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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Daisuke Takahashi, Yuki Orihara, Saho Kitagawa, Masayuki Kusakabe, Takahiro Shintani, Yukako Oma, Masahiko Harata
Quantitative control of histones and histone variants during cell cycle is relevant to their epigenetic functions. We found that the level of yeast histone variant H2A.Z in the G2/M-phase is actively kept low by the ubiquitin proteasome system and SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases. Overexpression of H2A.Z induced defects in mitotic progression, suggesting functional importance of this quantitative control.
May 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yukinori Tanaka, Ken Kasahara, Masumi Izawa, Kozo Ochi
Ribosome engineering has been widely utilized for strain improvement, especially for the activation of bacterial secondary metabolism. This study assessed ribosome engineering technology to modulate primary metabolism, taking vitamin B12 production as a representative example. The introduction into Propionibacterium shermanii of mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, respectively, increased per cell production (μg/L/OD600) of vitamin B12 5.2-fold, although net production (μg/L) was unchanged, as the cell mass of the mutants was reduced...
May 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takahiro Kihara, Ayaka Hiroe, Manami Ishii-Hyakutake, Kouhei Mizuno, Takeharu Tsuge
Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium both accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) but their PHA biosynthetic gene (pha) clusters that code for proteins involved in PHA biosynthesis are different. Namely, a gene encoding MaoC-like protein exists in the B. cereus-type pha cluster but not in the B. megaterium-type pha cluster. MaoC-like protein has an R-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase (R-hydratase) activity and is referred to as PhaJ when involved in PHA metabolism. In this study, the pha cluster of B. cereus YB-4 was characterized in terms of PhaJ's function...
May 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yasukazu Kanda, Naoki Yokotani, Satoru Maeda, Yoko Nishizawa, Takashi Kamakura, Masaki Mori
Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, and enhances disease resistance when overexpressed. Rice plants overexpressing BSR1 are highly resistant to diverse pathogens, including rice blast fungus. However, the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been fully characterized. To analyze the BSR1 function, BSR1-knockout (BSR1-KO) plants were generated using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makoto Ogata, Ami Koizumi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Mao Sakamoto, Rena Aita, Tatsuya Kato, Enoch Y Park, Takashi Yamanaka, Kazuya I P J Hidari
A series of novel sialoglycopolypeptides carrying N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)-containing trisaccharides having α(2 → 3)- and α(2 → 6)-linkages in the side chains of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) were designed as competitive inhibitors against equine influenza viruses (EIV), which critically recognize the Neu5Gc residue for receptor binding. Using horse red blood cells (HRBC) we successfully evaluated the binding activity of the multivalent Neu5Gc ligands to both equine and canine influenza viruses in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazuki Takahashi, Shigefumi Kuwahara, Masaru Enomoto
The synthesis of aurachin B, an antibiotic that features a C3-oxygen-substituted quinoline N-oxide nucleus bearing a farnesyl side chain at C4, was accomplished in 60% overall yield from o-nitrotoluene by a concise five-step sequence. An enantioselective synthesis of aurachin H was also achieved for the first time in only two steps from an optically active epoxy iodide.
May 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Dafang He, Jideng Ma, Keren Long, Xun Wang, Xuewei Li, Anan Jiang, Mingzhou Li
Glucose metabolism is a basic biological process that shows substantial variation within and between species. Using pig as a model organism, we investigated differences in glucose metabolic genes in seven tissues from domesticated pigs (Rongchang pig and Tibetan pig, meanwhile, the Tibetan pig just as a special case of the domesticated pig under plateau condition) and wild boar. We found large differences in the expression of genes involved in multiple aspects of glucose metabolism, including genes associated with glucose transport, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis...
May 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Warasirin Sornlake, Phatcharamon Rattanaphanjak, Verawat Champreda, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Tatsuya Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue
Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete equipped with an efficient cellulolytic enzyme system capable of growth on decaying woods. In this study, production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from S. commune mutant G-135 (SC-Cel) on various cellulosic substrates was examined. The highest cellulase activities including CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase were obtained on Avicel-PH101 while a wider range of enzymes attacking non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin were found when grown on alkaline-pretreated biomass...
May 10, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jun Inoue, Shiori Ikeda, Tomohiko Kanayama, Ryuichiro Sato
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes involved in a number of critical metabolic pathways. The modulation of HNF4α activity is thought to be a promising drug target pathway for hyperlipidemia. To identify compounds that reduce the activity of HNF4α, we conducted luciferase reporter assays using the promoter region of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene, which contains an HNF4α-responsive element. Using this system, we show here that the flavonoid derivative 4'-nitro-6-hydroxyflavone (NOHF) suppresses MTP promoter activity...
May 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tai Kaneshima, Takao Myoda, Kazuki Toeda, Takane Fujimori, Makoto Nishizawa
Various antimicrobial constituents of camu-camu fruit were isolated. Acylphloroglucinol (compound 1) and rhodomyrtone (compound 2) were isolated from the peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit, while two other acylphloroglucinols (compounds 3 and 4) were obtained from camu-camu seeds. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectrophotometric methods. Compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed to be new acylphloroglucinols with different substituents at the C7 or C9 position of 2, and were named myrciarone A and B, respectively...
May 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuki Terauchi, Yoon-Kyung Kim, Takumi Tanaka, Kei Nanatani, Toru Takahashi, Keietsu Abe
Aspergillus oryzae hydrophobin RolA adheres to the biodegradable polyester polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) and promotes PBSA degradation by interacting with A. oryzae polyesterase CutL1 and recruiting it to the PBSA surface. In our previous studies, we found that positively charged amino acid residues (H32, K34) of RolA and negatively charged residues (E31, D142, D171) of CutL1 are important for the cooperative ionic interaction between RolA and CutL1, but some other charged residues in the triple mutant CutL1-E31S/D142S/D171S are also involved...
May 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Chinatsu Tanabe, Kaori Furuta, Megumi Maeda, Yoshinobu Kimura
An effective method to prepare plant complex type (PCT) N-glycans in large amounts has been required to evaluate their immunological activity. In this study, we found that glycoproteins in bamboo shoots predominantly carry PCT N-glycans including the Lewis a epitope-containing ones, suggesting that bamboo shoot is an excellent source for the plant antigenic glycans to synthesize immunoactive neoglycopolymers.
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shino Yamasaki-Yashiki, Hidenobu Komeda, Kazuhiro Hoshino, Yasuhisa Asano
l-Xylulose reductase (LXR) catalyzes the reduction of l-xylulose to xylitol in the fungal l-arabinose catabolic pathway. LXR (RpLXR) was purified from the pentose-fermenting zygomycetous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus NBRC 4578. The native RpLXR is a homotetramer composed of 29 kDa subunits and preferred NADPH as a coenzyme. The Km values were 8.71 mM for l-xylulose and 3.89 mM for dihydroxyacetone. The lxr3 (Rplxr3) gene encoding RpLXR consists of 792 bp and encodes a putative 263 amino acid protein (Mr = 28,341)...
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kumi Otori, Masahiro Tamoi, Noriaki Tanabe, Shigeru Shigeoka
We previously demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressing cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol increased the number of lateral shoots and leaves at elevated CO2 levels. These findings suggest that alterations in carbon partitioning affect the development of shoot branching. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-II in the cytosol (AcF)...
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masayuki Okuyama, Masashi Miyamoto, Ichiro Matsuo, Shogo Iwamoto, Ryo Serizawa, Masanari Tanuma, Min Ma, Patcharapa Klahan, Yuya Kumagai, Takayoshi Tagami, Atsuo Kimura
The recombinant catalytic α-subunit of N-glycan processing glucosidase II from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpGIIα) was produced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant SpGIIα exhibited quite low stability, with a reduction in activity to <40% after 2-days preservation at 4 °C, but the presence of 10% (v/v) glycerol prevented this loss of activity. SpGIIα, a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31), displayed the typical substrate specificity of GH31 α-glucosidases. The enzyme hydrolyzed not only α-(1→3)- but also α-(1→2)-, α-(1→4)-, and α-(1→6)-glucosidic linkages, and p-nitrophenyl α-glucoside...
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ruifen Zhang, Dongxiao Su, Fangli Hou, Lei Liu, Fei Huang, Lihong Dong, Yuanyuan Deng, Yan Zhang, Zhencheng Wei, Mingwei Zhang
To establish optimal ultra-high-pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction conditions for procyanidins from lychee pericarp, a response surface analysis method with four factors and three levels was adopted. The optimum conditions were as follows: 295 MPa pressure, 13 min pressure holding time, 16.0 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 70% ethanol concentration. Compared with conventional ethanol extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, the yields of the total procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics extracted using the UHP process were significantly increased; consequently, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of UHP-assisted lychee pericarp extracts were substantially enhanced...
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takuma Matsuoka, Takuji Kawashima, Tadashi Nakamura, Tomio Yabe
We previously found a novel chymotrypsin-like protease in honeybee, designated as HCLPase. The recombinant enzyme expressed in insect cells was produced and compared to that in Escherichia coli. Both enzymes showed equivalent molecular size and specificity. However, HCLPase produced in insect cells showed higher specific activity. The C-terminal cleavage sites of HCLPase were phenylalanine, leucine, and tyrosine residues.
May 2, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hironaga Akita, Nobutaka Nakashima, Tamotsu Hoshino
To generate an organism capable of producing d-lactate, NAD(+)-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase was expressed in our pyruvate-producing strain, Escherichia coli strain LAFCPCPt-accBC-aceE. After determining the optimal culture conditions for d-lactate production, 18.4 mM d-lactate was produced from biomass-based medium without supplemental mineral or nitrogen sources. Our results show that d-lactate can be produced in simple batch fermentation processes.
May 2, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masahiro Sano, Yi Shang, Akio Nakane, Tomoaki Saito
Proteoglycan (PG) is a heavily glycosylated protein, localized to cell surface and extracellular matrix, and has various functions. Recently, it has been gradually revealed that PG interacts with various growth factors and morphogens and regulates cellular functions. Although salmon nasal cartilage PG (Salmon-PG) increases proliferation of immortalized cells, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we confirmed the effect of Salmon-PG on normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) and investigated the mechanism of PG action on NHDF...
May 2, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masami Nakazawa, Ryuta Hayashi, Shigeo Takenaka, Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Mitsuhiro Ueda, Tatsuji Sakamoto, Yoshihisa Nakano, Kazutaka Miyatake
In Euglena gracilis, pyruvate:NADP(+) oxidoreductase, in addition to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, functions for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in the mitochondria. Furthermore, the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is absent, and instead 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase is found in the mitochondria. To elucidate the central carbon and energy metabolisms in Euglena under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, physiological significances of these enzymes involved in 2-oxoacid metabolism were examined by gene silencing experiments...
May 2, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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