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Gene Expression

Bin Gao, Ming-Jiang Xu, Adeline Bertola, Hua Wang, Zhou Zhou, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a leading cause of chronic liver injury worldwide, comprises a range of disorders including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Over the last five decades, many animal models that have been useful for the study of ALD pathogenesis have been developed. Recently, a chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding model was reported. This model induces significant steatosis, hepatic neutrophil infiltration, and liver injury. A clinically relevant model of high-fat diet feeding plus binge ethanol was also developed, which highlights the risk of excessive binge drinking in obese/overweight individuals...
April 14, 2017: Gene Expression
Marta Szydlowska, Monica Pibiri, Andrea Perra, Elisabetta Puliga, Sandra Mattu, Giovanna Ledda-Columbano, Amedeo Columbano, Vera Leoni
Although the hepatomitogenic activity of T3 is well established, the wide range of harmful effects exerted by this hormone precludes its use in regenerative therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an agonist of TR, KB2115 (Eprotirome) could exert a mitogenic effect in the liver, without most of the adverse T3/TR-dependent side effects. F-344 rats treated with KB2115 for one week displayed a massive increase in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (from 20 to 40% vs. 5% of controls), which was associated with increased mitotic activity in the absence of significant signs of liver toxicity...
April 13, 2017: Gene Expression
Jianchen Wu, Tae-Young Choi, Donghun Shin
The liver has a highly regenerative capacity. In the normal liver, hepatocytes proliferate to restore lost liver mass.However, when hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, biliary epithelial cells (BECs) activate and contribute to hepatocytes. We previously reported in zebrafish that upon severe hepatocyte ablation, BECs extensively contribute to regenerated hepatocytes. It was also speculated that BECdriven liver regeneration might occur in another zebrafish liver injury model in which temporary knockdown of the mitochondrial import gene tomm22 by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) induces hepatocyte death...
March 1, 2017: Gene Expression
Jennifer M McCracken, Prabhakar Chalise, Shawn M Briley, Katie L Dennis, Lu Jiang, Francesca E Duncan, Michele T Pritchard
Biological differences exist between strains of laboratory mice, and it is becoming increasingly evident that there aredifferences between substrains. In the C57BL/6 mouse, the primary substrains are called 6J and 6N. Previous studies have demonstrated that 6J and 6N mice differ in response to many experimental models of human disease. The aim of our study was to determine if differences exist between 6J and 6N mice in terms of their response to acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) exposure...
February 9, 2017: Gene Expression
Zahida Khan, Shinichiro Yokota, Yoshihiro Ono, Aaron W Bell, Michael Oertel, Donna B Stolz, George K Michalopoulos
α-1 Antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, not all patients are susceptible to severe liver disease. In A1ATD, a toxic gain-of-function mutation generates insoluble ATZ "globules" in hepatocytes, overwhelming protein clearance mechanisms. The relationship between bile acids and hepatocytic autophagy is less clear but may involve altered gene expression pathways. Based on previous findings that bile duct ligation (BDL) induces autophagy, we hypothesized that retained bile acids may have hepatoprotective effects in PiZZ transgenic mice, which model A1ATD...
February 10, 2017: Gene Expression
Ryan Reyes, Nissar A Wani, Kalpana Ghoshal, Samson T Jacob, Tasneem Motiwala
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths globally. Sorafenib is the only first-line systemic drug for advanced HCC, but it has very limited survival benefits because patients treated with sorafenib either suffer from side effects or show disease progression after initial response. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies for first-line and second-line therapies. The association between sorafenib resistance and glycolysis prompted us to screen several drugs with known antiglycolytic activity to identify those that will sensitize cells to sorafenib...
February 10, 2017: Gene Expression
Charles E Rogler, Joe S Matarlo, Brian Kosmyna, Daniel Fulop, Leslie E Rogler
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell fate selection and cellular differentiation. miRNAs of the miR23b polycistron (miR-23b, miR-27b, and miR-24) target components of the TGF-β signaling pathway and affect murine bile ductular and hepatocyte cell fate selection in vitro. Here we show that miR-23b polycistron miRNAs directly target murine Smad4, which is required for TGF-β signaling. Injection of antagomirs against these miRNAs directly into E16.5 murine fetuses caused increased cytokeratin expression in sinusoids and primitive ductular elements throughout the parenchyma of newborn mice...
February 10, 2017: Gene Expression
Danielle Bell, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Junyan Tao, Satdarshan P Monga
Hepatoblastoma is the most common pediatric liver malignancy, typically striking children within the first 3 years of their young lives. While advances in chemotherapy and newer surgical techniques have improved survival in patients with localized disease, unfortunately, for the 25% of patients with metastasis, the overall survival remains poor. These tumors, which are thought to arise from hepatic progenitors or hepatoblasts, hence the name hepatoblastoma, can be categorized by histological subtyping based on their level of cell differentiation...
February 10, 2017: Gene Expression
Pradip B Devhare, Robert Steele, Adrian M Di Bisceglie, David E Kaplan, Ratna B Ray
African Americans (AAs) have higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality rates than Caucasian Americans (CAs). Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to cirrhosis and HCC. HCV infection is highly prevalent in the AA population compared to other racial groups. AAs are also less likely to naturally clear HCV, potentially contributing to higher prevalence of HCV. However, the explanation for this disparity is currently unknown. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood are emerging as biomarkers for pathological conditions...
February 10, 2017: Gene Expression
Chad Hall, Keisaku Sato, Nan Wu, Tianhao Zhou, Konstantina Kyritsi, Fanyin Meng, Shannon Glaser, Gianfranco Alpini
Cholangiocytes, a small population of cells within the normal liver, have been the focus of a significant amount of research over the past two decades because of their involvement in cholangiopathies such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. This article summarizes landmark studies in the field of cholangiocyte physiology and aims to provide an updated review of biliary pathogenesis. The historical approach of rodent extrahepatic bile duct ligation and the relatively recent utilization of transgenic mice have led to significant discoveries in cholangiocyte pathophysiology...
February 10, 2017: Gene Expression
Satdarshan Monga, Samson Jacob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Gene Expression
Michael D Thompson, Mary J Cismowski, Aaron J Trask, Scott W Lallier, Amanda E Graf, Lynette K Rogers, Pamela A Lucchesi, David R Brigstock
Early life exposures can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Maternal high-fat diet increases susceptibility to development of steatosis in the offspring. We determined the effect of maternal high-fat diet exposure in utero and during lactation on offspring liver histopathology, particularly fibrosis. Female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a control or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and bred with lean males. Nursing dams were continued on the same diet with offspring sacrificed during the perinatal period or maintained on either control or high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
2016: Gene Expression
Rebecca L McCullough, Paramananda Saikia, Katherine A Pollard, Megan R McMullen, Laura E Nagy, Sanjoy Roychowdhury
Proinflammatory activity of hepatic macrophages plays a key role during progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Since mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3)-dependent phosphorylation of JNK is involved in the activation of macrophages, we tested the hypothesis that myeloid MLK3 contributes to chronic ethanol-induced inflammatory responses in liver, leading to hepatocyte injury and cell death. Primary cultures of Kupffer cells, as well in vivo chronic ethanol feeding, were used to interrogate the role of MLK3 in the progression of liver injury...
2016: Gene Expression
Tamara Feliciano Alvarado, Elisabetta Puliga, Morgan Preziosi, Minakshi Poddar, Sucha Singh, Amedeo Columbano, Kari Nejak-Bowen, Satdarshan P S Monga
Triiodothyronine (T3) induces hepatocyte proliferation in rodents. Recent work has shown molecular mechanism for T3's mitogenic effect to be through activation of β-catenin signaling. Since systemic side effects of T3 may preclude its clinical use, and hepatocytes mostly express T3 hormone receptor β (TRβ), we investigated if selective TRβ agonists like GC-1 may also have β-catenin-dependent hepatocyte mitogenic effects. Here we studied the effect of GC-1 and T3 in conditional knockouts of various Wnt pathway components...
2016: Gene Expression
Kate T Creasy, Jieyun Jiang, Hui Ren, Martha L Peterson, Brett T Spear
The mammalian cytochrome P450 (Cyp) gene family encodes a large number of structurally related enzymes that catalyze a variety of metabolic and detoxification reactions. The liver is the primary site of Cyp expression in terms of expression levels and number of expressed genes, consistent with this organ's essential role in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Many Cyp genes exhibit sexually dimorphic expression. For example, Cyp2a4 is expressed significantly higher in the adult liver of female mice compared to male mice...
2016: Gene Expression
Na Shang, Maribel Arteaga, Ali Zaidi, Scott J Cotler, Peter Breslin, Xianzhong Ding, Paul Kuo, Michael Nishimura, Jiwang Zhang, Wei Qiu
There is an urgent need to develop new and more effective therapeutic strategies and agents to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have recently found that deletion of Fak in hepatocytes before tumors form inhibits tumor development and prolongs survival of animals in a c-MET (MET)/β-catenin (CAT)-driven HCC mouse model. However, it has yet to be determined whether FAK expression in hepatocytes promotes MET/CAT-induced HCC progression after tumor initiation. In addition, it remains unclear whether FAK promotes HCC development through its kinase activity...
2016: Gene Expression
Bharat Bhushan, Genea Edwards, Aishwarya Desai, George K Michalopoulos, Udayan Apte
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the major cause of acute liver failure in the US. Prompt liver regeneration is critical for recovery after APAP hepatotoxicity, but mechanisms remain elusive. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-mediated signaling via integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates liver regeneration after surgical resection. However, the role of ECM signaling via ILK in APAP toxicity and compensatory regeneration is unknown, which was investigated in this study using liver-specific ILK knockout (KO) mice. ILK KO and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP, and injury and regeneration were studied at 6 and 24 h after APAP treatment...
2016: Gene Expression
Sun-Hee Heo, Je-Yong Lee, Kyung-Min Yang, Kyung-Soon Park
ELK3 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Its expression is associated with angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and chondrogenesis. ELK3 inhibits endothelial migration and tube formation through the regulation of MT1-MMP transcription. This study assessed the function of ELK3 in breast cancer (BC) cells by comparing its expression between basal and luminal cells in silico and in vitro. In silico analysis showed that ELK3 expression was higher in the more aggressive basal BC cells than in luminal BC cells...
2015: Gene Expression
Yan-Wei Yin, Hong-Jian Jin, Wenjing Zhao, Beixue Gao, Jiangao Fang, Junmin Wei, Donna D Zhang, Jianing Zhang, Deyu Fang
The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 has been suggested to be involved in promoting cancer cell growth. But its role in human colon cancer development remains unknown. Herein we discovered that GCN5 expression is significantly upregulated in human colon adenocarcinoma tissues. We further demonstrate that GCN5 is upregulated in human colon cancer at the mRNA level. Surprisingly, two transcription factors, the oncogenic c-Myc and the proapoptotic E2F1, are responsible for GCN5 mRNA transcription. Knockdown of c-Myc inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation largely through downregulating GCN5 transcription, which can be fully rescued by the ectopic GCN5 expression...
2015: Gene Expression
Junfeng Han, Meilin Wei, Qianqian Wang, Xu Li, Chaoyu Zhu, Yueqin Mao, Li Wei, Yongning Sun, Weiping Jia
SIRT1 has been demonstrated in nutrient-sensing and insulin-signaling pathways in in vivo and in vitro experiments, but there is minimal information concerning the association between gene polymorphisms of SIRT1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Chinese Han population. Using case-control design, we recruited 310 unrelated T2DM patients from inpatients at Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, while 301 healthy controls were volunteers from the community for regular medical checkup...
2015: Gene Expression
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