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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914179/neutralization-of-acidic-drainage-by-cryptococcus-sp-t1-immobilized-in-alginate-beads
#1
Masahiko Okai, Chisato Suwa, Shintaro Nagaoka, Nobuo Obara, Daisuke Mitsuya, Ayako Kurihara, Masami Ishida, Naoto Urano
We isolated Cryptococcus sp. T1 from Lake Tazawa's acidic water in Japan. Cryptococcus sp. T1 neutralized an acidic casamino acid solution (pH 3.0) and released ammonia from the casamino acids to aid the neutralization. The neutralization volume was estimated to be approximately 0.4 mL/h. The casamino acids' amino acids decreased (1.24→0.15 mM); ammonia increased (0.22→0.99 mM). We neutralized acidic drainage water (1 L) from a Tamagawa River neutralization plant, which was run through the column with the T1-immobilized alginate beads at a flow rate of 0...
September 15, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914172/effects-of-pharmacological-inhibition-of-plasminogen-binding-on-liver-regeneration-in-rats
#2
Atsushi Miura, Kyoko Ishiguro, Kouta Koizumi, Yuki Yaita, Yori Ozaki-Masuzawa, Takashi Hosono, Taiichiro Seki
The fibrinolysis system is thought to play an important role in liver regeneration. We previously found that plasminogen (Plg) is localized to the cell surface of regenerating liver tissue as well as proliferating hepatocytes in vitro. Here, we investigated the significance of Plg binding to the cell surface during liver regeneration. Pre-administration of tranexamic acid (TXA), which is a competitive inhibitor of Plg binding, to hepatectomized rats mildly delayed restoration of liver weight in vivo. Although binding of Plg to the cell membrane decreased following TXA administration, TXA showed little effect on hepatocyte proliferation in rats...
September 15, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899227/phenethyl-isothiocyanate-protects-against-h2o2-induced-insulin-resistance-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#3
Moe Nagami, Yoshiaki Ito, Takashi Nagasawa
Obesity is associated with systemic oxidative stress and leads to insulin resistance. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, has been shown to have beneficial effects in improving cellular defense activities against oxidative stress through activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, little evidence exists if the antioxidative activity has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we tested the preventive potential of PEITC for impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake by oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
September 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899215/effect-of-lysine-succinylation-on-the-regulation-of-2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-inhibitor-odhi-involved-in-glutamate-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#4
Ayano Komine-Abe, Megumi Nagano-Shoji, Shosei Kubo, Hisashi Kawasaki, Minoru Yoshida, Makoto Nishiyama, Saori Kosono
In Corynebacterium glutamicum, the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (ODH) complex is negatively regulated by the unphosphorylated form of OdhI protein, which is critical for L-glutamate overproduction. We examined the potential impact of protein acylation at lysine (K)-132 of OdhI in C. glutamicum ATCC13032. The K132E succinylation-mimic mutation reduced the ability of OdhI to bind OdhA, the catalytic subunit of the ODH complex, which reduced the inhibition of ODH activity. In vitro succinylation of OdhI protein also reduced the ability to inhibit ODH, and the K132R mutation blocked the effect...
September 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891395/effects-of-catechins-and-caffeine-on-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#5
Litong Liu, Izumi Nagai, Ying Gao, Yoshibumi Matsushima, Yoshichika Kawai, Kazutoshi Sayama
Atherosclerosis is one of the diseases related to metabolic syndrome which is caused by obesity. Previous reports have shown that green tea and its components have anti-obesity effect. We examined whether catechins and caffeine can prevent the development of atherosclerosis by oral administration, singly or in combination to the atherosclerosis model mice. Results demonstrated that the number of atherosclerotic regions in the aorta was significantly reduced by the combined treatment, and the atherosclerotic area was also improved...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889784/isolation-and-characterization-of-key-contributors-to-the-kokumi-taste-in-soybean-seeds
#6
Masayuki Shibata, Motohiko Hirotsuka, Yukiko Mizutani, Haruya Takahashi, Teruo Kawada, Kentaro Matsumiya, Yukako Hayashi, Yasuki Matsumura
The water extract of soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is nearly tasteless, but "kokumi" taste sensation was confirmed upon addition of a basic umami solution containing glutamic acid, inosine monophosphate, and sodium chloride. To identify the key contributors to the "kokumi" taste sensation in soybean seeds, sensory-guided fractionation, taste sensory analyses, and LC-MS/MS analyses were utilized. γ-glutamyl-tyrosine and γ-glutamyl-phenylalanine were identified as contributors to "kokumi taste"; specifically, these γ-glutamyl peptides imparted the "kokumi" taste sensation at a low taste threshold in a basic umami solution...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874093/comprehensive-dna-microarray-expression-profiles-of-tumors-in-tenascin-c-knockout-mice
#7
Kaori Matsumoto, Yuji Nakai, Masaru Hoshino, Koki Yamazaki, Yoshiaki Takioto, Satoru Takadera, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ryohei Nishimura, Moriaki Kusakabe
Tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, plays a pivotal role in tumor growth. However, the mechanism whereby TNC affects tumor biology remains unclear. To investigate the exact role of TNC in primary tumor growth, a mouse mammary tumor cell line, GLMT1, was first developed. Subsequently, global gene expression in GLMT1-derived tumors was compared between wild-type (WT) and TNC-knockout (TNKO) mice. Tumors in WT mice were significantly larger than those in TNKO mice. DNA microarray analysis revealed 447 up and 667 downregulated in the tumors inoculated into TNKO mice as compared to tumors in WT mice...
September 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868973/key-compounds-contributing-to-the-fruity-aroma-characterization-in-japanese-raw-soy-sauce
#8
Qi Meng, Miho Imamura, Hiroshi Katayama, Akio Obata, Etsuko Sugawara
In order to clarify the aroma characteristics of raw soy sauce (RS), the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis to the aroma concentrate from a RS revealed 76 aroma peaks, of which 25 peaks showed fruit-like aromas. Furthermore, the head space aromatic compounds of RS were analyzed with 32 peaks detected. Ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate were detected with higher flavor dilution factor (FD factor) than other aroma compounds by aroma extract dilution analysis...
September 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859546/microrna-34a-induces-transdifferentiation-of-glioma-stem-cells-into-vascular-endothelial-cells-by-targeting-notch-pathway
#9
Zaishun Jin, Tao Zhan, Jing Tao, Biao Xu, Huizhe Zheng, Yongxia Cheng, Bin Yan, Hongwei Wang, Guoqiang Lu, Ying Lin, Sufen Guo
The function of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in transdifferentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) into vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was explored by focusing on Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1). MiR-34a mimics was transfected into CD133 + glioma cell U251. The angiogenesis feature of miR-34a transfected U251 cells was investigated and the expressions of CD31, CD34, Vwf, Notch 1, and Dll1 were quantified. Length of branching vessel-like structures in the miR-34a transfected U251 cells was significantly higher than control cells...
September 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840780/a-novel-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-based-antibody-conjugate-for-quantitative-and-semi-quantitative-lateral-flow-assays
#10
Wenjuan Sun, Xiaolong Hu, Jia Liu, Yurong Zhang, Jianzhong Lu, Libo Zeng
In this study, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were applied in lateral flow strips (LFS) for semi-quantitative and quantitative assays. Firstly, the solubility of MWCNTs was improved using various surfactants to enhance their biocompatibility for practical application. The dispersed MWCNTs were conjugated with the methamphetamine (MET) antibody in a non-covalent manner and then manufactured into the LFS for the quantitative detection of MET. The MWCNTs-based lateral flow assay (MWCNTs-LFA) exhibited an excellent linear relationship between the values of test line and MET when its concentration ranges from 62...
August 25, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840778/structure-function-and-regulation-of-enzymes-involved-in-amino-acid-metabolism-of-bacteria-and-archaea
#11
Takeo Tomita
Amino acids are essential components in all organisms because they are building blocks of proteins. They are also produced industrially and used for various purposes. For example, L-glutamate is used as the component of "umami" taste and lysine has been used as livestock feed. Recently, many kinds of amino acids have attracted attention as biological regulators and are used for a healthy life. Thus, to clarify the mechanism of how amino acids are biosynthesized and how they work as biological regulators will lead to further effective utilization of them...
August 25, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831863/emodin-extends-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-insulin-igf-1-signaling-pathway-depending-on-daf-16-and-sir-2-1
#12
Xuan Zhao, Lulu Lu, Yonghao Qi, Miao Li, Lijun Zhou
The naturally occurring anthraquinone emodin has been serving primarily as an anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. However, little is known about its potential on anti-aging. This investigation examined the effect of emodin on lifespan and focused on its physiological molecular mechanisms in vivo. Using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an animal model, we found emodin could extend lifespan of worms and improve their antioxidant capacity. Our mechanistic studies revealed that emodin might function via insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway involving, specifically the core transcription factor DAF-16...
August 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831862/prunus-mume-extract-exerts-antioxidant-activities-and-suppressive-effect-of-melanogenesis-under-the-stimulation-by-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-in-b16-f10-melanoma-cells
#13
KyungBae Pi, KiBeom Lee
In the current study, we examined the antioxidant and skin-whitening properties of Prunus mume extract (PME). The ability of PME to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was investigated in vitro. At a concentration of 1000 μg/mL, PME neutralized >45% free radical activity. Cell viability assessment with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that at concentrations <1500 μg/mL, PME does not exert cytotoxic effects on murine B16 melanoma (B16) cells...
August 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831850/characterization-of-lignocellulose-particles-during-lignocellulose-solubilization-by-clostridium-thermocellum
#14
Shunsuke Ichikawa, Ayami Nishida, Saori Yasui, Shuichi Karita
Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate bacterium for lignocellulose utilization due to its efficient lignocellulose solubilization ability. It has been reported that C. thermocellum efficiently degrades purified cellulose substrates, but cannot completely degrade milled lignocellulose powders. Evaluation of cellulose and hemicellulose contents in a lignocellulose residue after the cultivation of C. thermocellum indicated that C. thermocellum degraded cellulose and hemicellulose equally. Microscopic observations demonstrated that C...
August 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831846/isolation-structural-identification-and-biological-characterization-of-two-conopeptides-from-the-conus-pennaceus-venom
#15
Mohammed Abdel-Wahab, Masahiro Miyashita, Yoshiyuki Ota, Hironori Juichi, Ryota Okabe, Moustafa Sarhan, Maged Fouda, Mohamed Abdel-Rahman, Samy Saber, Yoshiaki Nakagawa
A novel anti-mollusk conopeptide pn4c was isolated from the Conus pennaceus venom by repeated HPLC fractionation based on the activity against freshwater snails. The primary structure of pn4c was determined by the mass spectrometric de novo sequencing analysis. In addition, pn3a was isolated from the same fraction containing pn4c, as a peptide with unknown functions.
August 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828965/3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetic-acid-is-a-potential-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-inducer-in-murine-hepatoma-hepa1c1c7-cells
#16
Yujia Liu, Ayuki Kurita, Sayaka Nakashima, Beiwei Zhu, Shintaro Munemasa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yoshimasa Nakamura
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is one of the major colonic microflora-produced catabolites of quercetin glycosides, such as quercetin 4'-glucoside derived from onion. Here, we investigated whether DOPAC modulates the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and protects the cells from the acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. DOPAC was shown to enhance not only the total ALDH activity, but also the gene expression of ALDH1A1, ALDH2 and ALDH3A1 in a concentration-dependent manner. DOPAC simultaneously stimulated the nuclear translocation of NFE2-related factor 2 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor...
August 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828930/variation-of-loganin-content-in-cornus-officinalis-fruits-at-different-extraction-conditions-and-maturation-stages
#17
Jong Hoon Ahn, Eun Jin Mo, Yang Hee Jo, Seon Beom Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
Efficient preparation of loganin from Cornus officinalis fruits was investigated. First, effect of extraction conditions on loganin yield was measured. The loganin content in C. officinalis extract was greatly affected by ethanol concentration and extraction time whereas extraction temperature exerted relatively little effect. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design suggested optimized extraction condition for maximum loganin yield as ethanol concentration, 32.0%; temperature 46.2 °C and extraction time, 46...
August 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825521/an-l319f-mutation-in-transmembrane-region-3-tm3-selectively-reduces-sensitivity-to-okaramine-b-of-the-bombyx-mori-l-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel
#18
Shogo Furutani, Daiki Okuhara, Anju Hashimoto, Makoto Ihara, Kenji Kai, Hideo Hayashi, David B Sattelle, Kazuhiko Matsuda
Okaramines produced by Penicillium simplicissimum AK-40 activate l-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) and thus paralyze insects. However, the okaramine binding site on insect GluCls is poorly understood. Sequence alignment shows that the equivalent of residue Leucine319 of the okaramine B sensitive Bombyx mori (B. mori) GluCl is a phenylalanine in the okaramine B insensitive B. mori γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channel of the same species. This residue is located in the third transmembrane (TM3) region, a location which in a nematode GluCl is close to the ivermectin binding site...
August 21, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820009/expression-of-a-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-toxin-in-escherichia-coli-results-in-chromosomal-dna-degradation
#19
Jing Zhang, Saki Taniguchi, Hironori Ito, Kazuhiro Iiyama, Madoka Hino, Tsutomu Katayama, Makoto Kimura
A toxin-antitoxin system, vp1842/vp1843, locates within a superintegron on the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome chromosome I whose toxin gene vp1843 encodes a DNA nicking endonuclease. We found that the vp1843 expression in Escherichia coli cells strongly induced chromosomal DNA degradation. On the basis of these observations, we discuss a possible physiological role of vp1842/vp1843 in V. parahaemolyticus.
August 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814130/identification-and-characterization-of-a-sulfoglycosidase-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-implicated-in-mucin-glycan-utilization
#20
Toshihiko Katoh, Takako Maeshibu, Kei-Ichi Kikkawa, Aina Gotoh, Yusuke Tomabechi, Motoharu Nakamura, Wei-Hsiang Liao, Masanori Yamaguchi, Hisashi Ashida, Kenji Yamamoto, Takane Katayama
Human gut symbiont bifidobacteria possess carbohydrate-degrading enzymes that act on the O-linked glycans of intestinal mucins to utilize those carbohydrates as carbon sources. However, our knowledge about mucin type O-glycan degradation by bifidobacteria remains fragmentary, especially regarding how they decompose sulfated glycans, which are abundantly found in mucin sugar-chains. Here, we examined the abilities of several Bifidobacterium strains to degrade a sulfated glycan substrate and identified a 6-sulfo-β-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase, also termed sulfoglycosidase, encoded by bbhII from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 7004...
August 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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