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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646553/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-a-spectrum-of-states-role-in-lung-development-homeostasis-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Chris Ward, Mathew Suji Eapen, Stephen Myers, Oskar Hallgren, Herbert Levine, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) plays key roles during lung development and many lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, integrating morphological observations with underlying molecular mechanisms, we highlight the functional role of EMT in lung development and injury repair, and discuss how it can contribute to pathogenesis of chronic lung disease. We discuss the evidence of manifestation of EMT and its potential driving role in COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and lung cancer, while noting that all cells need not display a full EMT in any of these contexts, i...
June 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646507/influences-of-placental-growth-factor-on-mouse-retinal-vascular-development
#2
Vanessa R Kay, Chandrakant Tayade, Peter Carmeliet, B Anne Croy
BACKGROUND: Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is important for wound-healing and vascular collaterogenesis. PGF deficiency is associated with preeclampsia, a hypertensive disease of human pregnancy. Offspring born to preeclamptic mothers display cognitive impairments and brain vascular and neurostructural deviations. Low PGF production during development may contribute to alterations in offspring cerebrovascular beds. Retina is a readily accessible part of the central nervous system with a well-described pattern of vascular development in mice...
June 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643456/irf6-expression-in-basal-epithelium-partially-rescues-irf6-knockout-mice
#3
Youssef A Kousa, Dina Moussa, Brian C Schutte
BACKGROUND: Mutations in IRF6, CHUK (IKKA) and RIPK4 can lead to a disease spectrum that includes cutaneous, limb and craniofacial malformations. Loss of these alleles in the mouse leads to perinatal lethality and severe cutaneous, limb and craniofacial defects. Genetic rescue in the mouse has been shown for Ikka and Ripk4. RESULTS: Here, we show partial genetic rescue of Irf6 knockout embryos using the KRT14 promoter to drive Irf6 expression in the basal epithelium...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643368/cell-lineage-tracing-in-the-retina-could-material-transfer-distort-conclusions
#4
Camille Boudreau-Pinsonneault, Michel Cayouette
Recent studies reported the transfer of fluorescent labels between grafted and host cells after transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells in the mouse retina. While clearly impacting the interpretation of transplantation studies in the retina, the potential impact of material transfer in other experimental paradigms using cell-specific labels remains uncertain. Here, we briefly review the evidence supporting material transfer in transplantation studies and discuss whether it might influence retinal cell lineage tracing experiments in developmental and regeneration studies...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#5
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643345/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-neurogenesis-from-development-to-the-adult-brain
#6
REVIEW
Mireille Khacho, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631378/runx2-i-is-an-early-regulator-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-cell-transition-in-the-chick-embryo
#7
Andre L P Tavares, Jessie A Brown, Emily C Ulrich, Katerina Dvorak, Raymond B Runyan
BACKGROUND: Though normally linked to bone and cartilage development, the Runt-related transcription factor, RUNX2, was reported in the mouse heart during development of the valves. We examined RUNX2 expression and function in the developing avian heart as it related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the atrioventricular canal. EMT can be separated into an activation stage involving hypertrophy and cell separation and an invasion stage where cells invade the extracellular matrix...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618059/cells-from-subcutaneous-tissues-contribute-to-scarless-skin-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis-froglets
#8
Rina Otsuka-Yamaguchi, Aiko Kawasumi-Kita, Nanako Kudo, Yumi Izutsu, Koji Tamura, Hitoshi Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Mammals cannot regenerate the dermis and other skin structures after an injury and instead form a scar. However, a Xenopus laevis froglet can regenerate scarless skin, including the dermis and secretion glands, on the limbs and trunk after skin excision. Subcutaneous tissues in the limbs and trunk consist mostly of muscles. Although subcutaneous tissues beneath a skin injury appear disorganized, the cellular contribution of these underlying tissues to skin regeneration remains unclear...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608511/a-global-community-effort-to-decipher-the-unique-biology-of-annual-killifish
#9
REVIEW
Nibia Berois, Graciela Garcia, Rafael Omar de Sá
Over the last 50 years, annual killifishes arose as alternative model organisms for studies of vertebrate biology. The annual fish offers exceptional advantages for studies of genetics, genomics, developmental biology, population dynamics, ecology, biogeography, and evolution. They inhabit extremely variable freshwater environments in Africa and South America, have a short lifespan and a set of unique and fascinating developmental characteristics. Embryos survive within the dry substrate during the dry season, whereas the adult population dies...
June 12, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608500/morphological-and-molecular-evolution-of-the-ultimobranchial-gland-of-non-mammalian-vertebrates-with-special-reference-to-the-chicken-c-cells
#10
REVIEW
Yoko Kameda
This review summarizes the current understanding of the non-mammalian ultimobranchial gland from morphological and molecular perspectives. Ultimobranchial anlage of all animal species develops from the last pharyngeal pouch. The genes involved in the development of pharyngeal pouches are well conserved across vertebrates. The ultimobranchial anlage of non-mammalian vertebrates and monotremes does not merge with the thyroid, remaining as an independent organ throughout adulthood. Although C cells of all animal species secrete calcitonin, the shape, cellular components and location of the ultimobranchial gland vary from species to species...
June 12, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598558/conserved-signaling-mechanisms-in-drosophila-heart-development
#11
REVIEW
Shaad M Ahmad
Signal transduction through multiple distinct pathways regulates and orchestrates the numerous biological processes comprising heart development. This review outlines the roles of the FGFR, EGFR, Wnt, BMP, Notch, Hedgehog, Slit/Robo and other signaling pathways during four sequential phases of Drosophila cardiogenesis-mesoderm migration, cardiac mesoderm establishment, differentiation of the cardiac mesoderm into distinct cardiac cell types, and morphogenesis of the heart and its lumen based on the proper positioning and cell shape changes of these differentiated cardiac cells-and illustrates how these same cardiogenic roles are conserved in vertebrates...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598522/the-role-of-energetic-reserves-during-embryonic-development-of-an-annual-killifish
#12
Milan Vrtílek, Matej Polačik, Martin Reichard
BACKGROUND: Females can significantly improve their fitness by utilizing a range of maternal effects. Embryos of annual killifish survive the dry season in ephemeral pools encased in dry substrate for several months. Here, we experimentally test the association between energetic provisioning and maternally controlled duration of embryonic development in the African annual killifish Nothobranchius furzeri (Cyprinodontiformes). RESULTS: We found that embryonic energetic reserves do not limit duration of development...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598521/transmission-electron-microscopy-of-zebrafish-spinal-motor-nerve-roots
#13
Angela D Morris, Alev Erisir, Stacey J Criswell, Sarah Kucenas
BACKGROUND: Spinal motor nerves are essential for relaying information between the central and peripheral nervous systems. Perturbations to cell types that compose these nerves may impair rapid and efficient transmission of action potentials and alter nerve function. Identifying ultrastructural changes resulting from defects to these cellular components via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide valuable insight into nerve function and disease. However, efficiently locating spinal motor nerves in adult zebrafish for TEM is challenging and time consuming...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598520/xenopus-pitx3-target-genes-lhx1-and-xnr5-are-identified-using-a-novel-three-fluor-flow-cytometry-based-analysis-of-promoter-activation-and-repression
#14
Lara N Hooker, Cristine Smoczer, Samuel Abbott, Mohamad Fakhereddin, John W Hudson, Michael J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Pitx3 plays a well understood role in directing development of lens, muscle fiber, and dopaminergic neurons, however in Xenopus laevis, it may also play a role in early gastrulation and somitogenesis. Potential downstream targets of pitx3 possess multiple binding motifs that would not be readily accessible by conventional promoter analysis. RESULTS: We isolated and characterized pitx3 target genes lhx1 and xnr5 using a novel three-fluor flow cytometry tool that was designed to dissect promoters with multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577298/cx43-suppresses-evx1-expression-to-regulate-joint-initiation-in-the-regenerating-fin
#15
Gabrielle Dardis, Robert Tryon, Quynh Ton, Stephen L Johnson, M Kathryn Iovine
BACKGROUND: How joints are correctly positioned in the vertebrate skeleton remains poorly understood. From our studies on the regenerating fin, we have evidence that the gap junction protein Cx43 suppresses joint formation by suppressing the expression of the evx1 transcription factor. Joint morphogenesis proceeds through at least two discrete stages. First, cells that will produce the joint condense in a single row on the bone matrix ("initiation"). Second, these cells separate coincident with articulation of the bone matrix...
June 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560839/suppressor-of-fused-controls-cerebellar-neuronal-differentiation-in-a-manner-modulated-by-gli3-repressor-and-fgf15
#16
Jinny J Kim, Tayyaba Jiwani, Steven Erwood, Jillian Loree, Norman D Rosenblum
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of Suppressor of Fused (SuFu), an intracellular mediator of Hedgehog signaling, in the murine mid-hindbrain disrupts cerebellar morphogenesis and cell differentiation in a manner that is rescued by constitutive expression of GLI3 transcriptional repressor (GLI3R). Here, we determined SuFu functions in cerebellar radial precursors following the stage of mid-hindbrain specification using a Blbp-Cre transgene. RESULTS: SuFu-deficient cerebella were severely dysplastic, and characterized by laminar disorganization, and delayed differentiation of ventricular zone-derived precursors...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560804/wnt-is-necessary-for-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#17
Renate H M Schwab, Nancy Amin, Dustin J Flanagan, Timothy M Johanson, Toby J Phesse, Elizabeth Vincan
BACKGROUND: Metastasis underlies most colorectal cancer mortality. Cancer cells spread through the body as single cells or small clusters of cells that have an invasive, mesenchymal, non-proliferative phenotype. At the secondary site, they revert to a proliferative 'tumor constructing' epithelial phenotype to rebuild a tumor. We previously developed a unique in vitro 3D model, called LIM1863-Mph, which faithfully recapitulates these reversible transitions that underpin colorectal cancer metastasis...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556369/retinal-pigment-epithelium-expansion-around-the-neural-retina-occurs-in-two-separate-phases-with-distinct-mechanisms
#18
Paula Bernice Cechmanek, Sarah McFarlane, Nadean Brown
BACKGROUND: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a specialized monolayer of epithelial cells that forms a tight barrier surrounding the neural retina. RPE cells are indispensible for mature photoreceptor renewal and survival, yet how the initial RPE cell population expands around the neural retina during eye development is poorly understood. RESULTS: Here we characterize the differentiation, proliferation and movements of RPE progenitors in the zebrafish embryo over the period of optic cup morphogenesis...
May 27, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556366/a-role-for-primary-cilia-in-aortic-valve-development-and-disease
#19
Katelynn A Toomer, Diana Fulmer, Lilong Guo, Alex Drohan, Neal Peterson, Paige Swanson, Brittany Brooks, Rupak Mukherjee, Simon Body, Josh Lipschutz, Andy Wessels, Russell A Norris
BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is the most common congenital heart defect affecting 0.5-1.2% of the population and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Only a few genes have been identified in pedigrees and no single gene-model explains BAV inheritance, thus supporting a complex genetic network of interacting genes. However, patients with rare syndromic diseases that stem from alterations in the structure and function of primary cilia ("ciliopathies") exhibit BAV as a frequent cardiovascular finding, suggesting primary cilia may factor broadly in disease etiology...
May 27, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543982/the-rna-binding-protein-caper-is-required-for-sensory-neuron-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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