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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097739/cellular-plasticity-in-cardiovascular-development-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Soumyashree Das, Kristy Red-Horse
Knowledge on cellular differentiation pathways is critical to understanding organ development, homeostasis, and disease. Studying cell differentiation and cell fate restrictions in these contexts can be done through lineage tracing experiments, which entail permanent labeling of a cell and all its progeny. Recent lineage experiments within the cardiovascular system have uncovered unexpected findings on cellular origins during organogenesis and cell plasticity during disease. For example, there is increasing evidence that multiple progenitor sources exist for a single cell type, and that cells have remarkable expansive capacities under disease settings...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073171/pan-cancer-survey-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-markers-across-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#2
Don L Gibbons, Chad J Creighton
BACKGROUND: While epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be readily induced experimentally in cancer cells, the EMT process as manifested in human tumors needs to be better understood. Pan-cancer genomic datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-representing over 10,000 patients and 32 distinct cancer types-provide a rich resource for examining correlative patterns involving EMT mediators in the setting of human cancers. RESULTS: Here, we surveyed a 16-gene signature of canonical EMT markers in TCGA pan-cancer cohort...
January 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033674/a-delay-in-vascularization-induces-abnormal-astrocyte-proliferation-and-migration-in-the-mouse-retina
#3
Akane Morita, Hiroko Ushikubo, Asami Mori, Shiho Arima, Kenji Sakamoto, Tohru Nagamitsu, Kunio Ishii, Tsutomu Nakahara
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes migrate into the retina through the optic nerve head via the axons of retinal ganglion cells, and spread radially towards the peripheral retina. Endothelial cells migrate along the astrocyte cellular network to form the retinal surface vasculature. Here, we examined the effects of a delay in retinal vascularization on the migration and proliferation status of astrocytes in mice. RESULTS: A dose-dependent delay in retinal vascularization was observed in mice that had been treated with KRN633 (1-10 mg/kg), a VEGF receptor inhibitor, on the day of birth and on the following day...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026128/ets-transcription-factor-etv2-er71-etsrp-in-hematopoietic-and-vascular-development-injury-and-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Haiyong Zhao, Canxin Xu, Taejin Lee, Fang Liu, Kyunghee Choi
The major goal in regenerative medicine is to repair and restore injured, diseased or aged tissue function, thereby promoting general health. As such, the field of regenerative medicine has great translational potential in undertaking many of the health concerns and needs that we currently face. In particular, hematopoietic and vascular systems supply oxygen and nutrients and thus play critical roles in tissue development and tissue regeneration. Additionally, tissue vasculature serves as a tissue stem cell niche and thus contributes to tissue homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026082/hox-genes-in-the-adult-skeleton-novel-functions-beyond-embryonic-development
#5
REVIEW
Danielle R Rux, Deneen M Wellik
Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control skeletal patterning in the developing embryo. They are expressed in regionally restricted domains and function to regulate the morphology of specific vertebral and long bone elements. Recent work has provided evidence that Hox genes continue to be regionally expressed in adult tissues. Fibroblasts cultured from adult tissues show broadly maintained Hox gene expression patterns. In the adult skeleton, Hox genes are expressed in progenitor-enriched populations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and genetic loss-of-function analyses have provided evidence that Hox genes function during the fracture healing process...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002632/hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-differentially-control-proliferation-of-rat-neural-crest-stem-cells-via-distinct-regulatory-pathways-of-the-hif1%C3%AE-cxcr4-and-tp53-tpm1-proteins
#6
Chien-Cheng Chen, Ching-Wu Hsia, Cheng-Wen Ho, Chang-Min Liang, Chieh-Min Chen, Kun-Lun Huang, Bor-Hwang Kang, Yi-Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a population of adult multipotent stem cells. We are interested in studying whether oxygen tensions affect the capability of NCSCs to self-renew and repair damaged tissues. NCSCs extracted from the hair follicle bulge region of the rat whisker pad were cultured in vitro under different oxygen tensions. RESULTS: We found significantly increased and decreased rates of cell proliferation in rat NCSCs (rNCSCs) cultured respectively at 0...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002626/ectoderm-mesoderm-crosstalk-in-the-embryonic-limb-the-role-of-fgf-signaling
#7
Francesca V Mariani, Marian Fernandez-Teran, Maria A Ros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987249/achondroplasia-development-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
David M Ornitz, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
Autosomal dominant mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) cause Achondroplasia (Ach), the most common form of dwarfism in humans, and related chondrodysplasia syndromes that include Hypochondroplasia (Hch), Severe Achondroplasia with Developmental Delay and Acanthosis Nigricans (SADDAN), and Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). FGFR3 is expressed in chondrocytes and mature osteoblasts where it functions to regulate bone growth. Analysis of the mutations in FGFR3 revealed increased signaling through a combination of mechanisms that include stabilization of the receptor, enhanced dimerization, and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884054/morphoregulatory-pathways-in-prostate-ductal-development
#9
REVIEW
Monica Montano, Wade Bushman
The mouse prostate is a male sex-accessory gland comprised of a branched ductal network arranged into three separate bilateral lobes: the anterior, dorsolateral, and ventral lobes. Prostate ductal development is the primary morphogenetic event in prostate development and requires a complex regulation of spatiotemporal factors. This review provides an overview of prostate development and the major genetic regulators and signaling pathways involved. To identify new areas for further study, we briefly highlight the likely important, but relatively understudied, role of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
November 24, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884048/microrna-142-is-a-multifaceted-regulator-in-organogenesis-homeostasis-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
A Shrestha, R T Mukhametshina, S Taghizadeh, E Vásquez-Pacheco, H Cabrera-Fuentes, A Rizvanov, B Mari, G Carraro, S Bellusci
Over the last decade, microRNA-142 (miR-142) is emerging as a major regulator of cell fate decision in the hematopoietic system. However, miR-142 is expressed in many other tissues and recent evidence suggest that it may play a more pleiotropic role during embryonic development. In addition, miR-142 has been shown to play important functions in disease. miR-142 displays a functional role in cancer, virus infection, inflammation and immune tolerance. Both a guide strand (miR-142-3p) and passenger strand (miR-142-5p) are generated from the miR-142 hairpin...
November 24, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884045/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-krt5-and-krt14-independently-of-stem-cell-markers-in-submandibular-salivary-gland-epithelium
#11
Timur M Abashev, Melissa A Metzler, Diana M Wright, Lisa L Sandell
BACKGROUND: Retinoic Acid (RA), the active metabolite of Vitamin A, has been demonstrated to be important for growth and branching morphogenesis of mammalian embryonic salivary gland epithelium. However, it is not known whether RA functions directly within epithelial cells or in associated tissues that influence morphogenesis of salivary epithelium. Moreover, downstream targets of RA regulation have not been identified. RESULTS: Here we show that canonical RA signaling occurs in multiple tissues of embryonic mouse salivary glands, including epithelium, associated parasympathetic ganglion neurons, and non-neuronal mesenchyme...
November 24, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870483/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-regenerating-tail-versus-the-scarring-limb-in-lizard-reveals-pathways-leading-to-successful-versus-unsuccessful-organ-regeneration-in-amniotes
#12
Nicola Vitulo, Luisa Dalla Valle, Tatjana Skobo, Giorgio Valle, Lorenzo Alibardi
BACKGROUND: lizards are amniotes regenerating the tail but not the limb and no information on their different gene expression is available. RESULTS: transcriptomes of regenerating tail and limb blastemas show differences in gene expression between the two organs. In tail blastema snoRNAs and Wnt signals appear up-regulated probably in association with the Apical Epidermal Peg (AEP), an epithelial region that sustains tail regeneration but is absent in the limb. A balance between pro-oncogenes and tumor suppressors is likely present in tail blastema allowing a regulated proliferation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859991/signaling-networks-in-joint-development
#13
REVIEW
Joanna E Salva, Amy E Merrill
Here we review studies identifying regulatory networks responsible for synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joint development. Synovial joints, characterized by the fluid-filled synovial space between the bones, are found in high-mobility regions and are the most common type of joint. Cartilaginous joints such as the intervertebral disc unite adjacent bones through either a hyaline cartilage or a fibrocartilage intermediate. Fibrous joints, which include the cranial sutures, form a direct union between bones through fibrous connective tissue...
November 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859941/adhesion-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-extracellular-matrix-proteins-roles-in-myelination-and-glial-cell-development
#14
REVIEW
Paulomi Mehta, Xianhua Piao
BACKGROUND: Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large family of transmembrane proteins that play important roles in many processes during development, primarily through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. In the nervous system, they have been linked to the complex process of myelination, both in the central and peripheral nervous system. RESULTS: GPR126 is essential in Schwann cell-mediated myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), while GPR56 is involved in oligodendrocyte development central nervous system (CNS) myelination...
November 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859869/signaling-pathways-in-mammalian-preimplantation-development-linking-cellular-phenotypes-to-lineage-decisions
#15
REVIEW
Sergio Menchero, Teresa Rayon, Maria Jose Andreu, Miguel Manzanares
The first stages of mammalian development, before implantation of the embryo in the maternal uterus, result in the establishment of three cell populations in the blastocyst: trophectoderm, epiblast, and primitive endoderm. These events involve only a small number of cells, and are initiated by morphological differences among them related to cell adhesion and polarity. Much attention has been paid to the master transcription factors that are critical for establishing and maintaining early lineage choices. Nevertheless, a large body of work also reveals that additional molecular mechanisms are involved...
November 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032936/role-of-jnk-during-buccopharyngeal-membrane-perforation-the-last-step-of-embryonic-mouth-formation
#16
Nathalie S Houssin, Navaneetha Krishnan Bharathan, Stephen D Turner, Amanda J G Dickinson
BACKGROUND: The buccopharyngeal membrane is a thin layer of cells covering the embryonic mouth. The perforation of this structure creates an opening connecting the external and the digestive tube which is essential for oral cavity formation. In humans, persistence of the buccopharyngeal membrane can lead to orofacial defects such as choanal atresia, oral synechiaes, and cleft palate. Little is known about the causes of a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and, importantly, how this structure ruptures...
November 5, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783451/therapeutic-and-pathological-roles-of-fibroblast-growth-factors-in-pulmonary-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Elie El Agha, Werner Seeger, Saverio Bellusci
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a large family of polypeptides that are involved in many biological processes, ranging from prenatal cell-fate specification and organogenesis to hormonal and metabolic regulation in postnatal life. During embryonic development, these growth factors are important mediators of the crosstalk among ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-derived cells, and they instruct the spatial and temporal growth of organs and tissues such as the brain, bone, lung, gut, and others. The involvement of FGFs in postnatal lung homeostasis is a growing field, and there is emerging literature about their roles in lung pathophysiology...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761977/concomitant-differentiation-of-a-population-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-neuron-like-cells-and-schwann-cell-like-cells-in-a-slow-flow-microfluidic-device
#18
Poornapriya Ramamurthy, Joshua B White, Joong Yull Park, Richard I Hume, Fumi Ebisu, Flor Mendez, Shuichi Takayama, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: To send meaningful information to the brain, an inner ear cochlear implant (CI) must become closely coupled to as large and healthy a population of remaining spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) as possible. Inner ear gangliogenesis depends on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a directionally attractant neurotrophic cytokine made by both Schwann and supporting cells (Bank et al., 2012). MIF-induced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived "neurons" could potentially substitute for lost or damaged SGN...
January 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756109/separate-development-of-the-maxilla-and-mandible-is-controlled-by-regional-signaling-of-the-maxillomandibular-junction-during-avian-development
#19
Hye-Jin Tak, Tae-Jin Park, Zhenngu Piao, Sang-Hwy Lee
BACKGROUND: Syngnathia is a congenital craniofacial disorder characterized by bony or soft tissue fusion of upper and lower jaws. Previous studies suggested some causative signals, such as Foxc1 or Bmp4, cause the disruption of maxillomandibular identity, but their location and the interactive signals involved remain unexplored. We wanted to examine the embryonic origin of syngnathia based on the assumption that it may be located at the separation between the maxillary and mandibular processes...
January 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748998/lung-development-requires-an-active-erk-mapk-pathway-in-the-lung-mesenchyme
#20
Olivier Boucherat, Kim Landry-Truchon, Rifdat Aoidi, Nicolas Houde, Valérie Nadeau, Jean Charron, Lucie Jeannotte
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal communications are critical throughout lung development, dictating branching morphogenesis and cell specification. Numerous signaling molecules are involved in these interactions, but the way epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk is coordinated remains unclear. The ERK/MAPK pathway transduces several important signals in lung formation. Epithelial inactivation of both Mek genes, encoding ERK/MAPK kinases, causes lung agenesis and death. Conversely, Mek mutation in mesenchyme results in lung hypoplasia, trachea cartilage malformations, kyphosis, omphalocele, and death...
January 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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