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Journal of Vascular Research

Irene Hofer, Christine Schimp, Muna Taha, Jochen Seebach, Mohammed Aldirawi, Jiahui Cao, Quentin Leidl, Annelie Ahle, Hans Schnittler
Endothelial cells of the vascular system are dynamic cells whose molecular adaptability is decisive for the adjustment of homeostasis and organ perfusion. Advanced microscopic techniques, automation processing, and image analysis software was shown to improve the understanding of vascular biology. In this work, we describe advanced methods that allow investigating the dynamics of endothelial cell contacts. The development of viral vectors has contributed significantly to the genetic manipulation of endothelial cells...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Zeqin Xu, Yongquan Gu, Jianxin Li, Zengguo Feng, Lianrui Guo, Zhu Tong, Lin Ye, Chunmei Wang, Rong Wang, Xue Geng, Cong Wang, Jian Zhang
In the field of vascular graft research, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) is used owing to its good mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In this study, PCL scaffold was prepared by electrospinning and surface modification with heparin via hexamethylenediamine. Then the scaffolds were implanted into the infrarenal abdominal aorta of Wistar rats and contrast-enhanced micro-ultrasound was used to monitor the patency of grafts after implantation. These grafts were extracted from the rats at 1, 3, and 6 months for histological analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy observation...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Tomoaki Shiba, Mao Takahashi, Tadashi Matsumoto, Yuichi Hori
PURPOSE: To determine: (1) whether variables of a pulse wave form analysis of ocular microcirculation shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) correlate with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and (2) whether these variables correlate with LV diastolic dysfunction in subjects without LV systolic dysfunction as assessed by echocardiography. METHODS: We studied 200 consecutive subjects. LV systolic dysfunction has been determined to be present when the LV ejection fraction was < 50%...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Aaron Gelinne, Lucia Brown, Nga Ling Ko, George Osol, Stephen Brown
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ten-eleven translocation 2 (Tet2), a DNA demethylase enzyme, has been identified as a master epigenetic regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell plasticity. We hypothesized that pregnancy will induce significant adaptive changes in aortic biomechanics that correlate with the Tet family gene expression. METHODS: Abdominal aortas from pregnant and nonpregnant mice were dissected and cannulated. Intraluminal pressure was adjusted using a pressure-servo system while using a video dimension analyzer to measure the lumen diameter...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Chia-Ching Hsu, Wu-Chien Chien, Jen-Chun Wang, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Wen-I Liao, Wei-Shiang Lin, Chin-Sheng Lin, Shih-Hung Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of sustained arrhythmia. Several molecular pathways associated with the pathogenesis of AF also participate in the initiation and progression of aortic aneurysm (AA). In this study, we aimed to evaluate potential associations between AA and AF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data for this nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study were obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Hua Liu, Wenbo Zhang, Brenda Lilly
Loss of vascular pericytes has long been associated with the onset of diabetic retinopathy; however, mechanisms contributing to pericyte dropout are not understood. Notch3 has been implicated in pericyte stability and survival, and linked to vascular integrity. Notch3 mutant mice exhibit progressive loss of retinal pericytes. Given that diabetic retinopathy is associated with pericyte loss, we sought to determine whether perturbation of Notch3 signaling contributes to diabetes-induced pericyte dropout and capillary degeneration...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Gábor Fazekas, László Benkő, Gábor Kasza, Endre Arató, László Sínay, Szaniszló Jávor, Tibor Nagy, Péter Hardi, Lajos Kollár, Gábor Jancsó, Gábor Menyhei
AIMS: Prosthetic graft infection frequently requires graft replacement. Among other options, a biological graft could serve as an alternative choice. Decellularization reduces tissue immunogenicity. Our aim was to determine an efficient decellularization method and to evaluate the decellularized porcine biografts' adaptability. METHODS: Four different protocols were implemented to decellularize porcine aortic segments (n = 4). Cell removal effectiveness and matrix structure preservation were histologically examined...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Sera Gonelevue, Abhirup Bandyopadhyay, Saumya Bhagat, Md Iqbal Alam, Gausal A Khan
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a sterile inflammatory molecule and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) released from various cells during stress has been implicated in inflammation. Several reports show that there is a direct relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as thrombosis, hypertension, insulin resistance, preeclampsia, etc. Here, we intend to summarize the concept of the emerging link between HMGB1 and CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible therapeutic strategies that target HMGB1 for the treatment of different CVDs...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Anastasia Logothetidou, Ward De Spiegelaere, Tim Vandecasteele, Waltraud Tschulenk, Ingrid Walter, Wim Van den Broeck, Pieter Cornillie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a dynamic process which contributes to vascular expansion and remodeling. Intraluminal pillars have long been the distinctive structural indicator of IA. However, the mechanism of their formation has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Using light and electron microscopy, we studied intussusceptive vascular growth in the developing porcine metanephric kidney. RESULTS: We observed intraluminal pillars formed by endothelial cells in the vasculature of developing glomeruli...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Souleiman Ghanem, Bence Tanczos, Adam Deak, Laszlo Bidiga, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistulae impair the distal circulation, but their effects at the microcirculatory level are not well understood. This study presents the carotid-jugular fistula (CJF) as a model to evaluate fistula-related microcirculatory and systemic changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were anesthetized and divided into a fistula group (FG, n = 10) and a sham group (SG, n = 6). End-to-end anastomosis was performed between the right carotid artery and the jugular vein in the FG...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
David A Prim, Vinal Menon, Shahd Hasanian, Laurel Carter, Tarek Shazly, Jay D Potts, John F Eberth
Adaptive remodeling processes are essential to the maintenance and viability of coronary artery bypass grafts where clinical outcomes depend strongly on the tissue source. In this investigation, we utilized an ex vivo perfusion bioreactor to culture porcine analogs of common human bypass grafts: the internal thoracic artery (ITA), the radial artery (RA), and the great saphenous vein (GSV), and then evaluated samples acutely (6 h) and chronically (7 days) under in situ or coronary-like perfusion conditions. Although morphologically similar, primary cells harvested from the ITA illustrated lower intimal and medial, but not adventitial, cell proliferation rates than those from the RA or GSV...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Chang-Chih Shih, Jen-Chun Wang, Shih-Hung Tsai, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Sy-Jou Chen, Wen-I Liao, Chang-Huei Tsao, Yung-Fu Wu, Wu-Chien Chien
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have an increased risk of aortic aneurysm (AA). METHODS: The data for the nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study described here were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We selected adult patients who had been newly diagnosed as having OSA and were followed up between 2000 and 2010. We excluded patients who had been diagnosed as having AA before the date of the new OSA diagnosis...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Samia Neggazi, Laurence Canaple, Nadjiba Hamlat, Karine Gauthier, Jacques Samarut, Giampiero Bricca, Souhila Aouichat-Bouguerra, Michel Beylot
Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates gene transcription by binding to TH receptors (TRs). TRs regulate the genes of lipid metabolism and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We examined the effect of TRα deletion in ApoE-/- mice (DKO mice) on the following: (i) the expression of genes controlling cholesterol metabolism and tissue (t)RAS in the liver and aorta and (ii) the expression of these genes and the regulation of cholesterol content in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). TRα deletion in ApoE-/- mice led to the repression of genes involved in the synthesis and influx of cholesterol in the liver...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Mingyi Wang, Robert E Monticone, Kimberly R McGraw
Age-associated structural and functional remodeling of the arterial wall produces a productive environment for the initiation and progression of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Chronic aging stress induces low-grade proinflammatory signaling and causes cellular proinflammation in arterial walls, which triggers the structural phenotypic shifts characterized by endothelial dysfunction, diffuse intimal-medial thickening, and arterial stiffening. Microscopically, aged arteries exhibit an increase in arterial cell senescence, proliferation, invasion, matrix deposition, elastin fragmentation, calcification, and amyloidosis...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Raquel Carvalho Castiglione, Carlos M M R Barros, Beatriz C S Boa, Maria das Graças C De Souza, Eliete Bouskela
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fructose intake is directly related to vascular dysfunction and it is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Selenium, a component of antioxidant enzymes, improves hyperglycemia and vascular function in diabetic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on microcirculatory and metabolic parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) had their drinking water substituted or not by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, during which their microcirculatory function was evaluated in the cheek pouch preparation...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Oliver Baretella, Aimin Xu, Paul M Vanhoutte
BACKGROUND: Aging, obesity, and diabetes favor vascular dysfunction. Endothelial activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has protective effects in diabetes. METHODS: Mice with constitutive endothelial activation of AMPK (CA-AMPK) were given a high fat diet to induce obesity or kept on standard chow as lean controls for up to 2 years. A subset of obese animals was changed to standard chow after 30 weeks of high fat feeding. En-dothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses were examined by isometric tension recording...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Lexiao Jin, Alexandra Lipinski, Daniel J Conklin
Vascular contractile function changes in proliferative vascular diseases, e.g. atherosclerosis, and is documented using isolated blood vessels; yet, many laboratories differ in their approach to quantification. Some use raw values (e.g., mg, mN); others use a "percentage of control agonist" approach; and others normalize by blood vessel characteristic, e.g. length, mass, etc. A lack of uniformity limits direct comparison of contractility outcomes. To address this limitation, we developed a simple 2-step normalization method: (1) measure blood vessel segment length (mm), area (mm2) and calculate volume (mm3); then, (2) normalize isometric contraction (mN) by segment length and volume...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Xiang-Ping Lin, Han-Jin Cui, A-Li Yang, Jie-Kun Luo, Tao Tang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a major public health burden. Endothelial-dependent coronary artery vasoreactivity is a significant indicator of vascular function. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and predicts late cardiovascular events. Astragaloside IV (AGIV) is the main active component of the herb Astragalus membranaceus. Although it shows a significant protective effect against vascular endothelial dysfunction, the mechanisms of AGIV promoting the vascular dilation have not been elucidated...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Carlos E Escarcega González, Abimael González Hernández, Carlos M Villalón, Martin G Rodríguez, Bruno A Marichal Cancino
Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are frequent (4-5% of the childhood population) benign vascular tumors that involve accumulation, proliferation, and differentiation of aberrant vascular cells. Typically, IH are innocuous and spontaneously disappear, but they represent a potential risk for harmful effects in the body (e.g., permanent disfigurement) and health (e.g., ulcerations) in some patients. From a serendipitous discovery, the nonselective β-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (which blocks β1-adrenoceptors, β2-adrenoceptors, and β3-adrenoceptors) emerged as an alternative therapy to treat this pathology and it quickly became a first-line treatment for IH...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
George Lindesay, Yvonnick Bézie, Christophe Ragonnet, Véronique Duchatelle, Chandima Dharmasena, Nicole Villeneuve, Christine Vayssettes-Courchay
Central artery stiffening is recognized as a cardiovascular risk. The effects of hypertension and aging have been shown in human and animal models but the effect of salt is still controversial. We studied the effect of a high-salt diet on aortic stiffness in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypersensitive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Distensibility, distension, and β-stiffness were measured at thoracic and abdominal aortic sites in the same rats, using echotracking recording of the aortic diameter coupled with blood pressure (BP), in SHRSP-salt (5% salted diet, 5 weeks), SHRSP, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
2018: Journal of Vascular Research
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