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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Satoko Soga, Noriyasu Ota, Akira Shimotoyodome
The present study aimed to clarify the effect of reduction in hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) from roasted coffee on energy utilization in humans. Indirect calorimetry showed that one-week ingestion of HHQ-reduced coffee led to significantly higher postprandial fat utilization than that of HHQ-containing coffee. This finding indicates that reduction in HHQ from coffee increases postprandial fat utilization.
March 21, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shinya Kobayashi, Sotaro Fujii, Aya Koga, Satoshi Wakai, Nobuyuki Matubayasi, Yoshihiro Sambongi
Reversible denaturation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c551 (PAc551) could be followed using five systematic urea derivatives that differ in the alkyl chain length, i.e. urea, N-methylurea (MU), N-ethylurea (EU), N-propylurea (PU), and N-butylurea (BU). The BU concentration was the lowest required for the PAc551 denaturation, those of PU, EU, MU, and urea being gradually higher. Furthermore, the accessible surface area difference upon PAc551 denaturation caused by BU was found to be the highest, those by PU, EU, MU, and urea being gradually lower...
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Emiko Matsunaga, Yujiro Higuchi, Kazuki Mori, Nao Yairo, Saki Toyota, Takuji Oka, Kosuke Tashiro, Kaoru Takegawa
As a constituent of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, β-d-galactofuranose (Galf) exists in several pathogenic microorganisms. Although we recently identified a β-d-galactofuranosidase (Galf-ase) gene, ORF1110, in the Streptomyces strain JHA19, very little is known about the Galf-ase gene. Here, we characterized a strain, named JHA26, in the culture supernatant of which exhibited Galf-ase activity for 4-nitrophenyl β-d-galactofuranoside (pNP-β-d-Galf) as a substrate. Draft genome sequencing of the JHA26 strain revealed a putative gene, termed ORF0643, that encodes Galf-ase containing a PA14 domain, which is thought to function in substrate recognition...
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Lili Wei, Xuemei Zhao, Ruanlin Wang, Yuejun Fu, Baofeng Chai, Aihua Liang
Analysis of transcriptome revealed that a membrane occupation and recognition nexus (MORN) repeat protein-encoding gene of Euplotes octocarinatus (Eo-morn-9-31) was a candidate for programmed +1 ribosomal frameshifting (+1 PRF). In this study, a dual-luciferase assay was performed to detect its expression. The result showed that the MORN repeat protein (Eo-MORN-9-31) could be produced by the +1 PRF event during the process of translation in yeast and the frameshifting efficiency was about 4-5%. We further confirmed its reality by western blot and mass spectrometry...
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ying Huang, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, Kenji Miyamoto
Ninety samples from the extracts of plants from traditional Chinese medicines were screened for antitumor activity. Paeoniflorigenone (PFG) was isolated as an active ingredient from the root of moutan cortex, which showed the strongest activity. In addition, our data indicated that PFG was cytotoxic and induced apoptosis selectively in the cancer cell lines. These effects were cancelled by the addition of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that it was mediated by caspase-3 activation.
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiroyuki Nagano, Kana Shibano, Yu Matsumoto, Atsushi Yokota, Masaru Wada
An enzyme catalyzing the ammonia-lyase reaction for the conversion of d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate to oxaloacetate was purified from the cell-free extract of a soil-isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. N99. The enzyme exhibited ammonia-lyase activity toward l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate and d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate, but not toward other 3-hydroxyaspartate isomers. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme, which belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family, shows similarity to the sequence of l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4...
March 14, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Li-Jun Li, Qin-Qin Yan, Guo-Jun Liu, Zhen Yuan, Zhen-Hua Lv, Bin Fu, Yan-Jun Han, Jian-Long Du
A series of reduced amino pyridine Schiff base platinum(II) complexes were prepared as potential anticancer drugs, and characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and molar conductivity. UV and CD results showed the binding mode between these compounds and salmon sperm DNA may be intercalation. The cytotoxicity of these complexes was validated against A549, Hela, and MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay. Some complexes exhibited better cytotoxic activity than cisplatin against Hela and MCF-7 cell lines...
March 14, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shuji Tani, Shota Yuki, Emi Kunitake, Jun-Ichi Sumitani, Takashi Kawaguchi
We screened for factors involved in the cellulose-responsive induction of cellulose biomass-degrading enzyme genes from approximately 12,000 Aspergillus aculeatus T-DNA insertion mutants harboring a transcriptional fusion between the FIII-avicelase gene (cbhI) promoter and the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene. Analysis of 5-fluoroorodic acid (5-FOA) sensitivity, cellulose utilization, and cbhI expression of the mutants revealed that a mutant harboring T-DNA at the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (dppIV) locus had acquired 5-FOA resistance and was deficient in cellulose utilization and cbhI expression...
March 14, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Ahmad Usman Zafar, Saad Tahir, Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Muhammad Ali, Faidad Khan, Tayyab Husnain
Previously, we have reported cloning of human epidermal growth factor gene from Huh-7 cells and its extracellular expression in Pichia pastoris. The presented work is a detailed report regarding molecular characterization of Huh-7 cells-derived hEGF expressed in Pichia pastoris with special reference to its glycosylation profiling and bioactivity studies. Densitometric scanning of SDS-PAGE separated extracellular proteins from hEGF recombinant Pichia pastoris strain indicated that about 84% of the extracellular proteins were glycosylated...
March 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mami Takei, Shinsaku Ito, Keisuke Tanaka, Taichiro Ishige, Yoshihito Suzuki
Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by parasitic insect(s) for use as their habitat. In previous work, we suggested that gall tissues induced by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis on Japanese elm trees are less responsive than leaf tissues to jasmonic acid (JA), which is involved in the production of volatile organic compounds as a typical defensive reaction of plants against attack by insect pests. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression by RNA sequencing indicated that the number of JA responsive genes was markedly lower in gall tissues than in leaf tissues...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takayuki Kondo, Yukichi Fujikawa, Muneharu Esaka
GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is one of the enzymes that highly expressed in acerola plants. A promoter assay suggests the presence of a new cis-element in the -1087 to -1083 bp sequence of the MgGMP promoter. Moreover, cis-elements, present in the -1080 to -600 bp sequence of the MgGMP promoter, function as enhancers of MgGMP expression.
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zhongfeng Ye, Kazuya Nakagawa, Masahiro Natsume, Hideaki Nojiri, Hiroshi Kawaide, Kazunori Okada
Phytocassanes and momilactones are the major diterpenoid phytoalexins inductively produced in rice as bioactive substances. Regardless of extensive studies on the biosynthetic pathways of these phytoalexins, bioconversion of diterpene hydrocarbons is not shown in planta. To elucidate the entire biosynthetic pathways of these phytoalexins, uniformly (13)C-labeled ent-cassadiene and syn-pimaradiene were enzymatically synthesized with structural verification by GC-MS and (13)C-NMR. Application of the (13)C-labeled substrates on rice leaves led to the detection of (13)C-labeled metabolites using LC-MS/MS...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Moataz M Tawfik, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Takayuki Kohchi, Takao Koeduka, Kenji Matsui
Most terrestrial plants form green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are mainly composed of six-carbon (C6) compounds. In our effort to study the distribution of the ability of lipoxygenase (LOX) to form GLVs, we found that a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, formed n-hexanal and (Z)-3-hexenal. Some LOXs execute a secondary reaction to form short chain volatiles. One of the LOXs from M. polymorpha (MpLOX7) oxygenized arachidonic and α-linolenic acids at almost equivalent efficiency and formed C6-aldehydes during its catalysis; these are likely formed from hydroperoxides of arachidonic and α-linolenic acids, with a cleavage of the bond between carbon at the base of the hydroperoxy group and carbon of double bond, which is energetically unfavorable...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jilite Wang, Masaya Shimada, Satoshi Nagaoka
In our previous study, rice bran protein (RBP) inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro and decreased serum cholesterol level in rats. In the present study, RBP was separated and purified by size-exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. The active protein of RBP related to cholesterol micellar solubility was identified as lectin and non-specific lipid-transfer protein 1 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis.
February 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makoto Ebisawa, Takamitsu Tsukahara, Ryosuke Fudou, Yasuhiro Ohta, Mitsunori Tokura, Norimasa Onishi, Takeshi Fujieda
Fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum is used by various industries to produce L-Glutamate, and the heat-killed cell preparation of this bacterium (HCCG) is a by-product of the fermentation process. In present study, we evaluated the immunostimulating and survival effects against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (STEC) infection of HCCG. HCCG significantly stimulated in vitro IgA and interleukin-12 p70 production in murine Peyer's patch cells and peritoneal macrophages, respectively. Oral administration of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of HCCG for seven consecutive days stimulated IgA concentration in murine cecal digesta...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Haruka Imai, Kazuki Moriyasu, Akane Nakahata, Motohiro Maebuchi, Takashi Ichinose, Shigeki Furuya
To examine whether edible peptide intake affects neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain, we evaluated the effect of peptides derived from soy proteins or fish collagen on free amino acids and monoamines in the mouse brain. Ingestion of soy peptides led to markedly higher levels of tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, in the serum, and cerebral cortex compared to those following ingestion of vehicle alone or collagen peptides. Soy peptide ingestion also effectively increased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and normetanephrine, the principal metabolites of noradrenaline, in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, whereas collagen peptides did not exert such effects...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomohiro Takagi, Hirofumi Inoue, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Mariko Uehara
We assessed the effect of sulforaphene (SFE) on osteoclast differentiation. SFE significantly decreased the number of RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells and suppressed pre-osteoclast multinucleation. Furthermore, SFE downregulated mRNA expression of DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, and Atp6v0d2, which encode cell-cell fusion molecules. Our data suggest that SFE attenuates pre-osteoclast multinucleation via suppression of cell-cell fusion.
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hideaki Oike
Daily activity rhythms that are dominated by internal clocks are called circadian rhythms. A central clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and peripheral clocks are located in most mammalian peripheral cells. The central clock is entrained by light/dark cycles, whereas peripheral clocks are entrained by feeding cycles. The effects of nutrients on the central and peripheral clocks have been investigated during the past decade and much interaction between them has come to light...
January 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jae-Woo Choi, Hye Won Kang, Won-Chul Lim, Mi-Kyoung Kim, In-Young Lee, Hong-Yon Cho
Excessive body fat accumulation can result in obesity, which is a serious health concern. Kefir, a probiotic, has recently shown possible health benefits in fighting obesity. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of 0.1 and 0.2% kefir powder on fat accumulation in adipose and liver tissues of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Kefir reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight and decreased adipocyte diameters in HFD-induced obese mice. This was supported by decreased expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis as well as reduced proinflammatory marker levels in epididymal fat...
January 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Iezaki, Maika Okamoto, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Kanayama, Kakeru Ozaki, Yuki Onishi, Minoru Sugiura, Eiichi Hinoi
β-cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, exerts preventive effects on various lifestyle-related diseases. Here, we found that daily oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin significantly ameliorated the development of tactile allodynia following spinal nerve injury but was ineffective in mechanical allodynia in an inflammatory pain model in mice. Our results suggest that β-cryptoxanthin supplementation would be beneficial for the prophylaxis of neuropathic pain.
January 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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