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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422453/how-many-roads-lead-to-cohesinopathies
#1
REVIEW
Rajeswari Banerji, Robert V Skibbens, M Kathryn Iovine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422363/the-occhiolino-occ-mutant-zebrafish-a-model-for-development-of-the-optical-function-in-the-biological-lens
#2
Masamoto Aose, Tor H Linbo, Owen Lawrence, Tadashi Senoo, David W Raible, John I Clark
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish visual function depends on quality optics. An F3 screen for developmental mutations in the zebrafish nervous system was conducted in wild-type (wt) AB zebrafish exposed to 3 mM of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). RESULTS: Mutant offspring, identified in an F3 screen, were characterized by a small pupil, resulting from retinal hypertrophy or hyperplasia and a small lens. Deficits in visual function made feeding difficult after hatching at approximately 5-6 dpf (days post fertilization)...
April 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411398/bud-detachment-in-hydra-requires-activation-of-fgfr-and-a-rho-rock-myosin-ii-signaling-pathway-to-ensure-formation-of-a-basal-constriction
#3
Oliver Holz, David Apel, Patrick Steinmetz, Ellen Lange, Simon Hopfenmüller, Kerstin Ohler, Stefanie Sudhop, Monika Hassel
BACKGROUND: Hydra propagates asexually by exporting tissue into a bud, which detaches four days later as a fully differentiated young polyp. Prerequisite for detachment is activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. The mechanism which enables constriction and tissue separation within the monolayered ecto- and endodermal epithelia is unknown. RESULTS: Histological sections and staining of F-actin by phalloidin revealed conspicuous cell shape changes at the bud detachment site indicating a localized generation of mechanical forces and the potential enhancement of secretory functions in ectodermal cells...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407437/hit-pause-developmental-arrest-in-annual-killifishes-and-their-close-relatives
#4
EDITORIAL
Karen Martin, Jason E Podrabsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407379/epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-and-circulating-tumor-cells-travel-companions-to-metastases
#5
REVIEW
Marie-Emilie Francart, Justine Lambert, Aline M Vanwynsberghe, Erik W Thompson, Morgane Bourcy, Myriam Polette, Christine Gilles
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions (EMT) associated with metastatic progression may contribute to the generation of hybrid phenotypes capable of plasticity. This cellular plasticity would provide tumor cells with an increased potential to adapt to the different microenvironments encountered during metastatic spread. Understanding how EMT may functionally equip Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) with an enhanced competence to survive in the blood stream and niche in the colonized organs has thus become a major cancer research axis...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390160/the-role-of-small-gtpases-of-the-rho-rac-family-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-emt-and-cell-motility-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Hendrik Ungefroren, David Witte, Hendrik Lehnert
BACKGROUND: This article focusses on the role of Rho family GTPases and particularly Rac1 and Rac1b in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated responses such as cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in cancer. RESULTS: EMT is considered a prerequisite for cells to adopt a motile and invasive phenotype and eventually become metastatic. A major regulator of EMT and metastasis in cancer is TGF-β and its specific functions on tumor cells are mediated besides Smad proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by small GTPases of the Rho/Rac1 family...
April 8, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387983/pten-facilitates-epiblast-epithelial-polarization-and-proamniotic-lumen-formation-in-early-mouse-embryos
#7
Yue Meng, Kathy Q Cai, Robert Moore, Wensi Tao, Jeffrey D Tse, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (Pten), a lipid phosphatase originally identified as a tumor-suppressor gene, regulates the phosphoinositol 3 kinase signaling pathway and impacts cell death and proliferation. Pten mutant embryos die at early stages of development, though the particular developmental deficiency and the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. RESULTS: We analyzed Pten mutant embryos in detail and found that the formation of the proamniotic cavity is impaired...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387977/ex-vivo-analysis-of-the-contribution-of-fgf10-cells-to-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-formation-during-early-lung-development
#8
Elie El Agha, Vahid Kheirollahi, Alena Moiseenko, Werner Seeger, Saverio Bellusci
BACKGROUND: Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) have been widely studied during embryonic lung development. These cells have been shown to control epithelial bifurcation during branching morphogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor 10-positive (FGF10(+) ) cells, originally residing in the submesothelial mesenchyme, contribute to ASMC formation in the distal lung. The reported work aims at monitoring the response of FGF10(+) progenitors and differentiated ASMCs to growth factor treatment in real time using lineage tracing in the background of an air-liquid interface culture system...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370666/%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin-mediates-pulmonary-epithelial-cyst-formation
#9
Susan K Legan, Daniel D Lee, Margaret A Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Formation of the epithelial cyst involves the establishment of apical - basolateral polarity through a series of cellular interactions that are in part mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). We report that in a three-dimensional multi-cellular self-assembly model of lung development, α5 integrin regulates epithelial cyst formation through organization of soluble fibronectin matrix into insoluble fibrils through a process called fibrillogenesis. RESULTS: Dissociated murine embryonic lung cells self-assemble into three-dimensional pulmonary bodies that are dependent on α5β1 integrin mediated fibrillogenesis for cell-cell mediated self-assembly - compaction and epithelial cyst formation...
March 31, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324646/from-snapshots-to-movies-understanding-early-tooth-development-in-four-dimensions
#10
Rebecca Kim, Jeremy B A Green, Ophir D Klein
The developing tooth offers a model for the study of ectodermal appendage organogenesis. The signaling networks that regulate tooth development have been intensively investigated, but how cell biological responses to signaling pathways regulate dental morphogenesis remains an open question. The increasing use of ex vivo imaging techniques has enabled live tracking of cell behaviors over time in high resolution. While recent studies using these techniques have improved our understanding of tooth morphogenesis, important gaps remain that require additional investigation...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316133/hatching-date-variability-in-wild-populations-of-four-coexisting-species-of-african-annual-fishes
#11
Martin Reichard, Radim Blažek, Matej Polačik, Milan Vrtílek
BACKGROUND: Hatching is modulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Annual killifish are adapted to complete their entire life cycle in annually desiccating habitats. Spending most of their life in the embryonic stage, they have evolved adaptations to survive desiccated conditions and match their hatching with the unpredictable onset of the aquatic phase of the pool. We examined spatial and temporal synchrony of hatching in natural populations of four species of African annual killifish (genus Nothobranchius)...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294450/initiation-of-drosophila-chorion-gene-amplification-requires-claspin-and-mus101-whereas-claspin-but-not-mus101-plays-a-major-role-during-elongation
#12
Seung Ho Choi, Ji-Hong Park, Tram Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hee Jin Shim, Young-Han Song
BACKGROUND: Claspin and TopBP1 are checkpoint mediators that are required for the phosphorylation of Chk1 by ATR to maintain genomic stability. Here, we investigated the functions of Drosophila Claspin and mus101 (TopBP1 ortholog) during chorion (eggshell component) gene amplification, which occurs in follicle cells in the absence of global genomic DNA replication. RESULTS: Unlike Drosophila mei-41 (ATR ortholog) mutant embryos, Claspin and mus101 mutant embryos showed severe eggshell defects resulting from defects in chorion gene amplification...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295855/recovery-of-shape-and-size-in-a-developing-organ-pair
#13
Amelia A Green, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Ian A Swinburne, Nikolaus D Obholzer, Sean G Megason
BACKGROUND: Paired organs in animals are largely bilaterally symmetric despite inherent noise in most biological processes. How is precise organ shape and size achieved during development despite this noise? Examining paired organ development is a challenge because it requires repeated quantification of two structures in parallel within living embryos. Here we combine bilateral quantification of morphology through time with asymmetric perturbations to study regulation of organ shape, size, and symmetry in developing organ pairs...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249360/heart-function-and-hemodynamics-analysis-for-zebrafish-embryos
#14
REVIEW
Huseyin C Yalcin, Armin Amindari, Jonathan T Butcher, Asma Althani, Magdi Yacoub
The zebrafish has emerged to become a powerful vertebrate animal model for cardiovascular research in recent years. Its advantages include easy genetic manipulation, transparency, small size, low cost, and the ability to survive without active circulation at early stages of development. Sequencing the whole genome and identifying orthologue genes with human genome enabled to induce clinically relevant cardiovascular defects via genetic approaches. Heart function and disturbed hemodynamics need to be assessed in a reliable manner for these disease models in order to reveal mechanobiology of induced defects...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249357/gastrulation-in-an-annual-killifish-molecular-and-cellular-events-during-germ-layer-formation-in-austrolebias
#15
Luisa Pereiro, Felix Loosli, Juan Fernández, Steffen Härtel, Joachim Wittbrodt, Miguel L Concha
BACKGROUND: Comparative studies beyond the traditional model organisms have been instrumental in enhancing our understanding of the conserved and derived features of gastrulation, a fundamental process in which the germ layers are specified and shaped to form the body axis. Here, we analysed gastrulation in a vertebrate group with an extreme mode of early development, the annual killifish. RESULTS: Gastrulation in annual killifish of the genus Austrolebias takes place after the initially dispersed deep blastomeres congregate to form the so-called reaggregate...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249356/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-by-fibroblast-growth-factors
#16
REVIEW
Bradley Pawlikowski, Thomas Orion Vogler, Katherine Gadek, Bradley B Olwin
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and required for maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Satellite cells express high levels of FGF receptors 1 and 4, low levels of FGF receptor 3, and little or no detectable FGF receptor 2. Of the multiple FGFs that influence satellite cell function in culture, FGF2 and FGF6 are the only members that regulate satellite cell function in vivo by activating ERK MAPK, p38α/β MAPKs, PI3 kinase, PLCγ and STATs...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245533/neuregulin1-fine-tunes-pre-post-and-perisynaptic-neuromuscular-junction-development
#17
Jiajing Wang, Fei Song, Jeffrey A Loeb
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development is a multistep process mediated by coordinated interactions between the nerve terminal, target muscle, and perisynaptic Schwann cell that require constant back-and-forth communication. Retrograde and anterograde growth and differentiation factors have been postulated to participate in this communication. While neuregulin1 (NRG1) has been shown to be potent anterograde signal that activates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) transcription and clustering in vitro, its roles in NMJ development in vivo remain elusive...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205287/upstream-regulation-for-initiation-of-restricted-shh-expression-in-the-chick-limb-bud
#18
Haruka Matsubara, Daisuke Saito, Gembu Abe, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Takayuki Suzuki, Koji Tamura
BACKGROUND: The organizing center, which serves as a morphogen source, has crucial functions in morphogenesis in animal development. The center is necessarily located in a certain restricted area in the morphogenetic field, and there are several ways in which an organizing center can be restricted. The organizing center for limb morphogenesis, the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity), specifically expresses the Shh gene and is restricted to the posterior region of the developing limb bud...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198118/fibroblast-growth-factors-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-twists-and-turns
#19
Soula Danopoulos, Christopher R Schlieve, Tracy C Grikscheit, Denise Al Alam
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of conserved peptides that play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair processes of many organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract. All four FGF receptors and several FGF ligands are present in the intestine. They play important roles in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, epithelial cell restitution, and stem cell maintenance. Several FGFs have also been proven to be protective against gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases or to aid in regeneration after intestinal loss associated with short bowel syndrome...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198063/conserved-versus-derived-patterns-of-controlled-cell-death-during-the-embryonic-development-of-two-species-of-onychophora-velvet-worms
#20
Sandra Treffkorn, Georg Mayer
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is involved in various developmental processes, including cell migration and tissue and organ formation. Some of these processes are conserved across metazoans, while others are specific to particular taxa. Although the patterns of apoptosis have been investigated in arthropods, no corresponding data are available from one of their closest relatives, the Onychophora (velvet worms). RESULTS: We analyzed the patterns of apoptosis in embryos of two onychophoran species: the lecithotrophic/matrotrophic viviparous peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli, and the placentotrophic viviparous peripatid Principapillatus hitoyensis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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