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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325085/myostatin-promotes-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-the-dermomyotome-during-somitogenesis
#1
Yuchang Zhou, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been implicated in the negative regulation of skeletal myogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism through which MSTN regulates early embryonic myogenesis is not well understood. RESULTS: We demonstrate that MSTN regulates early embryonic myogenesis by promoting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the dermomyotome during somitogenesis in chicks. We show that the MSTN gene is first expressed at the center of the dermomyotome...
October 16, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325084/characterization-of-cis-regulatory-elements-for-fgf10-expression-in-the-chick-embryo
#2
Hiroko Kawakami, Austin Johnson, Yu Fujita, Avery Swearer, Naoyuki Wada, Yasuhiko Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Fgf10 is expressed in various tissues and organs, such as the limb bud, heart, inner ear and head mesenchyme. Previous studies identified Fgf10 enhancers for the inner ear and heart. However, Fgf10 enhancers for other tissues have not been identified. RESULTS: By using primary culture chick embryo lateral plate mesoderm cells, we compared activities of deletion constructs of the Fgf10 promoter region, cloned into a promoter-less luciferase reporter vector...
October 16, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324766/derivation-of-specific-neural-populations-from-pluripotent-cells-for-understanding-and-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Nicholas White, Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert
Due to the nature of the biological response to traumatic spinal cord injury, there are very limited therapeutic options available to patients. Recent advances in cell transplantation have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of transplanting supportive cell types following spinal cord injury. In particular, pluripotent stem cell derived neural cells are of interest for the future investigation. Use of pluripotent stem cells as the source allows many cell types to be produced from a population that can be expanded in vitro...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311321/identification-of-retinal-homeobox-rax-gene-dependent-genes-by-a-microarray-approach-the-dna-endoglycosylase-neil3-is-a-major-downstream-component-of-the-rax-genetic-pathway
#4
Yi Pan, Lisa E Kelly, Heithem M El-Hodiri
BACKGROUND: The retinal homeobox (rx/rax) gene is a transcription factor expressed in the developing eye field that is necessary for normal eye development. rax is necessary for retinal specification and stem cell development. The genetic program of early retinal development, including rax expression, can be induced in naïve ectoderm by activation of IGF signaling. We have undertaken a microarray-based approach to identify rax-dependent IGF-induced genes. RESULTS: We identified 21 IGF-induced genes that exhibit at least a 2-fold decrease in expression when rax expression is knocked down...
October 12, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303578/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-cells-at-the-crossroads-of-differentiation-and-dedifferentiation
#5
REVIEW
H Wang, J J Unternaehrer
In this review, we explore the connections between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiation status. EMTs in development have been described as differentiation events, while in most cases EMTs in cancer have been depicted as dedifferentiation events. We will briefly summarize both embryo development and cancer progression with regard to the involvement of EMT and cell differentiation status. We further present the studies that provide evidence that EMT results in both differentiation and dedifferentiation...
October 10, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295986/identification-of-novel-gata3-distal-enhancers-active-in-mouse-embryonic-lens
#6
Elena Martynova, Maxime Bouchard, Linda Musil, Ales Cvekl
BACKGROUND: The tissue-specific transcriptional programs during normal development require tight control by distal cis-regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with specific DNA sequences recognized by transcription factors, coactivators and chromatin remodeling enzymes. Gata3 is a sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor that regulates formation of multiple tissues and organs, including inner ear, lens, mammary gland, T-cells, urogenital system, and thyroid gland. In the eye, Gata3 has a highly restricted expression domain in the posterior part of the lens vesicle; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown...
October 8, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291668/tissue-regeneration-enhancer-elements-a-way-to-unlock-endogenous-healing-power
#7
REVIEW
KaHoua Yang, Junsu Kang
Regenerative capacity is widespread throughout almost all animal phyla. However, the distribution pattern remains incompletely understood. Various examples show that very closely related species display different regenerative capacities. Why and how have diverse regenerative capacities evolved across species? One prevailing thought in the field of regeneration is that most regeneration-associated factors are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting the existence of an innate tissue regeneration ability in all species...
October 5, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269386/comparative-analysis-of-cul5-and-rbx2-expression-in-the-developing-and-adult-murine-brain-and-their-essentiality-during-mouse-embryogenesis
#8
Keiko Hino, Sergi Simó, Jonathan A Cooper
BACKGROUND: The E3 Cullin 5-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL5) is a multiprotein complex that has recently been highlighted as a major regulator of central nervous system development. Cullin 5 (Cul5) and the RING finger protein Rbx2 are two CRL5 core components required for CRL5 function in the brain, but their full expression patterns and developmental functions have not been described in detail RESULTS: Using a gene-trap mouse model for Cul5 and a knockin-knockout mouse model for Rbx2, we show that lack of Cul5, but not Rbx2, disrupts blastocyst formation...
September 30, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265422/double-electroporation-in-two-adjacent-tissues-in-chicken-embryos
#9
Margarethe Draga, Felicitas Pröls, Martin Scaal
In ovo electroporation is a well established method to introduce transgenes into a number of tissues in chicken embryos, e.g., neural tissue, limb mesenchyme, and somites. This method has been widely used to investigate cell lineage, cell morphology, and molecular pathways by localized expression of fluorescent reporter constructs. Furthermore gain- and loss-of-function experiments can be performed by electroporating transgenes or gene-silencing constructs. We have developed a new technique to electroporate tissues positioned opposite to each other with different plasmids using an electroporation chamber...
September 28, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251381/maldevelopment-of-the-submandibular-gland-in-a-mouse-model-of-apert-syndrome
#10
Kojiro Yamaji, Jumpei Morita, Tsukasa Watanabe, Kaori Gunjigake, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Momotoshi Shiga, Kentaro Ono, Keiji Moriyama, Tatsuo Kawamoto
BACKGROUND: Apert syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis and bony syndactyly of the hands and feet. The cause of Apert syndrome is a single nucleotide substitution mutation (S252W or P253R) in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). Clinical experience suggests increased production of saliva by Apert syndrome patients, but this has not been formally investigated. FGFR2 signaling is known to regulate branching morphogenesis of the submandibular glands (SMGs). With the Apert syndrome mouse model (Ap mouse), we investigated the role of FGFR2 in SMGs and analyzed the SMG pathology of Apert syndrome...
September 25, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242792/retinal-ganglion-cell-replacement-current-status-and-challenges-ahead
#11
Adam M Miltner, Anna La Torre
The neurons of the retina can be affected by a wide variety of inherited or environmental degenerations that can lead to vision loss and even blindness. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is the hallmark of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies that affect millions of people worldwide. Numerous strategies are being trialed to replace lost neurons in different degeneration models, and in recent years, stem cell technologies have opened promising avenues to obtain donor cells for retinal repair. Stem cell-based transplantation has been most frequently used for the replacement of rod photoreceptors, but the same tools could potentially be used for other retinal cell types, including RGCs...
September 21, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225906/expression-analysis-of-limb-element-markers-during-mouse-embryonic-development
#12
Alexandra Rafipay, Amanda L R Berg, Lynda Erskine, Neil Vargesson
BACKGROUND: While data regarding expression of limb element and tissue markers during normal mouse limb development exists, few studies show expression patterns in upper and lower limbs throughout key limb development stages. A comparison to normal developmental events is essential when analysing development of the limb in mutant mice models. RESULTS: Expression patterns of the joint marker Gdf5, tendon and ligament marker Scleraxis, early muscle marker MyoD1, and blood vessel marker Cadherin5 (Cdh5) are presented during the most active phases of embryonic mouse limb patterning...
September 18, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204931/ccbe1-is-required-for-coronary-vessel-development-and-proper-coronary-artery-stem-formation-in-the-mouse-heart
#13
Fernando Bonet, Paulo N G Pereira, Oriol Bover, Sara Marques, José M Inácio, José A Belo
BACKGROUND: Proper coronary vasculature development is essential for late embryonic and adult heart function. The developmental regulation of coronary embryogenesis is complex and includes the coordinated activity of multiple signaling pathways. CCBE1 plays an important role during lymphangiogenesis enhancing VEGF-C signaling, which is also required for coronary vasculature formation. However, whether CCBE1 plays a similar role during coronary vasculature development is still unknown...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198600/endochondral-ossification-in-hindlimbs-during-bufo-gargarizans-metamorphosis-a-model-of-studying-skeletal-development-in-vertebrates
#14
Jinshu Gao, Xinyi Li, Yuhui Zhang, Hongyuan Wang
Background Endochondral ossification, the process by which most of the skeleton is formed, is accurately regulated by many specific groups of molecules and extracellular matrix components. The molecular mechanisms of endochondral ossification have been extensively investigated in mammals. However, there are few studies about it in amphibians. Results Ossification of femur and tibiofibula was observed at Gs 40, and tarsals and metatarsals were ossified at Gs 42. Most of the skeletons in hindlimbs were completely ossified except for articular cartilages at Gs 46...
September 10, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194800/cre-lox-controlled-spatio-temporal-perturbation-of-fgf-signaling-in-zebrafish
#15
Lucia Kirchgeorg, Anastasia Felker, Marek van Oostrom, Elena Chiavacci, Christian Mosimann
BACKGROUND: Spatio-temporal perturbation of signaling pathways in vivo remains challenging and requires precise transgenic control of signaling effectors. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling guides multiple developmental processes including body axis formation and cell fate patterning. In zebrafish, mutants and chemical perturbations affecting FGF signaling have uncovered key developmental processes; however, these approaches cause embryo-wide perturbations, rendering assessment of cell-autonomous versus non-autonomous requirements for FGF signaling in individual processes difficult...
September 8, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133047/expression-patterns-of-rbm24-in-lens-nasal-epithelium-and-inner-ear-during-mouse-embryonic-development
#16
Raphaëlle Grifone, Audrey Saquet, Zhigang Xu, De-Li Shi
RNA-binding proteins plays critical roles in several post-transcriptional regulatory processes. The RNA-binding protein, Rbm24, has been shown to be involved in the development of the heart and skeletal muscles by regulating different post-transcriptional processes such as splicing and stabilization of specific target mRNAs. Here, by performing a detailed expression and localization analysis in mice embryos, we show that Rbm24 protein is not only expressed in heart and skeletal muscles as previously reported, but it is also strongly and specifically detected in specific regions of all the head sensory organs during mouse development...
August 21, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133032/ectomesoderm-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-related-genes-in-spiralian-development
#17
C Cornelia Osborne, Kimberly J Perry, Marty Shankland, Jonathan Q Henry
BACKGROUND: Spiralians (e.g., annelids, molluscs, and flatworms) possess two sources of mesoderm. One is from endodermal precursors (endomesoderm), which is considered to be the ancestral source in metazoans. The second is from ectoderm (ectomesoderm) and may represent a novel cell type in the Spiralia. In the mollusc Crepidula fornicata, ectomesoderm is derived from micromere daughters within the A and B cell quadrants. Their progeny lie along the anterolateral edges of the blastopore...
August 21, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117633/compartmentalized-devices-as-tools-for-investigation-of-human-brain-network-dynamics
#18
REVIEW
Joseph A Fantuzzo, Ronald P Hart, Jeffrey D Zahn, Zhiping P Pang
Neuropsychiatric disorders have traditionally been difficult to study due to the complexity of the human brain and limited availability of human tissue. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provide a promising avenue to further our understanding of human disease mechanisms, but traditional 2D cell cultures can only provide a limited view of the neural circuits. To better model complex brain neurocircuitry, compartmentalized culturing systems and 3D organoids have been developed. Early compartmentalized devices demonstrated how neuronal cell bodies can be isolated both physically and chemically from neurites...
August 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117627/sculpting-the-skull-through-neurosensory-epithelial-mesenchymal-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Lu M Yang, David M Ornitz
The vertebrate skull is a complex structure housing the brain and specialized sensory organs, including the eye, the inner ear, and the olfactory system. The close association between bones of the skull and the sensory organs they encase has posed interesting developmental questions about how the tissues scale with one another. Mechanisms that regulate morphogenesis of the skull are hypothesized to originate in part from the encased neurosensory organs. Conversely, the developing skull is hypothesized to regulate the growth of neurosensory organs, through mechanical forces or molecular signaling...
August 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106495/effective-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-dental-cells
#20
Eun-Jung Kim, Kyung-Sik Yoon, Makiko Arakaki, Keishi Otsu, Satoshi Fukumoto, Hidemitsu Harada, David William Green, Jong-Min Lee, Han-Sung Jung
BACKGROUND: A biotooth is defined as a complete living tooth, made in laboratory cultures from a spontaneous interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cell-based frontal systems. A good solution to these problems is to use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, no one has yet formulated culture conditions that effectively differentiate iPSCs into dental epithelial and dental mesenchymal cells phenotypes analogous to those present in tooth development. RESULTS: Here, we tried to induce differentiation methods for dental epithelial cells (DEC) and dental mesenchymal cells from iPSCs...
August 14, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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