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Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR

M McCarron, P McCallion, A Coppus, J Fortea, S Stemp, M Janicki, K Wtachman
BACKGROUND: The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia (Glasgow, Scotland; October 2016) noted that advanced dementia can be categorised as that stage of dementia progression characterised by significant losses in cognitive and physical function, including a high probability of further deterioration and leading to death. METHOD: The question before the Summit was whether there were similarities and differences in expressions of advanced dementia between adults with intellectual disability (ID) and adults in the general population...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L Rague, K Caravella, B Tonnsen, J Klusek, J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit abnormal gesture use early in development, although few studies have investigated the emergence of gesture use in this population or the impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features on these behaviours. The present study examined the longitudinal development of gesture use in infants with FXS relative to low-risk controls and infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings), with the goal of establishing potentially unique patterns of gesture development in infants with FXS and understanding the relative impact of ASD symptom severity on these patterns...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
C T Moody, B L Baker, J Blacher
BACKGROUND: Despite studies of how parent-child interactions relate to early child language development, few have examined the continued contribution of parenting to more complex language skills through the preschool years. The current study explored how positive and negative parenting behaviours relate to growth in complex syntax learning from child age 3 to age 4 years, for children with typical development or developmental delays (DDs). METHODS: Participants were children with or without DD (N = 60) participating in a longitudinal study of development...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
H Crawford, J Moss, C Stinton, G Singla, C Oliver
BACKGROUND: Hyperactivity and repetitive behaviour are characteristic features of fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, little is known about the influence of autism symptomatology on how these characteristics develop over time. We investigate the profiles and developmental trajectories of overactivity, impulsivity and repetitive behaviour, in males with FXS over three time points spanning 8 years. METHOD: Participants formed two subgroups, those who displayed elevated symptoms of autism at Time 1 (n = 37; Mage  = 16...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L Roberts, J L Richmond
BACKGROUND: Episodic memory deficits are a characteristic of cognitive dysfunction in people with Down syndrome (DS). However, less is known about the processes (i.e. encoding, retention or using learned information flexibly) that underlie these deficits. METHOD: We explored these abilities by administering a relational memory and inference task to participants with DS and mental age-matched controls and testing both immediately and after a 24-h delay. RESULTS: Adults with DS learned paired associates more slowly than controls but showed good recognition at both the immediate and delayed tests...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A R Rasdale, D M Warman, P L Phalen
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates negative perceptions of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with schizophrenia, but no study has examined ID with a co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The present study examined the social distance desired from and perceptions of dangerousness of ID, schizophrenia and co-morbid schizophrenia and ID and examined the impact of providing a label for the behaviours presented in a vignette. METHODS: A total of 160 participants, all university students, were randomly assigned to one of six vignettes detailing a person with schizophrenia, ID, or a person with both presenting problems...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
M C O Kersten, E F Taminiau, M I M Schuurman, M C D P Weggeman, P J C M Embregts
BACKGROUND: To optimise care and support for people with intellectual disabilities (ID), sharing and application of knowledge is a precondition. In healthcare in general, there is a body of knowledge on bridging the 'know-do-gap'. However, it is not known to what extent the identified barriers and facilitators to knowledge sharing and application also hold for the care and support of people with ID, due to its specific characteristics including long-term care. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to identify which organisational factors are enabling and/or disabling in stimulating the sharing and application of knowledge in the care and support of people with ID...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A J Esbensen, E K Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems have an impact on executive functioning in the general population. While children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for sleep problems, the impact of these sleep problems on executive functioning in school-age children with DS is less well documented. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports and neuropsychology assessments of executive functioning among school-age children with DS...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A Gulsrud, C E Lin, M N Park, G Hellemann, J McCracken
BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviours (SIB) are concerning, maladaptive behaviours that commonly occur in people with neurodevelopmental conditions and delays but seem to be particularly prevalent in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There has been increasing research examining the risk markers associated with the presence of SIB in people with ASD. Some of the factors associated with SIB have included cognitive abilities, adaptive functioning deficits and behaviour regulation impairments (e...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
S S Hall, K M Hustyi, R P Barnett
BACKGROUND: Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability, are at increased risk for showing specific forms of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) such as hand biting and head hitting, suggesting that biological factors associated with the syndrome confers increased risk for SIB. Few studies, however, have examined the extent to which social-environmental variables can influence the occurrence of these behaviours in this population...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
P Kurtek
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to find differences in general life satisfaction in adolescents with mild intellectual disability (MID) with respect to exhibiting a prosocial or an antisocial coping style. According to the ecological approach, using the antisocial style in a competitive school environment (a zero-sum game) may increase personal satisfaction, while in the family, which operates on the principles of 'common good' or 'common failure' (a non-zero-sum game), the antisocial style may reduce general satisfaction of the individual...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L Pezzuti, R Nacinovich, S Oggiano, M Bomba, R Ferri, A La Stella, S Rossetti, A Orsini
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Down syndrome generally show a floor effect on Wechsler Scales that is manifested by flat profiles and with many or all of the weighted scores on the subtests equal to 1. METHOD: The main aim of the present paper is to use the statistical Hessl method and the extended statistical method of Orsini, Pezzuti and Hulbert with a sample of individuals with Down syndrome (n = 128; 72 boys and 56 girls), to underline the variability of performance on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition subtests and indices, highlighting any strengths and weaknesses of this population that otherwise appear to be flattened...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
T K Frankena, J Naaldenberg, M Cardol, E Garcia Iriarte, T Buchner, K Brooker, P Embregts, E Joosa, F Crowther, A Fudge Schormans, A Schippers, J Walmsley, P O'Brien, C Linehan, R Northway, H van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, G Leusink
BACKGROUND: The active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in research, or inclusive research, is relatively common. However, inclusive health research is less common, even though it is expected to lead to appropriate healthcare and increased quality of life. Inclusive health research can build upon lessons learned from inclusive research. METHOD: A total of 17 experts on inclusive (health) research without intellectual disabilities and 40 experts with intellectual disabilities collaborated in this consensus statement...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A Folch, M J Cortés, L Salvador-Carulla, P Vicens, M Irazábal, S Muñoz, L Rovira, C Orejuela, J M Haro, E Vilella, R Martínez-Leal
BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a prevalent form of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual developmental disorders (IDD). Existing research has yielded conflicting findings concerning the major risk factors involved, and in addition, SIB shows multiple topographies and presentations. Although presence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and severity of intellectual disability (ID) are known risk factors for SIB, there are no studies comparing SIB topographies by severity degrees of ID and ASD...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A Oppewal, T I M Hilgenkamp
BACKGROUND: Gait deviations are often seen in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Their low physical fitness levels may be associated with these deviations. Understanding the impact of fitness on gait in this population is important for developing interventions to improve gait. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the association between multiple physical fitness components and spatiotemporal gait parameters in adults with ID. METHOD: Gait characteristics of 31 adults (42...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A B Courtemanche, B P Lloyd, J T Tapp
BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a treatment-resistant aberrant behaviour that significantly impacts the lives of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Direct observations of SIB under naturally occurring conditions can inform the unique structural properties of these behaviours, and the contexts in which they occur. While previous applications of sequential analyses have identified strong temporal associations between instances of SIB, they have relied on methods that do not adequately control for chance sequencing and may mask within-participant variability by pooling data across contexts and response topographies...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
X Qian
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether verbal responsiveness in special education teachers varied among subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 112) who differed in cognitive and language abilities. METHODS: Participants were divided into clusters using cluster analysis based on standardised cognitive and language tests using k-mean clustering. For each child, a 15-min video of free play in school setting was collected. Three types of responsive utterances were coded: follow-in directives for behaviour, follow-in directives for language and follow-in comments...
June 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L Cupples, T Y C Ching, G Leigh, L Martin, M Gunnourie, L Button, V Marnane, S Hou, V Zhang, C Flynn, P Van Buynder
BACKGROUND: This study examined language development in young children with hearing loss and different types of additional disabilities (ADs). METHOD: A population-based cohort of 67 children who were enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study took part. Language ability was directly assessed at 3 and 5 years of age using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition. Standard scores were used to enable comparison with age-based expectations for typically developing children...
June 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L Bell, C Oliver, A Wittkowski, J Moss, D Hare
BACKGROUND: Catatonia-like presentations in people with autism have been increasingly recognised within research and diagnostic guidelines. The recently developed Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has identified that attenuated behaviour [autistic catatonia] is very prevalent in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and associated with repetitive behaviour. In the current study, we investigated attenuated behaviour within two genetic syndromes associated with ASD and examined ASD and repetitive behaviour as longitudinal predictors of attenuated behaviour...
June 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
J M Grey, V Totsika, R P Hastings
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of living circumstances to the perception of subjective well-being (SWB) and health of adults with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the present study was to examine whether living circumstances impact differently on the perception of health and SWB and whether potential differences persist after accounting for other variables (e.g. level of support needs and reporting method). METHODS: Secondary data analysis was undertaken of a large national survey of adults with an ID in England, aged 16 years and over...
June 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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