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Current Opinion in Urology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906778/the-role-of-prostatic-inflammation-in-the-development-and-progression-of-benign-and-malignant-diseases
#1
Giorgio Gandaglia, Emanuele Zaffuto, Nicola Fossati, Vito Cucchiara, Vincenzo Mirone, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the role of prostatic inflammation in the development and progression of benign and malignant prostatic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies demonstrate that the activation of a chronic inflammatory prostatic response plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Approximately 40-70% of patients with BPH-related lower urinary tract symptoms harbour chronic inflammation at pathologic evaluation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906777/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-to-screen-or-not-to-screen-and-when-to-treat
#2
Tommaso Cai, Bela Koves, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary treatment. The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the management of ABU. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of ABU management has been evaluated in several patient subgroups: healthy patients without identified risk factors, pregnant women, postmenopausal women, women with recurrent UTI, patients with diabetes, elderly institutionalized patients, patients with renal transplants, patients with indwelling catheters and prior to surgery...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898456/the-role-of-nonantibiotic-treatment-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections
#3
Elisabetta Costantini, Konstantinos Giannitsas, Ester Illiano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence on the efficacy of nonantibiotic treatments in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). The need for antibiotic-free regimens seems to be imperative given the worldwide rates of resistance of uropathogens to available antibiotics. RECENT FINDINGS: In the recently published literature, cranberry products and probiotics are the focus of research. They both seem to be effective in preventing recurrent UTIs compared with placebo, but their benefit becomes less clear when they are compared with antibiotics...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898455/clinical-implications-of-the-microbiome-in-urinary-tract-diseases
#4
Andreas Hiergeist, André Gessner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861259/tailored-perioperative-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-urological-surgery-myth-or-reality
#5
Magnus J Grabe, Karl-Johan Lundström
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The controversies surrounding perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) are about the use and especially misuse of antibiotics. The overall lack of evidence to facilitate a rational perioperative AMP policy in urological surgery and the postoperative infectious complications remain a challenge. Therefore, a basic tool to aid decision-making would be useful. A model based on the patients' risk factors, the level of contamination and grading of surgical procedures is discussed...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875349/the-revival-of-old-antibiotics-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-era-of-antibiotic-stewardship
#6
Jennifer Kranz, Sina Helbig, Falitsa Mandraka, Stefanie Schmidt, Kurt G Naber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the era of increasing antibiotic resistance worldwide, this review highlights the advantages of revival of old antibiotics for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that these four oral old antibiotics, fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxoline and pivmecillinam, show no increasing antibiotic resistance against uropathogens causing uUTI, are still effective for the treatment of uUTI and exhibit only minimal or no collateral damage as compared with fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporines...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846034/an-update-on-classification-and-management-of-urosepsis
#7
Florian M E Wagenlehner, Zafer Tandogdu, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The urinary tract is the infection site in severe sepsis/septic shock in 10-30%. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a new Sepsis definition focusing on severe sepsis. Urosepsis is mainly due to obstructed uropathy of the upper urinary tract. The pathogenesis of sepsis is complex and is driven by the innate immune system. In the further course immunosuppression is developing.Management of urosepsis includes early diagnosis, early initiation of treatment such as identification and control of the complicating factor in the urinary tract and the specific sepsis therapy...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846033/brush-cells-the-newly-identified-gatekeepers-of-the-urinary-tract
#8
Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902674/editorial-comment
#9
Yair Lotan, Axel S Merseburger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902673/editorial-introductions
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798415/recent-findings-on-the-genetics-of-disorders-of-sex-development
#11
Jessica Kremen, Yee-Ming Chan, Jonathan M Swartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a diverse group of conditions affecting gonadal development, sexual differentiation, or chromosomal sex. In this review, we will discuss recent literature on the genetic causes of DSD, with a focus on novel genetic sequencing technologies, new phenotypes associated with known DSD genes, and increasing recognition of the role of genetic regulatory elements in DSD. RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed through August 2016 to identify important peer-reviewed publications from 2015 to 2016 on the topic of DSD genetics...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798414/rare-urologic-tumors
#12
Barrett McCormick, Aaron Dahmen, Ali Antar, Adam Baumgarten, Jasreman Dhillon, Philippe E Spiess
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of genitourinary malignancy is likely to encompass a large portion of most of the urologist's practice. The challenge for the modern urologist is not only in understanding the management of commonly seen genitourinary malignancies, but also in recognizing unusual variants and their differences in management. This is evermore important as new technologies have refined the ability to identify rare entities. This review presents a brief overview of the various genitourinary malignancy subtypes seen within urology...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798413/rare-neoplasm-of-genito-urinary-tract-genito-urinary-sarcomas-chemotherapy
#13
Przemyslaw Adamczyk, K Juszczak, T Drewa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article was to describe the systemic therapy of genito-urinary sarcomas. RECENT FINDINGS: High rate of distant metastasis and high mortality rate has brought interest into the development of new therapeutic approaches. Various modules of chemotherapy were sampled in sarcoma treatment, although clinical response is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy in sarcomas can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant to the surgery. There is no consensus on the current role of adjuvant chemotherapy...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764016/current-status-of-robotic-assisted-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children
#14
Matthew D Timberlake, Craig A Peters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although open ureteral reimplantation remains the gold standard for surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), robotic-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation (RALUR) holds promise and is becoming more widely utilized. The present article outlines primary operative techniques for RALUR, summarizes the current literature with respect to surgical outcomes and costs, and discusses early applications of RALUR to complex and reoperative cases. RECENT FINDINGS: Intravesical and extravesical techniques for RALUR have been described...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755141/current-thinking-regarding-potential-neurotoxicity-of-general-anesthesia-in-infants
#15
Mary Ellen McCann, Jurgen de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous preclinical studies have shown that general anesthetics adversely influence the development of young brains. These adverse effects are dose-dependent occurring in specific stages of brain development. Histologic examinations show increased apoptosis, pathological neurogenesis and dendritic formation after exposure in infant animals to virtually all general anesthetics at a clinically effective dose which are associated with memory and behavioral changes at adulthood...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749363/leading-contributors-to-success-of-transitional-urology-units
#16
Dan Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing recognition of the need for life-long care in patients who have congenital urological anomalies. This study looks at the factors surrounding transition and suggests those, which may improve the success. RECENT FINDINGS: One of the most challenging phases in this care is adolescence. There are the physical and psychological changes that all adolescents go through. Patients need medical surveillance through this time in order to ensure good care and patient safety...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748667/applicability-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-in-paediatric-neurogenic-bladder-management
#17
Jeroen R Scheepe, Bertil F M Blok, Lisette A 't Hoen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview about the applicability of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in paediatric neurogenic bladder based on the recently published literature combined with hypothetical notes and future perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: The indications, clinical outcomes, urodynamic outcome parameters and cost-effectiveness are presented from recent publications. Also, alternative routes of application of BTX-A in the bladder are discussed as well as the influence of BTX-A on conservative and invasive treatment...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584029/testicular-germ-cell-tumor-genomics
#18
Solomon L Woldu, James F Amatruda, Aditya Bagrodia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are a model for curable cancer because of exquisite chemosensitivity and incorporation of multimodal therapy. Nevertheless, our ability to predict metastases in early-stage disease and responders to chemotherapy in advanced disease is limited. Treatment options for cisplatin-resistant disease are sparse. A further understanding of TGCT biology may allow for more precise patient counseling and identify novel therapies in patients with cisplatin-resistant disease...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584028/genomics-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#19
Solene-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet, Romain Mathieu, Benoit Peyronnet, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Karim Bensalah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively rare and poorly investigated disease. The objective of this review was to discuss recent advances in genomics and their implication regarding prognosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: UTUC were compared with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) at genomic and transcriptomic levels. Molecular studies focused on identifying new prognostic biomarkers that were often initially described in UCB and extrapolated to UTUC...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584027/radiotherapy-approaches-for-locally-advanced-penile-cancer-neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant
#20
Juanita Crook
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy in the Western society, randomized trials to address the controversies in management have not previously been undertaken. The incorporation of multidisciplinary approaches in the management of advanced penile carcinoma has largely borrowed evidence from analogous malignancies in the anogenital region. This review is being undertaken in preparation for the international launch of InPACT, the International Penile Advanced Cancer Trial, a collaborative effort from European and North American trialists...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
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