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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Keshab Bhattarai, Sudhashree Adhikari, Mina Fujitani, Taro Kishida
We compared the effects of two major isoflavones, daidzein and genistein, on lipid metabolism in rats. Daidzein (150 mg/kg diet), genistein (150 mg/kg diet), daidzein and genistein (1:1, 300 mg/kg diet), or control diets were fed to 4 groups of 6-week-old ovariectomized (Ovx) and non-Ovx Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Dietary daidzein, but not genistein, reduced serum and hepatic total cholesterol levels significantly relative to that by the control group, regardless of whether the rats had undergone ovariectomy...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mika Nagaya, Miyoko Kimura, Yoshifumi Gozu, Shona Sato, Katsuaki Hirano, Takumi Tochio, Atsushi Nishikawa, Takashi Tonozuka
β-Fructofuranosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 32 are enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose. Some GH32 enzymes also catalyze transfructosylation to produce fructooligosaccharides. We found that Aspergillus kawachii IFO 4308 β-fructofuranosidase (AkFFase) produces fructooligosaccharides, mainly 1-kestose, from sucrose. We determined the crystal structure of AkFFase. AkFFase is composed of an N-terminal small component, a β-propeller catalytic domain, an α-helical linker, and a C-terminal β-sandwich, similar to other GH32 enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tao Liu, Lin Li, Lei Yin, Hongyuan Yu, Hongwei Jing, Yang Liu, Chuize Kong, Mingkai Xu
Superantigens can induce cell-mediated cytotoxicity preferentially against MHC II-positive target cells with large amounts of inflammatory cytokines releasing. In this study, superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) 1 was investigated to evaluate its potential in bladder cancer immunotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that SEC1 could stimulate the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied with the release of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased the population of CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Qin Li, Wen Wang, Xiao Guo, Yan-Long Jia, Yan-Fang Wang, Tian-Yun Wang
A chimeric DNA fragment containing an interferon-beta matrix attachment region (MAR) and an immunoglobulin MAR (PSAR2) was synthesized. PSAR2 was cloned into the upstream or downstream region of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression cassette in a eukaryotic vector, which was then transfected into CHO cells. The results showed that PSAR2 did not effectively increase transgene expression when it was cloned into the upstream region of the eGFP expression cassette. However, when inserted downstream of the eGFP expression cassette, PSAR2-enhanced transient transgene expression and significantly increased the numbers of stably transfected cells compared with the control vector...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makoto Kimura
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an endoribonuclease that catalyzes the processing of the 5'-leader sequence of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA) in all phylogenetic domains. We have found that RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 consists of RNase P RNA (PhopRNA) and five protein cofactors designated PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38. Biochemical characterizations over the past 10 years have revealed that PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30 fold into a heterotetramer and cooperate to activate a catalytic domain (C-domain) in PhopRNA, whereas PhoRpp21 and PhoRpp29 form a heterodimer and function together to activate a specificity domain (S-domain) in PhopRNA...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takayuki Bogaki, Keiichi Mitani, Yuki Oura, Kenji Ozeki
Ethyl α-d-glucoside (α-EG) is a glycoside present in sake, Japanese rice wine. Previous studies have reported that α-EG suppresses skin roughness after ultraviolet B irradiation, transepidermal water loss, and hepatic function disorder, and has a skin moisturizing effect. In this study, 0.48 μM of α-EG was found to increase the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) by 121.0%, and the amount of collagen I produced by NHDF increased by 159.6% at an α-EG concentration of 0.048 μM, compared to those in cells cultured without α-EG...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yoshiaki Shirata, Asami Wakasa, Kiyoshi Miura, Hironori Nakamura, Yoshinobu Matsumoto, Tomihiro Miyada
We examined a methylcellulose (MC) formulation that gels at body temperature for enteral alimentation. Betaine was found to have a lowering effect on the gelation temperature of the MC solution. The thermal gelation temperature of a body heat-responsive (BHR) gelling MC formulation, consisting of 2% MC, 15% glucose, 1.2% sodium citrate, and 3.5% betaine mixture, was approximately 32 °C, indicating that it could gel in response to body heat. Glucose release from the BHR gels was delayed at 37 °C in an in vitro study...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junli Shi, Wenzheng Li, Yulong Gao, Bingwu Wang, Yong Li, Zhongbang Song
Rutin, one of the metabolites of the flavonoid pathway, shows great potential in industrial applications as a key component in pharmaceutical medicines and biological pesticides. Although the genetic manipulation of transcription factors (TFs) could increase rutin levels in plants, the accompanying accumulation of structurally similar chemicals complicates industrial rutin extraction. In this study, we demonstrated remarkably elevated rutin content (3.5-4.4-fold relative to controls) in transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing NtFLS2...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Chunyou Ning, Guilin Li, Lu You, Yao Ma, Long Jin, Jideng Ma, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li, Haifeng Liu
Adipogenesis involves a highly orchestrated series of complex events in which microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an essential role. In this study, we found that the miR-185 expression increased gradually during 3T3-L1 cells differentiation. To explore the role of miR-185 in adipogenesis, miRNA agomirs and antagomirs were used to perform miR-185 overexpression and knockdown, respectively. Overexpression of miR-185 dramatically reduced the mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers, PPARγ, FABP4, FAS, and LPL, and the protein level of PPARγ and FAS...
July 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomoko Takeuchi-Andoh, Yukiko Hayano-Oshiro, Emi Nishiyoshi, Masatoshi Mutazono, Sachiko Hayashi, Tokio Tani
MSA1 mRNA encodes Msa1p, a protein associated with the SCB-binding factor (SBF) and MCB-binding factor (MBF) complex. Msa1p promotes the transcription of G1 phase-specific genes, and is subjected to cell cycle-dependent regulation for its abundance and subcellular localization. MSA1 mRNA and Msa1p levels oscillate in the cell cycle with peaks at the late M/early G1 phase and early G1 phase, respectively. Phosphorylation by CDK1 negatively regulates the nuclear localization of Msa1p. In the present study, we identified MSA1 mRNA as a bud tip-localized mRNA in screening using a Tag-GFP system...
July 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yusuke Amino, Yu-Ki Tahara, Kei Yamada, Masakazu Nakazawa, Uno Tagami, Takaho Tajima, Motonaka Kuroda
Umami taste is imparted predominantly by monosodium glutamate (MSG) and 5'-ribonucleotides. Recently, several different classes of hydrophobic umami-imparting compounds, the structures of which are quite different from MSG, have been reported. To obtain a novel umami-imparting compound, N-cinnamoyl phenethylamine was chosen as the lead compound, and a rational structure-optimization study was conducted on the basis of the pharmacophore model of previously reported compounds. The extremely potent umami-imparting compound 2-[[[2-[(1E)-2-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)ethenyl]-4-oxazolyle]methoxy]methyl]pyridine, which exhibits 27,000 times the umami taste of MSG, was found...
July 10, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ryota Hidese, Ki-Hwan Im, Masaki Kobayashi, Masaru Niitsu, Takemitsu Furuchi, Shinsuke Fujiwara
Long/branched-chain polyamines are unique polycations found in thermophiles. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis contains spermidine and a branched-chain polyamine, N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine, as major polyamines. The metabolic pathways associated with branched-chain polyamines remain unknown. Here, we used gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses to identify a new acetylated polyamine, N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)-N(1)-acetylspermidine, from T. kodakarensis; this polyamine was not found in other micro-organisms...
July 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuki Taga, Osamu Hayashida, Masashi Kusubata, Kiyoko Ogawa-Goto, Shunji Hattori
Wheat gluten is a Pro-rich protein complex comprising glutenins and gliadins. Previous studies have reported that oral intake of enzymatic hydrolysates of gluten has beneficial effects, such as suppression of muscle injury and improvement of hepatitis. Here, we utilized ginger protease that preferentially cleaves peptide bonds with Pro at the P2 position to produce a novel type of wheat gluten hydrolysate. Ginger protease efficiently hydrolyzed gluten, particularly under weak acidic conditions, to peptides with an average molecular weight of <600 Da...
July 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Satoko Fukagawa, Satoshi Haramizu, Shun Sasaoka, Yuka Yasuda, Hisashi Tsujimura, Takatoshi Murase
Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming...
July 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Keita Fukui, Kei Nanatani, Yoshihiko Hara, Suguru Yamakami, Daiki Yahagi, Akito Chinen, Mitsunori Tokura, Keietsu Abe
Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production...
July 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Miyuki Kusajima, Yasuko Okumura, Moeka Fujita, Hideo Nakashita
Among the regulatory mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tomato, antagonistic interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways was investigated. Treatment with 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (BIT) induced SAR in tomato thorough SA biosynthesis. Pretreatment of ABA suppressed BIT-induced SAR including SA accumulation, suggesting that ABA suppressed SAR by inhibiting SA biosynthesis.
July 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Keisuke Fukumura, Shinji Nagata
Animals select appropriate diets to meet their nutritional requirements. Here, we demonstrate the availability for analysis of feeding preference using an orthopteran, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. A time-course study of these insects, involving continuous recording and tracing behavior for 9 h, allowed us to monitor discrimination of diet that contained various nutrients.
June 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hongying Diao, Bin Liu, Yongfeng Shi, Chunli Song, Ziyuan Guo, Ning Liu, Xianjing Song, Yang Lu, Xiaoye Lin, Zhuoran Li
Oxidative stress-induced myocardial apoptosis and necrosis are involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was performed to investigate microRNA (miR)-210's role in oxidative stress-related myocardial damage. The expression of miR-210 was upregulated in myocardial tissues of I/R rats, while that of Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) was downregulated. To simulate in vivo oxidative stress, H9c2 cells were treated with H2O2 for 48 h. MiR-210 level was increased upon H2O2 stimulation, peaked at 8 h, and then decreased...
June 29, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yongshou Yang, Dwi Eva Nirmagustina, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Yukako Okazaki, Hiroyuki Tomotake, Norihisa Kato
Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta...
June 29, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Tetsuya Kurata, Takuji Wada
The CAPRICE (CPC) encodes an R3-type MYB transcription factor, which promotes root-hair differentiation. Previously, we showed that the CPC protein moves from the non-hair cell to the neighboring cell and induces root-hair differentiation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we proposed two cell-to-cell movement signal sequences, S1 and S2, in CPC. However, an S1:2xGFP:S2 chimera protein did not move between root epidermal cells. Here, we show that the S1 and S2 sequences do not confer cell-to-cell movement or nuclear localization ability to a GFP protein...
June 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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