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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Mari Morimoto, Mizuki Mitsukawa, Chisato Fujiwara, Yukio Kawamura, Seiji Masuda
Inhibition of mRNA processing, including splicing in the nucleus, is a potential anti-cancer candidate. To obtain mRNA processing inhibitors, we have screened for active constituents from spices. Ginger, clove, and cinnamon showed an inhibitory effect on mRNA processing in the nucleus. Two components in ginger, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, exhibited the inhibition of mRNA processing.
November 14, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Feng Bai, Liyun Fang, Huizhong Hu, Yang Yang, Xianxian Feng, Daqing Sun
Asthma is a chronic allergic ailment affecting a considerably large population of the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ameliorative effects of vanillic acid against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in rat model. Asthma was induced in Sprague Dawley rats and vanillic acid was orally administered at 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats challenged with OVA showed heavy signs of airway inflammation and remodeling similar to chronic asthma, evidenced by the increased differential cell counts and presence of inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), along with elevated serum immunoglobulin levels, and the histological results...
November 13, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Koji Yamaguchi, Yuya Yoshimura, Shinya Nakagawa, Hirokazu Mezaki, Satomi Yoshimura, Tsutomu Kawasaki
The rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase 185 (OsRLCK185) interacts with the chitin receptor complex OsCERK1/CEBiP and positively regulates chitin-induced immune responses including MAP kinase activation, ROS production and defense gene expression. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of OsRLCK185-mediated immunity, we searched for interactors of OsRLCK185. OsDRE2a, rice homologs of the yeast Dre2 protein, were identified as novel interactors of OsRLCK185. OsDRE2a interacted with OsRLCK185 at plasma membrane...
November 11, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takumi Yamane, Rui Kawasaki, Ryosuke Konno, Ken Iwatsuki, Yuichi Oishi
Although starvation has been reported to influence the functions of various tissues, its effects on the skin are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of starvation on hyaluronan synthesis in rat skin. Starvation reduced hyaluronan synthesis in the skin. Starvation also decreased the skin mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which enhances the gene expression of rhas2 and rhas3. The serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which enhances rhas2, rhas3, and TGF-β1 mRNA expression, in the starvation group were considerably lower than those in the control (CO) group...
November 11, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takao Nagano, Hideyuki Ito
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is frequently used as an animal model for human allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Diets of pomegranate polyphenols (PPs) or soy isoflavones (SIs) each alleviated CHS symptoms; however, the effect of diets containing a mixture of PPs and SIs on CHS is unclear. We investigated the CHS-inhibitory effects of diets supplemented with a mixture of PPs and SIs at human physiologically relevant doses. Consuming the mixture of PPs and SIs attenuated ear swelling and reduced infiltration of Gr-1-positive cells...
November 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ryota Imai, Shoko Yokota, Shoichiro Horita, Yoichi Ueta, Yuko Maejima, Kenju Shimomura
Oxytocin is produced by neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various ion channels are considered to regulate the excitability of oxytocin neurons and its secretion. A-type currents of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels), generated by Kv4.2/4.3 channels, are known to be involved in the regulation of neuron excitability. However, it is unclear whether the Kv4.2/4.3 channels participate in the regulation of excitability in PVN oxytocin neurons...
November 4, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jie Gao, Siqi Yan, Haiye Yu, Meiqi Zhan, Kexing Guan, Yanqiu Wang, Zhenming Yang
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limiting factor for crop production in acid soils. Callose deposition, an early indicator and likely a contributor to Al toxicity, is induced rapidly in plant roots under Al stress. SbGlu1, encoding a β-1,3-glucanase for callose degradation, showed important roles in sorghum Al resistance, yet its regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. The STOP1 transcription factors mediate Al signal transduction in various plants. Here, we identified their homolog in sweet sorghum, SbSTOP1, transcriptionally activated the expression of SbGlu1...
November 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Quanfu Yang
MiRNA-5195-3p (miR-5195-3p), a recently discovered and poorly studied miRNA, has been reported to suppress bladder cancer cell behavior. However, its regulatory role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. Here, the expression of miR-5195-3p was found to be reduced in NSCLC tissues and cells. The in vitro experiments showed that miR-5195-3p upregulation repressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion by CCK-8 and transwell assays. In addition, MYO6 was predicted and confirmed as a potential target of miR-5195-3p by Bioinformatics analysis, Luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis...
November 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yujiao Tang, Meiqi Fan, Young-Jin Choi, Yonghai Yu, Gang Yao, Yongyan Deng, Sang-Ho Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim
The present study determines whether antler extract (AE) possesses inhibitory effects in a prostate cancer (PC) xenograft model and explores the underlying mechanism. After therapeutic intervention for two weeks, AE significantly inhibited prostate cancer xenograft tumor growth by 65.08%, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. However, AE increased the serum testosterone level compared to the vehicle control group. Furthermore, our investigation of the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes revealed that AE downregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP)-2, (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), zinc finger protein (SNAIL1), twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1), and zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) in vivo...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Satoshi Wakai
A variety of extreme environments, characterized by extreme values of various physicochemical parameters (temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and so on), are found on Earth. Organisms that favorably live in such extreme environments are called extremophiles. All living organisms, including extremophiles, must acquire energy to maintain cellular homeostasis, including extremophiles. For energy conversion in harsh environments, thermodynamically useful reactions and stable biomolecules are essential. In this review, I briefly summarize recent studies of extreme environments and extremophiles living in these environments and describe energy conversion processes in various extremophiles based on my previous research...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomoyasu Toyoizumi, Seiji Ohba, Kyo-Suke Fujii, Atsushi Ikegaya, Hideyuki Matsuura, Teruko Nakajima
Food-derived gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) exhibits health-promoting benefits, and melon contain high GABA concentrations. Greenhouse melons (Cucumis melo L. "Earl's Favorite") cultivated in Japan have identical or more edible parts than cultivars in other countries, however GABA distribution and the effects of seasonal variations are unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate GABA concentration gradients in four seasonal melons and how glutamic acid (Glu) influences the establishment of these gradients...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shinji Nagata
In insect hemolymph, many factors are present that can influence feeding motivation, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and other metabolites. Levels of these hemolymph factors fluctuate according to metabolic, nutrient and feeding states, eventually affecting feeding motivation and consequent regularly occurring feeding cycles. Such fluctuations contribute to energy homeostasis and innate feeding behavior in insects possibly by endocrine systems. Ultimately, orchestration of bioactive factors in the hemolymph modulate feeding motivation and nutrient selective behavior in insects...
October 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazuhiko Higashida, Shin Terada, Xi Li, Sachika Inoue, Noriko Iida, Saki Kitai, Naoya Nakai
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate high-protein (LCHP) diet on the expression of glucose transporters and their relationships to glucose metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal control or LCHP diet for 2 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed, and the expression of glucose transporters was determined in the gastrocnemius muscle, jejunum and pancreas. The increase in plasma insulin concentrations after glucose administration was reduced in the LCHP group...
October 25, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazuya Tomimoto, Takeshi Akao, Hisashi Fukuda
Yeast histone deacetylases (HDAC) affect the production of alcoholic beverages. In this study, we evaluated the sake fermentation characteristics when using HDAC gene-disrupted yeast strain Kyokai No. 701. Flavor components of the sake product were significantly changed. RPD3 or HDA1 disruption increased twofold the amount of isoamyl acetate, and isoamyl alcohol levels also increased in the rpd3Δ strain. To determine the contribution of Rpd3L and Rpd3S complexes to sake characteristics, a gene responsible for Rpd3L and/or Rpd3S formation was also disrupted...
October 25, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Lan Yu, Rongkai Guo, Yeqin Jiang, Xinghuo Ye, Zhihong Yang, Yijun Meng, Chaogang Shao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important and ubiquitous regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. However, the information about miRNAs population and their regulatory functions involving in soybean seed development remains incomplete. Base on the Dicer-like1-mediated cleavage signals during miRNA processing could be employed for novel miRNA discovery, a genome-wide search for miRNA candidates involved in seed development was carried out. As a result, 17 novel miRNAs, 14 isoforms of miRNA (isomiRs) and 31 previously validated miRNAs were discovered...
October 25, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Azusa Miyamoto, Yoshikazu Masuhiro, Taiichiro Seki, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Hajime Shiba
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a negative regulator of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is associated with acromegaly and cancers, is a promising candidate molecule for treating various diseases. To facilitate its use in protein therapy, we designed and constructed a human SOCS2 protein containing a membrane-permeable peptide sequence and expressed it in an Escherichia coli system. The partially purified recombinant protein was effectively delivered into several cancer cell lines and inhibited cell growth...
October 22, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hieu T H Nguyen, François Bouteau, Christian Mazars, Masaki Kuse, Tomonori Kawano
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a dipolar aprotic solvent widely used in biological assays. Here, we observed that DMSO enhanced the hypo-osmotically induced increases in the concentration of Ca2+ in cytosolic and nucleic compartments in the transgenic cell-lines of tobacco (BY-2) expressing aequorin.
October 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yoichi Kasahara, Takanobu Sakurai, Ryusei Matsuda, Masataka Narukawa, Akihito Yasuoka, Naoki Mori, Hidenori Watanabe, Takayoshi Okabe, Hirotatsu Kojima, Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka, Tomiko Asakura
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a pivotal role in sodium homeostasis, and the development of drugs that modulate ENaC activity is of great potential therapeutic relevance. We screened 6100 chemicals for their ability to activate sodium permeability of ENaC. We used a two-step strategy: a high throughput cell-based assay and an electrophysiological assay. Five compounds were identified showing common structural features including an indole or benzothiophene ring. ENaC consists of three subunits: α, β, and γ...
October 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tetsuya Shiina, Kazuya Nakagawa, Yukiko Fujisaki, Taro Ozaki, Chengwei Liu, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Masaru Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Koshino, Atsushi Minami, Hiroshi Kawaide, Hideaki Oikawa
Conidiogenone, a diterpene with a unique structure, is known to induce the conidiation of Penicillium cyclopium. The biosynthetic pathway of (-)-conidiogenone has been fully elucidated by the heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes in Aspergillus oryzae and by in vitro enzyme assay with 13 C-labeled substrates. After construction of deoxyconidiogenol by the action of bifunctional terpene synthase, one cytochrome P450 catalyzes two rounds of oxidation to furnish conidiogenone. Notably, similar biosynthetic genes are conserved among more than 10 Penicillium sp...
October 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Minoru Yoshida
Natural products are a tremendous source of tool discovery for basic science and drug discovery for clinical uses. In contrast to the large number of compounds isolated from nature, however, the number of compounds whose target molecules have been identified so far is fairly limited. Elucidation of the mechanism of how bioactive small molecules act in cells to induce biological activity (mode of action) is an attractive but challenging field of basic biology. At the same time, this is the major bottleneck for drug development of compounds identified in cell-based and phenotype-based screening...
October 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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