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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

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November 8, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Maiko Tanase, Akihiro Imamura, Hiromune Ando, Makoto Kiso, Hideharu Ishida
Herein we describe the linear synthesis of a tetrasaccharyl sialoglycan found in both the Chol-1 ganglioside core and disialyl T antigen. The synthesis featured sialylation with a C5-ureido-modified sialyl donor followed by selective isolation of the desired α-sialoside via 1,5-lactamization. This methodology enables the linear synthesis of sialoglycans and provides practical access to biologically important carbohydrate molecules.
November 8, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuta Katano, Tongyang Li, Misato Baba, Miyo Nakamura, Masaaki Ito, Kenji Kojima, Teisuke Takita, Kiyoshi Yasukawa
We attempted to increase the thermostability of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase (RT). The eight-site saturation mutagenesis libraries corresponding to Ala70-Arg469 in the whole MMLV RT (Thr24-Leu671), in each of which 1 out of 50 amino acid residues was replaced with other amino acid residue, were constructed. Seven-hundred and sixty eight MMLV RT clones were expressed using a cell-free protein expression system, and their thermostabilities were assessed by the temperature of thermal treatment at which they retained cDNA synthesis activity...
November 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Taku Chibazakura, Yuichi Asano
Cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) complex is negatively regulated by interaction with CDK inhibitors (CKIs). p27 protein is a major CKI in mammals and its down-regulation correlates with malignant transformation. However, some cancer cells express p27 at normal level, suggesting not only quantitative but qualitative control of p27, although little is known about such control. We analyzed the interaction between p27 and cyclin A (CycA)-CDK complex in living human cell lines, using a split yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) system in which the YFP fluorescence solely depends on p27-CycA binding...
November 3, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makiko Kosugi, Changwoo Lee, Tomonori Misaki, Yasuhiro Kashino, Morifumi Fujita, Takashi Sugimura
A unique electron-accepting analog of vitamin K1 found in photosystem I in several species of oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms was confirmed to be 5'-hydroxyphylloquinone (1) through stereo-uncontrolled synthesis. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 obtained from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was assigned to be 5'S using proline-catalyzed stereocontrolled reactions.
November 3, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuko Shimamura, Chikako Hirai, Yuka Sugiyama, Masaharu Shibata, Junya Ozaki, Masatsune Murata, Norio Ohashi, Shuichi Masuda
In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of 14 food additives derived from polyphenol samples on staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) production and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. Tannic acid AL (TA), Purephenon 50 W (PP) and Polyphenon 70A (POP) at 0.25 mg/mL and Gravinol®-N (GN), Blackcurrant polyphenol AC10 (BP), and Resveratrol-P5 (RT) at 1.0 mg/mL significantly decreased SEA production by S. aureus C-29 (p < 0.05). TA, GN, BP, and RT significantly inhibited the expression of the sea gene in S...
November 3, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Akimasa Miyanaga
Polyketides constitute a large family of natural products that display various biological activities. Polyketides exhibit a high degree of structural diversity, although they are synthesized from simple acyl building blocks. Recent biochemical and structural studies provide a better understanding of the biosynthetic logic of polyketide diversity. This review highlights the biosynthetic mechanisms of structurally unique polyketides, β-amino acid-containing macrolactams, enterocin, and phenolic lipids. Functional and structural studies of macrolactam biosynthetic enzymes have revealed the unique biosynthetic machinery used for selective incorporation of a rare β-amino acid starter unit into the polyketide skeleton...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazuomi Sato, Masahiro Takei, Ray Iyota, Yoshimasa Muraoka, Marika Nagashima, Yoshitaka Yoshimura
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exhibit several divergent biological effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of indomethacin on melanin synthesis using B16F1 melanoma cells. Indomethacin inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-enhanced melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis revealed that indomethacin significantly suppressed tyrosinase and Mitf protein levels. In a luciferase reporter assay, we found that indomethacin reduced tyrosinase promoter activity...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Thitinard Nitheranont, Akira Watanabe, Yasuhiko Asada
Two cDNAs encoding the minor laccase isozymes (Lac2 and Lac3) of Grifola frondosa were cloned, characterized, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Lac2 (rLac2) was stable at pH 6.0, whereas the recombinant Lac3 (rLac3) was stable in a broad pH range (pH 4.0-8.0). In addition, rLac2 and rLac3 showed the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid).
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazutaka Kuroda, Akihiro Tanaka, Kenich Furuhashi, Kiyohiko Nakasaki
Thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. TAT105 grows and reduces ammonia (NH3) emissions by assimilating ammonium nitrogen during composting of swine feces. To evaluate the efficacy of a biological additive containing TAT105 at reducing NH3 emissions, composting tests of swine manure on a pilot scale (1.8 m(3)) were conducted. In the TAT105-added treatment, NH3 emissions and nitrogen loss were lower than those in the control treatment without TAT105. No significant difference was detected in losses in the weight and volatile solids between the treatments...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jeng-Yuan Yao, Jan-Kan Chen
To investigate the roles of ΔNp63α during corneal wound healing and the genes regulated by ΔNp63α in limbal epithelial cells. Adenovirus or shRNA targeting ΔNp63α were pre-injected into the anterior chamber of rat eyeballs and the central corneal epithelium was then wounded with NaOH. The effects of ΔNp63α expression during wound healing were observed by propidium iodide staining. In addition, limbal epithelial cells were cultured and ectopically expressed ΔNp63α by transfecting Ad-ΔNp63α. Total RNA was extracted from transfected epithelial cells and subjected to a gene expression microarray assay...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Myung-Ji Kang, Eun-Bin Kwon, Heung Joo Yuk, Hyung Won Ryu, Soo-Yeon Kim, Mi-Kyeong Lee, Dong-Oh Moon, Su Ui Lee, Sei-Ryang Oh, Hyun-Sun Lee, Mun-Ock Kim
In the course of screening to find a plant material decreasing the activity of triacylglycerol and cholesterol, we identified Tripterygium regelii (TR). The methanol extract of TR leaves (TR-LM) was shown to reduce the intracellular lipid contents consisting of triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. TR-LM also downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of the lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1 and its target enzymes. Consequently, TR-LM reduced the TG biosynthesis in HepG2 cells. In addition, TR-LM decreased SREBP2 and its target enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which is involved in cholesterol synthesis...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Wataru Tsukimura, Masaki Kurogochi, Masako Mori, Kenji Osumi, Akio Matsuda, Kaoru Takegawa, Kiyoshi Furukawa, Takashi Shirai
Recently, the absence of a core-fucose residue in the N-glycan has been implicated to be important for enhancing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we first prepared anti-HER2 mAbs having two core-fucosylated N-glycan chains with the single G2F, G1aF, G1bF, or G0F structure, together with those having two N-glycan chains with a single non-core-fucosylated corresponding structure for comparison, and determined their biological activities...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shunsuke Aburaya, Wataru Aoki, Hiroyoshi Minakuchi, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
In proteomics, more than 100,000 peptides are generated from the digestion of human cell lysates. Proteome samples have a broad dynamic range in protein abundance; therefore, it is critical to optimize various parameters of LC-ESI-MS/MS to comprehensively identify these peptides. However, there are many parameters for LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. In this study, we applied definitive screening design to simultaneously optimize 14 parameters in the operation of monolithic capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS to increase the number of identified proteins and/or the average peak area of MS1...
October 25, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Sumiko Nakamura, Hisako Okumura, Masayoshi Sugawara, Wataru Noro, Noriyuki Homma, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
We evaluated the effect of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the main chemical components, physical properties, and enzyme activities of two types of brown rice flour: high-amylose Koshinokaori and normal-quality Koshiibuki. Five different HMTs using brown rice (moisture content was 12.0%) were assessed: 0.1 MPa/120 °C for 5 or 10 min, 0.2 MPa/134 °C for 5 or 10 min and 0.3 MPa/144 °C for 10 min. HMT, decreased the α-amylase and lipase activities, and fat acidity, and slightly increased the dietary fiber and resistant starch levels...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Abdou Tchoukoua, Turibio Kuiate Tabopda, Narandulam Usukhbayar, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Eunsang Kwon, Hiroyuki Momma, Takuya Koseki, Yoshihito Shiono, Bonaventure Tchaleu Ngadjui
Four new oleanane-type saponins, macrostachyaosides A, B, C, and D (1-4) were isolated from the roots of Acacia macrostachya. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR data and HR-ESI-MS analyses. At concentrations of 100 μM of each compounds, none of the tested compounds caused a significant growth reduction against HL60 cells.
October 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jin Yang, Cuirong Li, Ashley Mudd, Xiao Gu
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1(PVT1) was aberrantly expressed in various cancers and is associated with tumor prognosis. Here, we aim to investigate its function in prostate cancer. Small interfering RNA against PVT1 was transfected into prostate cancer cell lines and cell growth and apoptosis were analyzed. Our results showed that PVT1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues and cells. Higher levels of PVT1 indicated poorer overall survival and disease-free survival...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mayumi Sato, Atsuko Miyagi, Shozo Yoneyama, Seiki Gisusi, Yoshihiko Tokuji, Maki Kawai-Yamada
Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa [Dicks.] Gray) is generally cultured using the sawdust of broadleaf trees. The maitake strain Gf433 has high production efficiency, with high-quality of fruiting bodies even when 30% of the birch sawdust on the basal substrate is replaced with conifer sawdust. We performed metabolome analysis to investigate the effect of different cultivation components on the metabolism of Gf433 and Mori52 by performing CE-MS on their fruiting bodies in different cultivation conditions to quantify the levels of amino acids, organic acids, and phosphorylated organic acids...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yeong Min Choi, Sungkwan An, Junwoo Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Jae Nam Lee, Young Sam Kim, Kyu Joong Ahn, In-Sook An, Seunghee Bae
Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased...
October 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zenghui Hu, Chunling Wang, Hong Shen, Kezhong Zhang, Pingsheng Leng
This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles of three common aromatic plants, Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita. In this study, kunming mice subjected to low oxygen condition were treated with the volatiles emitted from these aromatic plants through inhalation administration. Then the blood cell counts, and the activities and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes in different tissues were tested. The results showed that low oxygen increased the counts of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets of mice, and aromatic volatiles decreased their counts...
October 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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