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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Khwanjai Klinchongkon, Pramote Khuwijitjaru, Shuji Adachi
The degradation of passion fruit pectin by subcritical water treatment in a continuous flow-type reactor was investigated in the temperature range of 80-160 °C at a constant pressure of 5 MPa. Changes in the degree of polymerization and reducing end formation were monitored and modeled by applying the Emsley equation and zeroth-order kinetics, respectively. The results showed that both the pectin degradation rate constant and the change in the amount of reducing end were enhanced by temperature, and that the temperature dependence of these parameters obeyed the Arrhenius relationship...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuya Okuzaki, Shunsuke Kidani, Hidenori Kaneoka, Shinji Iijima, Ken-Ichi Nishijima
Interferon-inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family proteins are antivirus factors. In the present study, we examined the expression pattern of chicken IFITM10 using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In adult chickens, IFITM10 levels were markedly lower than those of IFITM3, which exhibits antivirus activity. On the other hand, IFITM10 was expressed in levels similar to those of IFITM3 in embryonic organs. Primordial germ cells in 2.5-d embryos expressed high levels of IFITM10, which gradually decreased with time...
January 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiroto Ohta, Youhei Takebe, Yuka Murakami, Yusei Takahama, Shigeru Morimura
The aromatic amines tyramine and β-phenylethylamine are abundant in fermented foods. Recently, a family of human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) was discovered that responds to these compounds. This study examined the expression of hTAAR genes in five human organs. Among them, the stomach expressed hTAAR1 and hTAAR9. Interestingly, more hTAAR1 was expressed in the pylorus than in the other stomach regions. The CRE-SEAP reporter assay revealed that only hTAAR1 functioned as a Gs-coupled receptor in response to tyramine and β-phenylethylamine stimulation...
January 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makoto Hakata, Masayuki Muramatsu, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Naho Hara, Miho Kishimoto, Keiko Iida-Okada, Mariko Kajikawa, Naoko Imai-Toki, Seiichi Toki, Yoshiaki Nagamura, Hiromoto Yamakawa, Hiroaki Ichikawa
Because environmental stress can reduce crop growth and yield, the identification of genes that enhance agronomic traits is increasingly important. Previous screening of full-length cDNA overexpressing (FOX) rice lines revealed that OsTIFY11b, one of 20 TIFY proteins in rice, affects plant size, grain weight, and grain size. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of OsTIFY11b and nine other TIFY genes on the growth and yield of corresponding TIFY-FOX lines. Regardless of temperature, grain weight and culm length were enhanced in lines overexpressing TIFY11 subfamily genes, except OsTIFY11e...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Thao M Ho, Tuyen Truong, Bhesh R Bhandari
Food powders can exist in amorphous, crystalline or mixed structure depending on the order of molecular arrangement in the powder particle matrices. In food production, the structure of powders has a greatly effect on their stability, functionality, and applicability. The undesirable structure of powders can be accidentally formed during production. Therefore, characterization of powder structure as well as quantification of amorphous-crystalline proportions presenting in the powders are essential to control the quality of products during storage and further processing...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masaki Shintani
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) including plasmids have an important role in the rapid evolution and adaptation of bacteria. Here, the behavior of MGEs in different environments is reviewed, in particular, behavior of the plasmid pCAR1, a carbazole-degradative plasmid isolated from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. pCAR1 belongs to incompatibility P-7 group and is self-transmissible among different bacteria. Comparisons of changes in the transcriptome of different host strains caused by carrying pCAR1 revealed common responses in the hosts and host-specific responses...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Manami Koshiguchi, Hitoshi Komazaki, Shizuka Hirai, Yukari Egashira
Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenol compound found in plants that has anti-inflammatory properties. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan catabolic enzyme induced in immune cells, including glial cells, during inflammation. Enhanced IDO expression leads to reduced tryptophan levels and increased levels of toxic metabolites, including quinolinic acid. Therefore, inhibition of IDO expression may be effective in suppressing progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of FA in microglial cells on IDO expression levels and related inflammatory signal molecules...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kotomi Inoue, Yui Takahashi, Ken Obara, Shuichiro Murakami
Cell wall-associated β-xylosidase was isolated from Aspergillus niger E-1 and identified as XlsIV, corresponding to the extracellular enzyme XlnD reported previously. xlsIV was transcribed only in the early cultivation period. Cell wall-associated enzyme activity gradually decreased, but extracellular activity increased as the strain grew. These results indicate that XlsIV (XlnD) was secreted into culture after localizing at cell wall.
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takenobu Ogawa, Shuji Adachi
Cracks are formed during the drying process of spaghetti production, which reduces its commercial value and quality; hence, it is very important to detect the cracks during the manufacturing process of dried spaghetti. However, the presence of mottles, originating from wheat bran, hinders automatic identification of cracks. In this study, we developed a simple method to detect the cracks induced in spaghetti using a digital camera. The cracks and mottles were distinguished by pixelating the transmission light image of the spaghetti and analyzing the image based on the geometric characteristics in the histogram consisting of all the pixels...
January 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jianwu Shi, Dexia Wang, Junhua Wang, Junqing Sheng, Kou Peng, Beijuan Hu, Liugen Zeng, Minghe Xiao, Yijiang Hong
Topmouth culter (C. alburnus) is an important commercial fish in China. We compared the nucleotide variations in the mtDNA genomes among three geographical groups of Culter alburnus: Liangzi Lake, Hubei Province (referred to as LZH); Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province (TH); and Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province (PYH). The similarity of whole mtDNA genomes ranged from 0.992 to 0.999. The similarity among 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and the D-loop sequences was found to range from 0.982 to 0.996. This is useful data for future designing work for making specific molecular marker for distinguishing individuals of C...
January 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takanori Shimizu, Tamayo Korehisa, Hiroyuki Imanaka, Naoyuki Ishida, Koreyoshi Imamura
Protein-stabilizing characteristics of sixteen proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying were investigated. Five enzymes, each with different instabilities against freezing and dehydration, were employed as the protein to be stabilized. Proteinaceous additives generally resulted in greater enzyme stabilization during freeze-thawing than sugars while the degree of stabilization for basic lysozyme and protamine were inferior to that of neutral and acidic proteins. Freeze-drying-induced inactivation of enzyme was also reduced by the presence of a proteinaceous additive, the extent of which was lower than that for a sugar...
January 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jun Inoue, Yusuke Ihara, Daisuke Tsukamoto, Keisuke Yasumoto, Tsutomu Hashidume, Kenya Kamimura, Shigeki Hirano, Makoto Shimizu, Ryo Kominami, Ryuichiro Sato
BCL11B is a zinc finger-type transcription factor that regulates the development of the white adipose tissue (WAT), skin, central nervous system, and immune system. BCL11B is required for proper adipocyte differentiation, and BCL11B-/- embryos at E19.5 have very low amounts of the subcutaneous WAT. Here, we demonstrated that BCL11B+/- mice have lower body weight than BCL11B+/+ mice, whereas the expression of adipogenic marker genes in the WAT was comparable between BCL11B+/+ and BCL11B+/- mice. Histological analysis indicated that BCL11B+/- mice fed a high-fat diet have much smaller white adipocytes and lipid droplets in the WAT and liver, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jing Li, Yue-Qing Yun, Li Xing, Lei Song
The optimized production of MBF-HG6, which is a novel salt-tolerant alkaliphilic bioflocculant produced by Oceanobacillus polygoni with its application in tannery wastewater treatment was investigated in this study. It was found the optimal carbon source, nitrogen source, cation, and initial pH of the medium for bioflocculant production were starch, urea, Fe(2+), and pH 9.0, respectively. The best stability in the temperature range was from 0 to 80°C and the purified MBF-HG6 contained polysaccharides of 81...
January 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Nakako Katsuno, Makoto Fujimura, Akira Hanya, Takahisa Nishizu
We investigated the effects of soaking, residence time before roasting and roasting conditions on the fracture properties and structure of the cross-section of sesame seeds. Soaking time affected only the size of the side voids of the seed cross-section. The fracture force and strain of the roasted seeds decreased as residence time increased. The center void of the roasted seeds, important for seed crispness increased as residence time increased. In contrast, the side void of the roasted seeds only increased with residence time during the first 10 min...
January 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takuji Kobayashi, Hiroshi Maeda, Michio Takeuchi, Youhei Yamagata
Mammals possess a unique signaling system based on the proteolytic mechanism of a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) on the cell surface. We found two genes encoding ADAMs in Aspergillus oryzae and named them admA and admB. We produced admA and admB deletion strains to elucidate their biological function and clarify whether fungal ADAMs play a similar role as in mammals. The ∆admA∆admB and ∆admB strains were sensitive to cell wall-perturbing agents, congo red, and calcofluor white. Moreover, the two strains showed significantly increased weights of total alkali-soluble fractions from the mycelial cell wall compared to the control strain...
January 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yuichiro Horii, Satoshi Watanabe, Yuji Kubo, Kumiko Koguchi, Yoshihiro Hoshi, Ken-Ichi Matsumoto, Kuniyasu Soda
Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine...
January 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ichiro Yoshida, Chihiro Ito, Shinya Matsuda, Akihiko Tsuji, Noriyuki Yanaka, Keizo Yuasa
To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of alisol B on melanogenesis...
January 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hitoshi Nakayama, Mariko Mori, Teisuke Takita, Kiyoshi Yasukawa, Keisuke Tanaka, Shunji Hattori, Hideaki Aikawa, Osamu Hasegawa, Takashi Okamura, Kentarou Takegami, Shogo Motokawa, Masakazu Kuwahara, Kenichi Amano
Flavobacterium psychrophilum (F. psychrophilum) is the causative agent of bacterial cold-water disease (BCWD) that occurs in ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. Formalin-killed cell of F. psychrophilum has long been studied as an immersion vaccine for BCWD. In this study, we explored the possibility of F. psychrophilum collagenase (fpcol) for use as the immersion vaccine. BCWD convalescent ayu sera contained specific IgM antibodies against somatic F. psychrophilum and fpcol, meaning that fpcol is a promising antigen for the vaccine development...
January 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ye Zhou, Tatsuya Awano, Masaru Kobayashi, Toru Matoh, Keiji Takabe
Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a region of pectin macromolecules that is present in plant primary cell walls. The RG-II region serves as the site of borate cross-linking within pectin, via which pectin macromolecules link together to form a gel. In this study, we examined whether RG-II is present in the cell plate, the precursor of primary cell walls that forms during cytokinesis. A structure inside dividing cells was labeled with a rabbit polyclonal anti-RG-II antibody and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy...
January 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Dong-Min Kang, Kosei Tanaka, Shinji Takenaka, Shu Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
Bacillus subtilis genes iolG, iolW, iolX, ntdC, yfiI, yrbE, yteT, and yulF belong to the Gfo/Idh/MocA family. The functions of iolG, iolW, iolX, and ntdC are known; however, the functions of the others are unknown. We previously reported the B. subtilis cell factory simultaneously overexpressing iolG and iolW to achieve bioconversion of myo-inositol (MI) into scyllo-inositol (SI). YulF shares a significant similarity with IolW, the NADP(+)-dependent SI dehydrogenase. Transcriptional abundance of yulF did not correlate to that of iol genes involved in inositol metabolism...
January 3, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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