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Current Opinion in Urology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120911/immunotherapy-for-kidney-cancer-status-quo-and-the-future
#1
Jens Bedke, Viktoria Stühler, Arnulf Stenzl, Bernhard Brehmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment landscape in advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is moving from the inhibition of tyrosine kinases (TKI) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors to specific immunooncology agents like immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). The review focus on the recent immunooncology developments and available trial results within the last 12 months. RECENT FINDINGS: ICI as monotherapy (nivolumab) or immunooncology and immunooncology combinations (nivolumab and ipilimumab) demonstrated positive results on prolonged overall survival in phase III trials...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120910/biomarkers-for-immunotherapy-in-urological-cancers
#2
Kilian M Gust, Irene Resch, David D'Andrea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunotherapies for urological malignancies have made tremendous progress by targeting immune checkpoints and have been implemented in clinical practice nowadays. Though siginifcant number of patients does not respond to immunotherapy. Biomarkers could help to predict response to treatment, but are still under investigation. We reviewed the literature to identify relevant biomarkers in patient treated with immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: A comprehensive search of PubMed through has been performed to identify important relevant publications from 2016 to 2017 on biomarkers for immunotherapies in urological cancers including reported clinical trials...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095730/prostate-cancer-prevention-with-5-alpha-reductase-inhibitors-concepts-and-controversies
#3
Michael A Liss, Ian M Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the concepts surrounding prostate cancer prevention strategies with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and the controversies associated with their use. RECENT FINDINGS: Updated data have shown no increased risk of death from the diagnosis of higher risk cancer; however, 5-ARIs remain controversial and not approved for prostate cancer prevention. SUMMARY: The main theme of the review identifies the success of reducing insignificant prostate cancer and the controversy with the increased association of higher risk prostate cancer by approximately 20%...
October 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095729/prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-where-are-we-and-where-are-we-going
#4
Marco A De Velasco, Hirotsugu Uemura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present the progress and current landscape for prostate cancer immunotherapy and overview recent scientific findings that shed novel insights into immunoresistance and discuss potential therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Prostate cancer immunogenicity is hampered by a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment and low mutation burden. Complex interactions between resident immunosuppressive cells such regulatory T cells, macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and cancer cells cooperate to suppress antitumor immune responses and promote disease progression...
October 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083999/multiparametric-mri-fusion-guided-biopsy-for-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer
#5
Claudia Kesch, Viktoria Schütz, Svenja Dieffenbacher, David Bonekamp, Boris Alexander Hadaschik, Markus Hohenfellner, Jan P Radtke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the timing, benefits, limitations and current controversies of multiparametric magnet resonance imaging (mpMRI) combined with fusion-guided biopsy and consider how additional incorporation of multivariable risk stratification might further improve prostate cancer diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: MpMRI has been proven advantageous over standard practice for biopsy-naïve men and men with previous biopsy in large prospective studies providing level 1b evidence...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083998/imaging-response-assessment-of-immunotherapy-in-patients-with-renal-cell-and-urothelial-carcinoma
#6
Jakob Weiss, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Jens Bedke, Konstantin Nikolaou, Sascha Kaufmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in anticancer immunotherapy have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell (RCC) and urothelial carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action of these new therapeutic approaches, explicate the common adverse events, and highlight different imaging-based response criteria. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent introduction of immune-checkpoint inhibitors led to substantial advances in therapy of metastatic RCC and urothelial carcinoma...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059103/prevention-of-kidney-cancer-incidence-and-recurrence-lifestyle-medication-and-nutrition
#7
Rana Tahbaz, Marianne Schmid, Axel S Merseburger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of kidney cancer rises globally with the highest rates in developed countries. This demonstrates the impact of advanced diagnostic imaging but also rising prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, obesity and hypertension. A literature search was performed with focus on recent studies on risk factors related to lifestyle, medication and nutrition. Further we searched for the effect of cancer prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, we included 76 studies of the past 5 years...
October 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049045/nutrition-physical-activity-and-lifestyle-factors-in-prostate-cancer-prevention
#8
Eric Ballon-Landa, John Kellogg Parsons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current evidence for prostate cancer prevention with nutrition, physical activity, and lifestyle interventions and identify future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple preclinical and observational studies have observed that diet, exercise, and lifestyle interventions may play a role in mitigating disease progression, mortality, and overall disease burden for high-grade and fatal prostate cancer. Increased vegetable and fruit intakes, decreased red meat and saturated fat intakes, and increased exercise are potentially associated with decreased risk of incident disease and increased progression-free, prostate cancer-specific, and overall survival...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045251/novel-endoscopic-visualization-techniques-for-bladder-cancer-detection-a-review-of-the-contemporary-literature
#9
Andrea Mari, Mohammad Abufaraj, Killian M Gust, Shahrokh F Shariat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the principles of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), narrow-band imaging (NBI) and Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES) techniques for the endoscopic management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) and to report their impact on clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: PDD is associated with an increased sensitivity for detecting BCa specifically carcinoma in situ (CIS). Moreover, PDD has been shown to lower recurrence rate in comparison with white-light cystoscopy...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045250/clinical-decision-making-for-immunotherapy-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Manuela Schmidinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the treatment options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the light of new immunotherapy results. RECENT FINDINGS: Second-line treatment strategies for treatment of mRCC after progression on first-line VEGF-targeted therapy have recently undergone a major change. Treatment guidelines currently recommend the use of either nivolumab, a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, or cabozantinib, an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, as preferred choices...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028767/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-guided-salvage-lymph-node-dissection-in-recurrent-prostate-cancer-a-novel-technology-to-detect-lymph-node-metastases
#11
Tobias Maurer, Jürgen E Gschwend, Matthias Eiber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With Gallium (Ga)-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/computed tomography (CT) as emerging imaging technique offering superior detection rates in biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, salvage lymph node dissection has gained increasing interest in localized oligometastatic prostate cancer. Currently, PSMA-targeting small molecules cannot only be linked to positron-emitting isotopes for imaging but also be labelled with γ-radiation emitting isotopes. These modified PSMA agents are evaluated for intraoperative guidance for resection of metastatic lymph nodes...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028766/immunotherapy-for-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-status-quo-and-the-future
#12
Andrea Necchi, Michael Rink, Patrizia Giannatempo, Daniele Raggi, Evanguelos Xylinas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment paradigm of urothelial carcinoma has been revolutionized by the advent of multiple anti-programmed-cell death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) antibodies. Significant improvements have been obtained in the locally advanced or metastatic stage, which was lacking of therapeutic standards. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies have shown efficacy and safety in patients with urothelial carcinoma, regardless of their prognostic features...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028765/preventing-clinical-progression-and-need-for-treatment-in-patients-on-active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer
#13
Hanan Goldberg, Zachary Klaassen, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Neil Fleshner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Active surveillance is an established treatment option for men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer (CaP). It entails the postponement of immediate therapy with the option of delayed intervention upon disease progression. The rate of clinical progression and need for treatment on active surveillance is approximately 50% over 15 years. The present review summarizes recent data on current methods, attempting to prevent clinical progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient selection for active surveillance is the first mandatory step required to lower progression...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984720/prevention-of-bladder-cancer-incidence-and-recurrence-tobacco-use
#14
Francesco Soria, Giancarlo Marra, Otakar Čapoun, Viktor Soukup, Paolo Gontero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current knowledge about smoking carcinogenesis in bladder cancer (BCa), individual susceptibility and impact of smoking on incidence and outcomes of nonmuscle invasive BCa (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive BCa (MIBC). To assess the impact of smoking cessation on oncological outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking pattern, intensity, and duration are responsible for an increased risk of developing BCa and for worse tumor features at presentation...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937510/advancements-in-staging-and-imaging-for-penile-cancer
#15
Sarah R Ottenhof, Andrew R Leone, Simon Horenblas, Philippe E Spiess, Erik Vegt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent advancements in staging and imaging of penile cancer, including surveillance after therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: For cN0 patients, the sentinel lymph node biopsy is currently considered the preferred way for invasive staging. It has largely replaced other modalities such as staging inguinal lymphadenectomy. Its diagnostic value increases when combined with other staging modalities such as ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) or fluorodeoxyglucose-PET with computed tomography (PET/CT)...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863016/oligometastatic-prostate-cancer-shaping-the-definition-with-molecular-imaging-and-an-improved-understanding-of-tumor-biology
#16
Gregory A Joice, Steven P Rowe, Kenneth J Pienta, Michael A Gorin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss how novel imaging modalities and molecular markers are shaping the definition of oligometastatic prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: To effectively classify a patient as having oligometastatic prostate cancer, diagnostic tests must be sensitive enough to detect subtle sites of metastatic disease. Conventional imaging modalities can readily detect widespread polymetastatic disease but do not have the sensitivity necessary to reliably classify patients as oligometastatic...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863017/debate-position-cognition-and-mood-are-not-improved-in-men-administered-exogenous-testosterone-therapy
#17
Swaytha Yalamanchi, Adrian Dobs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the increasing evidence suggesting that exogenous testosterone therapy is not associated with improvements in cognition or mood. This article is part of a series, in this issue, in which authors are assigned opinion pieces on controversial topics pertaining to testosterone replacement. RECENT FINDINGS: Testosterone is increasingly being prescribed. Particularly in the setting of recent data suggestive of possible cardiovascular risk associated with its use; a clear understanding of the domains of health that improve with exogenous testosterone use is important...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922341/-working-toward-understanding-oligo-and-polymetastatic-prostate-cancer
#18
Brian F Chapin, Joaquim Bellmunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825924/radical-prostatectomy-in-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#19
Philipp Mandel, Thomas Steuber, Markus Graefen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although cytoreductive surgery is accompanied with prolonged survival in many other malignancies in a metastatic stage, its role in oligometastatic prostate cancer is unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer seems to be feasible. Perioperative complication rates vary between 20 and 50% (Clavien 1-3) and are comparable to patients with locally advanced tumors. Postoperative functional outcomes (urinary continence and erectile function) can be slightly worse than in patients with locally advanced tumor...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825922/risk-stratification-in-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer-where-are-we-and-what-do-we-need
#20
Alicia K Morgans, Maha Hussain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The oligometastatic disease state was initially described over 20 years ago as an 'intermediate' stage in metastatic cancer progression potentially amenable to curative treatment. Interest in identifying men with oligometastatic disease that may be cured has been increasing. However, whether there truly is a distinct oligometastatic state requires prospective validation, and a risk stratification system based on clinical and genomic factors is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed the existing literature, including 11 ongoing prospective clinical trials, defining the oligometastatic state...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
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