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Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR

E Toffalini, C Meneghetti, B Carretti, S Lanfranchi
BACKGROUND: Spatial knowledge about an environment is an important determinant of ability to move effectively within it and of personal autonomy. Individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) have difficulty managing configural visuospatial information. METHOD: Twenty-nine individuals with DS and 29 typically developing (TD) children, matched for mental age, learned about environments through virtual exploration using a route or survey view. A sketch map of the environment was or was not presented before exploration...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
S Wark, K McKay, P Ryan, A Müller
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher likelihood of exposure to identified risk factors for suicide when compared with the general community and have been recognised as being both capable of forming intent for suicide and acting on this intent. However, in spite of research outlining these concerns from the 1970s, there remains a dearth of studies that examine suicide amongst the population of people with ID. METHOD: An online cross-sectional survey was purposively developed, with questions aimed at identifying both the experiences and current practices of support staff who assist people with ID in relation to suicide, suicidal behaviour and suicide assessment...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
E Rombouts, B Maes, I Zink
BACKGROUND: Staff may encourage individuals with intellectual disabilities to use manual signs by modelling its use, but implementing key word signing during daily activities can be demanding. METHOD: Staff's use of manual signs was observed in four special schools and four day centres for adults with intellectual disabilities during communicative group activities, non-communicative group activities and mealtimes. Using in situ partial interval coding, we measured staff's communication rate, semantic diversity of manual signs, sign reinforcement and sign imitation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
K Hsieh, S Murthy, T Heller, J H Rimmer, G Yen
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been identified among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Periodontitis has been reported to increase the risk of developing a CVD in the general population. Given that individuals with ID have been reported to have a higher prevalence of poor oral health than the general population, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adults with ID with informant reported gum disease present greater reported CVD than those who do not have reported gum disease and whether gum disease can be considered a risk factor for CVD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A Amor-Salamanca, J M Menchon
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the hospitalisation rate of adults with severe/profound intellectual disability (PID) presenting at emergency services or about the appropriateness of hospital admissions in this population. Examining the possible differences in the patterns of hospitalisation between people with PID and those without intellectual disability (ID) may shed light on aspects of health and illness in these patients and may in turn make it possible to differentiate more clearly between mild-moderate ID and PID...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
P J G Nouwens, N B M Smulders, P J C M Embregts, C van Nieuwenhuizen
BACKGROUND: Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the type of healthcare providers involved matched the specific support needs of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. METHOD: Five (previously identified) profiles of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were used to investigate to what extent the support needs of this group had been met...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
A Y M Chow, J McEvoy, I K N Chan, M Borschel, J H L Yuen, J Y M Lo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with ID are often withheld information about the death of their loved ones as it has often been thought that they do not understand death or cannot grieve. This grief exacerbates the stress of individuals with ID as they often encounter secondary losses such as transitioning to a care facility. The aim of this study is to investigate men and women with ID understanding death concepts and to what extent. METHOD: Adopting a stratified random sampling method, 156 Chinese people with ID were invited to join the study...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
D J Laxman, J S Greenberg, L S DaWalt, J Hong, M G Aman, M Mailick
BACKGROUND: The behavioural challenges and medical conditions associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) can lead to increased need for medications. METHOD: This longitudinal study examined the use of prescription medications for psychotropic and non-psychotropic purposes by adolescents and adults with FXS drawn from a North American community sample (N = 105). Odds and probabilities of continuing or discontinuing medication were calculated. Predictors of medication use were calculated...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
S McDermott, J Royer, J R Mann, B S Armour
INTRODUCTION: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) can be seen as failure of access or management in primary care settings. Identifying factors associated with ACSCs for individuals with an Intellectual Disability (ID) provide insight into potential interventions. METHOD: To assess the association between emergency department (ED) ACSC visits and a number of demographic and health characteristics of South Carolina Medicaid members with ID. A retrospective cohort of adults with ID was followed from 2001 to 2011...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L P Hagopian, M A Frank-Crawford
Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is generally considered to be the product of interactions between dysfunction stemming from the primary developmental disability and experiences that occasion and reinforce SIB. As a result of these complex interactions, SIB presents as a heterogeneous problem. Recent research delineating subtypes of SIB that are nonsocially mediated, including one that is amenable to change and one that is highly invariant, enables classification of SIB across a broader continuum of relative environmental-biological influence...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
J M T Stoffelen, M A Herps, W H E Buntinx, D Schaafsma, G Kok, L M G Curfs
BACKGROUND: Sexual rights and sexuality are important aspects of quality of life, also for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). However, providing support in this area to people with ID poses some challenges. In this study, the content of individual support plan (ISP) documents was analysed to determine the extent to which sexuality and sexual rights are addressed in part of the ISP documents. METHOD: Content analysis was carried out on a sample of 187 ISP documents from seven different service provider organisations in the Netherlands...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
M A Verdugo-Alonso, C P Henao-Lema, L Córdoba-Andrade, V B Arias González
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Measuring quality of life (QoL) in people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) can help organisations and practitioners to implement evidence-based practices and develop person-centred planning and individualised supports. There is no reliable and valid instrument for assessing QoL in people with ID in Colombia. We investigated the internal structure of the Colombian version of the INICO-FEAPS scale and tested whether the scale identified the eight interrelated domains of the QoL conceptual framework originally described by...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
O Weisman, R Feldman, M Burg-Malki, M Keren, R Geva, G Diesendruck, D Gothelf
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have assessed the socio-cognitive profile in Williams syndrome (WS) and, independently, in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Yet, a cross-syndrome comparison of these abilities between individuals with these two syndromes with known social deficits has not been conducted. METHODS: Eighty-two children participated in four study groups: WS (n = 18), 22q112.DS (n = 24), age-matched individuals with idiopathic developmental disability (IDD; n = 20) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 20)...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
P Boström, J Åsberg Johnels, M Broberg
BACKGROUND: The Wellbeing in Special Education Questionnaire was developed to assess subjective wellbeing in young persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) as this perspective is rarely included in research. The present study explored how ID/DD and gender are related to self-reported wellbeing among adolescents. METHOD: Students with (n = 110) or without (n = 110) ID/DD, aged 12-16 years, completed the Wellbeing in Special Education Questionnaire...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
L J Rice, E Emerson, K M Gray, P Howlin, B J Tonge, G L Warner, S L Einfeld
BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used to measure emotional and behavioural problems in typically developing young people, although there is some evidence that it may also be suitable for children with intellectual disability (ID). The Developmental Behaviour Checklist - Parent version (DBC-P) is a measure of emotional and behavioural problems that was specifically designed for children and adolescents with an ID. The DBC-P cut-off has high agreement with clinical diagnosis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
S L Stewart, K Falah Hassani, J Poss, J Hirdes
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known about the predictors of healthcare service utilisation in children with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with service complexity in children with ID in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of 330 children with ID ages 4 to 18 years who accessed mental health services from November of 2012 to June of 2016 in four agencies. All participants completed the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health and Developmental Disability Assessment Instrument, which is a semi-structured clinician-rated assessment that covers a range of common issues in children with ID...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
F Burgio, S Benavides-Varela, G Arcara, E Trevisson, D Frizziero, M Clementi, C Semenza
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the mathematical domains affected in adults with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and the impact of the numerical difficulties on the patients' activities of daily living. METHODS: We assessed 28 adult patients with NF1 and 28 healthy control participants. All participants completed the standardised battery of numerical activities of daily living along with clinical batteries of cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination) and daily functioning (instrumental activities of daily living)...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
M P Krezmien, J C Travers, K Camacho
BACKGROUND: Little research exists on suspension of students with autism or intellectual disabilities. We examined suspension rates of students with autism or intellectual disability in Maryland from 2004 to 2015 to understand whether race and disability status predicted the odds of being suspended. METHOD: We used school enrollment data and school suspension data in Maryland for analysis. Descriptive statistics by race and disability category were calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in odds of suspension by race and by disability (ID and autism) each year...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
J Guàrdia-Olmos, M Carbó-Carreté, M Peró-Cebollero, C Giné
BACKGROUND: The study of measurements of quality of life (QoL) is one of the great challenges of modern psychology and psychometric approaches. This issue has greater importance when examining QoL in populations that were historically treated on the basis of their deficiency, and recently, the focus has shifted to what each person values and desires in their life, as in cases of people with intellectual disability (ID). Many studies of QoL scales applied in this area have attempted to improve the validity and reliability of their components by incorporating various sources of information to achieve consistency in the data obtained...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
R Campos, P Martínez-Castilla, M Sotillo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show difficulties in attributing false beliefs, whereas they are better at attributing emotions. This study examines whether being asked about the emotion linked to a false belief, instead of explicitly about the belief, facilitates performance on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. METHOD: Thirty children with WS and 90 typically developing children, who were individually matched on mental age (50-112 months), were administered six explicit (i...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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