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Seminars in Radiation Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577836/radiation-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-from-bench-to-clinic
#1
REVIEW
Jacob E Shabason, Andy J Minn
Immune escape of malignant cells is an important hallmark of cancer, necessary for tumor formation and progression. Accordingly, in recent years, therapies that enhance the immune system have had remarkable success in treating a myriad of malignancies. Particularly successful has been immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), which is a therapy that targets T-cell inhibitory receptors, or immune checkpoints. Despite these encouraging clinical results, most patients do not respond to such agents. Therefore, determining methods to better target and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ICB is of paramount importance...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577835/new-techniques-for-irradiating-early-stage-breast-cancer-stereotactic-partial-breast-irradiation
#2
REVIEW
Asal Rahimi, Robert Timmerman
Several improvements in breast cancer radiation delivery have been realized using new techniques over the past several decades. As an example, for early stage disease, there has been active investigation of partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs whole breast irradiation. Although still investigational, PBI reduces the treatment volumes, doses to organs at risk, and may improve cosmesis. Over the past 2 decades PBI has been delivered via interstitial brachytherapy, intracavitary brachytherapy, intraoperative radiation therapy, or 3-dimensional external beam radiation therapy...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577834/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Amar U Kishan, Christopher R King
With over a decade׳s worth of clinical experience to guide stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), sufficient data exist for robust conclusions to be made regarding its efficacy and the toxicities associated with this treatment. We briefly review the fundamental radiobiological basis of SBRT for PCa and provide a comprehensive synthesis of the medical literature to date, focusing on clinical outcomes and toxicities. When possible, we draw comparisons to comparable data for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577833/integration-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-into-the-multidisciplinary-management-of-pancreatic-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Lauren M Rosati, Rachit Kumar, Joseph M Herman
Although most patients with pancreatic cancer die of metastatic disease, an autopsy study showed that up to one-third of patients die of predominantly local disease. This patient population stands to benefit the most from radiation, surgery, or both. Unfortunately, however, single-agent chemotherapy has had minimal benefit in pancreatic cancer, and most patients progress distantly before receiving radiation therapy (RT). With the addition of multiagent chemotherapy, patients are living longer, and RT has emerged as an important modality in preventing local progression...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577832/advances-in-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Louise J Murray, Laura A Dawson
Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is an emerging effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with acceptable rates of toxicity in appropriately selected patients. Despite often being reserved for patients unsuitable for other local treatments, prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated excellent long-term control. SBRT may be used as a stand-alone treatment, or as an adjunct to other HCC therapies. Based on available data, SBRT appears to complement existing local liver therapies...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577831/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-liver-metastases
#6
REVIEW
Karyn A Goodman, Brian D Kavanagh
Many cancers can spread to the liver, often as the sole site of metastatic disease. For properly selected patients with limited hepatic disease and good performance status, an aggressive strategy involving radical local therapy to the site(s) of metastasis offers a chance for extended disease-free survivorship. The development of stereotactic body radiotherapy has inserted radiation therapy into the arsenal of valuable treatment options in this clinical setting. This article summarizes the latest advancements in the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy to treat liver metastases...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577830/stereotactic-ablative-body-radiotherapy-for-lung-metastases-where-is-the-evidence-and-what-are-we-doing-with-it
#7
REVIEW
Shankar Siva, Ben J Slotman
This review provides an overview of the use of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for pulmonary metastases. The local control rates after SABR are generally >90%. Whether this also translates into a significant improvement in overall survival is the subject of ongoing studies. New exciting opportunities including the integration of SABR with targeted and immune therapies as well as some competing treatment strategies are discussed.
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577829/stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer L Shah, Billy W Loo
The rising incidence of early-stage lung cancer, particularly in medically inoperable patients, is anticipated because of the implementation of early detection strategies and population aging in the United States and worldwide. This mandates the development of noninvasive curative treatment approaches for this disease. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has recently emerged as a standard of care for early-stage lung cancer in medically inoperable patients who cannot safely tolerate surgical lobectomy, the established standard for operable patients...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577828/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-metastases
#9
REVIEW
Evangelia Katsoulakis, Kiran Kumar, Ilya Laufer, Yoshiya Yamada
Patients with metastatic disease including polymetastatic, oligometastatic, and oligorecurrent spinal lesions have extended life expectancy secondary to improvements in systemic agents, and thus require durable local control of spine metastases. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), which uses highly conformal treatment planning techniques coupled with image-guided technology, has enabled the safe delivery of tumor-ablative doses of radiotherapy. The NOMS decision framework has been developed as a tool to aid in the determination of the optimal treatment of spinal metastases, incorporating radiosurgery, separation surgery, stabilization techniques, and conventional radiation...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577827/normal-tissue-constraints-for-abdominal-and-thoracic-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Erqi L Pollom, Alexander L Chin, Maximilian Diehn, Billy W Loo, Daniel T Chang
Although stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has become an established standard of care for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, our understanding of normal tissue dose tolerance with extreme hypofractionation remains immature. Since Timmerman initially proposed normal tissue dose constraints for SBRT in the 2008 issue of Seminars of Radiation Oncology, experience with SBRT has grown, and more long-term clinical outcome data have been reported. This article reviews the modern toxicity literature and provides updated clinically practical and useful recommendations of SBRT dose constraints for extracranial sites...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577826/safety-considerations-in-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Eric Ford, Sonja Dieterich
Although many error pathways are common to both stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and conventional radiation therapy, SBRT presents a special set of challenges including short treatment courses and high-doses, an enhanced reliance on imaging, technical challenges associated with commissioning, special resource requirements for staff and training, and workflow differences. Emerging data also suggest that errors occur at a higher rate in SBRT treatments. Furthermore, when errors do occur they often have a greater effect on SBRT treatments...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577825/introduction
#12
EDITORIAL
Albert C Koong, Joel E Tepper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325248/bridging-innovation-and-outreach-to-overcome-global-gaps-in-radiation-oncology-through-information-and-communication-tools-trainee-advancement-engaging-industry-attention-to-ethical-challenges-and-political-advocacy
#13
REVIEW
Luqman Dad, Trevor J Royce, Zachary Morris, Meena Moran, Todd Pawlicki, Deepak Khuntia, Patricia Hardenbergh, Bernard Cummings, Nina Mayr, Kenneth Hu
An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325247/implementing-cancer-care-for-the-undeserved-globally-from-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology-to-the-7-p-s-of-global-cancer-care
#14
EDITORIAL
Tim R Williams, C Norman Coleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325246/challenges-and-prospects-for-providing-radiation-oncology-services-in-africa
#15
REVIEW
Onyinye Balogun, Danielle Rodin, Wilfred Ngwa, Surbhi Grover, John Longo
There are considerable challenges to meeting the demands of the impending cancer crisis in Africa. These include a rising incidence of cancer and cancer-related deaths, equipment and maintenance costs, and deficits in human resources and training. Addressing these issues would be crucial to tackling the increasing burden of cancer on the continent. Innovations in technology and collaborative efforts within the global oncology community have created promising solutions for establishing quality cancer care in Africa and eradicating the massive disparities that currently exist...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325245/south-east-asia-differing-socioeconomic-factors-differing-access-to-radiotherapy-the-philippines-a-microcosm
#16
REVIEW
Miriam Joy C Calaguas, Johannes A Gubat
The accessibility of radiotherapy in Southeast Asia, a region characterized by diversity in both economy and culture, differ widely among its member countries. In most countries, access is not universal and is generally limited by radiotherapy resources and the health-seeking behavior of patients. This in turn relates to the current health policy in place, the practice of radiation oncology, and cultural factors such as religion and family dynamics. Although it is clear that radiotherapy access parallel economic development, it is also affected by different social factors that work to facilitate or impede its improvement...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325244/perspectives-on-patient-access-to-radiation-oncology-services-in-south-america
#17
REVIEW
Beatriz Amendola, Aldo Quarneti, Arthur Accioly Rosa, Gustavo Sarria, Marco Amendola
Cancer represents a fast-growing challenge worldwide, and is being recognized as an emerging and critical issue in low- and middle-income countries, such most of South America. This subcontinent is unique for its geography, culture, and ethnical diversity. Most of its countries have large expanses of jungle and desert where underserved population groups including indigenous (native Indians), represent a challenge for cancer care. Many indigent patients have no access to preventive care nor early diagnosis. This results in late presentations with advanced disease and frequently incurable cancer...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325243/perspectives-on-patient-access-to-radiation-oncology-facilities-and-services-in-mainland-china
#18
REVIEW
Luhua Wang, Jiade J Lu, Weibo Yin, Jinyi Lang
The Chinese health care system and specifically, radiation oncology, has clearly improved during the past 30 years in equipment and its use, although the shortage of facilities and workforce remain to be improved. These constitute the targets for a nationwide effort to improve the access to service by patients with cancer, especially in the more remote and rural portions of the country. In this report, we would highlight the positive changes that have occurred during the time and outline what is still needed for the future of this important cancer specialty in China...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325242/radiation-oncology-in-india-challenges-and-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Surbhi Grover, Shivakumar Gudi, Ajeet Kumar Gandhi, Priya M Puri, Adam C Olson, Danielle Rodin, Onyi Balogun, Preet K Dhillon, Daya Nand Sharma, Goura Kishor Rath, Shyam Kishore Shrivastava, Akila N Viswanathan, Umesh Mahantshetty
Rising cancer incidence and mortality in India emphasize the need to address the increasing burden of this disease and the stark inequities in access to radiotherapy and other essential medical treatments. State-of-the-art technology is available within the private sector and a few hospitals in the public sector, but 75% of patients in the public sector in India do not have access to timely radiotherapy. This inequity in access to radiotherapy in the public sector is amplified in rural areas, where most of India׳s population lives...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325241/radiation-oncology-in-the-developing-economies-of-central-and-eastern-europe
#20
REVIEW
Natia Esiashvili
Eastern Europe is represented by 22 countries of significant variability in population density and degree of economic development. They have been affected by past geopolitical isolation due to their association with the "Soviet Block." Currently, all Eastern European countries except Slovenia are low- or middle-income level and 10 of them are part of European Union. Health care systems in Central and Eastern Europe have been influenced by the legacy of centralized soviet-era governance; however, most countries, particularly in European Union zone, have gone through health care reforms directed toward modernizing infrastructure and staffing...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
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