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Microscopy Research and Technique

Farzad Mohammad Rezazadeh, Saman Saedi, Farhad Rahmanifar, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Mehdi Dianatpour, Nader Tanideh, Amir Akhlaghi, Ali Niazi, Ali Arabi Monfared, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Amin Tamadon
Fast free of acrylamide clearing tissue (FACT) is a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate-based clearing protocol for the chemical clearing of lipids that completely preserves fluorescent signals in the cleared tissues. The FACT protocol was optimized to image translucent immunostained brain and non-nervous tissues. For this purpose adult male Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) was used as a model. After clearing the tissues, 1 or 2 mm-thickness sections of tissues were immunolabeled. The paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus (2-mm section) was cleared with FACT, and then was stained with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) antibody and Hoechst...
November 15, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Dario Donnarumma, Nitin Rawat, Alexey Brodoline
A new blood flow imaging (BFI) technique using digital holography with double illumination of the sample is proposed. We imaged the moving red blood cells (RBCs) using a two microscope objective lenses setup. The setup consists in a larger angle of separation (90 °) between the two illumination beams, allowing a wider angular rotation at good z resolution. Moreover, the setup geometry allows an easier displacement of the sample in all directions. Results show that this technique is able to perform phase-shifting reconstruction for the two beams at the same time which is more suitable for the future implementation of live 3D holography...
November 15, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yujiao Zhao, Liangping Zha, Bangxing Han, Huasheng Peng
Shihu is a famous Chinese Materia Medica derived from species of the Dendrobium. In order to differentiate 24 Dendrobium species, microscopic features of the 24 Dendrobium species were systemically observed, including the trend of vascular bundle number with different internodes and the transverse section characteristics of stem. The results indicate that the thickness of cuticle, the level of thickening of epidermal cells and cell types, the number of vascular bundles, the shape of vascular bundle sheath, the type and distribution of calcium oxalate crystals, the presence or absence of silica masses can be used to authenticate the 24 Dendrobium species...
November 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Taewan Kim, Chibum Ahn, Onseok Lee
Synchrotron radiation (SR) based X-ray imaging is an attractive method for analyzing biomedical structure. However, despite its many advantages, there are few gold standards in image processing methods, especially in segmentation. Image segmentation is an essential step in medical imaging for image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction. Although there are many algorithms for image segmentation, a decisive method does not exist in SR X-ray imagery, because of a lack of data. This study focused on finding a suitable algorithm for image segmentation in high-resolution medical imaging...
November 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Prarthana V Kowsik, Nirmal Mazumder
Starch is a polysaccharide that plays an important role in our diet and aids in determining the blood glucose levels and is the main source of energy to humans and plants. Starch is broken down by hydrolases which are present in our digestive system. We have used α-amylase for investigating the rate of hydrolysis of rice and potato starch granules. It is found that the hydrolysis depends on the morphology and composition of the starch granules by means of the action of α-amylase. The micro-scale structure of starch granules was observed under an optical microscope and their average sizes were in the range, 1-100 μm...
November 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Morakot Sroyraya, Wanita Kaewphalug, Natthinee Anantachoke, Tanes Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Atthapol Srimongkol, Worawit Suphamungmee
Saponins are secondary metabolites that provide medicinal benefits in controlling body homeostasis and metabolic functions. Sea cucumber has been consumed in many Asian countries due to their health benefits. Active chemicals found in sea cucumber include natural source of saponins which are enriched in their tissues, including the Cuvierian tubules and the body wall. Tissue origin of the saponin biosynthesis and accumulation is limitedly known. The present study is to indicate major compositions and distributions of saponins in the body wall of Holothuria leucospilota...
November 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Alexandre Loukanov, Polina Mladenova, Svetlin Toshev, Asen Karailiev, Elena Ustinovich, Seiichiro Nakabayashi
The real time monitoring and quantification of the concentration of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (C-dots) in eukaryotic Tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) plant cells was investigated by fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The quantitative measurement of their fluorescent emission intensity was possible because of the high photo-resistance, good water solubility and the absence of fading effect of the nanoparticles, which is frequent occurred problem of the conventional organic dyes. The microscopic analysis revealed that C-dots entered generally into the cells through endocytosis and caused negligible cytotoxicity...
November 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
María José Luesma, Irene Cantarero, Tomás Castiella, Ana Isabel Sánchez-Cano, Pablo Iruzubieta, Concepción Junquera
Dedifferentiation is a loss of phenotypic specialization that converts differentiated cells into adult stem cells in order to proliferate and differentiate into replacement tissue. This occurs in several tissues from various organs, such as smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to describe ultrastructural and immunohistochemical changes in SMCs which could be compatible with a dedifferentiation process in human and rabbit intestinal muscles. Ultrastructural study and immunohistochemical staining (SMemb and MyoD) on human and rabbit duodenum tissue sections were performed...
November 5, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Shabnum Shaheen, Mehwish Jaffer, Farah Khan, Khadim Hussain, Uzma Hanif, Sidra Younis, Sobia Ilyas, Saiqa Ishtiaq
This study was carried out to identify 20 high valued medicinal plants of District Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan with the help of the palynological studies. The distinguishing characteristics for selected species were found by systematized methods using light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. In this study, important pollen qualitative and quantitative features of these medicinal species such as polar and equatorial outline and their diameter, P/E ratio, presence or absence of pore, sculpturing of pollen, exine thickness, intine thickness, intercellular distance of exine and intine, presence or absence of spines, length of spines, width of spines, presence or absence of colpi and length of colpi, were compared...
November 5, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yongzhe Wang, Mingguang Kong, Matiullah Khan, Jimei Zhang, Chucheng Lin, Yi Zeng
A major challenge when performing scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis on many ceramic materials is their electrical insulation properties, which leads to buildup of the surface charge and reduced contrast in the secondary electron image. A new procedure was established to quantitatively determine the neutral state values, E1 and E2 , of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics using the Duane-Hunt limit (EDHL ) of Bremsstrahlung, in order to eliminate this charge effect. Thirty-eight EDHL values were linearly fitted with the last portion of X-ray spectra acquired under the incident energy, E0 , from 0...
October 26, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Albe Carina Swanepoel, Hildegarde Cecilia Roberts, Prashilla Soma, Barend Gerhardus Lindeque, Janette Bester
There are several possible mechanisms by which combined oral contraceptives (COC) use increase venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. Melodene® is a monophasic COC containing the third-generation progestin Gestodene (GSD), which is associated with increased risk of VTE. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in viscoelastic parameters of whole blood and plasma clots along with the biophysical characteristics of erythrocytes and specifically fibrin fibers in females using a COC containing GSD...
October 26, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Héctor Rodríguez Bustos, Omar Espinoza-Navarro, María Eugenia Castro
Classical conditioning (CC) with a sweet flavored is useful for experimental models of immune response. The objective this work was analyze spleen cell response on the differentiation of B-lymphocytes associated with the CC with sweet flavored in adult rats. Twelve adult male rats were divided (n = 3) in Group 1 (control); Group 2 without conditioned stimulus (WCS) received only water; Group 3 receiving only water with salt; Group 4 (experimental) with CS of sweet flavored and salty flavored afterwards. In every work group, all animals were subjected to the unconditioned stimulus (US) treated by 10 mg/kg body weight of cyclophosphamide injected intraperitoneally (i...
October 26, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Wei Wu, Sifan Shen, Chao Wang, Xiaohong Fan, Zhen Zhang, Sufang Zhang
Aphidius gifuensis Ashmaed parasitizes several species of aphids that cause economic damage to globally important crops; however, the mechanism of host location in this species is unclear. Here, we studied the sensory system in A. gifuensis to explore the likely mechanisms of host location that could be useful in the improved application of this species in aphid biological control programs. We used scanning electron microscopy to observe the external morphologies of the sensilla recorded from the entire body of female and male A...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ştefan Ţălu, Ram Pratap Yadav, Tijana Lainović, Alia Méndez-Albores, Gabriel Trejo, Dragan Kukuruzović, Negin Beryani Nezafat, Azizollah Shafiekhani, Shahram Solaymani
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two photoactivation modes of dental LED light-curing unit (LCUs) (conventional and "Soft Start" mode) on surface texture parameters of two dental resin-based nanocomposites. LED LCUs were considered as standard light-curing devices in contemporary dental practice. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to investigate surface morphology on 90 × 90 μm2 scanning area through 2D multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis with computational algorithms basis...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Lubna, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shabnum Shaheen, Shazia Sultana, Saeed Ur Rehman, Hafiza Amina
This present study is the first report on the detailed foliar epidermal anatomy and micromorphology of seeds of five species of Vitaceae from Pakistan using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The studied species occur at various localities particularly higher altitude. Qualitative and quantitative leaf micromorphological characters investigated here are related to shape and size of epidermal cells, anticlinal wall pattern, stomatal pore, guard cell, stomatal complex, subsidiary cells, and trichomes...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yagiz Ozbay, Ali Erdemir
To evaluate which laser system is more effective on smear layer removal when distilled water or combination of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used as irrigants. Ninety-six human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Standard access cavities were prepared and the root canals were enlarged using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into two equal groups according to final irrigation solution. In Group 1, distilled water was used, whilst 2.5% NaOCI and 17% EDTA solutions were used in Group 2...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Munir Ozturk, Shazia Sultana, Fakhre Alam, Farhat Ullah
Seed shape, surface cells shape, arrangement, anticlinal wall pattern, and periclinal wall protuberances were recorded for nine species of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using scanning electron microscopy to determine the importance of seed morphological characters as an additional tool for identification. Most of the seeds were found ovate and some seeds were elliptic and cuboid in shape. Almost reticulate regular seed surface patterns were observed. Four types of surface cells were examined; diamond, elliptic, oblong, and irregular...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yufu Qu, Ping Zhang, Yongbo Hu
Monocular rotational microscopes suffer from shallow depth of field and reduced field of view. Consequently, we propose monocular wide-field optical microscopy with extended depth of field to enable accurate 3D measurements of micro-objects. We use a liquid lens and a 4f system to extend the system's depth of field and two additional rotational reflectors to capture multi-view image sequences. In addition, we increase the number of expansion directions in the patch-based multi-view stereo algorithm and optimize the expansion radius...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Shabnum Shaheen, Mehwish Jaffer, Barira Aslam, Khadim Hussain, Asaf Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Mobina Ulfat, Andaleeb Anwar Sardar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Farah Khan
Current study was focused to examine the total bacterial count in packed and unpacked ice cream and kulfa collected from 12 different localities of Lahore. The bacterial colonies were isolated and grown on agar-broth media under sterilized conditions. Serial dilution technique was used to compose the replicates to get total viable count of bacteria. Results in case of packed ice cream samples indicated maximum (618 × 10-6 CFU/g) and minimum (79 × 10-6 CFU/g) bacterial count while in case of unpacked ice cream samples maximum and minimum bacterial count was 163 × 10-6 CFU/g and 71 × 10-6 CFU/g, respectively...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Gülşah Uslu, Taha Özyürek, Koray Yılmaz
The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of exposure to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the surface topography and roughness of HyFlex controlled memory (CM) and HyFlex electrical discharge machining (EDM) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twenty HyFlex EDM (25/.08) and 20 HyFlex CM (25/.06) files were divided into five groups (n = 4). One group served as a negative control group. The files in the other groups were exposed to 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions at 37°C for 5 and 10 min, respectively, and examined using AFM after each exposure...
October 23, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
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