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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Daisuke Miura, Kohei Sugiyama, Atsushi Ito, Ayumi Ohba-Tanaka, Mizuki Tanaka, Takahiro Shintani, Katsuya Gomi
For strain improvement of Aspergillus oryzae, development of the transformation system is essential, wherein dominant selectable markers, including drug-resistant genes, are available. However, A. oryzae generally has a relatively high resistance to many antifungal drugs effective against yeasts and other filamentous fungi. In the course of the study, while investigating azole drug resistance in A. oryzae, we isolated a spontaneous mutant that exhibited high resistance to azole fungicides and found that pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes were upregulated in the mutant; their overexpression in the wild-type strain increased azole drug resistance...
July 16, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazutake Hirooka, Ayaka Tamano
To achieve rhamnose-inducible efficient protein expression in Bacillus subtilis, we assembled the strong promoters of B. subtilis cdd and ylbP genes and the regulatory region (PrhaEW) of B. subtilis rhaEWRBMA operon, whose transcription is induced by rhamnose and repressed by glucose, to produce various hybrid constructs. These constructs were evaluated using B. subtilis strains carrying a fusion of each construct to the gene encoding a mutated green fluorescent protein in the chromosome. When these strains were cultivated in the presence of glucose or rhamnose, the strain carrying a fusion of a partial PrhaEW region, lacking the intrinsic Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, and the ylbP SD sequence most strictly controlled the promoter activity depending on sugar species...
July 16, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shinichiro Kubo, Naoki Mori, Hidenori Watanabe, Hirosato Takikawa
The first synthesis of myristicyclin A, which was isolated from the Papua New Guinean plant Horsfieldia spicata, is described. The synthesis features acid-mediated hydroarylation reaction to form a dihydrocoumarin moiety, construction of the 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane skeleton under acidic conditions, and regioselective Friedel-Crafts acylation at a later stage.
July 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kota Nakatani, Yuta Katano, Kenji Kojima, Teisuke Takita, Rie Yatsunami, Satoshi Nakamura, Kiyoshi Yasukawa
Site saturation mutagenesis library is a recently developed technique, in which any one out of all amino acid residues in a target region is substituted into other 19 amino acid residues. In this study, we used this technique to increase the thermostability of a GH10 xylanase, XynR, from Bacillus sp. strain TAR-1. We hypothesized that the substrate binding region of XynR is flexible, and that the thermostability of XynR will increase if the flexibility of the substrate binding region is decreased without impairing the substrate binding ability...
July 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Naoko Arashida, Kazutaka Shimbo, Takeshi Terada, Takuya Okimi, Yo Kikuchi, Shuhei Hashiro, So Umekage, Hisashi Yasueda
Gram-negative bacterial quorum sensing is mainly regulated by an extracellularly produced N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL). AHL consists of a lactone ring and an acyl chain, which generally varies from C4 to C18 in length and affords species-specific variety. In this study, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system and detected two kinds of long chain AHLs with chain length C20 from the reverse-phase thin layer chromatography-fractionated cultured supernatant of the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum...
July 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shintaro Sugahara, Akihiro Chiyo, Koki Fukuoka, Yuto Ueda, Yuki Tokunaga, Youichirou Nishida, Hideki Kinoshita, Yasushi Matsuda, Keiji Igoshi, Masateru Ono, Shin Yasuda
This study aimed to investigate the unique antioxidative effects of Japanese moringa products, herbal leaf tea and stem tea, using established free radical assays, focusing on superoxide anion (O2 - ) radical generation systems. Hot-water extracts from moringa teas resulted in different but lower scavenging activities than Trolox in four synthetic free radical models. Interestingly, these extracts further showed higher O2 - radical scavenging effects than Trolox in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium and xanthine oxidase assay systems...
July 11, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ting Cao, Junhong Ling, Yi Liu, Xiaoqi Chen, Xiaoyue Tian, Dali Meng, Huaqi Pan, Jiangchun Hu, Nan Wang
Extracellular alkalinization and H2 O2 production are important early events during induced resistance establishment in plants. In a screen for metabolites as plant resistance activators from 98 fungal isolates associated with marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve, the cyclopiazonic acids (CPAs) produced by Aspergillus oryzae HMP-F28 induced significant extracellular alkalinization coupled with augmented H2 O2 production in tobacco cell suspensions. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and structural elucidation of a new CPA congener (4, 3-hydroxysperadine A) and three known ones (1-3)...
July 9, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kimiyasu Isobe, Asuka Kitagawa, Kazuma Kanamori, Nozomi Kashiwagi, Daisuke Matsui, Takuya Yamaguchi, Ken-Ichi Fuhshuku, Hisashi Semba, Yasuhisa Asano
The leaves of Nandina domestica Thunb. exhibited high hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) activity in (R)-mandelonitrile synthesis. The specific activity of young leaves was significantly higher than that of mature leaves. We isolated two HNLs with molecular mass of 24.9 kDa (NdHNL-S) and 28.0 kDa (NdHNL-L) from the young leaves. Both NdHNLs were composed of two identical subunits, without FAD and carbohydrates. We purified NdHNL-L and revealed its enzymatic properties. The whole deduced amino acid sequence of NdHNL-L was not homologous to any other HNLs, and the specific activity for mandelonitrile synthesis by NdHNL-L was higher than that by other plant HNLs...
July 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Eiki Koja, Soichiro Ohata, Yoshinori Maruyama, Hideyuki Suzuki, Makoto Shimosaka, Goro Taguchi
Rutin, a 3-rutinosyl quercetin, is a representative flavonoid distributed in many plant species, and is highlighted for its therapeutic potential. In this study, we purified uridine diphosphate-rhamnose: quercetin 3-O-glucoside 6″-O-rhamnosyltransferase and isolated the corresponding cDNA (FeF3G6″RhaT) from seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). The recombinant FeF3G6″RhaT enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited 6″-O-rhamnosylation activity against flavonol 3-O-glucoside and flavonol 3-O-galactoside as substrates, but showed only faint activity against flavonoid 7-O-glucosides...
July 4, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junya Kawai, Yuka Higuchi, Mitsuru Hirota, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Koichiro Mori
Grifola frondosa is an edible mushroom consumed as a health food and/or traditional medicine in Asia. However, the anti-allergic effects of G. frondosa are not yet understood. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of G. frondosa extract (GFE) on IgE-mediated allergic responses, using antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Three active compounds: ergosterol, 6β-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α-diol (MEDD), and 6-oxoergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol (6-OXO) were isolated from GFE and shown to inhibit the antigen-induced release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine...
July 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yumani Kuba, Tomoya Takashima, Keiko Uechi, Toki Taira
Chitinase-A from a lycophyte Selaginella doederleinii (SdChiA), having molecular mass of 53 kDa, was purified to homogeneity by column chromatography. The cDNA encoding SdChiA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction. It consisted of 1477 nucleotides and its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 467 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that SdChiA consisted of two N-terminal chitin-binding domains and a C-terminal plant class V chitinase catalytic domain, belonging to the carbohydrate-binding module family 18 (CBM18) and glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18), respectively...
July 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kaho Nishizawa, Yasuhiro Arii
Two variants of the sword bean (Canavalia gladiata), namely the white sword bean (WSB) and the red sword bean (RSB), are known. The MgCl2 concentration-dependent canavalin solubility showed different behavior among the extracts from distinct beans prepared by distinct pretreatments. Pretreatment and bean selection are important factors for use in food chemical and biochemical experiments.
July 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuya Fukuyama, Kayo Hidaka, Akiko Masuda, Toshiya Masuda
The products from the thermal reaction of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, which is a model process of roasting coffee beans, exhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. From caffeic acid, six inhibitory phenylindanes were identified, and a new phenylindane displayed the highest inhibitory activity among them. The activity of these phenylindanes may contribute to XO inhibition-related functions of roasted coffee beverages.
July 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takumi Yamane, Ryosuke Konno, Ken Iwatsuki, Yuichi Oishi
We investigated the effects of a low protein (LP) maternal diet during lactation on type I and III tropocollagen synthesis in infant mouse skin. The LP diet decreased the levels of type I and III tropocollagen proteins and COL1A1 and COL3A1 mRNA. Thus, the protein composition of the maternal perinatal diet may influence the skin health of offspring.
July 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Sha Tian, Ziyu Zhang, Renze Zhang, Qing Liu, Shuping Xu, Jing Gong, Yong Hou
A cysteine protease inhibitor of Bombyx mori (BmCPI) plays an important role in pupation, molting, and dissociation of tissues. The present study identified and analyzed the BmCPI promoter region to better understand its functional regulatory mechanisms. Eight promoter fragments of different lengths were analyzed using an improved Bac-to-Bac expression system. Luciferase activities were investigated both in BmE cells and larval organisms after infection with the Bac-to-Bac system, and similar changes in activity were observed in both models...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Naoki Harada
Testosterone is a sex hormone produced by testicular Leydig cells in males. Blood testosterone concentrations increase at three time-periods in male life-fetal, neonatal (which can be separated into newborn and infant periods), and pubertal stages. After peaking in the early 20s, the blood bioactive testosterone level declines by 1-2% each year. It is increasingly apparent that a low testosterone level impairs general physical and mental health in men. Here, this review summarizes recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies in males (including cross-sectional, longitudinal, and androgen deprivation studies, and randomized controlled testosterone replacement trials) in relation to testosterone and obesity,  body composition, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and longevity...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zongping Sun, Delyana Vasileva, Chiho Suzuki-Minakuchi, Kazunori Okada, Feng Luo, Yasuo Igarashi, Hideaki Nojiri
H-NS family proteins encoded on the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (TurA and TurB) and the IncP-7 plasmid pCAR1 (Pmr) commonly have an N-terminal dimerization/oligomerization domain constituted by a central and a terminal dimerization sites. To clarify the dimerization manner at the central dimerization sites of the three homologs, we performed chemical cross-linking analyses with protein variants inactivated at the terminal dimerization site. Comparison of the hetero-dimer ratios among them suggested stronger affinities between the central dimerization sites of TurA and TurB monomers than between TurA and Pmr or TurB and Pmr...
June 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tatsuki Kikegawa, Takuya Yamaguchi, Ryohei Nambu, Kenji Etchuya, Masami Ikeda, Yuri Mukai
Despite studies of the mechanism underlying the intracellular localization of membrane proteins, the specific mechanisms by which each membrane protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane in the secretory pathway are unclear. In this study, a discriminant analysis of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane-localized type II membrane proteins was performed using a position-specific scoring matrix derived from the amino acid propensity of the sequences around signal-anchors...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Wensi Xu, Shunya Saiki, Takumi Myojin, Yujia Liu, Beiwei Zhu, Yoshiyuki Murata, Hitoshi Ashida, Makoto Tsunenaga, Yoshimasa Nakamura
Lycii Fructus is the dried ripe fruits of Lycium chinense and L. barbarum, which has long been used as a traditional food material in East Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect antioxidative action in the Lycii fructus extract (LFE)-induced cytoprotective effect in vitro. LFE significantly enhanced the expression of the drug-metabolizing enzyme genes and intracellular glutathione level in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. LFE stimulated the nuclear translocation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor as well as nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Emi Mura, Minako Yagi, Kohei Yokota, Eri Seto, Kentaro Matsumiya, Yasuki Matsumura, Yukako Hayashi
Some components of bitterness make key flavor contributions to promote the palatability of foods, whereas other components are recognized as aversive signals to avoid consuming harmful substances. These contradictory behaviors suggest that humans tolerate tastes of bitterants based on certain criteria. Here, we investigated human taste tolerance and sensory cues leading to diverse taste tolerance of bitter compounds. Tolerance of eight bitter compounds, which are typically contained in foods, was evaluated by measuring detection and rejection thresholds...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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