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Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809068/false-belief-attribution-in-children-with-williams-syndrome-the-answer-is-in-the-emotion
#1
R Campos, P Martínez-Castilla, M Sotillo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show difficulties in attributing false beliefs, whereas they are better at attributing emotions. This study examines whether being asked about the emotion linked to a false belief, instead of explicitly about the belief, facilitates performance on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. METHOD: Thirty children with WS and 90 typically developing children, who were individually matched on mental age (50-112 months), were administered six explicit (i...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776780/the-construct-of-maternal-positivity-in-mothers-of-children-with-intellectual-disability
#2
M Jess, R P Hastings, V Totsika
BACKGROUND: Despite the elevated levels of stress, anxiety and depression reported by mothers of children with intellectual disabilities (ID), these mothers also experience positive well-being and describe positive perceptions of their child. To date, maternal positivity has been operationalised in different ways by using a variety of measures. In the present study, we tested whether a latent construct of maternal positivity could be derived from different measures of positivity. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-five mothers of 89 boys and 46 girls with ID between 3 and 18 years of age completed measures on parental self-efficacy, their satisfaction with life, family satisfaction, their positive affect and their positive perceptions of their child with ID...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748594/spanish-validation-of-the-pas-add-checklist-questionnaire-for-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-for-spanish-population
#3
A Martorell, M C González, P Gutiérrez, F Rincón, M H Núñez-Polo
BACKGROUND: The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) is an international reference tool for the diagnosis and assessment of mental health problems and behavioural disorders among people with intellectual disabilities. Although the original PAS-ADD instrument has been validated in the Spanish language, the shorter PAS-ADD Checklist has yet not been validated. The aim of this study is to validate the PAS-ADD Checklist for the Spanish population...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745018/a-comparison-between-linguistic-skills-and-socio-communicative-abilities-in-williams-syndrome
#4
P Alfieri, D Menghini, L Marotta, L De Peppo, L Ravà, F Salvaguardia, C Varuzza, S Vicari
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show a disharmonic linguistic profile with a clear pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Despite their sociable nature, atypical socio-communicative abilities and deficits in communication and relationship with others have been found. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether linguistic skills (LS) were in line with the pragmatic and social use of language and the cognitive development of 32 individuals with WS (18 boys and 14 girls) with a mean chronological age of 12...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726285/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-executive-function-in-down-syndrome-from-2-to-35%C3%A2-years
#5
S J Loveall, F A Conners, A S Tungate, L J Hahn, T D Osso
BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated a unique profile of executive function (EF) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). However, there is a paucity of research on EF in adults with DS. This study aimed to gain a broader understanding of strengths and weaknesses in EF in DS from 2 to 35 years. METHOD: Parents of 112 individuals with DS between 2 and 35 years participated in this study. Parents either completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - for individuals 6+ years - or the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version - for children 2-5 years...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699168/intellectual-disability-in-children-aged-less-than-seven-years-born-moderately-and-late-preterm-compared-with-very-preterm-and-term-born-children-a-nationwide-birth-cohort-study
#6
M Hirvonen, R Ojala, P Korhonen, P Haataja, K Eriksson, K Rantanen, M Gissler, T Luukkaala, O Tammela
BACKGROUND: Prematurity has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of intellectual disability (ID). METHOD: The aim was to establish whether the prevalence of ID, defined as significant limitations in both intellectual (intelligence quotient below 70) and adaptive functioning among moderately preterm (MP; 32(+0) -33(+6)  weeks) and late preterm (LP; 34(+0) -36(+6)  weeks) infants, is increased compared with that in term infants (≥37(+0)  weeks)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675574/prevalence-of-hypertension-and-prehypertension-in-children-and-adolescents-with-intellectual-disability-in-southeastern-poland
#7
J Wyszyńska, J Podgórska-Bednarz, J Leszczak, A Mazur
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient information on the prevalence of hypertension (HPT) among children and adolescents with ID. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPT in children and adolescents with ID in comparison with the control group, which accounted for children and adolescents without ID. METHODS: The study included 568 students with ID, aged from 7 to 18, attending special education institutions in southeastern Poland...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664561/a-prospective-20-year-longitudinal-follow-up-of-dementia-in-persons-with-down-syndrome
#8
M McCarron, P McCallion, E Reilly, P Dunne, R Carroll, N Mulryan
GOAL: To examine dementia characteristics, age at onset and associated co-morbidities in persons with Down syndrome. METHOD: A total of 77 people with Down syndrome aged 35 years and older were followed up from 1996 to 2015. The diagnosis of dementia was established using the modified ICD 10 Criteria and a combination of objective and informant-based tests. Cognitive tests included the Test for Severe Impairment and the Down Syndrome Mental Status Examination; adaptive behaviour was measured using the Daily Living Skills Questionnaire, and data from the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities have been available since 2005...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639298/prevalence-patterns-and-factors-associated-with-psychotropic-use-in-older-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-ireland
#9
M O'Dwyer, J Peklar, N Mulryan, P McCallion, M McCarron, M C Henman
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk of exposure to psychotropic drugs and psychotropic polypharmacy because of the higher prevalence of mental health conditions present and more controversially, the use of these agents to treat challenging behaviours. Despite the fact that many adults with ID are exposed to psychotropic polypharmacy, few studies to date have focused on the patterns of use of multiple psychotropics, or factors associated with psychotropic polypharmacy, particularly in the older population...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573662/offenders-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-prison-what-happens-when-they-leave
#10
G H Murphy, P Chiu, P Triantafyllopoulou, M Barnoux, E Blake, J Cooke, R V E Forrester-Jones, N J Gore, J K Beecham
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities, if convicted of offences, may be sentenced to prison, but little is known about their life when they are released. METHOD: This study followed up men with intellectual disabilities who were leaving prisons in England. RESULTS: The men were hard to contact, but 38 men were interviewed, on average 10 weeks after leaving prison. The men were living in a variety of situations and often were very under-occupied, with limited social networks...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560761/physicians-reasons-not-to-discontinue-long-term-used-off-label-antipsychotic-drugs-in-people-with-intellectual-disability
#11
G M de Kuijper, P J Hoekstra
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability (ID) frequently use antipsychotic drugs on an off-label base, often for many years. Physicians' decisions to discontinue these drugs not only depend on patient characteristics, like the presence of mental or behavioural disorders, but also on environmental factors, such as inappropriate living circumstances, and on attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of staff, clients and their representatives towards the effects of antipsychotic drug use. In this study, we therefore investigated the influence of participant and setting-related factors on decisions of physicians not to discontinue off-label prescribed antipsychotics...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544066/type-2-diabetes-and-glucose-intolerance-in-a-population-with-intellectual-disabilities-the-stop-diabetes-cross-sectional-screening-study
#12
A J Dunkley, F Tyrer, L J Gray, S Bhaumik, R Spong, Y Chudasama, S-A Cooper, S Ganghadaran, M Davies, K Khunti
BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) may be at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, due to lifestyle factors, medications and other diagnosed conditions. Currently, there is lack of evidence on prevalence and prevention in this population. The aim of this study was to conduct a diabetes screening programme to determine prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in people with ID. METHODS: Screening was conducted in a variety of community settings in Leicestershire, UK...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707360/reciprocity-in-autistic-and-typically-developing-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-mild-intellectual-disabilities
#13
T Backer van Ommeren, H M Koot, S Begeer
The assessment of autism in individuals with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) is complicated because of the overlap between autistic traits and intellectual limitations. Impaired social emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for autism. However, it is unknown whether reciprocal behaviour differs between MID individuals with or without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored differences in reciprocal behaviour of 35 children and adolescents with MID (intelligence quotient 50-85): 15 with ASD (ASD-MID) and 20 with typical development (TD-MID) using the Interactive Drawing Test (IDT)...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707359/the-feasibility-of-using-pedometers-for-self-report-of-steps-and-accelerometers-for-measuring-physical-activity-in-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-across-an-18-month-intervention
#14
L T Ptomey, E A Willis, J Lee, R A Washburn, C A Gibson, J J Honas, J E Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Improving physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) is recommended to improve weight loss and general health. However, in order to determine the success of physical activity interventions, identification of feasible methods for assessment of physical activities is necessary. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of adults with IDD to track daily steps and wear an accelerometer. METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD followed a diet and physical activity program for 18 months...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612424/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-cognitive-functioning-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-down-syndrome
#15
A Joyce, D Dimitriou
BACKGROUND: Sleep affects children's cognitive development, preparedness for school and future academic outcomes. People with Down syndrome (DS) are particularly at risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). To our knowledge, the association between SDB and cognition in preschoolers with DS is unknown. METHODS: We assessed sleep by using cardiorespiratory polygraphy in 22 typically developing (TD) preschoolers and 22 with DS. Cognition was assessed by using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and behaviour by using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593714/autism-awareness-in-children-and-young-people-surveys-of-two-populations
#16
K Dillenburger, J-A Jordan, L McKerr, K Lloyd, D Schubotz
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, pupils on the autism spectrum are educated in inclusive mainstream classrooms. However, they often experience social isolation and bullying, and raising the awareness of autism in peers has been suggested as a remedy. METHODS: In order to assess autism awareness in peers, autism-related questions were included in two large-scale surveys: the Kids Life and Times survey for 11-year olds and the Young Life and Times survey for 16-year olds; a total of n = 3353 children and young people completed the surveys...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585394/wii-based-exercise-program-to-improve-physical-fitness-motor-proficiency-and-functional-mobility-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#17
V Silva, C Campos, A Sá, M Cavadas, J Pinto, P Simões, S Machado, E Murillo-Rodríguez, N Barbosa-Rocha
BACKGROUND: People with Down syndrome (DS) usually display reduced physical fitness (aerobic capacity, muscle strength and abnormal body composition), motor proficiency impairments (balance and postural control) and physical functional limitations. Exergames can be an appealing alternative to enhance exercise engagement and compliance, whilst improving physical fitness and motor function. This study aims to analyse the effects of a Wii-based exercise program on physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency of adults with DS...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497469/prognostic-models-for-identifying-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-and-mealtime-support-needs-who-are-at-greatest-risk-of-respiratory-infection-and-emergency-hospitalisation
#18
C M Perez, A P Wagner, S L Ball, S R White, I C H Clare, A J Holland, M Redley
BACKGROUND: Among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), problems with eating, drinking and swallowing (EDS), and an associated need for mealtime support, are common, with an estimated 15% of adults known to specialist ID services requiring mealtime support. We set out to identify which adults with ID who receive mealtime support are at an increased risk of respiratory infections and emergency hospitalisation related to EDS problems. METHOD: An exploratory, prospective cohort study was undertaken in the East of England...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386983/investigating-the-factors-that-affect-the-communication-of-death-related-bad-news-to-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-by-staff-in-residential-and-supported-living-services-an-interview-study
#19
I Tuffrey-Wijne, T Rose
BACKGROUND: Most staff working in intellectual disability services will be confronted with people with intellectual disabilities who need support around death, dying and bereavement. Previous studies suggest that intellectual disability staff tend to protect clients from knowing about death and avoid communication about death. The aims of this study were to gain further insight into the individual, organisational and contextual factors that affect the communication of death-related bad news to people with intellectual disabilities by intellectual disability staff and to develop guidelines for services to enable appropriate communication with clients about death and dying...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090701/the-nationwide-register-based-prevalence-of-intellectual-disability-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#20
H Westerinen, M Kaski, L J Virta, H Kautiainen, K H Pitkälä, M Iivanainen
BACKGROUND: Many studies have evaluated the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) by focusing on different ages during childhood and adolescence. Although the prevalence of ID is higher in older age groups, how cumulative prevalence increases, and what level it reaches before adulthood, remains unclear. METHOD: We used Care Register for Health Care to retrieve information on individuals born in 1996-2007 with any of the inclusion diagnoses of ID (F7 group and/or aetiological diagnoses) for the period 1996 to 2013...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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