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Microscopy Research and Technique

A J Nelson, S T Hess
Superresolution localization microscopy strongly relies on robust identification algorithms for accurate reconstruction of the biological systems it is used to measure. The fields of machine learning and computer vision have provided promising solutions for automated object identification, but usually rely on well represented training sets to learn object features. However, using a static training set can result in the learned identification algorithm making mistakes on data that is not well represented by the training set...
September 22, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Huiqiang Liu, Xuewen Ji, Yan Ma, Guohao Du, Yanan Fu, Yibanu Abudureheman, Wenya Liu
Nondestructive three-dimensional (3D) micromorphological imaging technique is essential for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) disease to determine its damage level and early diagnosis, assess relative drug therapy and optimize treatment strategies. However, the existing morphological researches of HAE mainly depend on the conventional CT, MRI, or ultrasound in hospitals, unfortunately confronting with the common limit of imaging resolution and sensitivity, especially for tiny or early HAE lesions. Now we presented a phase-retrieval-based synchrotron X-ray phase computed tomography (PR-XPCT) with striking contrast-to-noise ratio and high-density resolution to visualize the HAE nondestructive 3D structures and quantitatively segment different pathological characteristics of HAE lesions without staining process at the micrometer scale...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Chandan Malick, Subhendu Kumar Chatterjee, Samir Bhattacharya, Vettath Raghavan Suresh, Rakesh Kundu, Surjya Kumar Saikia
The histological as well as ultramicroscopic structures of olfactory system of an amphihaline migratory fish hilsa Tenualosa ilisha, were studied. The sexually matured riverine fish were collected from a common breeding habitat-the Hooghly, a tributary of river Ganga, West Bengal, India. This study revealed that the riverine hilsa has larger olfactory bulb compared to marine hilsa with the olfactory lobes well exposed through nostrils. The olfactory lamellae (OL) are 40-45 in number and posses three distinct layers of sensory cells across each lamellae, namely, outer receptor cells (RC), middle sensory cells, and inner basal cells (BC)...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Rodolfo X de Sousa-Lima, Joyce F M de Lima, Lucas J Silva de Azevedo, Letícia V de Freitas Chaves, Roberta C B Alonso, Boniek C D Borges
The aim of this study was to investigate if sterilization methods would promote changes in the selected adhesion-related surface properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Riva self-cure (RSC) and Riva light-cure (RLC) GICs were tested. Thirty samples were prepared according to the type of material (RSC and RLC) and sterilization method: hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP), steam sterilization (SS), and no sterilization (n = 5 per group). A Teflon matrix (5 × 2 mm) was filled with one of the GICs to produce the samples...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Levan Nhu, Xiaona Wang, Yong Liu, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
In this article, we present a method to improve axial resolution and expand the field of view of conventional light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) by phase modulation of the illumination beam. We added a bisected annular binary phase mask on the illumination path to modulate the radially polarized beam. The central spot of the modulated point spread function is narrower than that of Gaussian focus, although the sidelobe energy is increased. Then, a diffraction grating is used to produce multiple copies of this illumination pattern, and these pattern copies form the light sheet...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Renqing Li, Minzhen Yin, Mei Yang, Shanshan Chu, Xiaojing Han, Moujun Wang, Huasheng Peng
The Daodi herb, Huangqi from Shanxi, is derived from the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. Huangqi was divided into different commercial specifications and grades in producing area according to macroscopic features. Developmental anatomy of anomalous structure of the perennial fresh main root of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus was investigated using conventional paraffin section to explore the relationship between anomalous structure and classification of commercial specifications and grades of Huangqi...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Qian Zhao, Zhaohua Lin, Yunhong Liang, Chunbao Liu, Zhihui Zhang, Zhenglei Yu, Luquan Ren
The microstructure and mechanical properties of Meretrix lusoria shell were investigated. M. lusoria shell was comprised of three layers (outer layer, middle layer and inner layer). Outer layer with serried mastoid structure enhanced the connection strength with middle layer. The middle layer consisted of blocky pattern structure with porosity and crossed-lamellar structure. The inner layer exhibited the typical crossed-lamellar structure. Combined with structure characteristic, phase of aragonite confirmed the crossed-lamellar structure further, building material base for mechanical properties including flexure strength (296...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Min Chang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xuedian Zhang, Menghui He, Zhijie Qiu, Jian Xu
In this article, an operation strategy of digital micromirror device (DMD) and the maximum intensity projection (MIP) image processing method are proposed to improve the contrast of images in confocal microscopy. First, the configuration of DMD is demonstrated and the effect of scanning unit size on image performance is analyzed. Then, the image processing method MIP is applied. According to the MIP method, only the maximum intensity projection point of the same pixel is chosen from every image, and the maximum intensity projection point exactly corresponds to the positon where mirror is at "on" position during the scanning process in DMD-based confocal microscope system,...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Luis A Constantino-Jonapa, Verónica Ivonne Hernández-Ramírez, Carlos Osorio-Trujillo, Patricia Talamás-Rohana
Rab proteins are present in all eukaryotic lineages and regulate vesicular trafficking. Entamoeba histolytica has approximately 100 genes encoding Rab proteins, among which 16 have homology with human Rab proteins. Human Rab21 participates in integrin recycling, and thus amoebic Rab21 was believed to regulate the mobilization of Ehβ1FNR (integrin-like fibronectin receptor related with human integrin β1). We analyzed the distribution of EhRab21 using a polyclonal antibody produced with a specific peptide against the amoebic Rab protein, using confocal microscopy and specific probes for different organelles...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Amjad Rehman, Naveed Abbas, Tanzila Saba, Zahid Mehmood, Toqeer Mahmood, Khawaja Tehseen Ahmed
Malaria parasitemia diagnosis and grading is hard and still far from perfection. Inaccurate diagnosis and grading has caused tremendous deaths rate particularly in young children worldwide. The current research deeply reviews automated malaria parasitemia diagnosis and grading in thin blood smear digital images through image analysis and computer vision based techniques. Actually, state-of-the-art reveals that current proposed practices present partially or morphology dependent solutions to the problem of computer vision based microscopy diagnosis of malaria parasitemia...
September 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Zohair Al-Ameen
In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an intensive beam of electrons is utilized to generate high-quality images that can be used across scientific disciplines including biology and medicine. However, the images produced by different SEM devices are often degraded by a low-contrast effect as a result of various existing limitations. Hence, an improved contrast equalization technique is proposed in this article to ameliorate the contrast of SEM images and provide better visual quality results. The proposed technique consists of two major phases; the first includes a two-step regularization process used to regularize the intensities of the input image, while the second includes a two-step mapping process used to further improve the contrast and to remap image intensities to their natural dynamic range...
September 9, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Nasra Naeim Ayuob, Maha Jameal Balgoon
This review aimed to summarize the different histopathological techniques and procedures utilized during investigating the different animal models of depression in order to explore the pathophysiological aspect of depression and testing the efficacy of the antidepressant drugs or new treatments. This will be helpful while designing researches aiming to achieve these objectives. It was found that the major obstacle during investigating the animal models of depression was the restricted availability of validated animal models...
August 31, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Syed Nasar Shah, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Abdul Razzaq, Khafsa Malik, Neelam Rashid, Fazal Ullah, Majid Iqbal, Wajid Zaman
For the robust identification of taxonomically complex fern family like Athyriaceae, light and scanning electron microscopy is significance implications. This article present first microscopic investigation of foliar micromorphology of 3 genera and 10 species belonging to Athyriaceae namely, Athyrium, Deparia, and Diplazium were collected from different localities in Malakand Division, Northern Pakistan. In present study we compare foliar micromorphology of all 10 species using standard protocols of light microcopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy...
July 10, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Visittapong Yordsri, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Chabaiporn Junin, Masahiro Kawasaki, Shunsuke Asahina, Tetsuo Oikawa, Atsushi Saiki, Tadashi Nobuchi, Makoto Shiojiri
Green culms of Bambusa multiplex and the bamboo charcoal carbonized from the green culms at 700°C have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent element analysis, analytical scanning electron microscopy, and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), aiming at industrial applications as raw materials for functional devices and substances. It is revealed that the green culms and the charcoal contain a significant amount of Si, in particular, ∼18 wt % in the skin. The green culms comprise amorphous and crystalline celluloses...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ki Woo Kim
External and internal features of Elaeagnus umbellata leaves were investigated by optical and electron microscopy. The adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) leaf surfaces appeared green and silver in color, respectively. There were peltate trichomes on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. The peltate trichomes were 200-300 μm in diameter and shield or umbrella-shaped. They had a central dome and 20-30 radiating rays that were fused to form a circular cap in the center and tapered at the end. The density of peltate trichomes was apparently higher on the abaxial leaf surface than on the adaxial leaf surface...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Chunhong Li, Hui Ruan, Dengming Chen, Kejian Li, Donglin Guo, Bin Shao
A Ni-based alloy was heat treated by changing the temperature and ambient atmosphere of the heat treatment. Morphology, crystal structure, and physical performance of the Ni-based alloy were characterized via SEM, XRD, TEM, and PPMS. Results show that due to the heat treatment process, the grain growth of the Ni-based alloy and the removal of impurities and defects are promoted. Both the orientation and stress caused by rolling are reduced. The permeability and saturation magnetization of the alloy are improved...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Selami Candan, Nurcan Özyurt Koçakoğlu, Zekiye Suludere
This work presents the male reproductive system morphology and histology of the water strider Gerris lacustris (Linnaeus 1758) (Gerridae, Heteroptera) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of G. lacustris comprise of a pair of testes, two vasa deferentia, two seminal vesicles, an ejaculatory duct. There is no bulbus ejaculatorius and the long vas deferantia uniting to form a simple ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. The testes are white colored and this cylindiric-shaped structure lies along genital abdominal segment...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Vasyl Aleksiichuk, Sergiy Omelchuk, Liudmyla Sokurenko, Rostyslav Kaminsky, Oleksandr Kovalchuk, Yuri Chaikovsky
Lead as any heavy metals may be found in soil, water, air, and is used in everyday life. Once in the body, it causes toxic effect, making the liver, which is one of the main organs of detoxification, suffer. Recently, the study of the action of not only ionic forms of lead, but also its nanoparticles, has become topical. The study aims at determining changes in the liver of rats and biochemical changes in their blood both at late term of exposure to nanoparticles of lead compounds and in the post-exposure period...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
T Z N Sokkar, K A El-Farahaty, M A El-Bakary, M I Raslan, F E Hanash
This article presents a dynamic opto-thermo-mechanical stress testing device to characterize fiber properties. The device has multi-modes and consists of many functions. These modes include stretching, bending, rotating, twisting, and heating processes. Every process can be controlled by micro-controller unit via software programs specially designed for this purpose. The micro-controller unit can execute two different processes at the same time. Such as, dynamic stretching process under the effect of thermal treatment, dynamic stretching process and relaxation, bending process under the effect of thermal treatment, and so forth...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Amjad Rehman, Naveed Abbas, Tanzila Saba, Toqeer Mahmood, Hoshang Kolivand
Splitting the rouleaux RBCs from single RBCs and its further subdivision is a challenging area in computer-assisted diagnosis of blood. This phenomenon is applied in complete blood count, anemia, leukemia, and malaria tests. Several automated techniques are reported in the state of art for this task but face either under or over splitting problems. The current research presents a novel approach to split Rouleaux red blood cells (chains of RBCs) precisely, which are frequently observed in the thin blood smear images...
July 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
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