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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342977/the-role-of-mir-2%C3%A2-13%C3%A2-71-cluster-in-resistance-to-deltamethrin-in-culex-pipiens-pallens
#1
Qin Guo, Yun Huang, Feifei Zou, Bingqian Liu, Mengmeng Tian, Wenyun Ye, Juxin Guo, Xueli Sun, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen, Changliang Zhu
Excessive and continuous application of deltamethrin has resulted in the development of deltamethrin resistance among mosquitoes, which becomes a major obstacle for mosquito control. In a previous study, differentially expressed miRNAs between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain using illumina sequencing in Culex pipiens pallens were identified. In this study, we applied RNAi and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay to investigate the relationship between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster (miR-2, miR-13 and miR-71) and deltamethrin resistance...
March 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302436/pharmacological-characterization-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-rice-striped-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis
#2
Gang Xu, Shun-Fan Wu, Gui-Xiang Gu, Zi-Wen Teng, Gong-Yin Ye, Jia Huang
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. A complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP levels. In the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3, from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. All three receptors show considerable sequence identity with orthologous dopamine receptors...
March 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300610/changes-in-microrna-abundance-may-regulate-diapause-in-the-flesh-fly-sarcophaga-bullata
#3
Julie A Reynolds, Justin T Peyton, David L Denlinger
Diapause, an alternative developmental pathway characterized by changes in developmental timing and metabolism, is coordinated by molecular mechanisms that are not completely understood. MicroRNA (miRNA) mediated gene silencing is emerging as a key component of animal development and may have a significant role in initiating, maintaining, and terminating insect diapause. In the present study, we test this possibility by using high-throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR to discover diapause-related shifts in miRNA abundance in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata...
March 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284855/identification-expression-pattern-and-feature-analysis-of-cuticular-protein-genes-in-the-pine-moth-dendrolimus-punctatus-lepidoptera-lasiocampidae
#4
Cong-Hui Yang, Peng-Cheng Yang, Su-Fang Zhang, Zhi-Yong Shi, Le Kang, Ai-Bing Zhang
Cuticular proteins (CPs) are vital components of the insects' cuticle that support movement and protect insect from adverse environmental conditions. The CPs exist in a large number and diversiform structures, thus, the accurate annotation is the first step to interpreting their roles in insect growth. The rapid development of sequencing technology has simplified the access to the information on protein sequences, especially for non-model species. Dendrolimus punctatus is a Lepidopteran defoliator, and its periodic outbreaks cause severe damage to the coniferous forests...
March 9, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286046/rudimentary-expression-of-ryamide-in-drosophila-melanogaster-relative-to-other-drosophila-species-points-to-a-functional-decline-of-this-neuropeptide-gene
#5
Jan A Veenstra, Hela Khammassi
RYamides are arthropod neuropeptides with unknown function. In 2011 two RYamides were isolated from D. melanogaster as the ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor CG5811. The D. melanogaster gene encoding these neuropeptides is highly unusual, as there are four RYamide encoding exons in the current genome assembly, but an exon encoding a signal peptide is absent. Comparing the D. melanogaster gene structure with those from other species, including D. virilis, suggests that the gene is degenerating. RNAseq data from 1634 short sequence read archives at NCBI containing more than 34 billion spots yielded numerous individual spots that correspond to the RYamide encoding exons, of which a large number include the intron-exon boundary at the start of this exon...
March 7, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235563/characterisation-analysis-of-expression-and-localisation-of-circadian-clock-genes-from-the-perspective-of-photoperiodism-in-the-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#6
Miquel Barberà, Jorge Mariano Collantes-Alegre, David Martínez-Torres
Aphids are typical photoperiodic insects that switch from viviparous parthenogenetic reproduction typical of long day seasons to oviparous sexual reproduction triggered by the shortening of photoperiod in autumn yielding an overwintering egg in which an embryonic diapause takes place. While the involvement of the circadian clock genes in photoperiodism in mammals is well established, there is still some controversy on their participation in insects. The availability of the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum places this species as an excellent model to investigate the involvement of the circadian system in the aphid seasonal response...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235562/urate-oxidase-produced-by-lucilia-sericata-medical-maggots-is-localized-in-malpighian-tubes-and-facilitates-allantoin-production
#7
Andre Baumann, Marisa Skaljac, Rüdiger Lehmann, Andreas Vilcinskas, Zdenӗk Franta
Lucilia sericata maggots are the only species currently approved for maggot debridement therapy (MDT), an alternative treatment for chronic and recalcitrant wounds. Maggots promote wound debridement, disinfection and healing by producing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low-molecular-weight compounds in their secretions and excretions, but the individual components are not well characterized at the molecular level. Here we investigated the purine catabolism pathway in L. sericata, focusing on the production of allantoin by Urate Oxidase (UO), which is thought to promote wound healing...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232040/diversity-and-functions-of-protein-glycosylation-in-insects
#8
REVIEW
Tomasz Walski, Kristof De Schutter, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
The majority of proteins is modified with carbohydrate structures. This modification, called glycosylation, was shown to be crucial for protein folding, stability and subcellular location, as well as protein-protein interactions, recognition and signaling. Protein glycosylation is involved in multiple physiological processes, including embryonic development, growth, circadian rhythms, cell attachment as well as maintenance of organ structure, immunity and fertility. Although the general principles of glycosylation are similar among eukaryotic organisms, insects synthesize a distinct repertoire of glycan structures compared to plants and vertebrates...
February 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232041/c-type-lectin-interacting-with-%C3%AE-integrin-enhances-hemocytic-encapsulation-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#9
Pan Wang, Xiao-Rong Zhuo, Lin Tang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Yu-Feng Wang, Guo-Xiu Wang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jia-Lin Wang
The encapsulation reaction in invertebrates is analogous to granuloma formation in vertebrates, and this reaction is severely compromised when ecdysone signaling is blocked. However, the molecular mechanism of the encapsulation reaction, especially how ecdysone controls this process, remains obscure. In our previous study, we found that the C-type lectin HaCTL3 from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera might be involved in fighting against bacteria as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the current study, we demonstrated that HaCTL3 is involved in defending against parasitism and directly binds to the surface of nematodes...
February 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189748/transcription-factor-cap-n-collar-c-regulates-multiple-cytochrome-p450-genes-conferring-adaptation-to-potato-plant-allelochemicals-and-resistance-to-imidacloprid-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say
#10
Megha Kalsi, Subba Reddy Palli
Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata is a notorious pest of potato. Co-evolution with Solanaceae plants containing high levels of toxins (glycoalkaloids) helped this insect to develop an efficient detoxification system and resist almost every chemical insecticide introduced for its control. Even though the cross-resistance between plant allelochemicals and insecticides is well acknowledged, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in detoxification of potato plant allelochemicals and imidacloprid resistance in the field-collected CPB...
February 9, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189747/an-integrated-crispr-bombyx-mori-genome-editing-system-with-improved-efficiency-and-expanded-target-sites
#11
Sanyuan Ma, Yue Liu, Yuanyuan Liu, Jiasong Chang, Tong Zhang, Xiaogang Wang, Run Shi, Wei Lu, Xiaojuan Xia, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia
Genome editing enabled unprecedented new opportunities for targeted genomic engineering of a wide variety of organisms ranging from microbes, plants, animals and even human embryos. The serial establishing and rapid applications of genome editing tools significantly accelerated Bombyx mori (B. mori) research during the past years. However, the only CRISPR system in B. mori was the commonly used SpCas9, which only recognize target sites containing NGG PAM sequence. In the present study, we first improve the efficiency of our previous established SpCas9 system by 3...
February 9, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153644/cathepsin-l-participates-in-the-remodeling-of-the-midgut-through-dissociation-of-midgut-cells-and-activation-of-apoptosis-via-caspase-1
#12
Cui Yang, Xian-Wu Lin, Wei-Hua Xu
The larval midgut in holometabolous insects must undergo a remodeling process during metamorphosis to form the pupal-adult midgut. However, the molecular mechanism of larval midgut cell dissociation remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression and activity of Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CatL) are high in the midgut at the mid-late stage of the 6th-instar larvae and are responsive to the upstream hormone ecdysone. Immunocytochemistry shows that signals for Har-CatL-like are localized in midgut cells, and an inhibitor experiment demonstrates that Har-CatL functions in the dissociation of midgut epithelial cells...
January 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126587/co-option-of-the-sphingolipid-metabolism-for-the-production-of-nitroalkene-defensive-chemicals-in-termite-soldiers
#13
Anna Jirošová, Andrej Jančařík, Riya C Menezes, Olga Bazalová, Klára Dolejšová, Heiko Vogel, Pavel Jedlička, Aleš Buček, Jana Brabcová, Pavel Majer, Robert Hanus, Aleš Svatoš
The aliphatic nitroalkene (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene (NPD), reported in early seventies in soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes, was the first documented nitro compound produced by insects. Yet, its biosynthetic origin has long remained unknown. Here, we investigated in detail the biosynthesis of NPD in P. simplex soldiers. First, we track the dynamics in major metabolic pathways during soldier ontogeny, with emphasis on likely NPD precursors and intermediates. Second, we propose a hypothesis of NPD formation and verify its individual steps using in vivo incubations of putative precursors and intermediates...
January 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119199/whole-genome-sequence-of-the-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines
#14
Jacob A Wenger, Bryan J Cassone, Fabrice Legeai, J Spencer Johnston, Raman Bansal, Ashley D Yates, Brad S Coates, Vitor A C Pavinato, Andy Michel
Aphids are emerging as model organisms for both basic and applied research. Of the 5,000 estimated species, only three aphids have published whole genome sequences: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. We present the whole genome sequence of a fourth aphid, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), which is an extreme specialist and an important invasive pest of soybean (Glycine max). The availability of genomic resources is important to establish effective and sustainable pest control, as well as to expand our understanding of aphid evolution...
January 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115271/comparative-analysis-of-the-brain-transcriptome-in-a-hyper-aggressive-fruit-fly-drosophila-prolongata
#15
Ayumi Kudo, Shuji Shigenobu, Koji Kadota, Masafumi Nozawa, Tomoko F Shibata, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animals, but its intensity differs between species. In a model animal of genetics, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic basis of aggressive behavior has been studied intensively, including transcriptome analyses to identify genes whose expression level was associated with intra-species variation in aggressiveness. However, whether these genes are also involved in the evolution of aggressiveness among different species has not been examined. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis in the brain of Drosophila prolongata to identify genes associated with the evolution of aggressiveness...
January 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185941/expression-map-of-a-complete-set-of-gustatory-receptor-genes-in-chemosensory-organs-of-bombyx-mori
#16
Huizhen Guo, Tingcai Cheng, Zhiwei Chen, Liang Jiang, Youbing Guo, Jianqiu Liu, Shenglong Li, Kiyoko Taniai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Keiko Kadono-Okuda, Kallare P Arunkumar, Jiaqi Wu, Hirohisa Kishino, Huijie Zhang, Rakesh K Seth, Karumathil P Gopinathan, Nicolas Montagné, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Marian R Goldsmith, Qingyou Xia, Kazuei Mita
Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167332/chemoreception-to-aggregation-pheromones-in-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#17
Feng Liu, Caixing Xiong, Nannan Liu
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161469/proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-rapid-and-extensive-nicotine-detoxification-ability-in-honey-bee-larvae
#18
Esther E du Rand, Hannelie Human, Salome Smit, Mervyn Beukes, Zeno Apostolides, Susan W Nicolson, Christian W W Pirk
Despite potential links between pesticides and bee declines, toxicology information on honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera) is scarce and detoxification mechanisms in this development stage are virtually unknown. Larvae are exposed to natural and synthetic toxins present in pollen and nectar through consumption of brood food. Due to the characteristic intensive brood care displayed by honey bees, which includes progressive feeding throughout larval development, it is generally assumed that larvae rely on adults to detoxify for them and exhibit a diminished detoxification ability...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137505/an-isoform-of-taiman-that-contains-a-prd-repeat-motif-is-indispensable-for-transducing-the-vitellogenic-juvenile-hormone-signal-in-locusta-migratoria
#19
Zhiming Wang, Libin Yang, Jiasheng Song, Le Kang, Shutang Zhou
Taiman (Tai) has been recently identified as the dimerizing partner of juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met). However, the role of Tai isoforms in transducing vitellogenic signal of JH has not been determined. In this study, we show that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria has two Tai isoforms, which differ in an INDEL-1 domain with the PRD-repeat motif rich in histidine and proline at the C-terminus. Tai-A with the INDEL-1 is expressed at levels about 50-fold higher than Tai-B without the INDEL-1 in the fat body of vitellogenic adult females...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111191/mutations-of-two-acidic-residues-at-the-cytoplasmic-end-of-segment-iiis6-of-an-insect-sodium-channel-have-distinct-effects-on-pyrethroid-resistance
#20
Mengli Chen, Yuzhe Du, Yoshiko Nomura, Guonian Zhu, Boris S Zhorov, Ke Dong
Mutations in sodium channels are known to confer knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, such as permethrin and cypermethrin, in various agricultural pests and disease vectors. Double mutations, D(3i28)V and E(3i32)G, were detected in cypermethrin-resistant Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens populations. However, the role of the two mutations in pyrethroid resistance remains unclear. In this study, we introduced the mutations into the cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, and examined their effects on channel gating and pyrethroid sensitivity in Xenopus oocytes...
March 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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