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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720534/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-regulates-p-akt-levels-via-pp2a-during-diapause-entry-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#1
Hai-Yin Li, Tao Wang, Yong-Pan Yang, Shao-Lei Geng, Wei-Hua Xu
Akt, which is a key kinase in the insulin signaling pathway, plays important roles in glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. Our previous studies indicated that low insulin levels and high p-Akt levels are present in diapause-destined individuals. Here, we show that PI3K, which is upstream of Akt, is low in diapause-destined pupal brains but high in p-Akt levels, implying that p-Akt is modified by factors other than the insulin signaling pathway. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is a key regulator in the TGF-β signaling pathway, can directly bind to and dephosphorylate Akt...
July 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705634/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-helicoverpa-armigera-with-mutations-of-an-abc-transporter-gene-haabca2-confers-resistance-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry2a-toxins
#2
Jing Wang, Huidong Wang, Shaoyan Liu, Laipan Liu, Wee Tek Tay, Thomas K Walsh, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu
High levels of resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab have been identified to be genetically linked with loss of function mutations of an ABC transporter gene (ABCA2) in two lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera. To further confirm the causal relationship between the ABCA2 gene (HaABCA2) and Cry2Ab resistance in H. armigera, two HaABCA2 knockout strains were created from the susceptible SCD strain with the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. One strain (SCD-A2KO1) is homozygous for a 2-bp deletion in exon 2 of HaABCA2 created by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)...
July 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705633/transcriptome-analysis-of-helicoverpa-armigera-male-hairpencils-alcohol-biosynthesis-and-requirement-for-mating-success
#3
Mengfang Du, Wenhui Zhao, Russell Jurenka, Xiaoguang Liu, Xinming Yin, Qisheng Song, Shiheng An
Many female animals use different strategies to assess male quality to increase their own reproductive fitness. In moths, females usually use chemical signals (sex pheromones) to attract males from a distance. Once males approach a female, they release close range pheromones from hairpencils to facilitate female acceptance. However, detailed mechanisms involved in male sex pheromone biosynthesis and its action in promoting female acceptance have not yet been fully characterized. This study screened a series of candidate genes via a transcriptome analysis of the male hairpencil of Helicoverpa armigera...
July 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676356/bmchsa-2b-a-lepidoptera-specific-alternative-splicing-variant-of-epidermal-chitin-synthase-is-required-for-pupal-wing-development-in-bombyx-mori
#4
Guanfeng Xu, Jie Zhang, Hao Lyu, Jia Liu, Yang Ding, Qili Feng, Qisheng Song, Sichun Zheng
Insect chitin synthase A (CHSA) is an epidermis-specific enzyme that plays an essential role in insect development. In this study, the function and regulation of CHSA-2b, an alternative splicing variant of Bombxy mori CHSA that is discovered only in Lepidopteran insects, were investigated. Analysis of mRNA level showed that BmCHSA-2b was responsive to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in pupal wing unlike BmCHSA-2a, which shares almost the identical sequence as BmCHSA-2b except the first 31 amino acids, suggesting that the expression of these two alternative splicing variants is driven by different promoters of CHSA gene...
July 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676355/nanos-driven-expression-of-piggybac-transposase-induces-mobilization-of-a-synthetic-autonomous-transposon-in-the-malaria-vector-mosquito-anopheles-stephensi
#5
Vanessa M Macias, Alyssa J Jimenez, Bianca Burini-Kojin, David Pledger, Nijole Jasinskiene, Celine Hien Phong, Karen Chu, Aniko Fazekas, Kelcie Martin, Osvaldo Marinotti, Anthony A James
Transposons are a class of selfish DNA elements that can mobilize within a genome. If mobilization is accompanied by an increase in copy number (replicative transposition), the transposon may sweep through a population until it is fixed in all of its interbreeding members. This introgression has been proposed as the basis for drive systems to move genes with desirable phenotypes into target species. One such application would be to use them to move a gene conferring resistance to malaria parasites throughout a population of vector mosquitos...
July 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676354/cry46ab-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-tk-e6-is-a-new-mosquitocidal-toxin-with-aerolysin-type-architecture
#6
Tohru Hayakawa, Akira Sakakibara, Sho Ueda, Yoshinao Azuma, Toru Ide, So Takebe
Cry46Ab is a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis TK-E6. Cry46Ab is not significantly homologous to other mosquitocidal Cry or Cyt toxins and is classified as an aerolysin-type pore-forming toxin based on structural similarity. In this study, the potency of Cry46Ab was assessed for its potential application to mosquito control. A synthetic Cry46Ab gene, cry46Ab-S1, was designed to produce recombinant Cry46Ab as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Cry46Ab showed apparent toxicity to Culex pipiens larvae, with a 50% lethal dose of 1...
July 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669775/investigation-of-the-contribution-of-ryr-target-site-mutations-in-diamide-resistance-by-crispr-cas9-genome-modification-in-drosophila
#7
Vassilis Douris, Kyriaki-Maria Papapostolou, Aris Ilias, Emmanuel Roditakis, Styliani Kounadi, Maria Riga, Ralf Nauen, John Vontas
Diamide insecticides are used widely against lepidopteran pests, acting as potent activators of insect Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) and thus inducing muscle contraction and eventually death. However, resistant phenotypes have recently evolved in the field, associated with the emergence of target site resistance mutations (G4946E/V and I4790M). We investigated the frequency of the mutations found in a resistant population of Tuta absoluta from Greece (G4946V ~79% and I4790M ~21%) and the associated diamide resistance profile: there are very high levels of resistance against chlorantraniliprole (9329-fold) and flubendiamide (4969-fold), but moderate levels against cyantraniliprole (191-fold)...
June 29, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668511/voltage-sensitive-potassium-channels-expressed-after-20-hydroxyecdysone-treatment-of-a-mosquito-cell-line
#8
Lacey J Jenson, Baonan Sun, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
The goal of this research was to express receptors and ion channels in hormone-treated insect cell lines. Treatment of Anopheles gambiae Sua1B cells with 20-hydroxyecdysone showed an inhibition of cell growth over a time course of three days, with no change in cellular morphology. The effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone was enhanced in the presence of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine, but not tetraethylammonium. Concentration-response curves of 4-aminopyridine in the presence of 42 μM (1 mg/ml) 20-hydroxyecdysone showed similar IC50 values (6-10 μM) across 3 day exposures...
June 28, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663125/characterization-of-three-serotonin-receptors-from-the-small-white-butterfly-pieris-rapae
#9
Yi-Xiang Qi, Miao Jin, Xu-Yang Ni, Gong-Yin Ye, Youngseok Lee, Jia Huang
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays a key role in modulating diverse physiological processes and behaviors in both protostomes and deuterostomes. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, which are recognized as potential insecticide targets. We investigated the sequence, pharmacology and tissue distribution of three 5-HT receptors (Piera5-HT1A, Piera5-HT1B, Piera5-HT7) from the small white butterfly Pieris rapae, an important pest of cultivated cabbages and other mustard family crops...
June 27, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655666/wolbachia-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-alters-blood-meal-excretion-and-delays-oviposition-without-affecting-trypsin-activity
#10
Sofia Pimenta de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas de Oliveira, Mauricio Roberto Viana Sant'Anna, Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae...
June 24, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645488/characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-key-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-and-signaling-genes-in-a-spider-mite-panonychus-citri
#11
Gang Li, Jin-Zhi Niu, Moises Zotti, Qin-Zhe Sun, Lin Zhu, Jun Zhang, Chong-Yu Liao, Wei Dou, Dan-Dan Wei, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Ecdysteroids play a crucial role in regulating molting in the phylum of Arthropoda and much is known with members of the subphylum of Hexapoda including the Insecta. However, this is still unclear in key pests as spider mites belonging to the subphylum of Chelicerata that originated earlier in the Cambrian period. In this study, we investigated 14 key genes of ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling and their expression over the different developmental stages in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Stigmaeidae)...
June 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#12
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629966/pharmacological-characterisation-and-functional-roles-for-egg-laying-of-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-like-octopamine-receptor-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#13
Shun-Fan Wu, Xiao-Min Jv, Jian Li, Guang-Jian Xu, Xiao-Yi Cai, Cong-Fen Gao
Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, controls and modulates many physiological and behavioral processes in protostomes. It mediates its effects by binding to specific receptors belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. We report the cloning of a cDNA from the brown planthopper (Nloa2b2) sharing high similarity with members of the OA2B2 receptor class. Activation of NlOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 114 nM)...
June 16, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#14
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619669/sex-pheromone-in-the-moth-heliothis-virescens-is-produced-as-a-mixture-of-two-pools-de-novo-and-via-precursor-storage-in-glycerolipids
#15
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson, Jérôme Casas
Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U-(13)C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP)...
June 12, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610908/the-abc-transporter-abch-9c-is-needed-for-cuticle-barrier-construction-in-locusta-migratoria
#16
Zhitao Yu, Yiwen Wang, Xiaoming Zhao, Xiaojian Liu, Enbo Ma, Bernard Moussian, Jianzhen Zhang
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a large superfamily of proteins that mediate transport of a diverse number of substrates including nutrients, lipids and xenobiotics across membranes serving a variety of developmental and physiological functions. Here, we report on the molecular properties and biological roles of the ABC transporter LmABCH-9C in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. LmABCH-9C was expressed continuously during nymphal development in all tissues including the integument. Expression was highest just after molting...
June 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610907/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-like-peptide-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulate-the-growth-and-development-of-the-male-genital-disk-through-different-mechanisms-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#17
Daiki Fujinaga, Yusuke Kohmura, Naoki Okamoto, Hiroshi Kataoka, Akira Mizoguchi
It is well established that ecdysteroids play pivotal roles in the regulation of insect molting and metamorphosis. However, the mechanisms by which ecdysteroids regulate the growth and development of adult organs after pupation are poorly understood. Recently, we have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-like peptides (IGFLPs), which are secreted after pupation under the control of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, massive amounts of Bombyx-IGFLP (BIGFLP) are present in the hemolymph during pupal-adult development, suggesting its importance in the regulation of adult tissue growth...
June 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595898/transcriptional-signatures-of-parasitization-and-markers-of-colony-decline-in-varroa-infested-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#18
Virginia Zanni, David A Galbraith, Desiderato Annoscia, Christina M Grozinger, Francesco Nazzi
Extensive annual losses of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) reported in the northern hemisphere represent a global problem for agriculture and biodiversity. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in association with deformed wing virus (DWV), plays a key role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To elucidate these mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profile of uninfested and mite infested bees, under laboratory and field conditions, highlighting the effects of parasitization on the bee's transcriptome under a variety of conditions and scenarios...
June 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577927/deletion-of-the-bombyx-mori-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-bmorco-impairs-olfactory-sensitivity-in-silkworms
#19
Qun Liu, Wei Liu, Baosheng Zeng, Guirong Wang, Dejun Hao, Yongping Huang
Olfaction plays an essential role in many important insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. To detect olfactory stimuli, an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) is required. In this study, we deleted the Orco gene in the Lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori, using a binary transgene-based clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. We initially generated somatic mutations in two targeted sites, from which we obtained homozygous mutants with deletion of a 866 base pair sequence...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576656/a-double-stranded-rna-degrading-enzyme-reduces-the-efficiency-of-oral-rna-interference-in-migratory-locust
#20
Huifang Song, Jianqin Zhang, Daqi Li, Anastasia M W Cooper, Kristopher Silver, Tao Li, Xiaojian Liu, Enbo Ma, Kun Yan Zhu, Jianzhen Zhang
Application of RNA interference (RNAi) for insect pest management is limited by variable efficiency of RNAi in different insect species. In Locusta migratoria, RNAi is highly efficient through injection of dsRNA, but oral delivery of dsRNA is much less effective. Efforts to understand this phenomenon have shown that dsRNA is more rapidly degraded in midgut fluid than in hemolymph due to nuclease enzyme activity. In the present study, we identified and characterized two full-length cDNAs of double-stranded RNA degrading enzymes (dsRNase) from midgut of L...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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