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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722327/transforming-growth-factor-beta-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-interaction-in-the-cancer-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#1
REVIEW
Juan F Santibanez, Hristina Obradović, Tamara Kukolj, Jelena Krstić
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic factor that acts as a tumor suppressor in the early stages, while it exerts tumor promoting activities in advanced stages of cancer development. One of the hallmarks of cancer progression is the capacity of cancer cells to migrate and invade surrounding tissues with subsequent metastasis to different organs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) together with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR), whose main original function described is the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix, play key cellular roles in the enhancement of cell malignancy during cancer progression...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722313/cellular-glycosylation-senses-metabolic-changes-and-modulates-cell-plasticity-during-emt
#2
REVIEW
P Carvalho-Cruz, F Alisson-Silva, A R Todeschini, W B Dias
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program reactivated by tumor cells that leads to the switch from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. During EMT, cells are transcriptionally regulated to decrease E-cadherin expression while expressing mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin. Growing body of evidences suggest that cells engaged in EMT undergo a metabolic reprograming process, redirecting glucose flux toward Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP) which fuels aberrant glycosylation patterns that are extensively observed in cancer cells...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710815/lacrimal-gland-development-from-signaling-interactions-to-regenerative-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Ankur Garg, Xin Zhang
The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710811/insights-from-zebrafish-on-human-pigment-cell-disease-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Cynthia D Cooper
Black pigment cells, melanocytes, arise early during development from multipotent neural crest cells. Melanocytes protect human skin from DNA damaging sunrays and provide color for hair, eyes and skin. Several disorders and diseases originate from these cells, including the deadliest skin cell cancer, melanoma. Thus, melanocytes are critical for a healthy life and for protecting humans from disease. Due to the ease of visualizing pigment cells through transparent larvae skin and conserved roles for zebrafish melanophore genes to mammalian melanocyte genes, zebrafish larvae offer a biologically relevant model for understanding pigment cell development and disease in humans...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710810/putative-binding-sites-for-mir-125-family-mirnas-in-the-mouse-lfng-3-utr-affect-transcript-expression-in-the-segmentation-clock-but-mir-125a-5p-is-dispensable-for-normal-somitogenesis
#5
Kanu Wahi, Sophia Friesen, Vincenzo Coppola, Susan E Cole
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate embryos, a "segmentation clock" times somitogenesis. Clock-linked genes, including Lunatic fringe (Lfng), exhibit cyclic expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), with a period matching the rate of somite formation. The clock period varies widely across species, but the mechanisms that underlie this variability are not clear. The half-lives of clock components are proposed to influence the rate of clock oscillations, and are tightly regulated in the PSM. Interactions between Lfng and mir-125a-5p in the embryonic chicken PSM promote Lfng transcript instability, but the conservation of this mechanism in other vertebrates has not been tested...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691356/tumor-microenvironment-and-noncoding-rnas-as-co-drivers-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-metastasis
#6
REVIEW
Kinan Drak Alsibai, Didier Meseure
Reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment (TME) are crucial events in tumor progression and metastasis. Pervasive stromal reprogramming of TME modifies numerous cellular functions including, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, inflammation and immunity. These environmental factors allow selection of more aggressive cells that develop adaptive strategies associating plasticity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stem-like phenotype, invasion, immunosuppression, and resistance to therapies...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691257/tbx6l-and-tbx16-are-redundantly-required-for-posterior-paraxial-mesoderm-formation-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#7
Zachary T Morrow, Adrienne M Maxwell, Kazuyuki Hoshijima, Jared C Talbot, David J Grunwald, Sharon L Amacher
BACKGROUND: T-box genes encode a large transcription factor family implicated in many aspects of development. We are focusing on two related zebrafish T-box genes, tbx6l and tbx16, that are expressed in highly overlapping patterns in embryonic paraxial mesoderm. tbx16 mutants are deficient in trunk, but not tail, somites; we explored whether presence of tail somites in tbx16 mutants was due to compensatory function provided by the tbx6l gene. RESULTS: We generated two zebrafish tbx6l mutant alleles...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691197/loss-of-dcc-in-the-spinal-cord-is-sufficient-to-cause-a-deficit-in-lateralized-motor-control-and-the-switch-to-a-hopping-gait
#8
Jimmy Peng, Julien Ferent, Qingyu Li, Mingwei Liu, Ronan Vinicius da Silva, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Artur Kania, Ying Zhang, Frédéric Charron
BACKGROUND: Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display congenital mirror movements (MMs), which are involuntary movements of body parts, such as fingers, on one side of the body that mirror voluntary movement of the opposite side. In mice, the homozygous Dcc(kanga) mutant allele causes synchronous MM-like hindlimb movements during locomotion, resulting in hopping. In both human and mice, the neuroanatomical defect responsible for the deficit in lateralized motor control remains to be elucidated...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685906/a-morphology-independent-approach-for-identifying-dividing-adult-neural-stem-cells-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#9
Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Sabrina Oishi, Thomas H Burne, Dhanisha J Jhaveri, Michael Piper
Background Type 1 adult hippocampal neural stem cells (AH-NSCs) continue to generate neurons throughout life, albeit at a very low rate. The relative quiescence of this population of cells has led to many studies investigating factors that may increase their division. Current methods of identifying dividing AH-NSCs in vivo require the identification and tracing of radial processes back to nuclei within the subgranular zone. However, caveats to this approach include the time-intensive nature of identifying AH-NSCs with such a process, as well as the fact that this approach ignores the relatively more active population of horizontally oriented AH-NSCs that also reside in the subgranular zone...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685891/specification-of-neurotransmitter-identity-by-tal1-in-thalamic-nuclei
#10
Bumwhee Lee, Myungsin Lee, Somang Song, Linh Duc Loi, Duc Tri Lam, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, David J Curtis, Yongsu Jeong
BACKGROUND: The neurons contributing to thalamic nuclei are derived from at least two distinct progenitor domains, the caudal (cTH) and rostral (rTH) population of thalamic progenitors. These neural compartments exhibit unique neurogenic patterns and the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of neurotransmitter identity remain largely unclear. RESULTS: T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 (Tal1) was expressed in the early postmitotic cells in the rTH domain, and its expression was maintained in mature thalamic neurons in the ventrolateral geniculate nucleus (vLG) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL)...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681541/mrtfs-master-regulators-of-emt
#11
REVIEW
Ákos Gasparics, Attila Sebe
Recent evidence implicates the myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) as key mediators of the phenotypic plasticity leading to the conversion of various cell types into myofibroblasts. This review highlights the function of MRTFs during development, fibrosis and cancer, and the role of MRTFs during epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) underlying these processes. EMT is a sequentially orchestrated process where cells undergo a rearrangement of their cell contacts and activate a fibrogenic and myogenic expression program...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681415/transcriptional-changes-in-chick-wing-bud-polarization-induced-by-retinoic-acid
#12
Joseph Pickering, Neha Wali, Matthew Towers
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid is implicated in the induction of the gene encoding Sonic hedgehog (Shh) that specifies antero-posterior positional values and promotes growth of the developing limb bud. However, because retinoic acid is involved in limb initiation, it has been difficult to determine if it could have additional roles in antero-posterior patterning. To investigate this, we implanted retinoic acid-soaked beads to the anterior margin of the chick wing bud and performed microarray analyses prior to onset of Shh expression...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675662/separate-and-coincident-expression-of-hes1-and-hes5-in-the-developing-mouse-eye
#13
Amy N Riesenberg, Kevin W Conley, Tien T Le, Nadean L Brown
BACKGROUND: Notch signaling is broadly required during embryogenesis, frequently activating the transcription of two bHLH transcription factors, Hes1 and Hes5. But, it remains unresolved when and where Hes1 and Hes5 act alone or together during development. Here, we analyzed a Hes5-GFP BAC transgenic mouse, as a proxy for endogenous Hes5. We directly compared transgenic GFP expression with Hes1, and particular markers of embryonic lens and retina development. RESULTS: Hes5-GFP is dynamic within subsets of retinal and lens progenitor cells, and differentiating retinal ganglion neurons, in contrast to Hes1 found in all progenitor cells...
July 4, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646553/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-a-spectrum-of-states-role-in-lung-development-homeostasis-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Chris Ward, Mathew Suji Eapen, Stephen Myers, Oskar Hallgren, Herbert Levine, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) plays key roles during lung development and many lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, integrating morphological observations with underlying molecular mechanisms, we highlight the functional role of EMT in lung development and injury repair, and discuss how it can contribute to pathogenesis of chronic lung disease. We discuss the evidence of manifestation of EMT and its potential driving role in COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and lung cancer, while noting that all cells need not display a full EMT in any of these contexts, i...
June 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646507/influences-of-placental-growth-factor-on-mouse-retinal-vascular-development
#15
Vanessa R Kay, Chandrakant Tayade, Peter Carmeliet, B Anne Croy
BACKGROUND: Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is important for wound-healing and vascular collaterogenesis. PGF deficiency is associated with preeclampsia, a hypertensive disease of human pregnancy. Offspring born to preeclamptic mothers display cognitive impairments and brain vascular and neurostructural deviations. Low PGF production during development may contribute to alterations in offspring cerebrovascular beds. Retina is a readily accessible part of the central nervous system with a well-described pattern of vascular development in mice...
June 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643456/irf6-expression-in-basal-epithelium-partially-rescues-irf6-knockout-mice
#16
Youssef A Kousa, Dina Moussa, Brian C Schutte
BACKGROUND: Mutations in IRF6, CHUK (IKKA) and RIPK4 can lead to a disease spectrum that includes cutaneous, limb and craniofacial malformations. Loss of these alleles in the mouse leads to perinatal lethality and severe cutaneous, limb and craniofacial defects. Genetic rescue in the mouse has been shown for Ikka and Ripk4. RESULTS: Here, we show partial genetic rescue of Irf6 knockout embryos using the KRT14 promoter to drive Irf6 expression in the basal epithelium...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643368/cell-lineage-tracing-in-the-retina-could-material-transfer-distort-conclusions
#17
Camille Boudreau-Pinsonneault, Michel Cayouette
Recent studies reported the transfer of fluorescent labels between grafted and host cells after transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells in the mouse retina. While clearly impacting the interpretation of transplantation studies in the retina, the potential impact of material transfer in other experimental paradigms using cell-specific labels remains uncertain. Here, we briefly review the evidence supporting material transfer in transplantation studies and discuss whether it might influence retinal cell lineage tracing experiments in developmental and regeneration studies...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#18
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643345/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-neurogenesis-from-development-to-the-adult-brain
#19
REVIEW
Mireille Khacho, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631378/runx2-i-is-an-early-regulator-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-cell-transition-in-the-chick-embryo
#20
Andre L P Tavares, Jessie A Brown, Emily C Ulrich, Katerina Dvorak, Raymond B Runyan
BACKGROUND: Though normally linked to bone and cartilage development, the Runt-related transcription factor, RUNX2, was reported in the mouse heart during development of the valves. We examined RUNX2 expression and function in the developing avian heart as it related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the atrioventricular canal. EMT can be separated into an activation stage involving hypertrophy and cell separation and an invasion stage where cells invade the extracellular matrix...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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