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Seminars in Radiation Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325248/bridging-innovation-and-outreach-to-overcome-global-gaps-in-radiation-oncology-through-information-and-communication-tools-trainee-advancement-engaging-industry-attention-to-ethical-challenges-and-political-advocacy
#1
REVIEW
Luqman Dad, Trevor J Royce, Zachary Morris, Meena Moran, Todd Pawlicki, Deepak Khuntia, Patricia Hardenbergh, Bernard Cummings, Nina Mayr, Kenneth Hu
An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325247/implementing-cancer-care-for-the-undeserved-globally-from-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology-to-the-7-p-s-of-global-cancer-care
#2
EDITORIAL
Tim R Williams, C Norman Coleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325246/challenges-and-prospects-for-providing-radiation-oncology-services-in-africa
#3
REVIEW
Onyinye Balogun, Danielle Rodin, Wilfred Ngwa, Surbhi Grover, John Longo
There are considerable challenges to meeting the demands of the impending cancer crisis in Africa. These include a rising incidence of cancer and cancer-related deaths, equipment and maintenance costs, and deficits in human resources and training. Addressing these issues would be crucial to tackling the increasing burden of cancer on the continent. Innovations in technology and collaborative efforts within the global oncology community have created promising solutions for establishing quality cancer care in Africa and eradicating the massive disparities that currently exist...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325245/south-east-asia-differing-socioeconomic-factors-differing-access-to-radiotherapy-the-philippines-a-microcosm
#4
REVIEW
Miriam Joy C Calaguas, Johannes A Gubat
The accessibility of radiotherapy in Southeast Asia, a region characterized by diversity in both economy and culture, differ widely among its member countries. In most countries, access is not universal and is generally limited by radiotherapy resources and the health-seeking behavior of patients. This in turn relates to the current health policy in place, the practice of radiation oncology, and cultural factors such as religion and family dynamics. Although it is clear that radiotherapy access parallel economic development, it is also affected by different social factors that work to facilitate or impede its improvement...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325244/perspectives-on-patient-access-to-radiation-oncology-services-in-south-america
#5
REVIEW
Beatriz Amendola, Aldo Quarneti, Arthur Accioly Rosa, Gustavo Sarria, Marco Amendola
Cancer represents a fast-growing challenge worldwide, and is being recognized as an emerging and critical issue in low- and middle-income countries, such most of South America. This subcontinent is unique for its geography, culture, and ethnical diversity. Most of its countries have large expanses of jungle and desert where underserved population groups including indigenous (native Indians), represent a challenge for cancer care. Many indigent patients have no access to preventive care nor early diagnosis. This results in late presentations with advanced disease and frequently incurable cancer...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325243/perspectives-on-patient-access-to-radiation-oncology-facilities-and-services-in-mainland-china
#6
REVIEW
Luhua Wang, Jiade J Lu, Weibo Yin, Jinyi Lang
The Chinese health care system and specifically, radiation oncology, has clearly improved during the past 30 years in equipment and its use, although the shortage of facilities and workforce remain to be improved. These constitute the targets for a nationwide effort to improve the access to service by patients with cancer, especially in the more remote and rural portions of the country. In this report, we would highlight the positive changes that have occurred during the time and outline what is still needed for the future of this important cancer specialty in China...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325242/radiation-oncology-in-india-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
REVIEW
Surbhi Grover, Shivakumar Gudi, Ajeet Kumar Gandhi, Priya M Puri, Adam C Olson, Danielle Rodin, Onyi Balogun, Preet K Dhillon, Daya Nand Sharma, Goura Kishor Rath, Shyam Kishore Shrivastava, Akila N Viswanathan, Umesh Mahantshetty
Rising cancer incidence and mortality in India emphasize the need to address the increasing burden of this disease and the stark inequities in access to radiotherapy and other essential medical treatments. State-of-the-art technology is available within the private sector and a few hospitals in the public sector, but 75% of patients in the public sector in India do not have access to timely radiotherapy. This inequity in access to radiotherapy in the public sector is amplified in rural areas, where most of India׳s population lives...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325241/radiation-oncology-in-the-developing-economies-of-central-and-eastern-europe
#8
REVIEW
Natia Esiashvili
Eastern Europe is represented by 22 countries of significant variability in population density and degree of economic development. They have been affected by past geopolitical isolation due to their association with the "Soviet Block." Currently, all Eastern European countries except Slovenia are low- or middle-income level and 10 of them are part of European Union. Health care systems in Central and Eastern Europe have been influenced by the legacy of centralized soviet-era governance; however, most countries, particularly in European Union zone, have gone through health care reforms directed toward modernizing infrastructure and staffing...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325240/cancer-care-access-and-outcomes-for-american-indian-populations-in-the-united-states-challenges-and-models-for-progress
#9
REVIEW
B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Daniel G Petereit, C Norman Coleman
Low socioeconomic and health care access realities of being American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States combined with decades of data documenting poor cancer outcomes for this population provide a population nested within the United States that is analogous to the cancer care landscape of low- and middle-income countries internationally. We reviewed the medical literature with respect to cancer prevention, access to cancer treatment, and access to effective supportive and palliative care for AI/AN populations in the United States...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325239/the-unique-issues-with-brachytherapy-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
REVIEW
Surbhi Grover, John Longo, John Einck, Priya Puri, Derek Brown, Junzo Chino, Umesh Mahantshetty, Catheryn Yashar, Beth Erickson
Gynecologic carcinomas, including cervical cancer, present a significant burden on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Brachytherapy plays an integral role in the treatment of gynecologic carcinomas, as it is essential for both curative and palliative treatment. However, there are numerous geographic and economic barriers to providing brachytherapy to cancer patients in LMICs. This article examines the role and delivery of brachytherapy in gynecological cancer treatment; brachytherapy capacity in LMICs, including infrastructure, equipment, and human resources considerations; commissioning, training, and clinical implementation of brachytherapy in LMICs; other challenges, and strategies for improvement in brachytherapy delivery in LMICs, including innovation and current and upcoming international initiatives...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325238/radiation-oncology-quality-and-safety-considerations-in-low-resource-settings-a-medical-physics-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Jacob Van Dyk, Ahmed Meghzifene
The past few years have seen a significant growth of interest in the global radiation therapy (RT) crisis. Various organizations have quantified the need and are providing aid in support of addressing the shortfalls existing in many low-to-middle income countries. With the tremendous demand for new facilities, equipment, and personnel, it is very important to recognize the quality and safety challenges and to address them directly. An examination of publications on quality and safety in RT indicates a consistency in a number of the recommendations; however, these authoritative reports were generally based on input from high-resourced contexts...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325237/global-health-in-radiation-oncology-the-emergence-of-a-new-career-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Danielle Rodin, Mei Ling Yap, Surbhi Grover, John M Longo, Onyinye Balogun, Sandra Turner, Jesper G Eriksen, C Norman Coleman, Meredith Giuliani
The massive global shortfall in radiotherapy equipment and human resources in developing countries is an enormous challenge for international efforts in cancer control. This lack of access to treatment has been long-standing, but there is now a growing consensus about the urgent need to prioritize solutions to this problem and that a global strategy is required for them to be successful. An essential element of making radiotherapy universally accessible is a coordinated approach to clinical training and practice...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325236/improving-quality-and-access-to-radiation-therapy-an-iaea-perspective
#13
REVIEW
May Abdel-Wahab, Eduardo Zubizarreta, Alfredo Polo, Ahmed Meghzifene
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved in radiation therapy since soon after its creation in 1957. In response to the demands of Member States, the IAEA׳s activities relating to radiation therapy have focused on supporting low- and middle-income countries to set up radiation therapy facilities, expand the scope of treatments, or gradually transition to new technologies. In addition, the IAEA has been very active in providing internationally harmonized guidelines on clinical, dosimetry, medical physics, and safety aspects of radiation therapy...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986215/beyond-just-androgen-deprivation-therapy-novel-therapies-combined-with-radiation
#14
REVIEW
Oliver Sartor, Brian Lewis
External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation are standard of care for selected patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, multiple therapies have been experimentally combined with EBRT either concomitantly or adjuvantly. These therapies include chemotherapies, immunotherapies, and novel hormones. In addition to EBRT, clinical trials with radiopharmaceuticals are planned or have been performed with concomitant chemotherapy, immunotherapies, novel hormones, and inhibitors of DNA damage repair...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986214/management-of-node-positive-and-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
James R Broughman, Ronald C Chen
Historically, stage IV prostate cancer was considered incurable. Although node-positive and oligometastatic prostate cancers are both classified as stage IV, these likely represent distinct clinical groups, and some patients may be curable with aggressive multimodality treatments. There is a lack of randomized evidence, but retrospective studies suggest that radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy may improve survival in these patients. This is an area of great current research interest and prospective randomized trials are needed to help define the optimal treatments for these patients...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986213/options-for-salvage-of-radiation-failures-for-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Audrey Tetreault-Laflamme, Juanita Crook
Biochemical failure after primary external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer is common, and a significant proportion of these failures are due to local residual or recurrent disease. Early or delayed palliation using androgen deprivation therapy is the most common approach. Although a conservative approach is appropriate for many individuals, selected patients would benefit from retreatment with curative intent. We review the pertinent literature on salvage of locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy, including the modalities of surgery, cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, or reirradiation with brachytherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986212/postoperative-radiation-after-radical-prostatectomy
#17
REVIEW
Eric C Ko, Anthony L Michaud, Richard K Valicenti
A total of 3 randomized clinical trials have demonstrated a significant clinical benefit with adjuvant radiation in patients with high-risk prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy, with each showing improved biochemical control outcomes, and one trial (SWOG 8794) also demonstrating increased overall survival. How broadly these results have informed clinical practice has evolved over time, given the widespread availability of ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen level testing and increased awareness that the high-risk patients are not a uniform cohort...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986211/optimization-of-the-radiation-management-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Paul L Nguyen
Radiation and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) are mainstays of treatment for men with high-risk prostate cancer. High-risk disease is heterogeneous and subcategories of "favorable" high risk and very high risk can identify subgroups with particularly good or poor prognosis to help personalize treatment. Overall, randomized trials show that the combination of radiation and ADT improves survival when compared with either by itself. The optimum duration of ADT remains controversial, but for most healthy men with aggressive disease, approximately 2-3 years of ADT is well supported by the literature...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986210/emerging-technologies-and-techniques-in-radiation-therapy
#19
REVIEW
William J Magnuson, Amandeep Mahal, James B Yu
The past decade has brought an improved ability to precisely target and deliver radiation as well as other focal prostate-directed therapy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), proton beam radiation, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, as well as nonradiotherapy treatments such as cryoablation and high-intensity focused ultrasound are several therapeutic modalities that have been investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer in an attempt to reduce toxicity while improving cancer control. However, high-risk prostate cancer requires a comprehensive treatment of the prostate as well as areas at risk for cancer spread...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986209/prostate-cancer-genetics-variation-by-race-ethnicity-and-geography
#20
REVIEW
Timothy R Rebbeck
Prostate cancer rates vary substantially by race, ethnicity, and geography. These disparities can be explained by variation in access to screening and treatment, variation in exposure to prostate cancer risk factors, and variation in the underlying biology of prostate carcinogenesis (including genomic propensity of some groups to develop biologically aggressive disease). It is clear that access to screening and access to treatment are critical influencing factors of prostate cancer rates; yet, even among geographically diverse populations with similar access to care (eg, low- and medium-income countries), African descent men have higher prostate cancer rates and poorer prognosis...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
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