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Microscopy Research and Technique

Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yixian Li, Lehua Qi, Yongshan Song, Xujiang Chao
The components of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have significant influence on the thermal and mechanical properties, so a quantitative characterization of component is necessary to study the microstructure of C/C composites, and further to improve the macroscopic properties of C/C composites. Considering the extinction crosses of the pyrocarbon matrix have significant moving features, the polarized light microscope (PLM) video is used to characterize C/C composites quantitatively because it contains sufficiently dynamic and structure information...
February 13, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Özgür İlke Ulusoy, Salev Zeyrek, Bülent Çelik
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different irrigation solutions on the smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of a resin-based sealer to root canal dentine. A total of 152 instrumented roots were irrigated with the following irrigants: 9,18% etidronic acid (HEBP), 0.5, 1,2% peracetic acid (PAA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), saline. The amount of smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in seventy root samples. Eighty-two roots were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha...
February 12, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Colin J R Sheppard
Many papers have claimed the attainment of super-resolution, i.e. resolution beyond that achieved classically, by measurement of the profile of a feature in the image. We argue that measurement of the contrast of the image of a dark bar on a bright background does not give a measure of resolution, but of detection sensitivity. The width of a bar that gives an intensity at the center of the bar of 0.735 that in the bright region (the same ratio as in the Rayleigh resolution criterion) is λ/(13.9×numerical aperture) for the coherent case with central illumination...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Tania Ghasemi, Valiollah Arash, Vahid Rakhshan, Mahmoud Rabiee, Ramezan Rajab Nia, Fatemeh Majd Zadeh, Amir Hossein Pour Zare, Mana Shamsedin, Samira Kavoli
Nano-silver and nano-titanium oxide films can be coated over brackets in order to reduce bacterial aggregation and friction. However, their antimicrobial efficacy, surface roughness, and frictional resistance are not assessed before. Fifty-five stainless-steel brackets were divided into 5 groups of 11 brackets each: uncoated brackets, brackets coated with 60 µm silver, 100 µm silver, 60 µm titanium, and 100 µm titanium. Coating was performed using physical vapor deposition method. For friction test, three brackets from each group were randomly selected and tested...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Mingying Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Rui Yang, Shuai Wang, Jianli Wang, Xi Luo, Wenchao Zhao, Qing Zhang, Zhangjie Nan, Liu Yang, Shaohui Wang
The ultrastructure of a sample can be observed by electron microscopy (EM), which has become an indispensable research tool in morphological studies. However, EM sample preparation techniques are complicated and time-consuming, with a high labor cost. The current study was conducted to compare the conventional manual and automated methods for sample processing and post-staining for electron microscopy. Automated sample processing reduces OsO4 contamination, improves the efficiency of sample preparation and is easy to use...
February 8, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Roger Nicolini Fuzinatto, Ana Paula Farina, Matheus Albino Souza, Daniela Cristina Miyagaki, Caio Cézar Randi Ferraz, Doglas Cecchin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of irrigation protocols and drying procedures on the bond strength of two methacrylate-based sealers to dentin and the associated failure pattern using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty single-rooted human teeth were prepared with an irrigation protocol using either 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 17% EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) for smear layer removal. The following subgroups were also created based on drying of the root canal walls: paper points, the canals were blot dried with paper points with the last one appearing dry; or, ethanol, excess distilled water was removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol for 1 min and blotting with paper points...
February 8, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Kavya Mohan, Partha Pratim Mondal
We propose a Light-sheet laser interference lithography technique for fabricating periodic microfluidic channels. This technique uses multiple light-sheet illumination pattern that is generated using a spatial filter at the back-aperture of the cylindrical lens. Specially designed spatial filter is used that give rise to a periodic pattern at the focal plane which is essentially a 1D Fourier transform of the spatial filter transfer function. One-dimensional focusing property of the cylindrical lens result in the generation of line shaped channel geometry...
February 8, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Sy-Hann Chen, Chang-Feng Yu, Chia-Shan Chien
Well-aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZNAs) synthesized using chemical bath deposition were fabricated on a gallium-doped zinc oxide substrate, and the effects of varying the precursor concentrations on the growth and nanoscale electrical properties of the ZNAs were investigated. The as-synthesized ZNAs were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM), and scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM). The FESEM and AFM images show that the growth rate in terms of length and diameter is highly sensitive to the precursor concentration...
February 5, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Bruno Carvalho de Sousa, Fábio de Almeida Gomes, Cláudio Maníglia Ferreira, Márcia Maria de Negreiros Pinto Rocha, Eduardo Bede Barros, Diana Santana de Albuquerque
Biofilms are the main cause of endodontic failures. Even the best executed endodontic treatment can fail, when the infection is resistant to treatment or when it is located in inaccessible areas, such as the external surface of the root apex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy, the presence of bacterial biofilm on endodontically treated teeth considered clinical failures and suitable for apical surgery. Root apices were collected from 20 teeth undergoing apical surgery and one negative control and analyzed under SEM...
February 5, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Jacqueline Adelina Rodríguez-Chávez, Jesús Arenas-Alatorre, Irma Araceli Belio-Reyes
Clinical procedures when shear forces are applied to brackets suggest adhesion forces between 2.8 and 10.0 MPa as appropriate. In this study dental enamel was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after removing the brackets. Thirty bicuspids (previous prophylaxis) with metallic brackets (Roth Inovation 0.022 GAC), Transbond Plus SEP 3M Unitek adhesive and Transbond XT 3M resin were used. The samples were preserved to 37°C during 24 hr and submited to tangential forces with the Instron Universal machine 1...
February 5, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Saeed Akhtar, Adnan A Khan, Hussain A Albuhayzah, Turki M Almubrad
We investigate the ultrastructural features and 3D electron tomography of chameleon (Chamaeleon calyptratus) which is a native of desert environments of Saudi Arabia. The corneas of the chameleon were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in sodium acetate buffer for electron microscopy and tomography, and observed under a JEOL 1400 transmission electron microscope. The thin cornea (21.92 μm) contained 28-30 collagen fibril lamellae. The middle stromal lamellae (from 13 to 19) contained keratocytes with a long cell process and filled with granular material...
February 1, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
S M J Mortazavi, S A R Mortazavi, Maryam Paknahad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
James C K Dillon, Leonardo Bezerra, María Del Pilar Sosa Peña, Nicole M Neu-Baker, Sara A Brenner
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and mapping are increasingly used for visualization and identification of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of matrices, including aqueous suspensions and biological samples. Reference spectral libraries (RSLs) contain hyperspectral data collected from materials of known composition and are used to detect the known materials in experimental samples through a one-to-one pixel "mapping" process. In some HSI studies, RSLs created from raw NPs were used to map NPs in experimental samples in a different matrix; for example, RSLs created from NPs in suspension to map NPs in biological tissue...
January 31, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Vahid Sakhaei Manesh, Paul Giacomin, Richard Stoll
Obtaining clean and smooth root canal walls is the ideal clinical outcome of the cleaning and shaping stage in root canal treatment. This study compares the surface roughness of root canal surfaces instrumented with a NiTi filing system with either adaptive reciprocating (AR) or continuous rotation (CR). Root canal cleaning and shaping was carried out on the mesial canals of 24 extracted first molars roots with either AR or CR. Roots were split in half and the surface roughness of their canals was evaluated in 12 three dimensional roughness reconstructions using a scanning electron microscope...
January 31, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Masanobu Wakasa, Yoshiyuki Eshita, Kuniyuki Nakanishi, Tsutomu Isobe, Kenji Manago, Masayuki Okamoto, Toshiyuki Isshiki
The aim of this study was to clarify the fine structure of accumulated deposits on the surface of teeth that are considered to affect the gloss of teeth. The study was carried out using, as specimens, human incisor teeth having gloss, which were extracted from teenage donors and those incapable of showing gloss even by brushing which were extracted from donors in their 50s. Thin longitudinal sections of tooth enamel with accumulated deposits on the surface were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, and the fine structure was analyzed using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM)...
January 25, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Parviz Ranjbarvan, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Samadi Kuchaksaraei, Jafar Ai, Reza Faridi Majidi, Javad Verdi
Skin is the largest organ of the human body. Thus far, tissue engineering of skin has developed rapidly and has used many types of growth factors and nanofibrous scaffolds. In this study, we differentiated neonate keratinocytes for epithelialization on the polycaprolactone-Platelet gel (PCL-PG) scaffold. Fabricated PCL nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technology and coated by platelet gel. Subsequently, the structure of the scaffold was evaluated by SEM, FTIR-ATR, contact angle and tensile test assays...
January 25, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Sibel Koçak, Nur Bağcı, Ersan Çiçek, Sevinç Aktemur Türker, Baran Can Sağlam, Mustafa Murat Koçak
To evaluate the influence of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) to remove the smear layer with different irrigation solutions. Seventy-eight single rooted mandibular premolars were used. The working lengths were measured and the root canals were prepared by using nickel titanium rotary files. The specimens were subjected to six different irrigation regimens: sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) with classic irrigation (CI); NaOCl with PUI; EDTA with CI; EDTA with PUI; QMix with CI; and QMix with PUI. The specimens were split longitudinally...
January 23, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Elif Bahar Tuna, Emre Ozel, Yelda Kasimoglu, Erhan Firatli
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the Er:YAG laser and diamond bur cavity preparation on the marginal microleakage of Class V cavities. Group 1: bur preparation (bp) + Vertise Flow (VF); Group 2: laser preparation (lp) + VF; Group 3: bp + Adper Easy One (AEO) + Filtek Ultimate Flowable Composite (FUFC); Group 4: lp + AEO + FUFC; Group 5: bp + Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB) + Clearfil Majesty Flow (CMF); Group 6: lp + CSB + CMF. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p < ...
January 23, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
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