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Gene Expression

Zahida Khan, Shinichiro Yokota, Yoshihiro Ono, Aaron W Bell, Donna B Stolz, George K Michalopoulos
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, not all patients are susceptible to severe liver disease. In A1ATD, a toxic gain-of-function mutation generates insoluble ATZ "globules" in hepatocytes, overwhelming protein clearance mechanisms. The relationship between bile acids and hepatocytic autophagy is less clear, but may involve altered gene expression pathways. Based on previous findings that bile duct ligation (BDL) induces autophagy, we hypothesized that retained bile acids may have hepatoprotective effects in PiZZ transgenic mice, which model A1ATD...
August 18, 2016: Gene Expression
Chad Hall, Keisaku Sato, Nan Wu, Tianhao Zhou, Tina Kyritsi, Fanyin Meng, Shannon Glaser, Gianfranco Alpini
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocytes, a small population of cells within the normal liver, have been the focus of a significant amount of research over the past two decades because of their involvement in cholangiopathies such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. METHODS: This manuscript summarizes landmark studies in the field of cholangiocyte physiology and aims to provide an updated review of biliary pathogenesis. RESULTS: The historical approach of rodent extrahepatic bile duct ligation and the relatively recent utilization of transgenic mice have led to significant discoveries in cholangiocyte pathophysiology...
July 12, 2016: Gene Expression
Satdarshan Paul Singh Monga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Gene Expression
Michael D Thompson, Mary J Cismowski, Aaron J Trask, Scott W Lallier, Amanda E Graf, Lynette K Rogers, Pamela A Lucchesi, David R Brigstock
Early life exposures can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Maternal high-fat diet increases susceptibility to development of steatosis in the offspring. We determined the effect of maternal high-fat diet exposure in utero and during lactation on offspring liver histopathology, particularly fibrosis. Female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a control or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and bred with lean males. Nursing dams were continued on the same diet with offspring sacrificed during the perinatal period or maintained on either control or high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
2016: Gene Expression
Rebecca L McCullough, Paramananda Saikia, Katherine A Pollard, Megan R McMullen, Laura E Nagy, Sanjoy Roychowdhury
Proinflammatory activity of hepatic macrophages plays a key role during progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Since mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3)-dependent phosphorylation of JNK is involved in the activation of macrophages, we tested the hypothesis that myeloid MLK3 contributes to chronic ethanol-induced inflammatory responses in liver, leading to hepatocyte injury and cell death. Primary cultures of Kupffer cells, as well in vivo chronic ethanol feeding, were used to interrogate the role of MLK3 in the progression of liver injury...
2016: Gene Expression
Tamara Feliciano Alvarado, Elisabetta Puliga, Morgan Preziosi, Minakshi Poddar, Sucha Singh, Amedeo Columbano, Kari Nejak-Bowen, Satdarshan P S Monga
Triiodothyronine (T3) induces hepatocyte proliferation in rodents. Recent work has shown molecular mechanism for T3's mitogenic effect to be through activation of β-catenin signaling. Since systemic side effects of T3 may preclude its clinical use, and hepatocytes mostly express T3 hormone receptor β (TRβ), we investigated if selective TRβ agonists like GC-1 may also have β-catenin-dependent hepatocyte mitogenic effects. Here we studied the effect of GC-1 and T3 in conditional knockouts of various Wnt pathway components...
2016: Gene Expression
Kate Townsend Creasy, Jieyun Jiang, Hui Ren, Martha L Peterson, Brett T Spear
The mammalian cytochrome P450 (Cyp) gene family encodes a large number of structurally related enzymes that catalyze a variety of metabolic and detoxification reactions. The liver is the primary site of Cyp expression in terms of expression levels and number of expressed genes, consistent with this organ's essential role in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Many Cyp genes exhibit sexually dimorphic expression. For example, Cyp2a4 is expressed significantly higher in the adult liver of female mice compared to male mice...
2016: Gene Expression
Na Shang, Maribel Arteaga, Ali Zaidi, Scott J Cotler, Peter Breslin, Xianzhong Ding, Paul Kuo, Michael Nishimura, Jiwang Zhang, Wei Qiu
There is an urgent need to develop new and more effective therapeutic strategies and agents to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have recently found that deletion of Fak in hepatocytes before tumors form inhibits tumor development and prolongs survival of animals in a c-MET (MET)/β-catenin (CAT)-driven HCC mouse model. However, it has yet to be determined whether FAK expression in hepatocytes promotes MET/CAT-induced HCC progression after tumor initiation. In addition, it remains unclear whether FAK promotes HCC development through its kinase activity...
2016: Gene Expression
Bharat Bhushan, Genea Edwards, Aishwarya Desai, George K Michalopoulos, Udayan Apte
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the major cause of acute liver failure in the US. Prompt liver regeneration is critical for recovery after APAP hepatotoxicity, but mechanisms remain elusive. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-mediated signaling via integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates liver regeneration after surgical resection. However, the role of ECM signaling via ILK in APAP toxicity and compensatory regeneration is unknown, which was investigated in this study using liver-specific ILK knockout (KO) mice. ILK KO and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP, and injury and regeneration were studied at 6 and 24 h after APAP treatment...
2016: Gene Expression
Sun-Hee Heo, Je-Yong Lee, Kyung-Min Yang, Kyung-Soon Park
ELK3 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Its expression is associated with angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and chondrogenesis. ELK3 inhibits endothelial migration and tube formation through the regulation of MT1-MMP transcription. This study assessed the function of ELK3 in breast cancer (BC) cells by comparing its expression between basal and luminal cells in silico and in vitro. In silico analysis showed that ELK3 expression was higher in the more aggressive basal BC cells than in luminal BC cells...
2015: Gene Expression
Yan-Wei Yin, Hong-Jian Jin, Wenjing Zhao, Beixue Gao, Jiangao Fang, Junmin Wei, Donna D Zhang, Jianing Zhang, Deyu Fang
The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 has been suggested to be involved in promoting cancer cell growth. But its role in human colon cancer development remains unknown. Herein we discovered that GCN5 expression is significantly upregulated in human colon adenocarcinoma tissues. We further demonstrate that GCN5 is upregulated in human colon cancer at the mRNA level. Surprisingly, two transcription factors, the oncogenic c-Myc and the proapoptotic E2F1, are responsible for GCN5 mRNA transcription. Knockdown of c-Myc inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation largely through downregulating GCN5 transcription, which can be fully rescued by the ectopic GCN5 expression...
2015: Gene Expression
Junfeng Han, Meilin Wei, Qianqian Wang, Xu Li, Chaoyu Zhu, Yueqin Mao, Li Wei, Yongning Sun, Weiping Jia
SIRT1 has been demonstrated in nutrient-sensing and insulin-signaling pathways in in vivo and in vitro experiments, but there is minimal information concerning the association between gene polymorphisms of SIRT1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Chinese Han population. Using case-control design, we recruited 310 unrelated T2DM patients from inpatients at Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, while 301 healthy controls were volunteers from the community for regular medical checkup...
2015: Gene Expression
Chinmay Munje, Robert K Hills, Anthony Whetton, Alan K Burnett, Richard L Darley, Alex Tonks
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by developmental arrest, which is thought to arise from transcriptional dysregulation of myeloid development programs. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) isolated from human blood are frequently used as a normal comparator in AML studies. Previous studies have reported changes in the transcriptional program of genes involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and homing when HSPCs were expanded ex vivo. The intrinsic functional differences between quiescent and dividing CD34+ HSPCs prompted us to determine whether fresh or cytokine-induced cord blood-derived CD34+ HSPCs are a more appropriate normal control compared to AML blasts...
2015: Gene Expression
Motoki Takaku, Sara A Grimm, Paul A Wade
GATA3 is a highly conserved, essential transcription factor expressed in a number of tissues, including the mammary gland. GATA3 expression is required for normal development of the mammary gland where it is estimated to be the most abundant transcription factor in luminal epithelial cells. In breast cancer, GATA3 expression is highly correlated with the luminal transcriptional program. Recent genomic analysis of human breast cancers has revealed high-frequency mutation in GATA3 in luminal tumors, suggesting "driver" function(s)...
2015: Gene Expression
Kun-Yu Teng, Kalpana Ghoshal
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, whereas long coding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate gene expression both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in mammals. Accumulated evidence demonstrates the widespread aberrations in ncRNA expression associated with almost all types of liver disease. However, the role of ncRNAs in liver fibrosis is poorly understood. Liver fibrosis is the process of excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the liver that lead to organ dysfunction and tumorigenesis...
2015: Gene Expression
Willias Masocha
The supraspinal pathophysiology of the painful neuropathy induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, is not well understood. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Gene expression of GABAergic system molecules was examined in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of mice brains, by real-time PCR, during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, because this area is involved in pain perception and modulation that might contribute to neuropathic pain...
2015: Gene Expression
J Paek, Y Oh, J Kim, J-H Lee
Tooth extraction is a routine surgical procedure in dental treatment. As a wound healing process after tooth extraction, a saddle-shaped residual ridge forms due to bone formation in the extraction socket and localized bone resorption on the external surface of the jawbone. The residual ridge is subjected to continuous bone resorption with substantial differences among individuals. In some cases, it results in excessive bone atrophy, which complicates dental restorative treatment. This unique oral wound healing process may be influenced by factors that are specific to oral tissue...
2015: Gene Expression
Yuri Pekarsky, Alessandra Drusco, Prasanthi Kumchala, Carlo M Croce, Nicola Zanesi
The first transgenic mouse of the TCL1 oncogene was described more than 15 years ago, and since then, the overexpression of the gene in T- and B-cells in vivo has been extensively studied to reveal the molecular details in the pathogenesis of some lymphocytic leukemias. This review discusses the main features of the original TCL1 models and the different lines of research successively developed with particular attention to genetically compound mice and the therapeutic applications in drug development.
2015: Gene Expression
Alexander Kikuchi, Satdarshan Pal Monga
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) is an isoform of the PDGFR family of tyrosine kinase receptors involved in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and growth. In this review, we highlight the role of PDGFRα and the current evidence of its expression and activities in liver development, regeneration, and pathology-including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Studies elucidating PDGFRα signaling in processes ranging from profibrotic signaling, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition point toward PDGFRα as a potential therapeutic target in various hepatic pathologies, including hepatic fibrosis and liver cancer...
2015: Gene Expression
Chad Walesky, Udayan Apte
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is an orphan nuclear receptor commonly known as the master regulator of hepatic differentiation, owing to the large number of hepatocyte-specific genes it regulates. Whereas the role of HNF4α in hepatocyte differentiation is well recognized and extensively studied, its role in regulation of cell proliferation is relatively less known. Recent studies have revealed that HNF4α inhibits proliferation not only of hepatocytes but also cells in colon and kidney. Further, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that inhibition or loss of HNF4α promotes tumorigenesis in the liver and colon, and reexpression of HNF4α results in decreased cancer growth...
2015: Gene Expression
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