insect-neuropeptide-research
#2
Joseph G C Yeoh, Aniruddha A Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Neuropeptides are responsible for regulating a variety of functions, including development, metabolism, water and ion homeostasis, and as neuromodulators in circuits of the central nervous system. Numerous neuropeptides have been identified and characterized. However, both discovery and functional characterization of neuropeptides across the massive Class Insecta has been sporadic. To leverage advances in post-genomic technologies for this rapidly growing field, insect neuroendocrinology requires a consolidated, comprehensive and standardised resource for managing neuropeptide information...
May 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473197/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-outer-kinetochore-genes-in-the-holocentric-insect-bombyx-mori
#3
Hiroaki Mon, Jae Man Lee, Masanao Sato, Takahiro Kusakabe
The kinetochore creates chromosomal attachment sites for microtubules. The kinetochore-microtubule interface plays an important role in ensuring accurate transmission of genetic information to daughter cells. Bombyx mori is known to possess holocentric chromosomes, where spindle microtubules attach along the entire length of the chromosome. Recent evidence suggests that CENP-A and CENP-C, which are essential for centromere structure and function in other species, have lost in holocentric insects, implying that B...
May 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455184/arabidopsis-glucosinolates-trigger-a-contrasting-transcriptomic-response-in-a-generalist-and-a-specialist-herbivore
#4
Fabian Schweizer, Hanna Heidel-Fischer, Heiko Vogel, Philippe Reymond
Phytophagous insects have to deal with toxic defense compounds from their host plants. Although it is known that insects have evolved genes and mechanisms to detoxify plant allochemicals, how specialist and generalist precisely respond to specific secondary metabolites at the molecular level is less understood. Here we studied the larval performance and transcriptome of the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist butterfly Pieris brassicae feeding on Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes with different glucosinolate (GS) levels...
April 26, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412513/wolbachia-induced-loss-of-male-fertility-is-likely-related-to-branch-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-and-ilve-in-laodelphax-striatellus
#5
Jia-Fei Ju, Ary A Hoffmann, Yan-Kai Zhang, Xing-Zhi Duan, Yan Guo, Jun-Tao Gong, Wen-Chao Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype in affected hosts, involving embryonic lethality in crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently unclear. Here we examine the molecular correlates of the Wolbachia infection in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important rice pest, where embryonic lethality is strong and almost complete...
April 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408149/leptinotarsa-cap-n-collar-isoform-c-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein%C3%A2-1-signaling-is-critical-for-the-regulation-of-ecdysteroidogenesis-in-the-larvae
#6
Qiang-Kun Sun, Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Drosophila cap 'n' collar isoform C (CncC) and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) regulate metamorphosis by transcriptional control of a subset of genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling, and juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. In the present paper, we found that prothoracicotropic hormone signal was required for the activation of LdCncC and LdKeap1 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Moreover, RNA interference of LdCncC or LdKeap1 in the fourth-instar larvae delayed development...
April 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302436/pharmacological-characterization-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-rice-striped-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis
#7
Gang Xu, Shun-Fan Wu, Gui-Xiang Gu, Zi-Wen Teng, Gong-Yin Ye, Jia Huang
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. A complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP levels. In the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3, from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. All three receptors show considerable sequence identity with orthologous dopamine receptors...
March 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284855/identification-expression-pattern-and-feature-analysis-of-cuticular-protein-genes-in-the-pine-moth-dendrolimus-punctatus-lepidoptera-lasiocampidae
#8
Cong-Hui Yang, Peng-Cheng Yang, Su-Fang Zhang, Zhi-Yong Shi, Le Kang, Ai-Bing Zhang
Cuticular proteins (CPs) are vital components of the insects' cuticle that support movement and protect insect from adverse environmental conditions. The CPs exist in a large number and diversiform structures, thus, the accurate annotation is the first step to interpreting their roles in insect growth. The rapid development of sequencing technology has simplified the access to the information on protein sequences, especially for non-model species. Dendrolimus punctatus is a Lepidopteran defoliator, and its periodic outbreaks cause severe damage to the coniferous forests...
March 9, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286046/rudimentary-expression-of-ryamide-in-drosophila-melanogaster-relative-to-other-drosophila-species-points-to-a-functional-decline-of-this-neuropeptide-gene
#9
Jan A Veenstra, Hela Khammassi
RYamides are arthropod neuropeptides with unknown function. In 2011 two RYamides were isolated from D. melanogaster as the ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor CG5811. The D. melanogaster gene encoding these neuropeptides is highly unusual, as there are four RYamide encoding exons in the current genome assembly, but an exon encoding a signal peptide is absent. Comparing the D. melanogaster gene structure with those from other species, including D. virilis, suggests that the gene is degenerating. RNAseq data from 1634 short sequence read archives at NCBI containing more than 34 billion spots yielded numerous individual spots that correspond to the RYamide encoding exons, of which a large number include the intron-exon boundary at the start of this exon...
March 7, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235563/characterisation-analysis-of-expression-and-localisation-of-circadian-clock-genes-from-the-perspective-of-photoperiodism-in-the-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#10
Miquel Barberà, Jorge Mariano Collantes-Alegre, David Martínez-Torres
Aphids are typical photoperiodic insects that switch from viviparous parthenogenetic reproduction typical of long day seasons to oviparous sexual reproduction triggered by the shortening of photoperiod in autumn yielding an overwintering egg in which an embryonic diapause takes place. While the involvement of the circadian clock genes in photoperiodism in mammals is well established, there is still some controversy on their participation in insects. The availability of the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum places this species as an excellent model to investigate the involvement of the circadian system in the aphid seasonal response...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235562/urate-oxidase-produced-by-lucilia-sericata-medical-maggots-is-localized-in-malpighian-tubes-and-facilitates-allantoin-production
#11
Andre Baumann, Marisa Skaljac, Rüdiger Lehmann, Andreas Vilcinskas, Zdenӗk Franta
Lucilia sericata maggots are the only species currently approved for maggot debridement therapy (MDT), an alternative treatment for chronic and recalcitrant wounds. Maggots promote wound debridement, disinfection and healing by producing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low-molecular-weight compounds in their secretions and excretions, but the individual components are not well characterized at the molecular level. Here we investigated the purine catabolism pathway in L. sericata, focusing on the production of allantoin by Urate Oxidase (UO), which is thought to promote wound healing...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414175/success-in-the-acquisition-of-bombyx-mori-sperm-motility-is-influenced-by-the-extracellular-production-of-nitric-oxide-no-in-the-presence-of-seminal-fluid-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos
#12
Sumiharu Nagaoka, Maiko Asagoshi, Keita Kato, Yuki Takata
A trypsin-like protease called initiatorin is known to initiate sperm motility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, but little is known about the signaling events leading to sperm flagellar beating. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this mechanism of sperm motility activation involves the signaling transmitter nitric oxide (NO). NO is produced from the amino acid L-arginine by the enzyme action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39). Simple treatment of quiescent sperm with an NO donor (SNAP or NOC7) in vitro did not lead to activation of motility...
May 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366787/manduca-sexta-hemolymph-protease-1-activated-by%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-unconventional-non-proteolytic-mechanism-mediates%C3%A2-immune%C3%A2-responses
#13
Yan He, Yang Wang, Fan Yang, Haobo Jiang
Tissue damage or pathogen invasion triggers the auto-proteolysis of an initiating serine protease (SP), rapidly leading to sequential cleavage activation of other cascade members to set off innate immune responses in insects. Recently, we presented evidence that Manduca sexta hemolymph protease-1 zymogen (proHP1) is a member of the SP system in this species, and may activate proHP6. HP6 stimulates melanization and induces antimicrobial peptide synthesis. Here we report that proHP1 adopts an active conformation (*) to carry out its function, without a requirement for proteolytic activation...
May 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366786/design-of-larval-chemical-attractants-based-on-odorant-response-spectra-of-odorant-receptors-in-the-cotton-bollworm
#14
Chang Di, Chao Ning, Ling-Qiao Huang, Chen-Zhu Wang
Lepidopteran caterpillars rely on olfaction and gustation to discriminate among food sources. Compared to the larval gustation, the larval olfaction has been poorly investigated. To uncover the molecular basis of olfaction in Helicoverpa armigera larvae, we identified 17 odorant receptor (Or) genes in larval antennae and maxillae using transcriptome sequencing, and functionally identified the response spectra of seven Ors to ecologically relevant odorants. Innate behavioural responses of larvae to active odorants were evaluated in chemotaxis assays...
May 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347703/afidopyropen-new-and-potent-modulator-of-insect-transient-receptor-potential-channels
#15
Ramani Kandasamy, Damian London, Lynn Stam, Wolfgang von Deyn, Xilong Zhao, Vincent L Salgado, Alexandre Nesterov
The commercial insecticides pymetrozine and pyrifluquinazon control plant-sucking pests by disturbing their coordination and ability to feed. We have previously shown that these compounds act by overstimulating and eventually silencing vanilloid-type transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels, which consist of two proteins, Nanchung and Inactive, that are co-expressed exclusively in insect chordotonal stretch receptor neurons. Here we show that a new insecticidal compound, afidopyropen, modulates chordotonal organs of American grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) in the same fashion...
May 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342977/the-role-of-mir-2%C3%A2-13%C3%A2-71-cluster-in-resistance-to-deltamethrin-in-culex-pipiens-pallens
#16
Qin Guo, Yun Huang, Feifei Zou, Bingqian Liu, Mengmeng Tian, Wenyun Ye, Juxin Guo, Xueli Sun, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen, Changliang Zhu
Excessive and continuous application of deltamethrin has resulted in the development of deltamethrin resistance among mosquitoes, which becomes a major obstacle for mosquito control. In a previous study, differentially expressed miRNAs between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain using illumina sequencing in Culex pipiens pallens were identified. In this study, we applied RNAi and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay to investigate the relationship between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster (miR-2, miR-13 and miR-71) and deltamethrin resistance...
May 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300610/changes-in-microrna-abundance-may-regulate-diapause-in-the-flesh-fly-sarcophaga-bullata
#17
Julie A Reynolds, Justin T Peyton, David L Denlinger
Diapause, an alternative developmental pathway characterized by changes in developmental timing and metabolism, is coordinated by molecular mechanisms that are not completely understood. MicroRNA (miRNA) mediated gene silencing is emerging as a key component of animal development and may have a significant role in initiating, maintaining, and terminating insect diapause. In the present study, we test this possibility by using high-throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR to discover diapause-related shifts in miRNA abundance in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata...
May 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185941/expression-map-of-a-complete-set-of-gustatory-receptor-genes-in-chemosensory-organs-of-bombyx-mori
#18
Huizhen Guo, Tingcai Cheng, Zhiwei Chen, Liang Jiang, Youbing Guo, Jianqiu Liu, Shenglong Li, Kiyoko Taniai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Keiko Kadono-Okuda, Kallare P Arunkumar, Jiaqi Wu, Hirohisa Kishino, Huijie Zhang, Rakesh K Seth, Karumathil P Gopinathan, Nicolas Montagné, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Marian R Goldsmith, Qingyou Xia, Kazuei Mita
Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167332/chemoreception-to-aggregation-pheromones-in-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#19
Feng Liu, Caixing Xiong, Nannan Liu
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161469/proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-rapid-and-extensive-nicotine-detoxification-ability-in-honey-bee-larvae
#20
Esther E du Rand, Hannelie Human, Salome Smit, Mervyn Beukes, Zeno Apostolides, Susan W Nicolson, Christian W W Pirk
Despite potential links between pesticides and bee declines, toxicology information on honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera) is scarce and detoxification mechanisms in this development stage are virtually unknown. Larvae are exposed to natural and synthetic toxins present in pollen and nectar through consumption of brood food. Due to the characteristic intensive brood care displayed by honey bees, which includes progressive feeding throughout larval development, it is generally assumed that larvae rely on adults to detoxify for them and exhibit a diminished detoxification ability...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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