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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Eui-Baek Byun, Woo-Young Park, Woo Sik Kim, Ha-Yeon Song, Nak-Yun Sung, Eui-Hong Byun
Phenolic compounds isolated from pepper (Capsicum annum) have been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects, whereas the physiological properties of Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum (CAA) have not been studied. Thus, we investigate the chemical composition and neuroprotective activity of CAA extract (CAAE) in HT22 hippocampus cells against H2 O2 -induced neurotoxicity. CAAE treatment resulted in a significant protection of H2 O2 -exposed HT22, this protection ultimately occurred through an inhibition of MDA and ROS levels and an induction of SOD activity...
September 19, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Akihiro Maeta, Risako Katahira, Marin Matsushima, Haruka Onishi, Yu Nakamura, Kyoko Takahashi
We examined whether the stepwise oral immunotherapy (OIT) for 10 days ameliorates the severity of allergy and the biomarkers in an allergy mouse model. The OIT could not protect anaphylaxis symptoms after allergen challenges but promote the production of antibodies, especially allergen-specific IgA. It was suggested that this OIT influenced the function of immuno response against the allergen. ABBREVIATIONS: EW: egg white; IFC: intraperitoneal food challenge; IFN-γ: interferon-γ; IL: interleukin; OVA: ovalbumin; OM: ovomucoid; OFC: oral food challenge; OIT: oral immunotherapy...
September 19, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shinsaku Ito, Yuta Yamamoto, Toshio Nishikawa
The total synthesis of peramine, a natural product isolated from an endophytic fungi, has been achieved in four steps and 34% overall yield from known compounds. The key step was the one-pot construction of the pyrrolopyrazinone ring from pyrrole amide and propargyl bromide. The preparation of peramine-d4 as an internal standard for quantitative analysis by MS is also described.
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomohiro Morohoshi, Xiaonan Xie, Tsukasa Ikeda
Numerous gram-negative bacteria have quorum-sensing systems and produce AHL as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that Methylobacterium populi P-1M, an isolate from a pink-pigmented household biofilm, produced two AHLs, C14:1-HSL as a predominant product and 3OHC14-HSL as a minor product. The complete genome sequence of M. populi P-1M revealed the presence of genes that are predicted to encode an AHL synthase (mpoI) and AHL receptor (mpoR). M. populi P-1M formed a pellicle-like biofilm, which had a flat surface and was easily removable...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Motoko Maekawa, Tetsuo Ohnishi, Shabeesh Balan, Yasuko Hisano, Yayoi Nozaki, Hisako Ohba, Manabu Toyoshima, Chie Shimamoto, Chinatsu Tabata, Yuina Wada, Takeo Yoshikawa
The present study describes the hair growth-promoting effects of sodium thiosulfate (STS), a widely used compound, in mice. STS accelerated hair growth in the "telogen model", suggesting that it stimulates telogen hair follicles to reenter the anagen phase of hair growth. In the same model, STS potentiated hair growth in an additive manner with minoxidil (MXD), a drug used for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Furthermore, in the "anagen model", STS promoted hair growth, probably by promoting hair follicle proliferation...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Seiya Tanaka, Manami Oyama, Miyu Nishikawa, Shinichi Ikushiro, Hiroshi Hara
Quercetin is a flavonoid with many physiological effects. Absorbed quercetin is rapidly conjugated in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Different positional isomers of quercetin conjugates have different physiological properties. However, the mechanisms of quercetin conjugation in the intestine are not fully clarified. We examined the regioselective quercetin conjugate formation in the intestine after oral administration of quercetin glycosides, by simultaneous sampling of blood from the portal vein and superior vena cava, and quantifying various positional isomers of quercetin glucuronides and sulfates in conscious rats...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Naoko Hirano, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Aromatherapy uses plant essential oils and fragrant ingredients for relaxation, sleep assistance, and improvement of restlessness related to dementia. Certain aromatic substances increase the life span and stress tolerance of nematodes. We investigated effects of exposure to linalool, a linear chain monoterpenic alcohol that is present in the essential oils of many plants, and its optical isomer, l-linalool, in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes were repelled by the odor of both linalool and l-linalool; however, linalool odor stimulation decreased fat accumulation and increased motility after thermal stress...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Qifu Yang, Miku Miyagawa, Xiaoyang Liu, Beiwei Zhu, Shintaro Munemasa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yoshimasa Nakamura
Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) is an effective agent for the removal of plasma membrane cholesterol. In this study, we investigated the modulating effects of MβCD on the antiproliferation induced by benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), an ITC compound mainly derived from papaya seeds. We confirmed that MβCD dose-dependently increased the cholesterol level in the medium, possibly through its removal from the plasma membrane of human colorectal cancer cells. The pretreatment with a non-toxic concentration (2.5 mM) of MβCD significantly enhanced the BITC-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction, which was counteracted by the cholesterol supplementation...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Soon Ho Choi, Gyeong Han Jeong, Kyung-Bon Lee, Cheorun Jo, Tae Hoon Kim
A new facile method was developed for simple green synthesis of methylene-bridged phloroglucinol oligomers using nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in methanolic solution. The chemical structures of these newly generated oligomers 2-5 were determined by interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and the inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidase of all isolates was evaluated. The unusual phloroglcuinol pentamer 5 connected by four methylene linkages showed a much higher potential inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase than the other generated oligomers 2-4 and appeared to be a promising lead for development as a potential antidiabetic agent...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shin-Ichiro Takebayashi, Shin Ogata, Masato Ogata, Katsuzumi Okumura
Here, we show that semiconductor-based sequencing technology can be used to map mammalian replication domains, chromosomal units with similar DNA replication timing. Replicating DNA purified from mammalian cells was successfully sequenced by the Ion Torrent platform. The resultant replication domain map of mouse embryonic stem cells is comparable to those obtained by the conventional microarray-based method.
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shousei Kouzuma, Katsuhiko Fujii
Cellulose is one of the major constituents of seaweeds, but reports of mechanisms in microbial seaweed degradation in marine environment are limited, in contrast to the multitude of reports for lignocellulose degradation in terrestrial environment. We studied the biochemical characteristics for marine cellulolytic bacterium Gilvimarinus japonicas 12-2T in seaweed degradation. The bacterial strain was found to degrade green and red algae, but not brown algae. It was shown that the bacterial strain employs various polysaccharide hydrolases (endocellulase, agarase, carrageenanase, xylanase, and laminarinase) to degrade seaweed polysaccharides...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shogo Abe, Saki Hirose, Mami Nishitani, Ichiro Yoshida, Masao Tsukayama, Akihiko Tsuji, Keizo Yuasa
A variety of polyphenols have been isolated from plants, and their biological activities have been examined. Sudachitin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone) is a polymethoxyflavone that is isolated from the peel of Citrus sudachi. Although we previously reported that sudachitin possesses an anti-inflammatory activity, its other biological activities are not yet understood. In this study, we report a novel biological activity of sudachitin, which selectively induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells...
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zhao Peng, Nao Shibata, Hideaki Tada, Jun Kaneko
CCR5-mediated cytotoxicity of staphylococcal bi-component toxins was investigated using human CCR5-expressing CHO cells. Cytotoxicity of rim domain loop-exchange mutants between LukE and Hlg2 indicated that loop-4 of LukE is essential for cytotoxicity in combination with LukD. Interestingly, Hlg2 showed LukF-dependent CCR5-mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting that the F-components of toxins also play a role in the cell-specific cytotoxicity.
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shota Hori, Hiroshi Hara, Satoshi Ishizuka
We investigated whether marginal iron-deficiency (MID) without anemia influences liver lipid accumulation in rats. Ingestion of a MID diet in which the iron concentration was half of AIN-93 formulation (iron-adequate, IA) for 3 weeks decreased liver iron concentration without anemia. We then evaluated the influence of the MID diet on liver lipid accumulation in combination with a high-sucrose (HS) diet and confirmed that the HS-MID diet successfully decreased liver iron concentration without anemia. Additionally, a significant increase in liver triglyceride concentration was found, accompanied by upregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase expression in the rats fed the HS-MID diet compared to those in the rats fed an HS-IA diet, although no difference was observed in plasma transaminase activity and hepatic interleukin-1β expression...
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ying Liang, Ikumi Sasaki, Yuki Takeda, Beiwei Zhu, Shintaro Munemasa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yoshimasa Nakamura
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is an organosulfur compound derived from cruciferous vegetables and papaya seeds. In this study, we investigated the effect of BITC on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes during adipocyte differentiation. The treatment of BITC during the differentiation-inducing stage significantly ameliorated the lipid accumulation, whereas it had no inhibitory effect during the differentiation-maintaining stage. BITC also significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipocyte-specific markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ...
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazuki Takahashi, Issei Terauchi, Marie Ono, Hiroshi Satoh, Makoto Ueda
Terpene alcohol is widely used in perfumes and is known to possess antibacterial activity. Moreover, in its glycosylated form, it can be applied as a nonionic surfactant in food, and in the pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetic, and detergent industries. Presently, chemical production of terpene glucosides is hampered by high costs and low yields. Here, we investigated the microbial glucosylation of nerol (cis-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol), a component of volatile oils, by Agrobacterium sp. M-12 isolated from soil...
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tatsuya Ohshida, Kohei Koba, Junji Hayashi, Kazunari Yoneda, Taketo Ohmori, Toshihisa Ohshima, Haruhiko Sakuraba
The orientation of the three domains in the bifunctional aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase (AK-HseDH) homologue found in Thermotoga maritima totally differs from those observed in previously known AK-HseDHs; the domains line up in the order HseDH, AK, and regulatory domain. In the present study, the enzyme produced in Escherichia coli was characterized. The enzyme exhibited substantial activities of both AK and HseDH. L-Threonine inhibits AK activity in a cooperative manner, similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana AK-HseDH...
September 1, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jun-Juan Wang, Si-Han Li, Ai-Li Li, Qi-Min Zhang, Wei-Wei Ni, Mei-Na Li, Xiang-Chen Meng, Chun Li, Shi-Long Jiang, Jian-Cun Pan, Yuan-Yuan Li
This study aims to investigate the correlation between the ability of L. acidophilus to modulate miRNA expression and prevent Th17-dominated β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) allergy. In vitro immunomodulation was evaluated by measuring splenocyte proliferation, Th17-related immune response and miRNA expression in β-Lg-sensitized splenocytes cultured with live L. acidophilus. Next, the allergic mouse model was used to evaluate anti-allergy capability of lactobacilli. The β-Lg challenge led to induction of up-regulation of miR-146a, miR-155, miR-21 and miR-9 expression in both in vivo and in vitro, along with increased Th17-related cytokine levels and mRNA expression of RORγt and IL-17...
August 29, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kengo Kawasaki, Chinatsu Okuda-Hanafusa, Morihiro Aoyagi, Koichi Taoka, Norio Yamamoto, Koutarou Muroyama, Shinji Murosaki, Yoshihiro Yamamoto
We wished to search for the compounds contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of the water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC). WEC was fractioned and the fractions were evaluated with regard to their inhibitory effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) from the macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Compounds in the active fractions were isolated and identified. One isolated compound was identified as new: (6S)-2-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-(3-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-heptene-4-one (1). Four isolated compounds were identified as known: (6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-heptene-4-one (4), bisabolone-4-one (5), curcumenone (6), and turmeronol A (8)...
August 26, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shin-Young Park, Tae-Min Kang, Min-Ju Kim, Myo-Jeong Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juicer type (blender or LSM household juicer) on the browning reaction of apple juice and evaluate the remaining antioxidant activity in the juice. The blender apple juice showed a darker brown color and 4.5 times higher PPO activity than LSM apple juice. This result suggested that the blender caused severer damage to plastids in cells leading to leakage of PPO into the juice than the LSM juicer. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of LSM apple juice was approximately 2 times higher than that of blender apple juice because polyphenols and flavonoids can be used as substrates by PPO...
August 25, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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