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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Yayoi Miyagawa, Shuji Adachi
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are among the dispersion systems commonly used in food, and these emulsions are in thermodynamically unstable or metastable states. In this paper, various methods for preparing O/W emulsions are outlined. Since the commodity value of food is impaired by the destabilization of O/W emulsions, experimental and theoretical approaches to assess the stability of O/W emulsions are overviewed, and factors affecting the dispersion stability of emulsions are discussed based on the DLVO theory and the concept of the stability factor...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mami Takei, Shinsaku Ito, Keisuke Tanaka, Taichiro Ishige, Yoshihito Suzuki
Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by parasitic insect(s) for use as their habitat. In previous work, we suggested that gall tissues induced by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis on Japanese elm trees are less responsive than leaf tissues to jasmonic acid (JA), which is involved in the production of volatile organic compounds as a typical defensive reaction of plants against attack by insect pests. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression by RNA sequencing indicated that the number of JA responsive genes was markedly lower in gall tissues than in leaf tissues...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takayuki Kondo, Yukichi Fujikawa, Muneharu Esaka
GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is one of the enzymes that highly expressed in acerola plants. A promoter assay suggests the presence of a new cis-element in the -1087 to -1083 bp sequence of the MgGMP promoter. Moreover, cis-elements, present in the -1080 to -600 bp sequence of the MgGMP promoter, function as enhancers of MgGMP expression.
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zhongfeng Ye, Kazuya Nakagawa, Masahiro Natsume, Hideaki Nojiri, Hiroshi Kawaide, Kazunori Okada
Phytocassanes and momilactones are the major diterpenoid phytoalexins inductively produced in rice as bioactive substances. Regardless of extensive studies on the biosynthetic pathways of these phytoalexins, bioconversion of diterpene hydrocarbons is not shown in planta. To elucidate the entire biosynthetic pathways of these phytoalexins, uniformly (13)C-labeled ent-cassadiene and syn-pimaradiene were enzymatically synthesized with structural verification by GC-MS and (13)C-NMR. Application of the (13)C-labeled substrates on rice leaves led to the detection of (13)C-labeled metabolites using LC-MS/MS...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Moataz M Tawfik, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Takayuki Kohchi, Takao Koeduka, Kenji Matsui
Most terrestrial plants form green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are mainly composed of six-carbon (C6) compounds. In our effort to study the distribution of the ability of lipoxygenase (LOX) to form GLVs, we found that a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, formed n-hexanal and (Z)-3-hexenal. Some LOXs execute a secondary reaction to form short chain volatiles. One of the LOXs from M. polymorpha (MpLOX7) oxygenized arachidonic and α-linolenic acids at almost equivalent efficiency and formed C6-aldehydes during its catalysis; these are likely formed from hydroperoxides of arachidonic and α-linolenic acids, with a cleavage of the bond between carbon at the base of the hydroperoxy group and carbon of double bond, which is energetically unfavorable...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Noriko Yoshimoto, Yukiteru Sugiyama, Shuichi Yamamoto
A simple method for calculating the productivity of chromatography processes was proposed based on the iso-resolution curve concept. The model separation system was polyphenol separations by polystyrene divinylbenzene resins with the ethanol-water mixture mobile phase. The distribution coefficient K was determined as a function of ethanol concentration I by linear gradient elution experiments. The HETP-mobile phase velocity u curves were determined as a function of I. Using K and HETP, the iso-resolution curve was calculated, from which the productivity was determined as a function of I...
February 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jilite Wang, Masaya Shimada, Satoshi Nagaoka
In our previous study, rice bran protein (RBP) inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro and decreased serum cholesterol level in rats. In the present study, RBP was separated and purified by size-exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. The active protein of RBP related to cholesterol micellar solubility was identified as lectin and non-specific lipid-transfer protein 1 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis.
February 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hayato Masuda, Takafumi Horie, Robert Hubacz, Naoto Ohmura, Makoto Shimoyamada
In food industries, enzymatic starch hydrolysis is an important process that consists of two steps: gelatinization and saccharification. One of the major difficulties in designing the starch hydrolysis process is the sharp change in its rheological properties. In this study, Taylor-Couette flow reactor was applied to continuous starch hydrolysis process. The concentration of reducing sugar produced via enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by varying operational variables: rotational speed of the inner cylinder, axial velocity (reaction time), amount of enzyme, and initial starch content in the slurry...
February 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takuya Morikawa, Norihisa Takada, Makoto Miura
This study used a decompression drying instrument to investigate the effects of a drying treatment on the physical properties of solid foods. Commercial tofu was used as a model food and was treated at different temperature and pressure conditions in a drying chamber. Overall, high temperatures resulted in better drying. Additionally, pressure in the chamber influenced the drying conditions of samples. Differences in physical properties, such as food texture, shrinkage, and color were observed among some samples, even with similar moisture content...
February 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Wei Fu, Takashi Nakamura
The effects of tapioca starch (TS) and potato starch (PS) on texture properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/starch co-gels were investigated for fracture structures. We focused on two types of WPI network structures. In a fine-stranded structure at pH 6.8, the WPI/TS co-gel fractured similarly to the WPI single gel. The WPI/PS co-gel was broken at a lower strain and lower stress. In a random aggregation at pH 5.8, the WPI/TS co-gel reached a yielding point at a lower strain, whereas the WPI/PS co-gel fractured at a higher strain and higher stress...
January 31, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hirokazu Shiga, Tze Loon Neoh, Ai Ninomiya, Sae Adachi, Ignacio Lopez Pasten, Shuji Adachi, Hidefumi Yoshii
The effect of the size of oil droplets on the oxidative stability of flaxseed oil in spray-dried powders was investigated. Maltodextrin with a dextrose equivalent of 25 was used as a wall material, and sodium caseinate and transglutaminase-polymerized sodium caseinate were used as emulsifiers. The oxidative stability of flaxseed oil encapsulated in the spray-dried powders was evaluated using lipid oxidation and conductometric determination tests at 105 °C. The powders containing larger oil droplets exhibited higher surface oil content after spray drying, and higher peroxide value and conductivity after storage at 105 °C...
January 31, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makoto Ebisawa, Takamitsu Tsukahara, Ryosuke Fudou, Yasuhiro Ohta, Mitsunori Tokura, Norimasa Onishi, Takeshi Fujieda
Fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum is used by various industries to produce L-Glutamate, and the heat-killed cell preparation of this bacterium (HCCG) is a by-product of the fermentation process. In present study, we evaluated the immunostimulating and survival effects against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (STEC) infection of HCCG. HCCG significantly stimulated in vitro IgA and interleukin-12 p70 production in murine Peyer's patch cells and peritoneal macrophages, respectively. Oral administration of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of HCCG for seven consecutive days stimulated IgA concentration in murine cecal digesta...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Haruka Imai, Kazuki Moriyasu, Akane Nakahata, Motohiro Maebuchi, Takashi Ichinose, Shigeki Furuya
To examine whether edible peptide intake affects neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain, we evaluated the effect of peptides derived from soy proteins or fish collagen on free amino acids and monoamines in the mouse brain. Ingestion of soy peptides led to markedly higher levels of tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, in the serum, and cerebral cortex compared to those following ingestion of vehicle alone or collagen peptides. Soy peptide ingestion also effectively increased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and normetanephrine, the principal metabolites of noradrenaline, in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, whereas collagen peptides did not exert such effects...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomohiro Takagi, Hirofumi Inoue, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Mariko Uehara
We assessed the effect of sulforaphene (SFE) on osteoclast differentiation. SFE significantly decreased the number of RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells and suppressed pre-osteoclast multinucleation. Furthermore, SFE downregulated mRNA expression of DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, and Atp6v0d2, which encode cell-cell fusion molecules. Our data suggest that SFE attenuates pre-osteoclast multinucleation via suppression of cell-cell fusion.
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomoyuki Fujii
Coagulation and rheological behaviors of soy milk are reviewed from the viewpoint of colloidal dispersion system. From the results of relative viscosity in the range of small oil body volume fractions, oil bodies containing oleosin behave as rigid spheres. The Krieger-Dougherty equation was found to describe relative viscosities well under high oil body volume fraction. These results indicate that oil bodies in soy milk behave as though suspended matter. Cross-linking between colloid particles occurs when the coagulant is added, and bulky clusters are formed...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masahiro Ariizumi, Megumi Kubo, Akihiro Handa, Takashi Hayakawa, Kentaro Matsumiya, Yasuki Matsumura
Mayonnaise-like oil-in-water emulsions with different stabilities-evaluated from the degree of macroscopic defects, e.g., syneresis-were prepared by different formulations and processing conditions (egg yolk weight, homogenizer speed, and vegetable oil temperature). Emulsions prepared with lower egg yolk content were destabilized for shorter periods. The long-term stability of emulsions was weakly related to initial properties, e.g., oil droplet distribution and protein coverage at the interface. Protein aggregation between oil droplets was observed and would be responsible for the instability of emulsions exhibited by the appearance defects...
January 25, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hideaki Oike
Daily activity rhythms that are dominated by internal clocks are called circadian rhythms. A central clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and peripheral clocks are located in most mammalian peripheral cells. The central clock is entrained by light/dark cycles, whereas peripheral clocks are entrained by feeding cycles. The effects of nutrients on the central and peripheral clocks have been investigated during the past decade and much interaction between them has come to light...
January 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Asmaliza Abd Ghani, Sae Adachi, Hirokazu Shiga, Tze Loon Neoh, Shuji Adachi, Hidefumi Yoshii
Encapsulating fish oil by spray drying with an adequate wall material was investigated to determine if stable powders containing emulsified fish-oil-droplets can be formed. In particular, the dextrose equivalent (DE) of maltodextrin (MD) affects the powder structure, surface-oil ratio, and oxidative stability of fish oil. The carrier solution was prepared using MD with different DEs (DE = 11, 19, and 25) and sodium caseinate as the wall material and the emulsifier, respectively. The percentage of microcapsules having a vacuole was 73, 39, and 38% for MD with DE = 11, 19, and 25, respectively...
January 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takahisa Nishizu, Eiji Tomatsu, Nakako Katsuno
A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0...
January 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Weitao Qiu, Hajime Kobori, Jing Wu, Jea-Hoon Choi, Hirofumi Hirai, Hirokazu Kawagishi
A novel indole derivative (1) and three known compounds (2-4) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Tricholoma flavovirens. Their structures were determined or identified by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 promoted root growth of lettuce and inhibited hypocotyl growth at 1 μmol/paper. Compound 3 inhibited hypocotyl and root growth at 100 nmol/paper.
January 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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