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Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316133/hatching-date-variability-in-wild-populations-of-four-coexisting-species-of-african-annual-fishes
#1
Martin Reichard, Radim Blažek, Matej Polačik, Milan Vrtílek
BACKGROUND: Hatching is modulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Annual killifish are adapted to complete their entire life cycle in annually desiccating habitats. Spending most of their life in the embryonic stage, they have evolved adaptations to survive desiccated conditions and match their hatching with the unpredictable onset of the aquatic phase of the pool. We examined spatial and temporal synchrony of hatching in natural populations of four species of African annual killifish (genus Nothobranchius)...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294450/initiation-of-drosophila-chorion-gene-amplification-requires-claspin-and-mus101-whereas-claspin-but-not-mus101-plays-a-major-role-during-elongation
#2
Seung Ho Choi, Ji-Hong Park, Tram Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hee Jin Shim, Young-Han Song
BACKGROUND: Claspin and TopBP1 are checkpoint mediators that are required for the phosphorylation of Chk1 by ATR to maintain genomic stability. Here, we investigated the functions of Drosophila Claspin and mus101 (TopBP1 ortholog) during chorion (eggshell component) gene amplification, which occurs in follicle cells in the absence of global genomic DNA replication. RESULTS: Unlike Drosophila mei-41 (ATR ortholog) mutant embryos, Claspin and mus101 mutant embryos showed severe eggshell defects resulting from defects in chorion gene amplification...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295855/recovery-of-shape-and-size-in-a-developing-organ-pair
#3
Amelia A Green, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Ian A Swinburne, Nikolaus D Obholzer, Sean G Megason
BACKGROUND Paired organs in animals are largely bilaterally symmetric despite inherent noise in most biological processes. How is precise organ shape and size achieved during development despite this noise? Examining paired organ development is a challenge because it requires repeated quantification of two structures in parallel within living embryos. Here we combine bilateral quantification of morphology through time with asymmetric perturbations to study regulation of organ shape, size and symmetry in developing organ pairs...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249360/heart-function-and-hemodynamics-analysis-for-zebrafish-embryos
#4
REVIEW
Huseyin C Yalcin, Armin Amindari, Jonathan T Butcher, Asma Althani, Magdi Yacoub
The zebrafish has emerged to become a powerful vertebrate animal model for cardiovascular research in recent years. Its advantages include easy genetic manipulation, transparency, small size, low cost, and the ability to survive without active circulation at early stages of development. Sequencing the whole genome and identifying orthologue genes with human genome enabled to induce clinically relevant cardiovascular defects via genetic approaches. Heart function and disturbed hemodynamics need to be assessed in a reliable manner for these disease models in order to reveal mechanobiology of induced defects...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249357/gastrulation-in-an-annual-killifish-molecular-and-cellular-events-during-germ-layer-formation-in-austrolebias
#5
Luisa Pereiro, Felix Loosli, Juan Fernández, Steffen Härtel, Joachim Wittbrodt, Miguel L Concha
BACKGROUND: Comparative studies beyond the traditional model organisms have been instrumental in enhancing our understanding of the conserved and derived features of gastrulation, a fundamental process in which the germ layers are specified and shaped to form the body axis. Here, we analysed gastrulation in a vertebrate group with an extreme mode of early development, the annual killifish. RESULTS: Gastrulation in annual killifish of the genus Austrolebias takes place after the initially dispersed deep blastomeres congregate to form the so-called reaggregate...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249356/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-by-fibroblast-growth-factors
#6
REVIEW
Bradley Pawlikowski, Thomas Orion Vogler, Katherine Gadek, Bradley Olwin
Fibroblast growth factors are essential for self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), and required for maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Satellite cells express high levels of FGF receptor 1 and 4, low levels of FGF receptor 3 and little or no detectable FGF receptor 2. Of the multiple FGFs that influence satellite cell function in culture, FGF2 and FGF6 are the only members that regulate satellite cell function in vivo by activating ERK MAPK, p38α/β MAPKs, PI3 kinase, PLCγ and STATs...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245533/neuregulin1-fine-tunes-pre-post-and-peri-synaptic-neuromuscular-junction-development
#7
Jiajing Wang, Fei Song, Jeffrey A Loeb
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development is a multistep process mediated by coordinated interactions between the nerve terminal, target muscle, and perisynaptic Schwann cell that require constant back-and-forth communication. Retrograde and anterograde growth and differentiation factors have been postulated to participate in this communication. While neuregulin1 (NRG1) has been shown to be potent anterograde signal that activates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) transcription and clustering in vitro, its roles in NMJ development in vivo remain elusive...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205287/upstream-regulation-for-initiation-of-restricted-shh-expression-in-the-chick-limb-bud
#8
Haruka Matsubara, Daisuke Saito, Gembu Abe, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Takayuki Suzuki, Koji Tamura
Background The organizing center, which serves as a morphogen source, has crucial functions in morphogenesis in animal development. The center is necessarily located in a certain restricted area in the morphogenetic field, and there are several ways in which an organizing center can be restricted. The organizing center for limb morphogenesis, the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity), specifically expresses the Shh gene and is restricted to the posterior region of the developing limb bud. Results The prepattern along the limb antero-posterior axis, provided by anterior Gli3 expression and posterior Hand2 expression, seems insufficient for the initiation of Shh expression restricted to a narrow, small spot in the posterior limb field...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198118/fibroblast-growth-factors-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-twists-and-turns
#9
Soula Danopoulos, Christopher R Schlieve, Tracy C Grikscheit, Denise Al Alam
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of conserved peptides that play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair processes of many organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract. All four FGF receptors and several FGF ligands are present in the intestine. They play important roles in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, epithelial cell restitution, and stem cell maintenance. Several FGFs have also been proven to be protective against gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases or to aid in regeneration after intestinal loss associated with short bowel syndrome...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198063/conserved-versus-derived-patterns-of-controlled-cell-death-during-the-embryonic-development-of-two-species-of-onychophora-velvet-worms
#10
Sandra Treffkorn, Georg Mayer
Background Apoptosis is involved in various developmental processes, including cell migration and tissue and organ formation. Some of these processes are conserved across metazoans, while others are specific to particular taxa. Although the patterns of apoptosis have been investigated in arthropods, no corresponding data are available from one of their closest relatives, the Onychophora (velvet worms). Results We analyzed the patterns of apoptosis in embryos of two onychophoran species: the lecithotrophic/matrotrophic viviparous peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli, and the placentotrophic viviparous peripatid Principapillatus hitoyensis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152584/a-wide-temporal-window-for-conjunctival-papillae-development-ensures-the-formation-of-a-complete-sclerotic-ring
#11
Karyn Jourdeuil, Tamara Anne Franz-Odendaal
BACKGROUND: The conjunctival papillae are epithelial thickenings of the conjunctiva that are required for the induction of underlying bones (the scleral ossicles). These transient papillae develop and become inductively active over an extended temporal period (HH 30-36, 6.5-10 dpf). While their inductive capacity was discovered in the mid-1900s, little is known about their development. RESULTS: Through a series of timed surgical ablations followed by in situ hybridization for Bmp2, we show that the ring of conjunctival papillae is not altered if the conjunctival epithelium is ablated either prior to or shortly after papillae induction (i...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152580/quantifying-three-dimensional-morphology-and-rna-from-individual-embryos
#12
Rebecca M Green, Courtney L Leach, Natasha Hoehn, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson
Quantitative analysis of morphogenesis aids our understanding of developmental processes by providing a method to link changes in shape with cellular and molecular processes. Over the last decade many methods have been developed for 3D imaging of embryos using microCT scanning to quantify the shape of embryos during development. These methods generally involve a powerful, cross-linking fixative such as paraformaldehyde to limit shrinkage during the CT scan. However, the extended time frames that these embryos are incubated in such fixatives prevent use of the tissues for molecular analysis after microCT scanning...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127823/mutational-screening-of-gli3-shh-prezrs-and-zrs-in-102-chinese-children-with-nonsyndromic-polydactyly
#13
Ying Xiang, Limin Jiang, Bo Wang, Yunlan Xu, Haiqing Cai, Qihua Fu
BACKGROUND: Polydactyly is a group of congenital limb malformations that show high degree of phenotypic variability and genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS: In the present study, four genomic regions (exons of GLI3, SHH, and noncoding sequences of preZRS and ZRS) involved in hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway were sequenced for 102 unrelated Chinese children with nonsyndromic polydactyly. Two GLI3 variants (c.2844 G > G/A; c.1486C > C/T) and four preZRS variants (chr7:156585336 A>G; chr7:156585421 C>A; chr7: 156585247 G>C; chr7:156585420 A > C) were observed in 2(2...
January 27, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097739/cellular-plasticity-in-cardiovascular-development-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Soumyashree Das, Kristy Red-Horse
Knowledge on cellular differentiation pathways is critical to understanding organ development, homeostasis, and disease. Studying cell differentiation and cell fate restrictions in these contexts can be done through lineage tracing experiments, which entail permanent labeling of a cell and all its progeny. Recent lineage experiments within the cardiovascular system have uncovered unexpected findings on cellular origins during organogenesis and cell plasticity during disease. For example, there is increasing evidence that multiple progenitor sources exist for a single cell type, and that cells have remarkable expansive capacities under disease settings...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073171/pan-cancer-survey-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-markers-across-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#15
Don L Gibbons, Chad J Creighton
BACKGROUND: While epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be readily induced experimentally in cancer cells, the EMT process as manifested in human tumors needs to be better understood. Pan-cancer genomic datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-representing over 10,000 patients and 32 distinct cancer types-provide a rich resource for examining correlative patterns involving EMT mediators in the setting of human cancers. RESULTS: Here, we surveyed a 16-gene signature of canonical EMT markers in TCGA pan-cancer cohort...
January 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026128/ets-transcription-factor-etv2-er71-etsrp-in-hematopoietic-and-vascular-development-injury-and-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Haiyong Zhao, Canxin Xu, Tae-Jin Lee, Fang Liu, Kyunghee Choi
The major goal in regenerative medicine is to repair and restore injured, diseased or aged tissue function, thereby promoting general health. As such, the field of regenerative medicine has great translational potential in undertaking many of the health concerns and needs that we currently face. In particular, hematopoietic and vascular systems supply oxygen and nutrients and thus play critical roles in tissue development and tissue regeneration. Additionally, tissue vasculature serves as a tissue stem cell niche and thus contributes to tissue homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026082/hox-genes-in-the-adult-skeleton-novel-functions-beyond-embryonic-development
#17
REVIEW
Danielle R Rux, Deneen M Wellik
Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control skeletal patterning in the developing embryo. They are expressed in regionally restricted domains and function to regulate the morphology of specific vertebral and long bone elements. Recent work has provided evidence that Hox genes continue to be regionally expressed in adult tissues. Fibroblasts cultured from adult tissues show broadly maintained Hox gene expression patterns. In the adult skeleton, Hox genes are expressed in progenitor-enriched populations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and genetic loss-of-function analyses have provided evidence that Hox genes function during the fracture healing process...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109014/urothelial-generation-and-regeneration-in-development-injury-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Caihong Wang, Whitney Trotter Ross, Indira U Mysorekar
Homeostatic maintenance and repair of the urothelium upon injury are required for a functional bladder in both healthy and disease conditions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the urothelial regenerative response is key to designing strategies for tissue repair and ultimately treatments for urologic diseases including urinary tract infections, voiding dysfunction, painful bladder syndrome, and bladder cancer. In this article, we review studies on urothelial ontogeny during development and regeneration following various injury modalities...
April 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987249/achondroplasia-development-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#19
REVIEW
David M Ornitz, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
Autosomal dominant mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) cause achondroplasia (Ach), the most common form of dwarfism in humans, and related chondrodysplasia syndromes that include hypochondroplasia (Hch), severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN), and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). FGFR3 is expressed in chondrocytes and mature osteoblasts where it functions to regulate bone growth. Analysis of the mutations in FGFR3 revealed increased signaling through a combination of mechanisms that include stabilization of the receptor, enhanced dimerization, and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity...
April 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884048/microrna-142-is-a-multifaceted-regulator-in-organogenesis-homeostasis-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Amit Shrestha, Regina T Mukhametshina, Sara Taghizadeh, Esmeralda Vásquez-Pacheco, Hector Cabrera-Fuentes, Albert Rizvanov, Bernard Mari, Gianni Carraro, Saverio Bellusci
Over the past decade, microRNA-142 (miR-142) is emerging as a major regulator of cell fate decision in the hematopoietic system. However, miR-142 is expressed in many other tissues, and recent evidence suggests that it may play a more pleiotropic role during embryonic development. In addition, miR-142 has been shown to play important functions in disease. miR-142 displays a functional role in cancer, virus infection, inflammation, and immune tolerance. Both a guide strand (miR-142-3p) and passenger strand (miR-142-5p) are generated from the miR-142 hairpin...
April 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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