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Current Opinion in Urology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817399/chemotherapy-for-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#1
Tanya B Dorff, Christopher J Sweeney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze recent trials of upfront chemotherapy to determine how this paradigm can be applied to oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Upfront chemotherapy prolongs survival in metastatic prostate cancer, according to the ChemoHormonal Therapy versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer and STAMPEDE docetaxel trials. However, the benefit is driven by the high volume subset and may not apply to low-volume/oligometastatic patients...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816716/novel-androgen-axis-systemic-therapies-for-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer
#2
Andrew W Hahn, Peter Hale, Nityam Rathi, Neeraj Agarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Upfront docetaxel and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has improved outcomes over ADT alone in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). Here in, we review the emerging role of novel androgen axis inhibitors in the treatment of men with mHSPC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently two studies, LATITUDE and STAMPEDE arm G, showed improved survival with addition of abiraterone acetate with prednisone or prednisolone to ADT in men with hormone-naïve advanced prostate cancer...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816715/testosterone-therapy-improves-erectile-function-and-libido-in-hypogonadal-men
#3
Paul J Rizk, Taylor P Kohn, Alexander W Pastuszak, Mohit Khera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Erectile dysfunction and decreased libido are common complaints in the older male population. Recent studies have elucidated the role testosterone therapy (TTh) can play in men with low testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these findings and the utility of TTh. We specifically examine the role of TTh on erectile function, coadministration with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and libido. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications suggest that TTh improves mild erectile dysfunction, though may be less useful in men with more severe erectile dysfunction...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816714/radiotherapy-as-metastasis-directed-therapy-for-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#4
Elise De Bleser, Phuoc T Tran, Piet Ost
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the available literature regarding radiotherapy as a metastasis-directed therapy (MDT) in the treatment of oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: Three different clinical scenarios of oligometastatic PCa exist in which MDT can be applied: de novo oligometastatic PCa, oligorecurrent PCa, and oligoprogressive PCa. A cut off of three to five metastatic lesions is most often used in these settings. Data from retrospective studies, treating over 1000 patients in total, have been reported...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816713/radiation-therapy-to-the-primary-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-palliation-only-or-altering-tumor-biology
#5
Pierre Blanchard, Alberto Bossi, Karim Fizazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite improvement in systemic treatment, the prognosis of men with de novo metastatic prostate cancer remains poor. Treating the local disease may not only reduce the occurrence of local urologic symptoms, but also slow the metastatic process, either by reducing the seeding from the primary tumor or by altering the microenvironment and thus minimizing the formation of new metastatic sites. RECENT FINDINGS: Retrospective and population-based studies have suggested that the addition of local treatment to systemic therapy may improve survival in this patient group...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795962/testosterone-therapy-improves-well-being-and-psychological-health
#6
Jason Akerman, Jason R Kovac, Larry I Lipshultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To ascertain whether testosterone therapy (TTh) improves psychological health and a sense of overall well being in a number of clinical domains. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work suggests small but durable and replicable improvements in the components of male health and well being. SUMMARY: Symptomatic hypogonadism is frequently associated with decreased libido and fatigue that contributes to lowered overall quality-of-life and worsening psychological health...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795961/testosterone-and-sexual-function
#7
Adriane Fugh-Berman, Anthony R Scialli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Testosterone therapy has been advocated in the treatment of symptoms that may represent normal aging. We briefly review randomized clinical trials on the effects of testosterone therapy on sexual function. RECENT FINDINGS: About half of clinical trials showed no benefit of testosterone therapy on any aspect of sexual function. In those studies showing a benefit on some aspect of sexual function, most sexual function domains were not improved. Testosterone therapy has been disappointing in the treatment of erectile dysfunction...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787319/salvage-surgery-for-nodal-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#8
Marco Bandini, Nicola Fossati, Alberto Briganti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically review the currently available literature regarding detection of nodal recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) and to examine the role of salvage lymph node dissection (SLND). RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of novel imaging modalities such as prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/computed tomography in the management of nodal recurrent PCa have increased the accuracy of lymph node metastases detection for SLND planning. Clinical evidences showed that preoperative selection of patients according to pathological stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen may increase the chance of biochemical response and even possibly decrease the risk of disease recurrence after SLND...
August 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786849/treatment-strategies-in-low-volume-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#9
Xiao X Wei, Eric C Ko, Charles J Ryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are currently limited data to guide the optimal management of patients with low-volume metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In this review, we critically assess the most relevant clinical data, and discuss opportunities for advancing therapeutic options in this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past decade, treatment options for mCRPC have expanded beyond taxanes to include abiraterone/prednisone, enzalutamide, sipuleucel-T, and radium-223...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786848/the-biology-of-prostate-cancer-metastases-does-oligo-differ-from-polymetastatic
#10
Guru Sonpavde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the studies of prostate cancer biology, which evaluated oligometastatic and polymetastatic disease to identify data supporting differences between them. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of tumor biology suggest that malignant cells of limited metastatic potential exist, which may explain the phenomenon of oligometastatic disease. Conversely, oligometastatic disease may represent earlier presentation of polymetastatic disease in a proportion of cases...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742626/editorial-introductions
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700456/obesity-and-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#12
Una J Lee, Manon H Kerkhof, Sanne A van Leijsen, John P Heesakkers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to review the data on the relationship of obesity and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This review is timely and relevant as the prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and it is an important risk factor to consider in counseling women on management of prolapse symptoms and outcomes for surgical treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The main findings in the literature include: Obesity is increasing worldwide and impacts health, social life, work and healthcare costs...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661899/genomes-of-early-onset-prostate-cancer
#13
Joachim Weischenfeldt, Jan O Korbel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661898/genomic-testing-for-localized-prostate-cancer-where-do-we-go-from-here
#14
Stacy Loeb, Ashley E Ross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to discuss current genomic testing options in localized prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There are multiple genomic tests currently available for men with localized prostate cancer. Prolaris, OncotypeDx, and Decipher can all be tested using biopsy tissue. Prolaris and Decipher are also available for men undergoing radical prostatectomy to predict subsequent disease progression. SUMMARY: The Prolaris cell cycle progression score measured on biopsy predicts the risk of prostate cancer death in 10 years with conservative management, whereas, the primary endpoint for the OncotypeDx genomic prostate score is the risk of adverse disease at radical prostatectomy...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661897/obesity-and-male-infertility
#15
Barbara E Kahn, Robert E Brannigan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen steadily for the past 35 years and presently affects more than a third of the US population. A concurrent decline in semen parameters has been described, and a growing body of literature suggests that obesity contributes to the male infertility. The purpose of this review is to examine the effects of obesity on male fertility, the mechanisms by which impaired reproductive health arise, and the outcomes of treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis both centrally and peripherally, resulting in hypogonadotropic, hyperestrogenic hypogonadism...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650868/obesity-and-its-implications-on-nononcological-urological-surgery
#16
Andrea Mari, Mohammad Abufaraj, Karim Mansy, Karl-Dietrich Sievert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarize the current literature of the implications of obesity on nononcological urological surgery. We conducted a comprehensive search of the current literature with emphasis on the published literature in the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Over time, obese patients have become a more common encounter in clinical practice. Obesity represents a considerable operative challenge and has been linked to a higher rate of postoperative complications...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650867/obesity-and-its-implications-on-oncological-urological-surgery
#17
Mohammad Abufaraj, Andrea Mari, Karim Mansy, Karl-Dietrich Sievert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarize the contemporary knowledge of the implications of obesity on perioperative outcomes in oncological urologic surgeries. RECENT FINDINGS: In men undergoing radical prostatectomy, obesity seems to confer a higher risk of intraoperative bleeding, biochemical recurrence, urinary incontinence, and postoperative erectile dysfunction. The literature was not consistent regarding the benefits of a minimally invasive approach in overweight and obese patients...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650866/obesity-and-metabolic-stone-disease
#18
Daniel A Wollin, Andreas Skolarikos, Glenn M Preminger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we aim to review the data regarding associations between obesity and nephrolithiasis to assist with workup and treatment of these intersecting disorders. As obesity has a multifactorial influence on the risk for urinary stone disease, the complicated mechanisms will be discussed to improve diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome interact with nephrolithiasis risk factors to produce a myriad of bodily responses that induce stone formation...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#19
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650864/metabolic-syndrome-and-sexual-dysfunction
#20
Michael L Schulster, Sydney E Liang, Bobby B Najari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the connection between metabolic syndrome and male sexual dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Concurrent with the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome in the United States is reaching crisis levels. A myriad of comorbidities are rising as well, affecting cost and quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is one of these comorbidities, with an extremely high prevalence, which will only increase as the population ages.In light of this ubiquity, recent research has explored the mechanisms of decreased libido, hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction through the lens of metabolic syndrome and its individual components...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
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