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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903433/cold-acclimation-allows-drosophila-flies-to-maintain-mitochondrial-functioning-under-cold-stress
#1
Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Damien Roussel
Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C)...
November 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867076/the-dna-chaperone-hmgb1-potentiates-the-transcriptional-activity-of-rel1a-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#2
Anderson de Mendonça Amarante, Natapong Jupatanakul, Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Amanda Roberta Revoredo Vicentino, George Dimopolous, Octávio Augusto C Talyuli, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié
High Mobility Group protein 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone, chromatin-associated nuclear protein that functions in regulating eukaryotic gene expression. We investigated the influence and mechanism of action of Aedes aegypti HMGB1 (AaHMGB1) on mosquito Rel1A-mediated transcription from target gene promoters. The DNA-binding domain (RHD) of AaRel1A was bacterially expressed and purified, and AaHMGB1 dramatically enhanced RHD binding to consensus NF-kB/Rel DNA response elements. Luciferase reporter analyses using a cecropin gene promoter showed that AaHMGB1 potentiates the transcriptional activity of AaRel1A in Aag-2 cells...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867075/sexually-dimorphic-traits-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-are-regulated-by-doublesex
#3
Jun Xu, Shuai Zhan, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Zhiqian Li, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867074/toxicity-of-cry1a-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-cf1-cells-does-not-involve-activation-of-adenylate-cyclase-pka-signaling-pathway
#4
Leivi Portugal, Carlos Muñóz-Garay, Diana L Martínez de Castro, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce Cry toxins that are able to kill insect pests. Different models explaining the mode of action of these toxins have been proposed. The pore formation model proposes that the toxin creates pores in the membrane of the larval midgut cells after interaction with different receptors such as cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase and that this pore formation activity is responsible for the toxicity of these proteins. The alternative model proposes that interaction with cadherin receptor triggers an intracellular cascade response involving protein G, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA)...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845251/heparan-sulfate-heparin-glycosaminoglycan-binding-alters-inhibitory-profile-and-enhances-anticoagulant-function-of-conserved-amblyomma-americanum-tick-saliva-serpin-19
#5
Željko M Radulović, Albert Mulenga
Some serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulators of essential life pathways bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to enhance inhibitory functions and achieve physiologically relevant rates. This study demonstrates that highly conserved Amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19 (AAS19), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of hemostasis and inflammation system proteases and anticoagulant, can bind heparan sulfate/heparin (HS)GAGs and that this interaction alters its function. Substrate hydrolysis and unpaired t-test analyses revealed that HSGAG binding caused rAAS19 inhibitory activity to: (i) significantly increase against blood clotting factors (f) IIa (thrombin) and fIXa, (ii) significantly reduce against fXa and fXIIa and (iii) moderate to no effect against trypsin, kallikrein, papain, and plasmin...
November 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845250/ryanodine-receptor-point-mutations-confer-diamide-insecticide-resistance-in-tomato-leafminer-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#6
Emmanouil Roditakis, Denise Steinbach, Gerald Moritz, Emmanouil Vasakis, Marianna Stavrakaki, Aris Ilias, Lidia García-Vidal, María Del Rosario Martínez-Aguirre, Pablo Bielza, Evangelia Morou, Jefferson E Silva, Wellington M Silva, Ηerbert A A Siqueira, Sofia Iqbal, Bartlomiej J Troczka, Martin S Williamson, Chris Bass, Anastasia Tsagkarakou, John Vontas, Ralf Nauen
Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil...
November 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836740/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-chemosensory-genes-in-two-sister-leaf-beetles-provides-insights-into-chemosensory-speciation
#7
Bin Zhang, Wei Zhang, Rui-E Nie, Wen-Zhu Li, Kari A Segraves, Xing-Ke Yang, Huai-Jun Xue
Divergence in chemosensory traits has been posited as an important component of chemosensory speciation in insects. In particular, chemosensory genes expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons are likely to influence insect behaviors such as preference for food, oviposition sites, and mates. Despite their key role in insect behavior and potentially speciation, the underlying genetic basis for divergence in chemosensory traits remains largely unexplored. One way to ascertain the role of chemosensory genes in speciation is to make comparisons of these genes across closely related species to detect the genetic signatures of divergence...
November 9, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816487/arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-1-gene-tcaanat1-is-required-for-cuticle-morphology-and-pigmentation-of-the-adult-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#8
Mi Young Noh, Bonwoo Koo, Karl J Kramer, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Yasuyuki Arakane
In the insect cuticle tanning pathway (sclerotization and pigmentation), the enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the acetylation of dopamine to form N-acetyldopamine (NADA), which is one of the major precursors for quinone-mediated tanning. In this study we characterized and investigated the function of TcAANAT1 in cuticle pigmentation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We isolated a full length TcAANAT1 cDNA that encodes a protein of 256 amino acid residues with a predicted GCN5-related acetyltransferase domain containing an acetyl-CoA binding motif...
November 2, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815144/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#9
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794461/regulation-of-cuticular-hydrocarbon-profile-maturation-by-drosophila-tanning-hormone-bursicon-and-its-interaction-with-desaturase-activity
#10
Justin Flaven-Pouchon, Jean-Pierre Farine, John Ewer, Jean-François Ferveur
Shortly after emergence the exoskeleton (cuticle) of adult insects is rapidly expanded, hardened (sclerotized), and pigmented (melanized). In parallel with this process, the oenocytes, which are large polyploid cells located below the abdominal epidermis, secrete onto the cuticle a cocktail of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and waxes. These improve the waterproofing of the cuticle, and also provide important chemosensory and pheromonal cues linked with gender, age, and species differentiation. The hardening and pigmentation of the new cuticle are controlled by the neurohormone, bursicon, and its receptor, encoded by the DLGR2 receptor, rickets (rk); by contrast, little is known about the timecourse of changes in CH profile and about the role of bursicon in this process...
October 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793627/metabolic-imidacloprid-resistance-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-relies-on-multiple-p450-enzymes
#11
Yixi Zhang, Yuanxue Yang, Huahua Sun, Zewen Liu
Target insensitivity contributing to imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens has been reported to occur either through point mutations or quantitative change in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the metabolic resistance, especially the enhanced detoxification by P450 enzymes, is the major mechanism in fields. From one field-originated N. lugens population, an imidacloprid resistant strain G25 and a susceptible counterpart S25 were obtained to analyze putative roles of P450s in imidacloprid resistance...
October 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793626/ippa08-allosterically-enhances-the-action-of-imidacloprid-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#12
Haibo Bao, Xusheng Shao, Yixi Zhang, Jiagao Cheng, Yunchao Wang, Xiaoyong Xu, Jichao Fang, Zewen Liu, Zhong Li
Our previous study showed that IPPA08, a cis-configuration neonicotinoid compound with unique oxabridged substructure, acted as a specific synergist to neonicotinoid insecticides targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Heteropentamer nAChRs have diverse characteristics and can form canonical and noncanonical subunit interfaces. While canonical interfaces have been exploited as targets of many drugs, noncanonical interfaces have received less attention. In this study, the mechanism of IPPA08 synergism was evaluated on hybrid nAChRs consisting of three α1 subunits from the brown planthopper and two rat β1 subunits (Nlα1/rβ2) expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
October 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784614/differential-proteomics-reveals-novel-insights-into-nosema-honey-bee-interactions
#13
Christoph Kurze, Ryan Dosselli, Julia Grassl, Yves Le Conte, Per Kryger, Boris Baer, Robin F A Moritz
Host manipulation is a common strategy by parasites to reduce host defense responses, enhance development, host exploitation, reproduction and, ultimately, transmission success. As these parasitic modifications can reduce host fitness, increased selection pressure may result in reciprocal adaptations of the host. Whereas the majority of studies on host manipulation have explored resistance against parasites (i.e. ability to prevent or limit an infection), data describing tolerance mechanisms (i.e. ability to limit harm of an infection) are scarce...
October 23, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777042/the-steroid-hormone-20-hydroxyecdysone-promotes-switching-from-autophagy-to-apoptosis-by-increasing-intracellular-calcium-levels
#14
Yong-Bo Li, Xiang-Ru Li, Ting Yang, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Autophagy regulates cell survival (or cell death in several cases), whereas apoptosis regulates cell death. However, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis and the regulative mechanism is unclear. We report that steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) promotes switching from autophagy to apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Autophagy and apoptosis sequentially occurred during midgut programmed cell death under 20E regulation, in which lower concentrations of 20E induced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-phosphatidylethanolamine (LC3-II, also known as autophagy-related gene 8, ATG8) expression and autophagy...
October 21, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744049/crispr-cas9-in-locusts-successful-establishment-of-an-olfactory-deficiency-line-by-targeting-the-mutagenesis-of-an-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-orco
#15
Yan Li, Jie Zhang, Dafeng Chen, Pengcheng Yang, Feng Jiang, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
Locusts are important agricultural pests worldwide and regarded as study models for entomology. However, the absence of targeted gene manipulation systems for locusts has restricted their applications for research. Herein, we report the successful use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce a targeted heritable mutagenesis of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The target sequence of gRNA was designed to disrupt the gene encoding the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and examine the roles of the odorant receptor pathway in the locust...
October 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720923/sperm-less-males-modulate-female-behaviour-in-ceratitis-capitata-diptera-tephritidae
#16
Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari, Alessandro Di Cosimo, Grazia Savini, Marco Fumagalli, Ludvik M Gomulski, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi
In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact...
October 6, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720811/differential-gene-expression-underlying-ovarian-phenotype-determination-in-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-caste-development
#17
Denyse Cavalcante Lago, Fernanda Carvalho Humann, Angel Roberto Barchuk, Kuruvilla Joseph Abraham, Klaus Hartfelder
Adult honey bee queens and workers drastically differ in ovary size. This adult ovary phenotype difference becomes established during the final larval instar, when massive programmed cell death leads to the degeneration of 95-99% of the ovariole anlagen in workers. The higher juvenile hormone (JH) levels in queen larvae protect the ovaries against such degeneration. To gain insights into the molecular architecture underlying this divergence critical for adult caste fate and worker sterility, we performed a microarray analysis on fourth and early fifth instar queen and worker ovaries...
October 5, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693516/proteomic-analysis-of-castor-bean-tick-ixodes-ricinus-a-focus-on-chemosensory-organs
#18
Immacolata Iovinella, Liping Ban, Limei Song, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
In arthropods, the large majority of studies on olfaction have been focused on insects, where most of the proteins involved have been identified. In particular, chemosensing in insects relies on two families of membrane receptors, olfactory/gustatory receptors (ORs/GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), and two classes of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). In other arthropods, such as ticks and mites, only IRs have been identified, while genes encoding for OBPs and CSPs are absent...
September 29, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687846/gossypol-toxicity-and-detoxification-in-helicoverpa-armigera-and-heliothis-virescens
#19
Corinna Krempl, Hanna M Heidel-Fischer, Guillermo Hugo Jiménez-Alemán, Michael Reichelt, Riya Christina Menezes, Wilhelm Boland, Heiko Vogel, David G Heckel, Nicole Joußen
Gossypol is a polyphenolic secondary metabolite produced by cotton plants, which is toxic to many organisms. Gossypol's aldehyde groups are especially reactive, forming Schiff bases with amino acids of proteins and cross-linking them, inhibiting enzyme activities and contributing to toxicity. Very little is known about gossypol's mode of action and its detoxification in cotton-feeding insects that can tolerate certain concentrations of this compound. Here, we tested the toxicity of gossypol and a gossypol derivative lacking free aldehyde groups (SB-gossypol) toward Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens, two important pests on cotton plants...
September 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687845/rna-interference-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-identification-of-key-contributors
#20
June-Sun Yoon, Jayendra Nath Shukla, Zhong Jun Gong, Kanakachari Mogilicherla, Subba Reddy Palli
RNA interference (RNAi) is a useful reverse genetics tool for investigation of gene function as well as for practical applications in many fields including medicine and agriculture. RNAi works very well in coleopteran insects including the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata. We used a cell line (Lepd-SL1) developed from CPB to identify genes that play key roles in RNAi. We screened 50 genes with potential functions in RNAi by exposing Lepd-SL1 cells to dsRNA targeting one of the potential RNAi pathway genes followed by incubation with dsRNA targeting inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP, silencing of this gene induces apoptosis)...
September 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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