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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205287/upstream-regulation-for-initiation-of-restricted-shh-expression-in-the-chick-limb-bud
#1
Haruka Matsubara, Daisuke Saito, Gembu Abe, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Takayuki Suzuki, Koji Tamura
Background The organizing center, which serves as a morphogen source, has crucial functions in morphogenesis in animal development. The center is necessarily located in a certain restricted area in the morphogenetic field, and there are several ways in which an organizing center can be restricted. The organizing center for limb morphogenesis, the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity), specifically expresses the Shh gene and is restricted to the posterior region of the developing limb bud. Results The prepattern along the limb antero-posterior axis, provided by anterior Gli3 expression and posterior Hand2 expression, seems insufficient for the initiation of Shh expression restricted to a narrow, small spot in the posterior limb field...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198118/fibroblast-growth-factors-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-twists-and-turns
#2
REVIEW
Soula Danopoulos, Christopher R Schlieve, Tracy C Grikscheit, Denise Al Alam
Fibroblast growth factors are a family of conserved peptides that play an important role in the development, homeostasis and repair processes of many organ systems including the gastrointestinal tract. All four FGF receptors and several FGF ligands are present in the intestine. They play important roles in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, epithelial cell restitution and stem cell maintenance. Several FGFs have also been proven to be protective against gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases or to aid in regeneration after intestinal loss associated with short bowel syndrome...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198063/conserved-versus-derived-patterns-of-controlled-cell-death-during-the-embryonic-development-of-two-species-of-onychophora-velvet-worms
#3
Sandra Treffkorn, Georg Mayer
Background Apoptosis is involved in various developmental processes, including cell migration and tissue and organ formation. Some of these processes are conserved across metazoans, while others are specific to particular taxa. Although the patterns of apoptosis have been investigated in arthropods, no corresponding data are available from one of their closest relatives, the Onychophora (velvet worms). Results We analyzed the patterns of apoptosis in embryos of two onychophoran species: the lecithotrophic/matrotrophic viviparous peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli, and the placentotrophic viviparous peripatid Principapillatus hitoyensis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152584/a-wide-temporal-window-for-conjunctival-papillae-development-ensures-the-formation-of-a-complete-sclerotic-ring
#4
Karyn Jourdeuil, Tamara Anne Franz-Odendaal
BACKGROUND: The conjunctival papillae are epithelial thickenings of the conjunctiva that are required for the induction of underlying bones (the scleral ossicles). These transient papillae develop and become inductively active over an extended temporal period (HH 30-36, 6.5-10 dpf). While their inductive capacity was discovered in the mid-1900s, little is known about their development. RESULTS: Through a series of timed surgical ablations followed by in situ hybridization for Bmp2, we show that the ring of conjunctival papillae is not altered if the conjunctival epithelium is ablated either prior to or shortly after papillae induction (i...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152580/quantifying-three-dimensional-morphology-and-rna-from-individual-embryos
#5
Rebecca M Green, Courtney L Leach, Natasha Hoehn, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson
Quantitative analysis of morphogenesis aids our understanding of developmental processes by providing a method to link changes in shape with cellular and molecular processes. Over the last decade many methods have been developed for 3D imaging of embryos using microCT scanning to quantify the shape of embryos during development. These methods generally involve a powerful, cross-linking fixative such as paraformaldehyde to limit shrinkage during the CT scan. However, the extended time frames that these embryos are incubated in such fixatives prevent use of the tissues for molecular analysis after microCT scanning...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127823/mutational-screening-of-gli3-shh-prezrs-and-zrs-in-102-chinese-children-with-non-syndromic-polydactyly
#6
Ying Xiang, Limin Jiang, Bo Wang, Yunlan Xu, Haiqing Cai, Qihua Fu
Background Polydactyly is a group of congenital limb malformations that show high degree of phenotypic variability and genetic heterogeneity. Results In the present study, four genomic regions (exons of GLI3, SHH, and noncoding sequences of preZRS and ZRS) involved in hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway were sequenced for 102 unrelated Chinese children with non-syndromic polydactyly. Two GLI3 variants (c.2844 G> G/A; c.1486C> C/T) and four preZRS variants (chr7:156585336 A>G; chr7:156585421 C>A; chr7: 156585247 G>C; chr7:156585420 A > C) were observed in 2 (2%) and 6 (6%) patients, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109014/urothelial-generation-and-regeneration-in-development-injury-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Caihong Wang, Whitney Trotter Ross, Indira U Mysorekar
Homeostatic maintenance and repair of the urothelium upon injury are required for a functional bladder in both healthy and disease conditions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the urothelial regenerative response is key to designing strategies for tissue repair and ultimately treatments for urologic diseases including urinary tract infections, voiding dysfunction, painful bladder syndrome and bladder cancer. In this article, we review studies on urothelial ontogeny during development and regeneration following various injury modalities...
January 20, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097739/cellular-plasticity-in-cardiovascular-development-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Soumyashree Das, Kristy Red-Horse
Knowledge on cellular differentiation pathways is critical to understanding organ development, homeostasis, and disease. Studying cell differentiation and cell fate restrictions in these contexts can be done through lineage tracing experiments, which entail permanent labeling of a cell and all its progeny. Recent lineage experiments within the cardiovascular system have uncovered unexpected findings on cellular origins during organogenesis and cell plasticity during disease. For example, there is increasing evidence that multiple progenitor sources exist for a single cell type, and that cells have remarkable expansive capacities under disease settings...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073171/pan-cancer-survey-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-markers-across-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#9
Don L Gibbons, Chad J Creighton
BACKGROUND: While epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be readily induced experimentally in cancer cells, the EMT process as manifested in human tumors needs to be better understood. Pan-cancer genomic datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-representing over 10,000 patients and 32 distinct cancer types-provide a rich resource for examining correlative patterns involving EMT mediators in the setting of human cancers. RESULTS: Here, we surveyed a 16-gene signature of canonical EMT markers in TCGA pan-cancer cohort...
January 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026128/ets-transcription-factor-etv2-er71-etsrp-in-hematopoietic-and-vascular-development-injury-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Haiyong Zhao, Canxin Xu, Taejin Lee, Fang Liu, Kyunghee Choi
The major goal in regenerative medicine is to repair and restore injured, diseased or aged tissue function, thereby promoting general health. As such, the field of regenerative medicine has great translational potential in undertaking many of the health concerns and needs that we currently face. In particular, hematopoietic and vascular systems supply oxygen and nutrients and thus play critical roles in tissue development and tissue regeneration. Additionally, tissue vasculature serves as a tissue stem cell niche and thus contributes to tissue homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026082/hox-genes-in-the-adult-skeleton-novel-functions-beyond-embryonic-development
#11
REVIEW
Danielle R Rux, Deneen M Wellik
Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control skeletal patterning in the developing embryo. They are expressed in regionally restricted domains and function to regulate the morphology of specific vertebral and long bone elements. Recent work has provided evidence that Hox genes continue to be regionally expressed in adult tissues. Fibroblasts cultured from adult tissues show broadly maintained Hox gene expression patterns. In the adult skeleton, Hox genes are expressed in progenitor-enriched populations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and genetic loss-of-function analyses have provided evidence that Hox genes function during the fracture healing process...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002626/ectoderm-mesoderm-crosstalk-in-the-embryonic-limb-the-role-of-fgf-signaling
#12
Francesca V Mariani, Marian Fernandez-Teran, Maria A Ros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987249/achondroplasia-development-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#13
REVIEW
David M Ornitz, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
Autosomal dominant mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) cause Achondroplasia (Ach), the most common form of dwarfism in humans, and related chondrodysplasia syndromes that include Hypochondroplasia (Hch), Severe Achondroplasia with Developmental Delay and Acanthosis Nigricans (SADDAN), and Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). FGFR3 is expressed in chondrocytes and mature osteoblasts where it functions to regulate bone growth. Analysis of the mutations in FGFR3 revealed increased signaling through a combination of mechanisms that include stabilization of the receptor, enhanced dimerization, and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033674/a-delay-in-vascularization-induces-abnormal-astrocyte-proliferation-and-migration-in-the-mouse-retina
#14
Akane Morita, Hiroko Ushikubo, Asami Mori, Shiho Arima, Kenji Sakamoto, Tohru Nagamitsu, Kunio Ishii, Tsutomu Nakahara
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes migrate into the retina through the optic nerve head by means of the axons of retinal ganglion cells, and spread radially toward the peripheral retina. Endothelial cells migrate along the astrocyte cellular network to form the retinal surface vasculature. Here, we examined the effects of a delay in retinal vascularization on the migration and proliferation status of astrocytes in mice. RESULTS: A dose-dependent delay in retinal vascularization was observed in mice that had been treated with KRN633 (1-10 mg/kg), a VEGF receptor inhibitor, on the day of birth and on the following day...
March 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002632/hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-differentially-control-proliferation-of-rat-neural-crest-stem-cells-via-distinct-regulatory-pathways-of-the-hif1%C3%AE-cxcr4-and-tp53-tpm1-proteins
#15
Chien-Cheng Chen, Ching-Wu Hsia, Cheng-Wen Ho, Chang-Min Liang, Chieh-Min Chen, Kun-Lun Huang, Bor-Hwang Kang, Yi-Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a population of adult multipotent stem cells. We are interested in studying whether oxygen tensions affect the capability of NCSCs to self-renew and repair damaged tissues. NCSCs extracted from the hair follicle bulge region of the rat whisker pad were cultured in vitro under different oxygen tensions. RESULTS: We found significantly increased and decreased rates of cell proliferation in rat NCSCs (rNCSCs) cultured, respectively, at 0...
March 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111838/contribution-of-the-coelomic-epithelial-cells-specific-to-the-left-testis-in-the-chicken-embryo
#16
Takuya Omotehara, Kiichi Minami, Youhei Mantani, Yuria Umemura, Miho Nishida, Tetsushi Hirano, Hidefumi Yoshioka, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi
BACKGROUND: The left male gonad in the chicken embryo has a thickened cortical layer, but it eventually becomes flattened after the onset of testicular development. Because the destination of the cortical cells migrating from the left gonad remains unclear, we examined this issue herein. RESULTS: The testis-inducing gene doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) was detected in a proportion of the columnar and cubic epithelial cells in the cortex of the left testis as well as Sertoli cells in both testes...
February 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032936/role-of-jnk-during-buccopharyngeal-membrane-perforation-the-last-step-of-embryonic-mouth-formation
#17
Nathalie S Houssin, Navaneetha Krishnan Bharathan, Stephen D Turner, Amanda J G Dickinson
BACKGROUND: The buccopharyngeal membrane is a thin layer of cells covering the embryonic mouth. The perforation of this structure creates an opening connecting the external and the digestive tube which is essential for oral cavity formation. In humans, persistence of the buccopharyngeal membrane can lead to orofacial defects such as choanal atresia, oral synechiaes, and cleft palate. Little is known about the causes of a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and, importantly, how this structure ruptures...
February 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884045/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-krt5-and-krt14-independently-of-stem-cell-markers-in-submandibular-salivary-gland-epithelium
#18
Timur M Abashev, Melissa A Metzler, Diana M Wright, Lisa L Sandell
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, has been demonstrated to be important for growth and branching morphogenesis of mammalian embryonic salivary gland epithelium. However, it is not known whether RA functions directly within epithelial cells or in associated tissues that influence morphogenesis of salivary epithelium. Moreover, downstream targets of RA regulation have not been identified. RESULTS: Here, we show that canonical RA signaling occurs in multiple tissues of embryonic mouse salivary glands, including epithelium, associated parasympathetic ganglion neurons, and nonneuronal mesenchyme...
February 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761977/concomitant-differentiation-of-a-population-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-neuron-like-cells-and-schwann-cell-like-cells-in-a-slow-flow-microfluidic-device
#19
Poornapriya Ramamurthy, Joshua B White, Joong Yull Park, Richard I Hume, Fumi Ebisu, Flor Mendez, Shuichi Takayama, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: To send meaningful information to the brain, an inner ear cochlear implant (CI) must become closely coupled to as large and healthy a population of remaining spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) as possible. Inner ear gangliogenesis depends on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a directionally attractant neurotrophic cytokine made by both Schwann and supporting cells (Bank et al., 2012). MIF-induced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived "neurons" could potentially substitute for lost or damaged SGN...
January 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756109/separate-development-of-the-maxilla-and-mandible-is-controlled-by-regional-signaling-of-the-maxillomandibular-junction-during-avian-development
#20
Hye-Jin Tak, Tae-Jin Park, Zhenngu Piao, Sang-Hwy Lee
BACKGROUND: Syngnathia is a congenital craniofacial disorder characterized by bony or soft tissue fusion of upper and lower jaws. Previous studies suggested some causative signals, such as Foxc1 or Bmp4, cause the disruption of maxillomandibular identity, but their location and the interactive signals involved remain unexplored. We wanted to examine the embryonic origin of syngnathia based on the assumption that it may be located at the separation between the maxillary and mandibular processes...
January 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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