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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Sotaro Fujii, Misa Masanari-Fujii, Shinya Kobayashi, Chiaki Kato, Masayoshi Nishiyama, Yoshie Harada, Satoshi Wakai, Yoshihiro Sambongi
Two cytochromes c5 (SBcytc and SVcytc) have been derived from Shewanella living in the deep-sea, which is a high pressure environment, so it could be that these proteins are more stable at high pressure than at atmospheric pressure, 0.1 MPa. This study, however, revealed that SBcytc and SVcytc were more stable at 0.1 MPa than at higher pressure. In addition, at 0.1-150 MPa, the stability of SBcytc and SVcytc was higher than that of homologues from atmospheric-pressure Shewanella, which was due to hydrogen bond formation with the heme in the former two proteins...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kouhei Kishida, Natsumi Ogawa, Eikichi Ichihashi, Hiromi Kato, Yuji Nagata, Yoshiyuki Ohtsubo, Masataka Tsuda
Plasmid vector and allelic exchange mutagenesis systems were established for the genetic analysis of a phenanthrene-degrading mycobacterial strain, Mycobacterium sp. EPa45. Successful application of these systems revealed the necessity of the EPa45 phdI gene for the degradation of 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate, which has been proposed to be an intermediate product in the degradation pathway of phenanthrene.
March 9, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hee Jin Jung, Min Jung Lee, Yeo Jin Park, Sang Gyun Noh, A Kyoung Lee, Kyoung Mi Moon, Eun Kyeong Lee, Eun Jin Bang, Yun Jung Park, Su Jeong Kim, Jungho Yang, Sultan Ullah, Pusoon Chun, Young Suk Jung, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
As part of continued efforts for the development of new tyrosinase inhibitors, (Z)-5-(substituted benzylidene)-2-iminothiazolidin-4-one derivatives (1a - 1l) were rationally synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory potential in vitro. These compounds were designed and synthesized based on the structural attributes of a β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold template. Among these compounds, (Z)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-iminothiazolidin-4-one (1e, MHY773) exhibited the greatest tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 = 2...
March 9, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mei-Chin Yin, Chiung-Hung Chang, Chiu-Hsian Su, Bi Yu, Yuan-Man Hsu
Pteris multifida (PM) and Cortex phellodendri (CP) are medicinal foods used for gastrointestinal protection. Lactic-acid bacteria are probiotics. Salmonella Typhimurium strain ST21-infected mice were used to examine the alleviative effects of two lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) as well as aqueous extracts of PM and CP for a 4-day treatment. CP and LAB decreased fecal ST counts. CP and PM reduced the ST21 count in the blood, intestine, and liver. LAB lowered the ST21 count in the intestine and spleen. CP and LAB decreased the IFN-gamma level; PM lowered the TNF-alpha level; and both LAB and PM reduced the IL-1beta level in serum...
March 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junjie Zhang, Shuqi Li, Mengfei Lin, Endian Yang, Xiaoyang Chen
The drumstick tree has traditionally been used as foodstuff and fodder in several countries. Due to its high nutritional value and good biomass production, interest in this plant has increased in recent years. It has therefore become important to rapidly and accurately evaluate drumstick quality. In this study, we addressed the optimization of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyze crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, iron (Fe), and potassium (K) in a variety of drumstick accessions (N = 111) representing different populations, cultivation programs, and climates...
March 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yui Konno, Kuta Suzuki, Mizuki Tanaka, Takahiro Shintani, Katsuya Gomi
The Zn2 Cys6 -type transcription factor MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes and the production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae. In the present study, we demonstrated that MalR formed a complex with Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones under non-inducing conditions similar to the yeast counterpart Mal63 and that the complex was released from the chaperone complex after the addition of the inducer maltose. The MalR protein was constitutively localized in the nucleus and mutation in both the putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) located in the zinc finger motif and the C-terminal region resulted in the loss of nuclear localization...
March 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiraku Takada, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
The WalK/WalR two-component system (TCS), originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, is very highly conserved in gram-positive bacteria, including several important pathogens. The WalK/WalR TCS appears to be involved in the growth of most bacterial species encoding it. Previous studies have indicated conserved functions of this system, defining this signal transduction pathway as a crucial regulatory system for cell wall metabolism. Because of such effects on essential functions, this system is considered a potential target for anti-infective therapeutics...
March 7, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hirokazu Kawagishi
2-Azahypoxanthine (AHX, 1) and imidazole-4-carboxamide (ICA, 2) were isolated from a fairy-ring forming fungus Lepista sordida. AHX was converted into a metabolite, 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH, 3), in plants. Afterward, it turned out that these three compounds, fairy chemicals (FSc), endogenously exist in plants and are biosynthesized via a new purine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, FCs increased the yields of rice, wheat and other crops in the filled experiments.
March 7, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Daiji Kagawa, Akihiko Fujii, Mayumi Ohtsuka, Takatoshi Murase
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of coffee polyphenols (CPPs) on the autonomic nervous system activity and decreased skin barrier function caused by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment. In this single-blind, placebo-controlled study, ten healthy male subjects consumed either a beverage containing CPPs or a placebo beverage for four weeks. CPPs significantly suppressed the deterioration in skin barrier function and skin moisture content induced by SDS treatment after the third week...
March 7, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Md Tazul Islam Chowdhury, Hikaru Ando, Ryo C Yanagita, Yasuhiro Kawanami
1,2,6-Trideoxy-6-amido-d-allose derivative was synthesized and found to exhibit higher growth-inhibitory activity against plants than the corresponding deoxy-d-allose ester, which indicates that an amide group at C-6 of the deoxy-d-allose amide enhances inhibitory activity. In addition, the mode of action of the deoxy-d-allose amide was significantly different from that of d-allose which inhibits gibberellin signaling. Co-addition of gibberellin GA3 restored the growth of rice seedlings inhibited by the deoxy-d-allose amide, suggesting that it might inhibit biosynthesis of gibberellins in plants to induce growth inhibition...
March 7, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline have been thought to play important roles in the mechanism of hot flush. Then, to clarify the relation between serotonergic and adrenergic nervous systems on the mechanism of hot flush, the effect of paroxetine, 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was evaluated on the yohimbine-induced hot flush increase of tail skin temperature in ovariectomized female rats. Yohimbine (adrenaline α2 antagonist) significantly increased the tail skin temperature in course of time. Clonidine (adrenaline α2 agonist) significantly attenuated this effect...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kaeko Murota, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Mariko Uehara
Several dietary flavonoids exhibit anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-osteoporotic activities relevant to prevention of chronic diseases, including lifestyle-related diseases. Dietary flavonoids (glycoside forms) are enzymatically hydrolyzed and absorbed in the intestine, and are conjugated to their glucuronide/sulfate forms by phase II enzymes in epithelial cells and the liver. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the metabolism of flavonoids found in foods. Some specific products of bacterial transformation, such as ring-fission products and reduced metabolites, exhibit enhanced properties...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Bunsei Yamamoto, Yusuke Suzuki, Takahisa Yonezu, Nanami Mizushima, Nobuo Watanabe, Takehito Sato, Shigeaki Inoue, Sadaki Inokuchi
Green tea leaves fermented with Aspergillus luchuensis var kawachii kitahara (Cha-Koji) are a health food containing live A. luchuensis. In this study, we examined the effects of Cha-Koji on the immune system and the enteric environment. First, we designed a clinical trial; after ingesting Cha-Koji daily for 28 days, blood parameters and the fecal composition of the participants were analyzed. Similarly, mice were administered (oral administration) with Cha-Koji suspension or its vehicle for 14 days. Thereafter, both humans and mice were examined by analyzing their immune cell phenotypes and intestinal microbiota...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Chengyuan Wang, Fuxing Shu, Yijiang Hong, Junhua Wang, Kou Peng, Junqing Sheng, Di Wu, Beijuan Hu, Jianwu Shi, Shaoqing Jian
To investigate the regulation of metallothionein genes (HsMTs) of Hyriopsis schlegelii, 1,121-bp and 1,270-bp regions of the HsMT1 and HsMT2 promoters were cloned and analyzed, respectively. The two promoters shared partially conserved features and possessed distinct characteristics such as the number or position of metal response elements (MREs). Further analysis of the HsMT1 and HsMT2 promoters was performed by the reporter assay using the luciferase gene. Both promoters were activated by various metals, and presented different levels of metal ions inducibility in human hepatoblastoma cells...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazunori Nishimura, Sumiko Watanabe, Tsunehisa Kaku, Setsuo Sugishima
Serum starvation induces binucleation in HeLa cells, but the effects of serum starvation on mitosis and the significance of binucleation remain unknown. We investigated the effect of serum starvation on mitosis and analyzed the growth of binucleated cells. The frequency of binucleation caused by cytokinesis failure in DMEM without FBS (0% medium) was higher than that in DMEM with FBS (10% medium). In 0% medium, the metaphase spindle location was off-center, and RhoA localization significantly lacked symmetry...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Glaezel Angelique Torres-Barredo, Hotaka Atarashi, Akinobu Kajikawa, Aiko Hirata, Akihito Endo, Junichi Nakagawa
Sirtuin has been associated in prolonging lifespan of different model organisms. It has been shown to have an enzymatic activity of NAD+ -dependent protein deacetylation targeting acetylated proteins. To determine targets and possible roles of sirtuin (LpSirA) in the Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, deletion (ΔsirA), sirtuin overexpressor (highsirA) and GFP fusion (highsirA-Venus) strains were generated, and microscopic localization and cell length analysis were done. Microscopic analysis revealed localization of LpSirA at cell division plates, at cell poles and all throughout the cell length in a spiral manner...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Thi Van Anh Nguyen, Hidefumi Yoshii
The stability of allyl sulfide, an organosulfur compound present in garlic oil, in its α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was investigated under various storage conditions. The complexes of cyclodextrins and allyl sulfide were prepared by spray drying. The storage temperature, relative humidity, and initial moisture content of the inclusion complex had different effects on the release rate of allyl sulfide. Allyl sulfide in α-cyclodextrin complexes had a lower release rate than in β- and γ-cyclodextrin complexes at 100 °C and at 50 °C under 6, 40, 54, and 73% relative humidity...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hirofumi Inoue, Nobuaki Hanawa, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Shi-Ichi Katsumata, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Mariko Uehara
To our knowledge, this is the first study to report down-regulation of senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) by iron-specific chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on FAO cell senescence, using a DNA microarray. Furthermore, DFO treatment increased senescence marker β-galactosidase activity, whereas this activity was attenuated by overexpression of SMP30. Our data suggested that down-regulation of SMP30 drives cell senescence in iron-chelated condition.
March 1, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Minjun Xu, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Daichi Shindo, Yoshiharu Shimomura
Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) suppresses the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism by inactivation of the BCKDH complex. The muscle-specific BDK-deficient (BDK-mKO) mice showed accelerated BCAA oxidation in muscle and decreased endurance capacity after training (Xu et al. PLoS One. 12 (2017) e0180989). We here report that BCAA supplementation overcompensated endurance capacity in BDK-mKO mice after training.
March 1, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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