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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Takaya Oikawa, Takeshi Suzuki, Syohei Takeishi, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi, Shin Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Takafumi Shimizu, Mitsunori Seo, Hiroyuki Ohta, Minoru Ueda
Jasmonates are major plant hormones involved in wounding responses. Systemic wounding responses are induced by an electrical signal derived from damaged leaves. After the signaling, jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are translocated from wounded to undamaged leaves, but the molecular mechanism of the transport remains unclear. Here, we found that a JA-Ile transporter, GTR1, contributed to these translocations in Arabidopsis thaliana. GTR1 was expressed in and surrounding the leaf veins both of wounded and undamaged leaves...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Clyde Gorapava Puilingi, Yuta Kudo, Yuko Cho, Keiichi Konoki, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
A new sarasinoside congener (sarasinoside M2) and known sarasinoside B1 were obtained from a marine sponge. Sarasinoside M2 was suggested to have the same aglycon as sarasinoside M although the internal glucose in its sugar moiety is replaced by xylose. Sarasinosides B1 and M2 showed moderate cytotoxicity (approximate IC50 5-18 μM) toward Neuro-2a and HepG2 cell lines.
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kou Nakano, Tetsuro Kobayakawa, Kazuaki Nakata, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
α-Defensin 5 is important to both maintenance of a gut microbiota and host immunity. While previous reports have shown that gut bacteria are able to upregulate α-defensin 5 through Toll-like receptor signaling, we demonstrate here that α-defensin 5 expression can also be regulated by microbial metabolites. Among these, lactate appeared to significantly suppress α-defensin 5 gene transcription. Actually, fractions of <3 kD compounds obtained from the ceca of SPF mice were suppressed α-defensin 5 gene transcription at specific concentrations...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yasuhiro Matsuo, Makoto Kawamukai
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase Pka1 is known as a regulator of glycogenesis, meiosis, and stress responses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We demonstrated that Pka1 is responsible for calcium tolerance. Loss of functional components of the PKA pathway such as Git3, Gpa2, Cyr1, and Pka1 yields a CaCl2-sensitive phenotype, while loss of Cgs1, a regulatory subunit of PKA, results in CaCl2 tolerance. Cytoplasmic distribution of Cgs1 and Pka1 is increased by the addition of CaCl2, suggesting that CaCl2 induces dissociation of Cgs1 and Pka1...
October 19, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuko Ishida, Takehiko Yasueda, Hiroki Murakami, Ken Kato
Bovine angiogenin is a major component of the bone resorption inhibitory activity of milk basic protein (MBP). The intestinal absorption of bovine angiogenin was investigated in a rat model, where it was detected in an intact form in the peripheral blood after the oral administration of MBP. This finding demonstrates that orally administered bovine angiogenin is absorbed without being degraded.
October 19, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Daisuke Uesugi, Hiroki Hamada, Kei Shimoda, Naoji Kubota, Shin-Ichi Ozaki, Naoki Nagatani
The stilbene compound resveratrol was glycosylated to give its 4'-O-β-D-glucoside as the major product in addition to its 3-O-β-D-glucoside by a plant glucosyltransferase from Phytolacca americana expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. This enzyme transformed pterostilbene to its 4'-O-β-D-glucoside, and converted pinostilbene to its 4'-O-β-D-glucoside as a major product and its 3-O-β-D-glucoside as a minor product. An analysis of antioxidant capacity showed that the above stilbene glycosides had lower oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values than those of the corresponding stilbene aglycones...
October 19, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Teruki Aizawa, Ayaka Yamamoto, Tomoya Ueno
Theaflavins are reddish-colored polyphenols in black tea. To test the efficacy of theaflavin administration on body fat and muscle, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and investigated the effect of theaflavins administration on the body composition using of healthy subjects. In this study, 30 male and female Japanese were enrolled and participants were randomly allocated to receive placebo, theaflavin (50 or 100 mg/day), or catechin (400 mg/ml) for 10 weeks. The effects were evaluated using body weight, body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage, and skeletal muscle percentage...
October 19, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Eitaro Matsumura, Akira Nakagawa, Yusuke Tomabechi, Takashi Koyanagi, Hidehiko Kumagai, Kenji Yamamoto, Takane Katayama, Fumihiko Sato, Hiromichi Minami
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of plant secondary metabolites that have been identified as targets for drug discovery because of their diverse pharmaceutical activities. Well-known BIAs are relatively abundant in plants and have therefore been extensively studied. However, although unknown BIAs are also thought to have valuable activities, they are difficult to obtain because the raw materials are present at low abundance in nature. We have previously reported the fermentative production of an important intermediate (S)-reticuline from dopamine using Escherichia coli...
October 14, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jianjun Wang, Yang Jiao, Lunmeng Cui, Lili Jiang
The present study was designed to investigate the role of miR-30 in the development of Gastric cancer (GC). miR-30 expression was increased in GC tissues and cell lines. Downregulation of miR-30 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in HGC-27 cells. Upregulation of miR-30 enhanced the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. P53 expression was decreased in GC tissues. P53 expression was correlated with miR-30 expression. Downregulation of miR-30 increased P53 expression. Knockdown of P53 inhibited miR-30-inhibitor-induced suppression of cell proliferation and increase of apoptosis...
October 12, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yoshinobu Yoshimoto, Hana Kozai, Takeaki Okamoto
We examined the inhibitory effects of HAQ (His-Ala-Gln) peptide on type-1 allergy in vitro and in vivo. HAQ peptide inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and intracellular Ca(2+) levels of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Oral administration of a HAQ peptide-added diet (1 mg/mouse/administration) to C3H/HeJ mice for 14 days led to significant suppression of allergic symptoms, but did not reduce allergen-specific IgE or IgG1.
October 12, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kyoko Noda, Masatsune Murata
Pyrrolothiazolate formed by the Maillard reaction between l-cysteine and d-glucose has a pyrrolothiazole skeleton as a chromophore. We searched for a Maillard pigment having a pyrrolooxazole skeleton formed from l-threonine or l-serine instead of l-cysteine in the presence of d-glucose. As a result, two novel yellow pigments, named pyrrolooxazolates A and B, were isolated from model solutions of the Maillard reaction containing l-threonine and d-glucose, and l-serine and d-glucose, respectively, and identified as (2R,3S,7aS)-2,3,7,7a-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-2,5,7a-trimethyl-7-oxo-pyrrolo[2,1-b]oxazole-3-calboxylic acid and (3S,7aS)-2,3,7,7a-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-5,7a-dimethyl-7-oxo-pyrrolo[2,1-b]oxazole-3-calboxylic acid by instrumental analyses...
October 6, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yihui Liu, Long Jin, Pengbo Lou, Yiren Gu, Mingzhou Li, Xuewei Li
Increasing evidence suggests that micro (mi)RNAs play important roles in various biological process. To evaluate the roles of miRNA in the porcine liver, we investigated the dynamic profiles of microRNAomes using liver tissue from pigs during the embryonic period (embryonic day 90), weaning stage (postnatal day 30), and adult stage (7 years old). A total of 186 unique miRNAs were differentially expressed during liver development. We also identified that 17, 13, and 6 miRNAs were specifically abundant at embryonic day 90, postnatal day 30, and at 7 years, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takashi Kikuma, Takayuki Tadokoro, Jun-Ichi Maruyama, Katsuhiko Kitamoto
Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotic cells for degradation of cellular proteins and organelles. In filamentous fungi, autophagic degradation of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei occurs in basal cells after the prolonged culture, but its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we functionally analyzed the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae AoAtg26, an ortholog of the sterol glucosyltransferase PpAtg26 involved in pexophagy in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Deletion of Aoatg26 caused a severe decrease in conidiation and aerial hyphae formation, which is typically observed in the autophagy-deficient A...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Sumiko Nakamura, Takashi Hara, Toshio Joh, Atsushi Kobayashi, Akira Yamazaki, Kensaku Kasuga, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are very serious diseases with the latter having been suggested to cause the former. We prepared super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran (SRBBB), which contained a high amount of resistant starch that showed strong inhibitory activities against β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase even after heating. Black rice bran showed greater β-secretase inhibitory activity (3.6-fold) than Koshihikari rice. The bran contained more oleic acid and anthocyanin, meaning that it is potentially a biofunctional food with a high antioxidant capacity...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Erina Kitagawa, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Mayuko Fujishita, Yuki Ota, Kohei Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Nakagawa, Takashi Hayakawa
We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Taiji Nomura
Plants have evolved secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of immense rich diversity. The genes encoding enzymes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis have evolved through gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization, thereby generating functional diversity. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some of those enzymes catalyze reactions entirely different from those usually catalyzed by other members of the same family; e.g. transacylation catalyzed by an enzyme similar to a hydrolytic enzyme. Tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE), which we recently discovered from tulip, catalyzes the conversion of major defensive secondary metabolites, tuliposides, to antimicrobial tulipalins...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Eriko Uehara, Hideki Hokazono, Takako Sasaki, Hidekatsu Yoshioka, Noritaka Matsuo
We examined the effects of GABA on type I collagen gene expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Real-time PCR analysis indicated GABA increased the level of type I collagen transcripts, and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, which is a collagen-degrading enzyme. These results suggest GABA improves the skin elasticity by regulating type I collagen expression.
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hideaki Takano, Yuhei Matsui, Junpei Nomura, Masahiro Fujimoto, Naoto Katsumata, Takafumi Koyama, Isamu Mizuno, Shoichi Amano, Hatsumi Shiratori-Takano, Mamoru Komatsu, Haruo Ikeda, Kenji Ueda
AmfS, a class III lantipeptide serves as a morphogen in Streptomyces griseus. Here, we constructed a high production system of AmfS in S. griseus. We isolated S. griseus Grd1 strain defective in glucose repression of aerial mycelium formation and found it suitable for the overproduction of AmfS. Two expression vectors carrying the strong and constitutive ermE2 promoter were constructed using a multicopy number plasmid, pIJ702. The use of the Grd1 strain combined with the expression vectors enabled high production of AmfS by S...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yujuan Zhao, Cuicui Duan, Lei Gao, Xue Yu, Chunhua Niu, Shengyu Li
Genome shuffling is an important method for rapid improvement in microbial strains for desired phenotypes. In this study, ultraviolet irradiation and nitrosoguanidine were used as mutagens to enhance the adhesion of the wild-type Lactobacillus plantarum C88. Four strains with better property were screened after mutagenesis to develop a library of parent strains for three rounds of genome shuffling. Fusants F3-1, F3-2, F3-3, and F3-4 were screened as the improved strains. The in vivo and in vitro tests results indicated that the population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited improved adhesive property...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Qi Meng, Riho Kitagawa, Miho Imamura, Hiroshi Katayama, Akio Obata, Etsuko Sugawara
The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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