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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Mina Fujitani, Taro Kishida, Emi Shimizu, Junji Ishikawa
We evaluated the effects of difructose anhydride III (DFAIII) on body weights of ovariectomized rats, which are a good model for obesity by estrogen deficiency-induced overeating. Female rats (10 weeks old) were subjected to ovariectomy or sham operation and then fed with or without a diet containing 3% or 6% DFAIII for 33 days or pair-fed control diet during the same period. Rats fed DFAIII showed significantly decreased food intake, energy intake, body weight gain, body energy accumulation, and fat tissue weight than control group, regardless of ovariectomy...
April 24, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiroshi Fujikawa, Kentaro Nagaoka, Katsuhiko Arai
Recently, we found that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains produced SEA in raw milk with microbial contaminants at high temperatures like 40 °C only. Moreover, the concentration of SEA produced in raw milk gradually decreased after the peak. The reason(s) for SEA degradation in raw milk was studied in this study. Degradation of SEA spiked in raw milk was observed at 40 °C, but not at 25 °C. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from raw milk degraded SEA spiked in broth at 40 °C...
April 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki
Quinolones are important antimicrobials for treatment of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although it is well known that mutations in DNA gyrase are responsible for quinolone resistance, the effect of those mutations on the enzymatic activity is yet to be studied in depth. Hence, we conducted in vitro assays to observe supercoiling reactions of wild type and mutated M. leprae DNA gyrases. DNA gyrase with amino acid substitution Ala91Val possessed the highest activity among the mutants...
April 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura
Phytohormones are central players in diverse plant physiological events, such as plant growth, development, and environmental stress and defense responses. The elucidation of their regulatory mechanisms through phytohormone receptors could facilitate the generation of transgenic crops with cultivation advantages and the rational design of growth control chemicals. During the last decade, accumulated structural data on phytohormone receptors have provided critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of phytohormone perception and signal transduction...
April 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tetsuya Yabutani, Mami Tsujimoto, Shunsuke Ohira, Shiho Shimizu, Hideo Nakano
A Gram-positive bacterium Lentzea sp. 7887 hydroxylates a cyclosporine derivative FR901459 into AS1837812 (9-hydroxide), which is an important intermediate of candidate drugs that target the hepatitis C virus. We screened a UV-induced mutant, named M-1, which showed about 1.2-fold higher conversion yields, 2-fold higher substrate concentrations (3.69 mM), and 2.5-fold higher yield per unit volume than the wild-type strain.
April 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junpei Nakase, Yuuichi Ukawa, Syoji Takemoto, Takayoshi Kubo, Yuko M Sagesaka, Ayako Aoki-Yoshida, Mamoru Totsuka
Enterococcus faecalis is a resident lactic acid bacterium in the human intestine. Its immunostimulatory action was reported to be enhanced by heat sterilization. To investigate its beneficial actions, we evaluated the ability of 10 E. faecalis strains to induce interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in a mouse macrophage cell line, J774.1 and found that the strain, E. faecalis IC-1, had a potent IL-12-inducing ability. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism by treating IC-1 cells with RNase or lysozyme...
April 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shin Takato, Yusuke Kakei, Marie Mitsui, Yosuke Ishida, Masashi Suzuki, Chiaki Yamazaki, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Takahiro Ishii, Ayako Nakamura, Kazuo Soeno, Yukihisa Shimada
We previously reported that exogenous application of auxin to Arabidopsis seedlings resulted in downregulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis genes in a feedback manner. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the SCF(TIR1/AFB)-mediated signaling pathway in feedback regulation of the indole-3-pyruvic acid-mediated auxin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis. Application of PEO-IAA, an inhibitor of the IAA signal transduction pathway, to wild-type seedlings resulted in increased endogenous IAA levels in roots...
April 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui, Adnan Khan, Nizam Uddin, Saima Khaliq, Munawwer Rasheed, Shazia Nawaz, Muhammad Hanif, Ahsana Dar
Brown seaweeds exhibit several health benefits in treating and managing wide array of ailments. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of methaolic extracts from Sargassum swartzii (SS), Stoechospermum marginatum (SM), and Nizamuddinia zanardinii (NZ) was examined in forced swimming test (FST), in rats. Oral administration of SS, SM, and NZ extract (30-60 mg/kg) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in FST by reducing immobility time as compared to control group, without inducing significant change in ambulatory behavior in open field test...
April 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Quan Yuan, Li Sun, Honghao Yu, Chunhou An
Our previous study found that co-culture with human vascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) is beneficial for dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGCs). The goal of the present study is to investigate whether co-culture with HMVECs could promote the development of DRGCs, and whether this effect is induced by the secretion of BDNF by HMVECs. DRGCs were mono-cultured, co-cultured with HMVECs or co-cultured with HMVECs that pre-transfected with BDNF siRNA, the expression of neurite formation and branching factors were determined...
April 10, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Md Atiqur Rahman Khokon, Mohammad Abdus Salam, Fabien Jammes, Wenxiu Ye, Mohammad Anowar Hossain, Eiji Okuma, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Izumi C Mori, June M Kwak, Yoshiyuki Murata
Salicylic acid (SA) induces stomatal closure sharing several components with abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signaling. We have previously shown that two guard cell-preferential mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK9 and MPK12, positively regulate ABA signaling and MeJA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we examined whether these two MAPKs are involved in SA-induced stomatal closure using genetic mutants and a pharmacological, MAPKK inhibitor. Salicylic acid induced stomatal closure in mpk9 and mpk12 single mutants but not in mpk9 mpk12 double mutants...
April 7, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jae-Sang Hong, Do-Hoon Lee, Ye Won Yook, Dokyun Na, Yu Jin Jang, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young Sik Lee
Multiple etiologies of liver injury are associated with fibrosis in which the key event is the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are reportedly involved in fibrogenesis, the complete array of miRNA signatures associated with the disease has yet to be elucidated. Here, deep sequencing analysis revealed that compared to controls, 80 miRNAs were upregulated and 21 miRNAs were downregulated significantly in the thioacetamide (TAA)-induced mouse fibrotic liver. Interestingly, 58 of the upregulated miRNAs were localized to an oncogenic miRNA megacluster upregulated in liver cancer...
April 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Won-Yong Jeong, Jun-Beom Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Chan-Wha Kim
It has been shown that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFMF) affect regulation of cell fate and differentiation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of ELFMFs in the enhancement of astrocytic differentiation. ELFMF exposure reduced the rate of proliferation and enhanced astrocytic differentiation. The ELFMF-treated cells showed increased levels of the astrocyte marker (GFAP), while those of the early neuronal marker (Nestin) and stemness marker (OCT3/4) were downregulated...
March 29, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Takashi Hayashi, Masahiro To, Juri Saruta, Chikatoshi Sato, Yuko Yamamoto, Yusuke Kondo, Tomoko Shimizu, Yohei Kamata, Keiichi Tsukinoki
Lactoferrin (LF) is produced by exocrine glands including salivary gland, and has various functions including infection defense. However, the transfer of LF from peripheral organs into the brain remains unclear. To clarify the kinetics of salivary LF (sLF), we investigated the consequences of sialoadenectomy and bovine LF (bLF) sublingual administration in rats. The salivary glands were removed from male Wistar rats, and we measured rat LF levels in the blood and brain at 1 week post-surgery. We also examined the transfer of LF into the organs of the rats after sublingual administration of bLF...
March 29, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Akiko Saito
Flavan-3-ol derivatives are common plant-derived bioactive compounds. In particular, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate shows various moderate biological activities without severe toxicity, and its health-promoting effects have been widely studied because it is a main ingredient in green tea and is commercially available at low cost. Although various biologically active flavan-3-ol derivatives are present as minor constituents in plants as well as in green tea, their biological activities have yet to be revealed, mainly due to their relative unavailability...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yu Geon Lee, Jeong-Yong Cho, Eom Ji Hwang, Tae-Il Jeon, Jae-Hak Moon
A Glu-Phe (EF) was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Sunpower). The chemical structure of EF was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass (ESI-MS) spectroscopy. We showed that EF reduced lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its lipogenic target genes. We also found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was required for the inhibitory effect of EF on lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kohei Nishino, Misaki Kushima, Tomohiro Kaino, Yasuhiro Matsuo, Makoto Kawamukai
Cell lysis is induced in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ∆ura4 cells grown in YPD medium, which contains yeast extract, polypeptone, and glucose. To identify the medium components that induce cell lysis, we first tested various kinds of yeast extracts from different suppliers. Cell lysis of ∆ura4 cells on YE medium was observed when yeast extracts from OXOID, BD, Oriental, and Difco were used, but not when using yeast extract from Kyokuto. To determine which compounds induced cell lysis, we subjected yeast extract and polypeptone to GC-MS analysis...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yasunobu Yamashita, Alan Biard, Kengo Hanaya, Mitsuru Shoji, Takeshi Sugai
Wogonin and astringin were synthesized from inexpensive chrysin and piceid in short steps. The key feature of these syntheses is site-selective transformation. The target molecules were obtained in 27 and 62% yields from the starting materials, respectively.
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Keisuke Ueda, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shoko Takai, Shuji Ikegami, Satoshi Fujita
During exercise, blood levels of several hormones increase acutely. We hypothesized that consumption of a specific combination of amino acids (arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine; A-mix) may be involved in secretion of glucagon, and when combined with exercise may promote fat catabolism. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomized in a crossover study to ingest either A-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo (3 g of dextrin/dose). Thirty minutes after ingesting, each condition subsequently performed workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 h...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xiang-Qian Liu, Qin-Peng Zou, Jian-Jun Huang, Chang-Soo Yook, Wan-Kyunn Whang, Hyeong-Kyu Lee, Ok-Kyoung Kwon
We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23, 28-dioic acid (HLEDA)-a lupane-type triterpene isolated from leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W.Smith (AGS), as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated that HLEDA concentration-dependently reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β at the mRNA and protein levels in RAW264...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Satoko Soga, Noriyasu Ota, Akira Shimotoyodome
The present study aimed to clarify the effect of reduction in hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) from roasted coffee on energy utilization in humans. Indirect calorimetry showed that one-week ingestion of HHQ-reduced coffee led to significantly higher postprandial fat utilization than that of HHQ-containing coffee. This finding indicates that reduction in HHQ from coffee increases postprandial fat utilization.
March 21, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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