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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795450/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-where-we-are-and-where-we-are-heading
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Haensel, Xing Dai
Cutaneous wound healing occurs in distinct yet overlapping steps with the end goal of reforming a stratified epithelium to restore epidermal barrier function. A key component of this process is re-epithelialization, which involves the proliferation and migration of epidermal keratinocytes surrounding the wound. This spatiotemporally controlled process resembles aspects of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and is thus proposed to involve a partial EMT. Here we review current literature on the cellular and molecular changes that occur during, and the known or potential regulatory factors of cutaneous wound re-epithelialization and EMT to highlight their similarities and differences...
August 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795449/zebrafish-models-of-orofacial-clefts
#2
REVIEW
Kaylia Duncan, Kusumika Mukherjee, Robert A Cornell, Eric C Liao
Zebrafish is a model organism that affords experimental advantages toward investigating the normal function of genes associated with congenital birth defects. Here we summarize zebrafish studies of genes implicated in orofacial cleft (OFC). The most common use of zebrafish in this context has been to explore the normal function an OFC-associated gene product in craniofacial morphogenesis by inhibiting expression of its zebrafish ortholog. The most frequently deployed method has been to inject embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeting the desired transcript...
August 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791777/mutations-in-the-katnb1-gene-cause-left-right-asymmetry-and-heart-defects
#3
M B Furtado, D J Merriner, S Berger, D Rhodes, D Jamsai, M K O'Bryan
BACKGROUND: The microtubule-severing protein complex katanin is composed two subunits, the ATPase subunit, KATNA1, and the non-catalytic regulatory subunit, KATNB1. Recently, the Katnb1 gene has been linked to infertility, regulation of centriole and cilia formation in fish and mammals, as well as neocortical brain development. KATNB1 protein is expressed in germ cells in humans and mouse, mitotic/meiotic spindles and cilia, although the full expression pattern of the Katnb1 gene has not been described...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791753/an-ex-vivo-model-to-quantitatively-analyze-cell-migration-in-tissue
#4
Conor J O' Leary, Mikail Weston, Kieran W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Within the developing central nervous system, the ability of cells to migrate throughout the tissue parenchyma to reach their target destination and undergo terminal differentiation is vital to normal CNS development. In order to develop novel therapies to treat the injured CNS, it is essential that the migratory behaviour of cell populations is understood. Many studies have examined the ability of individual neurons to migrate through the developing CNS, describing specific modes of migration including locomotion and somal translocation...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791751/the-gene-network-underlying-the-glial-regenerative-response-to-central-nervous-system-injury
#5
REVIEW
Kentaro Kato, Maria Losada-Perez, Alicia Hidalgo
Although the central nervous system does not regenerate, injury induces repair and regenerative responses in glial cells. In mammals, activated microglia clear up apoptotic cells and debris resulting from the injury, astrocytes form a scar that contains the lesion, and NG2-glia elicit a prominent regenerative response. NG2-glia regenerate themselves and differentiate into oligodendrocytes, which remyelinate axons leading to some recovery of locomotion. The regenerative response of glial cells is evolutionarily conserved across the animals and Drosophila genetics revealed an underlying gene network...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791750/histone-deacetylase-1-and-2-are-essential-for-murine-neural-crest-proliferation-pharyngeal-arch-development-and-craniofacial-morphogenesis
#6
Zachary J Milstone, Grace Lawson, Chinmay M Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within neural crest cells remain unknown. RESULTS: The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786157/rebooting-the-collagen-gel-artificial-hydrogels-for-the-study-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transformation
#7
Robert W Dettman, Hans-Georg Simon
The collagen gel has been used to study epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) for over thirty years. With advances in the field of materials sciences, new options are available to design optically clear, three-dimensional nature-inspired matrix mimetics to study EMT. Here, we review the history of the collagen gel assay, discuss its current use and how newer artificial matrices can be built to simulate in vivo extracellular environments and investigate important current questions in the EMT field. We suggest that further collaborations between materials scientists and biologists will be critical to move the field of EMT forward...
August 8, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771884/hmgb2-expression-is-associated-with-transition-from-a-quiescent-to-an-activated-state-of-adult-neural-stem-cells
#8
Ayaka Kimura, Taito Matsuda, Atsuhiko Sakai, Naoya Murao, Kinichi Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Although quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult hippocampus proliferate in response to neurogenic stimuli and subsequently give rise to new neurons continuously throughout life, misregulation of NSCs in pathological conditions, including aging, leads to the impairment of learning and memory. High mobility group B family 1 (HMGB1) and HMGB2, HMG family proteins that function as transcriptional activators through the modulation of chromatin structure, have been assumed to play some role in the regulation of adult NSCs; however, their precise functions and even expression patterns in the adult hippocampus remain elusive...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766845/neural-stem-cell-therapy-aiming-at-better-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Yicheng Zhu, Naohiro Uezono, Tetsuro Yasui, Kinichi Nakashima
Injury to the spinal cord causes transection of axon fibers and neural cell death, resulting in disruption of the neural network and severe functional loss. Reconstruction of the damaged neural circuits was once considered to be hopeless as the adult mammalian central nervous system has very poor ability to regenerate. For this reason, there is currently no effective therapeutic treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, with recent developments in stem cell research and cell culture technology, regenerative therapy using neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has rapidly been developed, and this therapeutic strategy makes it possible to rebuild the destroyed neural circuits...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758355/the-role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-cancer-associated-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-phenomenon
#10
REVIEW
George Tzanakakis, Rafaela-Maria Kavasi, Kallirroi Voudouri, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Ioanna Spyridaki, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Dragana Nikitovic
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is a crucial component in the processes of morphogenesis and embryonic development. The transition of epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is associated to numerous structural and functional changes, including loss of cell polarity and tight cell- cell junctions, the acquisition of invasive abilities and the expression of mesenchymal proteins. The switch between the two phenotypes is involved in human pathology and is crucial for cancer progression. Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are multi-component networks that surround cells in tissues...
July 30, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744915/characterization-of-glcci1-expression-in-a-subpopulation-of-lateral-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-in-the-mouse-telencephalon
#11
Vikram Kohli, Diana Nardini, Lisa A Ehrman, Ronald R Waclaw
The lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) in the ventral telencephalon is a diverse progenitor domain subdivided by distinct gene expression into a dorsal region (dLGE) that gives rise to olfactory bulb and amygdalar interneurons and a ventral region (vLGE) that gives rise to striatal projection neurons. The homeobox gene, Gsx2, is an enriched marker of the LGE and is expressed in a high dorsal to low ventral gradient in the ventricular zone (VZ) as development proceeds. Aside from Gsx2, markers restricted to the VZ in the dorsal and/or ventral LGE remain largely unknown...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736980/diverse-roles-for-glycosaminoglycans-in-neural-patterning
#12
REVIEW
Kristian Saied-Santiago, Hannes E Bülow
The nervous system coordinates the functions of most multicellular organisms and, their response to the surrounding environment. Its development involves concerted cellular interactions, including migration, axon guidance and synapse formation. These processes depend on the molecular constituents and structure of the extracellular matrices (ECM). An essential component of ECMs are proteoglycans, i.e. proteins containing unbranched glycan chains known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A defining characteristic of GAGs is their enormous molecular diversity, created by extensive modifications of the glycans during their biosynthesis...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722327/transforming-growth-factor-beta-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-interaction-in-the-cancer-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#13
REVIEW
Juan F Santibanez, Hristina Obradović, Tamara Kukolj, Jelena Krstić
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic factor that acts as a tumor suppressor in the early stages, while it exerts tumor promoting activities in advanced stages of cancer development. One of the hallmarks of cancer progression is the capacity of cancer cells to migrate and invade surrounding tissues with subsequent metastasis to different organs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) together with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR), whose main original function described is the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix, play key cellular roles in the enhancement of cell malignancy during cancer progression...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722313/cellular-glycosylation-senses-metabolic-changes-and-modulates-cell-plasticity-during-emt
#14
REVIEW
P Carvalho-Cruz, F Alisson-Silva, A R Todeschini, W B Dias
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program reactivated by tumor cells that leads to the switch from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. During EMT, cells are transcriptionally regulated to decrease E-cadherin expression while expressing mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin. Growing body of evidences suggest that cells engaged in EMT undergo a metabolic reprograming process, redirecting glucose flux toward Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP) which fuels aberrant glycosylation patterns that are extensively observed in cancer cells...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710815/lacrimal-gland-development-from-signaling-interactions-to-regenerative-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Ankur Garg, Xin Zhang
The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710811/insights-from-zebrafish-on-human-pigment-cell-disease-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Cynthia D Cooper
Black pigment cells, melanocytes, arise early during development from multipotent neural crest cells. Melanocytes protect human skin from DNA damaging sunrays and provide color for hair, eyes and skin. Several disorders and diseases originate from these cells, including the deadliest skin cell cancer, melanoma. Thus, melanocytes are critical for a healthy life and for protecting humans from disease. Due to the ease of visualizing pigment cells through transparent larvae skin and conserved roles for zebrafish melanophore genes to mammalian melanocyte genes, zebrafish larvae offer a biologically relevant model for understanding pigment cell development and disease in humans...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710810/putative-binding-sites-for-mir-125-family-mirnas-in-the-mouse-lfng-3-utr-affect-transcript-expression-in-the-segmentation-clock-but-mir-125a-5p-is-dispensable-for-normal-somitogenesis
#17
Kanu Wahi, Sophia Friesen, Vincenzo Coppola, Susan E Cole
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate embryos, a "segmentation clock" times somitogenesis. Clock-linked genes, including Lunatic fringe (Lfng), exhibit cyclic expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), with a period matching the rate of somite formation. The clock period varies widely across species, but the mechanisms that underlie this variability are not clear. The half-lives of clock components are proposed to influence the rate of clock oscillations, and are tightly regulated in the PSM. Interactions between Lfng and mir-125a-5p in the embryonic chicken PSM promote Lfng transcript instability, but the conservation of this mechanism in other vertebrates has not been tested...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691356/tumor-microenvironment-and-noncoding-rnas-as-co-drivers-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-metastasis
#18
REVIEW
Kinan Drak Alsibai, Didier Meseure
Reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment (TME) are crucial events in tumor progression and metastasis. Pervasive stromal reprogramming of TME modifies numerous cellular functions including, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, inflammation and immunity. These environmental factors allow selection of more aggressive cells that develop adaptive strategies associating plasticity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stem-like phenotype, invasion, immunosuppression, and resistance to therapies...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691257/tbx6l-and-tbx16-are-redundantly-required-for-posterior-paraxial-mesoderm-formation-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#19
Zachary T Morrow, Adrienne M Maxwell, Kazuyuki Hoshijima, Jared C Talbot, David J Grunwald, Sharon L Amacher
BACKGROUND: T-box genes encode a large transcription factor family implicated in many aspects of development. We are focusing on two related zebrafish T-box genes, tbx6l and tbx16, that are expressed in highly overlapping patterns in embryonic paraxial mesoderm. tbx16 mutants are deficient in trunk, but not tail, somites; we explored whether presence of tail somites in tbx16 mutants was due to compensatory function provided by the tbx6l gene. RESULTS: We generated two zebrafish tbx6l mutant alleles...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691197/loss-of-dcc-in-the-spinal-cord-is-sufficient-to-cause-a-deficit-in-lateralized-motor-control-and-the-switch-to-a-hopping-gait
#20
Jimmy Peng, Julien Ferent, Qingyu Li, Mingwei Liu, Ronan Vinicius da Silva, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Artur Kania, Ying Zhang, Frédéric Charron
BACKGROUND: Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display congenital mirror movements (MMs), which are involuntary movements of body parts, such as fingers, on one side of the body that mirror voluntary movement of the opposite side. In mice, the homozygous Dcc(kanga) mutant allele causes synchronous MM-like hindlimb movements during locomotion, resulting in hopping. In both human and mice, the neuroanatomical defect responsible for the deficit in lateralized motor control remains to be elucidated...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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