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Current Opinion in Urology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700456/obesity-and-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#1
Una J Lee, Manon H Kerkhof, Sanne A van Leijsen, John P Heesakkers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to review the data on the relationship of obesity and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This review is timely and relevant as the prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and it is an important risk factor to consider in counseling women on management of prolapse symptoms and outcomes for surgical treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The main findings in the literature include: Obesity is increasing worldwide and impacts health, social life, work and healthcare costs...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661899/genomes-of-early-onset-prostate-cancer
#2
Joachim Weischenfeldt, Jan O Korbel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661898/genomic-testing-for-localized-prostate-cancer-where-do-we-go-from-here
#3
Stacy Loeb, Ashley E Ross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to discuss current genomic testing options in localized prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There are multiple genomic tests currently available for men with localized prostate cancer. Prolaris, OncotypeDx, and Decipher can all be tested using biopsy tissue. Prolaris and Decipher are also available for men undergoing radical prostatectomy to predict subsequent disease progression. SUMMARY: The Prolaris cell cycle progression score measured on biopsy predicts the risk of prostate cancer death in 10 years with conservative management, whereas, the primary endpoint for the OncotypeDx genomic prostate score is the risk of adverse disease at radical prostatectomy...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661897/obesity-and-male-infertility
#4
Barbara E Kahn, Robert E Brannigan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen steadily for the past 35 years and presently affects more than a third of the US population. A concurrent decline in semen parameters has been described, and a growing body of literature suggests that obesity contributes to the male infertility. The purpose of this review is to examine the effects of obesity on male fertility, the mechanisms by which impaired reproductive health arise, and the outcomes of treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis both centrally and peripherally, resulting in hypogonadotropic, hyperestrogenic hypogonadism...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650868/obesity-and-its-implications-on-nononcological-urological-surgery
#5
Andrea Mari, Mohammad Abufaraj, Karim Mansy, Karl-Dietrich Sievert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarize the current literature of the implications of obesity on nononcological urological surgery. We conducted a comprehensive search of the current literature with emphasis on the published literature in the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Over time, obese patients have become a more common encounter in clinical practice. Obesity represents a considerable operative challenge and has been linked to a higher rate of postoperative complications...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650867/obesity-and-its-implications-on-oncological-urological-surgery
#6
Mohammad Abufaraj, Andrea Mari, Karim Mansy, Karl-Dietrich Sievert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarize the contemporary knowledge of the implications of obesity on perioperative outcomes in oncological urologic surgeries. RECENT FINDINGS: In men undergoing radical prostatectomy, obesity seems to confer a higher risk of intraoperative bleeding, biochemical recurrence, urinary incontinence, and postoperative erectile dysfunction. The literature was not consistent regarding the benefits of a minimally invasive approach in overweight and obese patients...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650866/obesity-and-metabolic-stone-disease
#7
Daniel A Wollin, Andreas Skolarikos, Glenn M Preminger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we aim to review the data regarding associations between obesity and nephrolithiasis to assist with workup and treatment of these intersecting disorders. As obesity has a multifactorial influence on the risk for urinary stone disease, the complicated mechanisms will be discussed to improve diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome interact with nephrolithiasis risk factors to produce a myriad of bodily responses that induce stone formation...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#8
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650864/metabolic-syndrome-and-sexual-dysfunction
#9
Michael L Schulster, Sydney E Liang, Bobby B Najari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the connection between metabolic syndrome and male sexual dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Concurrent with the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome in the United States is reaching crisis levels. A myriad of comorbidities are rising as well, affecting cost and quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is one of these comorbidities, with an extremely high prevalence, which will only increase as the population ages.In light of this ubiquity, recent research has explored the mechanisms of decreased libido, hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction through the lens of metabolic syndrome and its individual components...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650863/prediction-models-for-prostate-cancer-outcomes-what-is-the-state-of-the-art-in-2017
#10
James T Kearns, Daniel W Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a significant public health burden, with multiple points for decision-making at all stages of the disease. Given the amount and variety of data that may influence disease management, prediction models have been published to assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about the best next course of action at many disease states. We sought to review the most important studies related to PCa prediction models since 2016 and evaluate their impact upon the evolving field of risk modeling in PCa...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632505/obesity-and-prostate-cancer
#11
Marco Bandini, Giorgio Gandaglia, Alberto Briganti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To investigate the association between obesity and prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of PCa through different biological mechanisms that include deregulation of the insulin axis, sex hormone secretion, adipokines signaling, and oxidative stress. Hypertrophic peritumoral adipocytes may also facilitate the local spread of PCa through the chemo-attraction of tumor cells. Clinical studies demonstrate that obesity might have clinical implications also in disease detection and management...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614086/the-present-and-future-of-prostate-cancer-histopathology
#12
Jesse K McKenney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review describes recent changes in the histologic grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma and emerging data suggesting areas for further grade optimization. RECENT FINDINGS: The grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma has evolved over time, and optimization for active surveillance management has been one major driving force. Recent changes include adoption of the Grade Group system, which stratifies patients into one of five prognostic groups...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614085/a-multiparametric-approach-to-improve-upon-existing-prostate-cancer-screening-and-biopsy-recommendations
#13
Brian T Helfand, Carly A Conran, Jianfeng Xu, William J Catalona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of how genetic, serum, and urine biomarkers can help identify men at high risk for prostate cancer (PCa) and aggressive disease and men who would benefit from prostate biopsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Screening for PCa is controversial because of concerns about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of nonlife-threatening tumors. Therefore, an approach to screening that includes a detailed family history with genetic testing of risk single nucleotide polymorphisms and high-penetrance genetic variants should be considered...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604411/metabolic-syndrome-and-voiding-dysfunction
#14
Omar Al Hussein Alawamlh, Bashir Al Hussein Al Awamlh, Richard K Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an ever growing pandemic consisting of a constellation of abnormalities. Many hypotheses have been put forth to establish a link between this syndrome and voiding dysfunction. We created a layout of the possible, probable, and proven relationships connecting the MetS with voiding dysfunction in men. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been growing interest in the relationship linking MetS and voiding dysfunction, with or without benign prostatic hyperplasia, during the past several years...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590268/ar-v7-liquid-biopsy-for-treatment-stratification-in-prostate-cancer-how-close-are-we
#15
Claire Fletcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent clinical introduction of the novel antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enza), CYP17 inhibitor, Abiraterone (Abi), and the second-generation chemotherapeutic, Cabazitaxel, has increased survival of patients with advanced, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, de novo and acquired resistance rates are high. A liquid biopsy that can rapidly, sensitively and robustly identify which patients will respond to treatment in a minimally invasive manner is urgently required to permit switch to a potentially more efficacious drug regimen, thus increasing survival whilst avoiding debilitating side effects associated with unnecessary treatment...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562371/the-role-of-the-multiparametric-mri-in-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-in-biopsy-na%C3%A3-ve-men
#16
Adrian Rhudd, Jean McDonald, Mark Emberton, Veeru Kasivisvanathan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the role of prebiopsy multiparametric MRI in biopsy-naïve men for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent level 1 evidence shows that multiparametric MRI has high sensitivity and negative predictive value for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men. Concurrent developments include important work in the standardization of MRI reporting. The low specificity and positive predictive value of MRI means that biopsy is still necessary following MRI...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570290/secondary-data-analysis-techniques-for-comparing-interventions-and-their-limitations
#17
Alexander P Cole, Quoc-Dien Trinh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Secondary data analysis has become increasingly common in health services research, specifically comparative effectiveness research. While a comprehensive study of the techniques and methods for secondary data analysis is a wide-ranging topic, we sought to perform a descriptive study of some key methodological issues related to secondary data analyses and to provide a basic summary of techniques to address them. RECENT FINDINGS: In this study, we first address common issues seen in analysis of secondary datasets, and limitations of datasets with respect to bias...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505039/patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-urology
#18
Gopal L Narang, Stephanie C Pannell, Aaron A Laviana, Kathy H Y Huen, Jason Izard, Angela B Smith, Jonathan Bergman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many urologic treatments have similar clinical outcomes, necessitating alternative methods to discriminate between options. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have become the new standard for evaluating the patient experience, and their use has drastically increased over the past decade. The purpose of this review is to discuss the status of PROMs in urology, highlight commonly used tools and address their future direction. RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing number of urology-specific PROMs tools have been developed and validated...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505038/editorial
#19
Domenico Veneziano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505037/getting-ready-for-the-first-robotic-prostatectomy-from-basics-to-real-practice
#20
Christian Wagner, Victor Srougi, Rafael Sanchez-Salas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been embraced by urologists and has become a treatment standard in many countries already. Learning how to perform a RARP is challenging and has not yet been standardized. The current review summarizes the latest concepts regarding the most effective way of training for RARP. RECENT FINDINGS: The strategy to learn RARP should comprise didactic activities, skills lab training, participating in surgeries and mentorship...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
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