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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Tetsuya Kurata, Takuji Wada
The CAPRICE (CPC) encodes an R3-type MYB transcription factor, which promotes root-hair differentiation. Previously, we showed that the CPC protein moves from the non-hair cell to the neighboring cell and induces root-hair differentiation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we proposed two cell-to-cell movement signal sequences, S1 and S2, in CPC. However, an S1:2xGFP:S2 chimera protein did not move between root epidermal cells. Here, we show that the S1 and S2 sequences do not confer cell-to-cell movement or nuclear localization ability to a GFP protein...
June 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yu-Bei Jin, Wen-Tao Yang, Ke-Yan Huang, Hong-Liang Chen, Seria-Masole Shonyela, Jing Liu, Qiong Liu, Bo Feng, You Zhou, Shu-Li Zhi, Yan-Long Jiang, Jian-Zhong Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Gui-Lian Yang, Chun-Feng Wang
Recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2) is necessary for immature B cell differentiation. Antibodies to human and rabbit RAG2 are currently commercially available, but antibodies to swine RAG remain unavailable to date. In this study, the swine RAG2 genes sequence was synthesized and then cloned into a pET-28a vector. The recombinant fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli, purified through nickel column chromatography, and further digested with Tobacco Etch Virus protease. The cleaved protein was purified by molecular-exclusion chromatography and named pRAG2...
June 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ryo Nakamura, Kumiko Nakano, Hiroyasu Tamura, Masaki Mizunuma, Tohru Fushiki, Dai Hirata
Many factors contribute to palatability. In order to evaluate the palatability of Japanese alcohol sake paired with certain dishes by integrating multiple factors, here we applied an evaluation method previously reported for palatability of cheese by multiple regression analysis based on 3 subdomain factors (rewarding, cultural, and informational). We asked 94 Japanese participants/subjects to evaluate the palatability of sake (1st evaluation/E1 for the first cup, 2nd/E2 and 3rd/E3 for the palatability with aftertaste/afterglow of certain dishes) and to respond to a questionnaire related to 3 subdomains...
June 21, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takehiko Yokoyama, Masaharu Tokuda, Masafumi Amano, Koji Mikami
This work describes a method for the simultaneous determination of primary d- and l-amino acids and secondary amino acids such as d- and l-proline. In order to remove interferences in the simultaneous determination of primary and secondary amines, the primary amines were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl-l-cysteine (OPA/NAC) and subsequently with 1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate (FLEC) for secondary amines, in a pre-column separation derivatization technique. These fluorescent diastereomers of the amino acids were obtained within 3 min at room temperature and determined simultaneously by changing wavelengths during analysis in a single eluting run in the high-performance liquid chromatography column...
June 21, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hirokazu Yagi, Hiroaki Tateno, Kyoko Hayashi, Toshimitsu Hayashi, Katsuhiko Takahashi, Jun Hirabayashi, Koichi Kato, Masamichi Tsuboi
We report lectin microarray profile of the polysaccharide fraction derived from Sasa veitchii leaf that exhibits anti-influenza activity. This fraction showed higher reactivities with lectins known as binders to oligo-mannose, fucose, or galactose. Our findings along with previously reported monosaccharide components suggest that the polysaccharide can be cross-reactive with cell surface receptors involved in immune system, thereby exerting anti-influenza activity.
June 21, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takashi Shiono, Kenichiro Yamamoto, Yuko Yotsumoto, Aruto Yoshida
The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs)...
June 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mst Nur-E-Nazmun Nahar, Mohammad Muzahidul Islam, Md Anamul Hoque, Anna Yonezawa, Md Yeasin Prodhan, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Shintaro Munemasa, Yoshiyuki Murata
Arsenic causes physiological and structural disorders in plants. Proline is accumulated as a compatible solute in plants under various stress conditions and mitigates stresses. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous proline on tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cultured cells under [Formula: see text] stress. Arsenate did not inhibit BY-2 cell growth at 40 and 50 μM but did it at 60 μM. Proline at 0.5 to 10 mM did not affect the cell growth but delayed it at 20 mM. At 40 μM [Formula: see text], neither 0...
June 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiroshi Teramura, Kengo Sasaki, Hideo Kawaguchi, Fumio Matsuda, Jun Kikuchi, Tomokazu Shirai, Takashi Sazuka, Masanori Yamasaki, Shigeo Takumi, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Bio-refinery processes require use of the most suitable lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation. Glucose yield from biomass solid fractions obtained after dilute sulfuric acid (1%) pretreatment (at 180 °C) was investigated using 14, 8, and 16 varieties of rice, wheat, and sorghum, respectively. Biomass solid fractions of each crop showed similar cellulose content. However, glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading at 6.6 filter paper unit/g-biomass) was different among the varieties of each crop, indicating genotypic differences for rice, wheat, and sorghum...
June 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yao Wang, Yudian Zhang, Yunyun Wang, Han Peng, Jian Rui, Zhijie Zhang, Shifa Wang, Zhen Li
Adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effect, is secreted from adipocytes into circulation as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW, and LMW). The HMW adiponectin oligomers possess the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity. WSF-P-1(N-methyl-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-1,1,5,5-tetramethyl-7H-2,4α-methanonaphthalen-7-amine) is derived from natural sesquiterpene longifolene by chemical modifications. We found that WSF-P-1 activates AMPK in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 293T cells in this study...
June 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masaki Kikugawa, Tomoaki Ida, Hideshi Ihara, Tatsuji Sakamoto
We recently reported that two water-soluble derivatives of ferulic acid (1-feruloyl glycerol, 1-feruloyl diglycerol) previously developed by our group exhibited protective effects against amyloid-β-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we aimed to further understand this process by examining the derivatives' ability to suppress abnormal activation of astrocytes, the key event of neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of ferulic acid (FA) derivatives on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes...
June 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Akito Hosoi, Tsutomu Katsuyama, Yasuyuki Sasaki, Tatsuhiko Kondo, Shunsuke Yajima, Shinsaku Ito
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text])...
June 8, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Muhamad Azhar Abd Wahid, Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor, Masafumi Goto, Norio Sugiura, Nor'azizi Othman, Zuriati Zakaria, Thamer Ahmad Mohammed, Ahmad Jusoh, Hirofumi Hara
The natural coagulant Moringa oleifera lectin (MoL) as cationic protein is a promising candidate in coagulation process of water treatment plant. Introducing the gene encoding MoL into a host, Pichia pastoris, to secrete soluble recombinant protein is assessed in this study. Initial screening using PCR confirmed the insertion of MoL gene, and SDS-PAGE analysis detected the MoL protein at 8 kDa. Cultured optimization showed the highest MoL protein at 520 mg/L was observed at 28 °C for 144 h of culturing by induction in 1% methanol...
June 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Toshitsugu Sato, Toshikazu Irie, Fumihiko Yoshino
Lentinula edodes (shiitake), which have a powerful ligninolytic system, is one of the most important edible mushrooms in Asia. In this study, we introduced the manganese peroxidase (MnP, EC gene from Pleurotus ostreatus driven by L. edodes laccase 1 gene promoter into L. edodes for expression. The resulting transformant expressed the recombinant gene and showed a higher level of MnP activity than that of the wild-type strain.
June 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yanhui Wang, Yanfei Lin, Lan Xiang, Hiroyuki Osada, Jianhua Qi
One new (1, SZMT01) and one known (2) anti-aging substances were isolated from Shenzhou honey peach fruit. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization, and the result reveals that these two compounds are sesquiterpene glucosides. SZMT01 possesses a new glycosylation with an ester linkage at one terminal in an acyclic sesquiterpenoid which is the end of a double bond at another terminal. Both compounds extend the replicative lifespan of K6001 yeast strain at doses of 7...
June 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Md Yeasin Prodhan, Mohammad Issak, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Shintaro Munemasa, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata
An elicitor chitosan (CHT) induces stomatal closure but the mechanism remains to be clarified. A phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is crucial for elicitor-induced defense signaling in plants. Here we investigated whether endogenous SA is required for CHT signaling in guard cells. In the SA-deficient nahG mutant, treatment of CHT did not induce either apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or stomatal closure but co-treatment of CHT and SA induced both apoplastic ROS production and stomatal closure, indicating the involvement of endogenous SA in CHT-induced apoplastic ROS production and CHT-induced stomatal closure...
June 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takahiko Amitsuka, Maya Okamura, Kei Mukuta, Hiroko Shiibashi, Kenji Haraguchi, Tsukasa Saito, Kazuo Inoue, Tohru Fushiki
Katsuodashi, a dried bonito broth, is very basic and indispensable in Japanese cuisine and contains taste-exhibiting components and unique aroma. We previously reported that its unique aroma contributes to the preference and reinforcement effect associated with dried bonito. This study aims to elucidate the contribution of aromatic components in Katsuobushi to preference formation and reinforcement effect. Volatile components obtained from dried bonito were fractionated and the fractions were subjected to two-bottle choice test...
June 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Moeka Fujita, Miyuki Kusajima, Yasuko Okumura, Masami Nakajima, Kiwamu Minamisawa, Hideo Nakashita
A plant growth-promoting bacteria, Azospirillum sp. B510, isolated from rice, can enhance growth and yield and induce disease resistance against various types of diseases in rice. Because little is known about the interaction between other plant species and this strain, we have investigated the effect of its colonization on disease resistance in tomato plants. Treatment with this strain by soil-drenching method established endophytic colonization in root tissues in tomato plant. The endophytic colonization with this strain-induced disease resistance in tomato plant against bacterial leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv...
June 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shin-Ichi Hirano, Norio Matsumoto
Bioelectrochemical systems are an attractive technology for regulating microbial activity. The effect of an applied potential on hydrolysis of starch in Thermotoga maritima as a model bacterium was investigated in this study. A cathodic potential (-0.6 and -0.8 V) induced 5-h earlier growth initiation of T. maritima with starch as the polymeric substrate than that without electrochemical regulation. Moreover, metabolic patterns of starch consumption were altered by the cathodic potential. While acetate, H(2), and CO2 were the major products of starch consumption in the control experiment without electrolysis, lactate accumulation was detected rather than decreased acetate and H2 levels in the bioelectrochemical system experiments with the cathodic potential...
May 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yodai Taguchi, Wataru Saburi, Ryozo Imai, Haruhide Mori
Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphorylase (TrePP), a member of glycoside hydrolase family 65, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) with inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce β-d-glucose 1-phosphate (β-Glc1P) and d-glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P). TrePP in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (LlTrePP) is, alongside the phosphotransferase system, involved in the metabolism of trehalose. In this study, recombinant LlTrePP was produced and characterized. It showed its highest reverse phosphorolytic activity at pH 4...
May 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Daisuke Takahashi, Yuki Orihara, Saho Kitagawa, Masayuki Kusakabe, Takahiro Shintani, Yukako Oma, Masahiko Harata
Quantitative control of histones and histone variants during cell cycle is relevant to their epigenetic functions. We found that the level of yeast histone variant H2A.Z in the G2/M-phase is actively kept low by the ubiquitin proteasome system and SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases. Overexpression of H2A.Z induced defects in mitotic progression, suggesting functional importance of this quantitative control.
May 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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